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Meyer & Associates, Inc. from 1980 to July 2010.

2010

B.R. Meyer, L.W. Bazan, R.H. Jacot and M.G. Lattibeaudiere, Authors—SPE Paper 131732, SPE

Unconventional Gas Conference, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are the two key technologies that have made the

development of unconventional shale formations economical. Hydraulic fracturing has been the major

and relatively inexpensive stimulation method used for enhanced oil and gas recovery in the petroleum

industry since 1949. The multi-stage and multicluster per stage fracture treatments in horizontal

wellbores create a large stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) that increases both production and

estimated ultimate recovery (EUR).

This paper presents a new analytical solution methodology for predicting the behavior of multiple

patterned transverse vertical hydraulic fractures intercepting horizontal wellbores. The numerical

solution is applicable for finite-conductivity vertical fractures in rectangular shaped reservoirs. The

mathematical formulation is based on the method of images with no flow boundaries for symmetrical

patterns. An economics procedure is also presented for optimizing transverse fracture spacing and

number of fracture stages/clusters to maximize the Net Present Value (NPV) and Discounted Return

on Investment (DROI).

The advantages of this approximate analytical production solution for multiple finite-conductivity

vertical transverse fractures in horizontal wells and corresponding optimization procedure include: 1)

the solution is based on fundamental engineering principles, 2) the production and interference of

multiple transverse fractures are predicted to a first-order, and 3) it provides the basis for optimizing

fracture and cluster spacing based on NPV and DROI, not just initial production rate. The

methodology provides a simple way to predict the production behavior (including interaction) and

associated economics of multi-stage/multi-cluster transverse fracture spacing scenarios in horizontal

wellbores.

The high initial production (IP) rates from multiple transverse fractures and the late time production

decline as a result of fracture interference is discussed. Numerous examples are presented illustrating

the method for optimizing (maximizing NPV and DROI) multiple transverse vertical hydraulic

fractures in horizontal wellbores.

Application of this technique will help provide the design engineer with a better tool for designing and

optimizing multistage/multi-cluster transverse hydraulic fractures in horizontal wellbores. The

governing production equations and fundamental procedure for NPV and DROI optimization of

transverse fractures in a horizontal wellbore are discussed.

Technology Integration - A Methodology to Enhance Production and Maximize

Economics in Horizontal Marcellus Shale Wells —R.H. Jacot, L.W. Bazan, and B.R. Meyer,

Authors—SPE Paper 135262, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2010, Florence, Italy.

This paper describes a procedure to enhance production in the Marcellus shale while optimizing

economics through integration of minifrac, fracture treatment, microseismic, and production data

technologies. An overview of each discipline and the methodology for technology integration and

optimization is presented. The procedure integrates hydraulic fracture analyses, numerical

simulations, minifrac analysis/diagnostic fracture injection test (efficiency, ISIP, closure pressure, net

pressure, etc), after closure analysis (permeability and reservoir pressure), replay pressure history

match, complex fracture geometry and aerial extent, stimulated reservoir volume and comparison of

numerical fracture propagation simulation with microseismic imaging. Typical Discrete Fracture

Network (DFN) characteristics based on modeling and microseismic mapping are illustrated for the

Marcellus.

The advantages of technology integration for multiple transverse fractures in horizontal wellbores

include utilization of current fundamental engineering principles and production optimization. The

paper provides the foundation for technical analyses for predicting the production behavior and

associated economics of multi-stage and multi-cluster/stage fracture spacing scenarios in horizontal

wellbores. Application of this integrated technology approach will help provide the operator with a

systematic approach for designing, analyzing, and optimizing multi-stage/multi-cluster transverse

hydraulic fractures in horizontal wellbores.

2005

Method Optimizes Frac Performance—B.R. Meyer, Author—The American Oil & Gas Reporter,

December 2005.

A new solution methodology is available for the pseudosteady-state behavior of a well with a finite-

conductivity vertical fracture based on a reservoir/fracture domain resistivity concept (SPE

Paper 95941). It is easily implemented for fracture optimization by maximizing the productivity index

for a given proppant mass (or volume).

This article presents a summary of the pseudosteady-state equations for finite-conductivity fractures in

square formations, and focuses on fracture optimization based on the unified fracture design

methodology of Prats and Economides. That is, for a given proppant volume and conductivity, there

exists an optimum fracture conductivity and penetration that will maximize productivity.

Jacot, Authors—SPE Paper 95941, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2005, Dallas, Texas.

vertical fracture is formulated using a reservoir/fracture domain resistivity concept. The formulation

encompasses a transformed resistivity domain based on an equivalent or effective wellbore radius. The

resulting pseudosteady solution is presented in the form of the dimensionless productivity index, JD.

Some of the major advantages of this pseudosteady solution for finite-conductivity vertical fractures

are:

2. The solution is analytical and easily implemented,

3. The equations are formulated for rectangular reservoirs,

4. The model includes wellbore flow (i.e., wellbore radius effect) which is important for low-

conductivity fractures, and

5. The formulation accounts for a piecewise continuous linearly varying fracture conductivity

including: proppant tail-ins, over-flushing, pinch zones, choked flow (internal), and external skin

mechanisms.

The stimulation ratios for finite-conductivity fractures with an undamaged well are compared with

those of McGuire and Sikora (1960), and Holditch (1974). The accuracy and validity of the

pseudosteady model is also illustrated by comparison with the works of Prats (1961, 1962), Gringarten

et al. (1974), Cinco-Ley et al. (1978, 1981), Barker and Ramey (1978), and Valko and Economides

(1998).

A summary of the fundamental building blocks, effective wellbore radius concept, pseudo-skin

functions and fracture skin are discussed. An improvement to Gringarten’s dimensionless productivity

solution for infinite-conductivity vertical fractures in rectangular closed reservoirs is also presented.

2002

Pictured Cliffs Formations in the San Juan Basin—L.W. Bazan, S.D. Larkin, R.H. Jacot, B.R.

Meyer, Authors—SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, October 23–26, 2002.

Limited entry design techniques have proven successful for the simultaneous fracture stimulation of

the Fruitland Coal and the Pictured Cliffs sandstone in the T28N-R7W Federal Unit of the San Juan

basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Optimization of this completion technique is dependent upon

determining and placing the required effective propped fracture length in the coal and sandstone

formations. This manuscript addresses utilizing limited entry techniques and a 3D fracture model. The

model is then used to design N2 foam proppant fracture treatments in the coal and sandstone

formations. This completion methodology allows reserves to be recovered from the Fruitland Coal at a

significant cost reduction. With the different mechanical and reservoir properties of the two formation

types, created fracture geometry will vary in each formation. Methods used to model these varied

fracture geometries are discussed. Net pressure and production data analysis provide estimates for the

effective propped fracture lengths in each formation. Radioactive tracer and production logs are

presented as supporting evidence to validate the well completion design, the fracture modeling inputs

and the stimulation of both formations simultaneously. Using this fracture modeling technology leads

to increased reserve recovery and cost effective proppant fracture treatments.

2000

Meyer, R.H. Jacot, Authors—38th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Washington D.C., July 7–10,

2000.

Hydraulic fracturing simulators currently assume that rocks are linear elastic materials with a linear

stress-strain relationship. Although many formations do behave in a linear elastic manner when

fractured, other soft rocks have been studied in triaxial and plane-strain compression tests that show a

highly stress-dependent Young’s Modulus even at low strain levels. The fundamentals of the stress-

strain relationship and the importance of distinguishing between the tangential and secant Young’s

Modulus for hydraulic fracture designs are discussed. Various stress-strain models are presented for

nonlinear elastic and elastic-plastic behaviors of materials. The first order impact of a stress-

dependent Young’s modulus on the fracture geometry and pressure behavior is discussed. Various

examples of stress-dependent Young’s Modulus are presented that illustrate the importance of

including non-linear stress-strain behavior in hydraulic fracture modeling. Parametric studies of

limiting non-linear behaviors using analytical 2D fracture propagation solutions and a numerical

simulation results are also presented. Numerical hydraulic fracturing solutions for a stress-dependent

Young’s modulus in soft rock fracturing are also discussed. General conditions identifying when non-

linear elastic behavior should be included are also addressed.

The Effect of Fluid Loss During Fracture Calibration Tests on the Main Treatment—B.R.

Meyer, R.H. Jacot, Authors—SPE Paper 65624, Eastern Regional Meeting, 2000, Morgantown, West

Virginia.

Fracture calibration tests (minifracs) are very successful methods for providing estimates of the fluid

efficiency, closure pressure, fracture geometry and leakoff coefficient prior to the main treatment. The

pressure decline data is normally analyzed using a Nolte type method for calibration and redesign of

the main treatment.

Many times it has been observed that the main treatment has a higher efficiency (less fluid loss) than

the minifrac which can adversely impact the fracture treatment. This paper addresses the effect of fluid

loss during fracture calibration tests on the main treatment.

An analytical method for leakoff controlled by the filter cake and/or filtrate fluid has been developed

for analyzing the effect of fluid loss in the formation prior to the main treatment. The main treatment

leakoff velocity and volume loss equations account for the effects of the minifrac fluid loss behavior,

including filter cake, spurt loss, mobility, time of fracture creation and relative fracture planes.

This paper presents the foundation for a generalized set of equations quantifying the effects of the

minifrac fluid loss on the main treatment by conservation of mass and Darcy’s law. Equations are

formulated for the main treatment leakoff velocity and volume loss. Numerous figures are provided

that illustrate the parametric effects of the minifrac fluid loss on the main treatment efficiency and

fraction of pad volume.

Smith, B.R. Meyer, R.H. Jacot, Authors—SPE Paper 63174, Annual Technical Conference and

Exhibition, 2000, Dallas, Texas.

The relative popularity and success of the frac & pack technique in hydraulic fracturing has resulted in

some misconceptions regarding the objective, procedure and pressure analysis after a screen-out. This

paper addresses frac & pack procedures and the pressure response after a tip screen-out (TSO).

An analytical method has been developed for analyzing pressure slope behavior after a TSO in high

permeability formations. These equations incorporate the first order parameters affecting the fracture

pressure, rate of change of pressure (derivative) and pressure slope behaviors after a screen-out.

The fundamental equations for pressure slope analysis are similar to those originally developed by

Nolte for pressure decline analysis. The major difference is that after the fracture stops propagating

(i.e., after a TSO) the injection rate is not zero. Consequently, if the injection rate is greater than the

leakoff rate, the fracture volume and net pressure (constant compliance) must increase. If the injection

rate falls below the leakoff rate, the fracture net pressure must decrease.

Although analytical equations will not replace three dimensional fracturing simulators normally used

for design and real-time history matching, they do provide insight into the major parameters affecting

pressure behavior after a TSO without running a numerical simulator. The analytical equations

presented in this paper demonstrate why pressure slopes after a screen-out are typically much greater

than unity for low efficiency fractures.

A generalized set of equations is presented for analyzing the pressure slope behavior after a screen-out.

Numerous graphs are provided which illustrate the parametric effects of fracture efficiency, spurt loss

and fracture net pressure at the time of a screen-out on the pressure, derivative and slop behaviors

after a TSO. Comparisons of the analytical pressure slope equations with a three dimensional

fracturing simulator are presented to show the application of the analysis.

A new methodology of frac & pack post analysis is presented using the pressure slope technique. This

methodology utilizes the pressure slope during a screen-out as a check on the minifrac and fracture

efficiency. Two frac & pack cases with bottomhole data are analyzed using a three dimensional

hydraulic fracturing simulator to illustrate the pressure slope analysis for low efficiency fractures.

B.R. Meyer, R.H. Jacot, Authors—SPE Paper 62545, Western Regional Meeting, 2000, Long Beach,

California.

Nolte originally developed a pressure decline analysis method to provide an estimate of the fluid

efficiency, closure pressure, fracture geometry and leakoff coefficient. The Nolte method of pressure

decline analysis has become a standard for fracture calibration in the industry. Implementation of a

proper calibration test is critical for the successful design and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing

treatments.

Although Nolte’s original work has many simplifying assumptions regarding fracture closure (e.g.,

constant leakoff coefficient, no spurt, no fracture growth after shut-in, constant compliance, etc.) it still

provides the foundation for the basic first order parameters affecting pressure decline behavior.

The assumption of pressure independent fluid loss may have an adverse affect on the pressure decline

analysis if leakoff is controlled by the filtrate viscosity and/or reservoir compressibility and mobility

effects or fissure opening effects. An improved procedure is presented for identifying and

implementing pressure dependent leakoff. This methodology is formulated from the generalized Nolte

G function approach utilizing a dimensionless pressure function based on the original work of Castillo

for a pressure dependent leakoff coefficient and Barree for naturally fractured reservoirs. The

procedure first makes use of the standard Nolte analysis to identify the presence of pressure dependent

leakoff, and then establishes the appropriate leakoff pressure dependent parameters by matching the

pressure decline behavior. Deviation of the measured data from the dimensionless pressure function

versus Nolte G time indicates closure. The methodology also utilizes the first derivative and pressure

superposition derivative to help identify and quantify closure.

Guidelines are presented to identify cases where pressure dependent leakoff should be considered.

Implications of neglecting pressure dependent leakoff or using a pressure dependent leakoff coefficient

improperly are addressed. The governing equations and field examples are presented for clarity.

1999

Identifying Fracture Geometry in the Appalachian Basin—R.H. Jacot, B.R. Meyer, R.R.

Myers, Authors—SPE Paper 57434, Eastern Regional Meeting, 1999, Charleston, West Virginia.

Identification of fracture geometry is necessary for the proper design and execution of a hydraulic

fracture treatment. The Appalachian Basin consists of many different producing formations. These

formations can vary in depth from 600 ft. to 7700 ft. Because of the low reservoir pressure (many of

these formations are also underpressured) and low permeability, most of these formations require a

hydraulic fracturing treatment to be economically successful.

1996

TSOs, Frac Packs Boost Productivity—B.R. Meyer, P.J. Hudson, C.T. Wooten, Authors—The

American Oil & Gas Reporter, April 1996.

Tip screen-out (TSO) and frac pack designs have gained popularity in the industry, especially in high-

permeability wells in the Gulf of Mexico where inadequate conductivity and formation damage have

traditionally been problems.

TSOs and frac packs are generally performed in moderate- to high-permeability reservoirs that require

greater conductivities than conventional hydraulic fracturing. The implementation of TSOs and frac

packs over the past few years has resulted in substantially greater fracture conductivities and improved

proppant placement. Fundamentally, these techniques are similar up to the step of fully packing a

fracture.

TSO methodology as presented in “Tip Screen-Out Fracturing: A Technique for Soft Unstable

Formations” by M.B. Smith, W.K. Miller and J. Haga and applied to the Ravenspurn South natural gas

field is used to deliberately create a proppant screen-out or bridging condition around the perimeter of

the fracture to prevent further propagation and height growth. Continued pumping results in

“ballooning” or an increase in the fracture aperture with continued increasing fracture pressure. The

increased aperture results in a greater propped width and increased fracture conductivity. Typically,

only the perimeter of the fracture is packed.

Frac packs differ from TSOs by packing the entire fracture with proppant from the tip to the well bore

at the settled bank concentration, which greatly increases fracture conductivity. This technique is

typically performed in higher-permeability formations that require large average conductivities to

increase productivity.

The relative popularity and success of the frac pack technique for hydraulic fracturing has resulted in

many misconceptions regarding the objectives and procedures used for these non-conventional

treatments. The frac pack methodology presented here (and compared to the classical TSO

methodology) was originally developed and implemented into a three-dimensional hydraulic

fracturing simulator (MFrac-IITM version 7.1). An analytical form of this methodology was presented at

the 1995 annual meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

1993

the Spraberry Trend—R.E. Barba Jr., B.R. Meyer, Authors—SPE Paper 25509, Production

Operations Symposium, March 1993, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Two-dimensional hydraulic fracture simulators are used to design the majority of hydraulic fracture

treatments in West Texas. These models assume a fixed hydraulic fracture height. In many cases,

hydraulic fracture treatments often do not stay confined within a fixed height as the two dimensional

models assume. In the Spraberry/Dean siltstones of West Texas there are no strong barriers to vertical

fracture migration, and two dimensional models are clearly inappropriate. Three dimensional

hydraulic fracturing simulators overcome this limitation of a fixed height by calculating the fracture

height. The inputs required are considerably more involved, and the 3D models require data from both

the pay sand and boundary layers. If the raw input data are not available or if sufficient engineering

effort is not invested the model output may be misleading. Wireline logs can provide valuable inputs to

these three dimensional simulators. These inputs will be discussed, along with case studies where the

inputs helped optimize the completion design.

1992

Utilizing Mini-Frac Data to Improve Design & Production—M.W. Hagel, B.R. Meyer,

Authors—CIM Paper 92-40, 43rd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, June, 1992, Calgary,

Alberta, Canada (JCPT March 1994, Volume 33, No. 3).

An extension to the current mini-frac procedure is presented to improve the quality of the analysis.

The methodology is based on history matching the pressure response during pumping and closure for

the mini-frac treatment. This process couples the traditional mini-frac analysis with a three-

dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator.

The fracture propagation solution for geometry and extension pressure is coupled with the post

injection pressure decline analysis. The coupling process reduces the possible number of parameter

uncertainties.

The measured fracture extension and decline pressure data is used to establish the appropriate

fracture geometry model and to perform parametric studies. Reservoir and fluid parameters are then

varied to perform further sensitivity analyses.

Repeating the procedure for a multi-cycle mini-frac operation provides the analyst with an opportunity

to refine the parametric analyses and select the most probably set of parameters to optimize the

treatment. This results in an improved understanding of hydraulic fracture propagation and formation

response, which results in a higher probability for further improving production.

The fracture-pressure analysis and procedures provided in this paper generally follow the theory of

mini-frac analysis originally formulated by Nolte. An important difference, however, is that the

pressure-analysis used here couples a mini-frac simulator with a three-dimensional hydraulic fracture

simulator to predict fracture propagation and pressure response. The mini- frac simulator is first used

for preliminary analysis and quick estimates of parameters prior to performing more rigorous

parametric studies with the 3D fracturing model.

Parametric studies and field case examples are presented to illustrate the improved mini-frac/

treatment techniques. Simulated values for permeability and fracture height are then compared to

more traditional sources of information from lab analysis and logs.

1990

Meyer, G.D. Cooper, S.G. Nelson, Authors—SPE Paper 19329, 65th Annual Technical

Conference, 1990, New Orleans, LA.

This paper presents a foundation and methodology for real time three-dimensional hydraulic

fracturing simulation and analysis. The equations governing fracture propagation are summarized for

both rate and net pressure boundary conditions. A new dimensionless pressure slope parameter is

introduced which prevents using chaotic measured or calculated pressures. This parameter also helps

identify near wellbore restrictions.

The real time fracturing simulator utilizes the same numerical modules and routines as the design

program. This will insure design, real time and post-design simulation compatibility. Simulated results

for the rate and net pressure driven models can be displayed concurrently during the hydraulic

stimulation.

Comparative studies of the rate and net pressure driven numerical results are included. A post-

treatment analysis of a real time field case study is presented to illustrate the application of this real

time fracturing system. The importance of using a dimensionless pressure slope is also discussed.

1989

and Comparison Studies—B.R. Meyer, Author—SPE Paper 19329, Eastern Regional SPE

Meeting, 1989, Morgantown, West Virginia.

The solution methodology of a three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator (MFRAC-II) for use

on personal computers is described. The Simulator is design oriented and user-friendly with menu-

driven pre- and post-processors. It has been formulated and structured to be used as an everyday

design tool.

The coupled rock and fluid mechanics equations governing fracture propagation are presented. These

non-linear partial differential equations are then transformed and solved using integral methods. The

criteria for fracture propagation and the effect fracture toughness and confining stress contrast has on

fracture propagation are also discussed.

Comparative studies with full 3D hydraulic fracturing simulators are included to illustrate the diversity

of MFRAC-II. These comparison studies range from fractures dominated by pure rock mechanics

(fracture toughness) to fractures dominated by viscous driven fluids. The fractures range from highly

uncontained to very well contained fractures.

1988

39th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, June 1988, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

A new mini-frac methodology is presented for the automated simulation of mini-frac analysis. The

solution is based on solving the governing momentum, mass conservation and constitutive

relationships for Perkins-Kern/Nordgren (PKN), Geertsma-Deklerk (GDK) and penny shape type

fracture geometries.

The analytical technique is unique because the fracture propagation characteristics of length, width,

pressure and efficiency are numerically calculated from conservation of momentum and mass

principles for power-law type fluids.

2. spurt loss

3. fluid flow-back after pumping

4. time-dependent fluid loss coefficients

5. interference closure

6. determination of formation permeability.

The analysis has the additional advantage of using the measured pressure decline data as a history

matching parameter to determine the appropriate fracture model and sensitivity of input data.

A number of mini-frac designs, parametric studies and filed case examples are presented to illustrate

the applicability of the numerical technique.

1987

Production Engineering Journal, November 1989.

An analytical heat transfer model is presented for the combined convection along a vertical fracture

with conduction and convection in the reservoir. The model couples the energy (heat transfer) and

fracture propagation equations resulting in a closed form integral dimensionless temperature solution.

2. time-dependent fracture temperature for calculating the instantaneous heat flux

3. energy storage in the fracture

4. coupled energy and fracture propagation equations.

The introduction of a power-law Nusselt number to determine the convection film coefficient is also

new and unique.

The influence of fluid leakoff and a finite convection film coefficient as heat reduction mechanisms is

discussed. The effect of energy storage and a time-dependent fracture temperature on the heat transfer

rate is also illustrated. Finally, simulations studies illustrating the effect of heat transfer on fracture

propagation characteristics are presented.

1986

Generalized Drag Coefficient Applicable for All Flow Regimes—B.R. Meyer, Author—Oil

and Gas Journal, May 26, 1986.

A generalized drag coefficient correlation for particulate settling in power-law-type fluids is applicable

for all flow regimes from Stokes’ (laminar) to Newton’s flow (turbulence).

The major advantage of this correlation for hydrocarbon reservoirs is that it correctly asymptotes to a

modified Stokes’ law (viscous effects) at low Reynolds vale (Re) numbers and to the turbulent drag

coefficient CD ≈ 0.44 at large values of Re (inertia dominance).

The use of Stokes’ law can greatly underestimate the drag coefficient and grossly overestimate the

terminal settling velocity at large Re.

In many respects, this article is a review and extension of drag coefficient correlations used in

hydraulic fracturing on particulate settling in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

Since most non-Newtonian correlations are for creeping flow (Re′ < 0.1), the major emphasis will be to

extend these correlations to Newton’s flow.

A comparison with experimental data and empirical correlations of other investigators is included to

verify the validity and applicability of the extended correlation.

Design Formulae for 2D and 3D Vertical Hydraulic Fractures: Model Comparison and

Parametric Studies—B.R. Meyer, Author—SPE Paper 15240, SPE Unconventional Gas Technology

Symposium, May 1986.

This paper presents asymptotic analytical and numerical solutions for two-dimensional (2D) and three

-dimensional (3D) type hydraulic fracture geometries. The fracture propagation models investigated

include: a Geertsma-Deklerk (GDK), Perkins-Kern/Nordgren (PKN) and a 3D type model.

Comprehensive 2D and 3D design formulae for power-law fracturing fluids are given for various cases

of fluid loss and containment. These formulae can be used to benchmark 2D and 3D hydraulic

fracturing simulators. Characteristics of equilibrium 3D height growth are also discussed. Parametric

studies based on the design formulae are performed to show the effect of any one variable.

Typical fracture designs are simulated for various containment and leakoff examples using each of the

fracture propagation models, along with a comparison of proppant scheduling and design. The

simulation studies identify and illustrate the basic characteristics and design differences of each

model.

1985

Flow—H.J. Sneck, P.A. Thompson, B.R. Meyer, Authors—ASME Winter Meeting, November 1985.

Frac Model in 3D, Four Part Series—B.R. Meyer, Author—Oil and Gas Journal, June–July,

1985.

four-part series of articles. Design-oriented and user-friendly, it has been structured and formulated to

be used as an everyday design tool.

Subsequent installments will include proppant transport, confining stress, variable injection rates,

fracture closure, and post-fracture production simulation.

Menu-driven, pre and post-processor modules are included to facilitate ease of data input and

graphical display of numerical results. The simulator is written in standard Fortran 77 for use on a

personal computer as well as mini/main frames. Typical execution time on a PC is on the order of

minutes.

1981

Ph.D. Thesis, September 1981.

Analytical models have been developed to calculate steady and unsteady one-dimensional

nonhomogeneous multiphase dissolution flows in variable area inclined channels. The models are

based on conservation of mass and momentum of each of the phases for a liquid containing dissolved

gas which tends to come out of solution in a supersaturated pressure field.

The steady state system of nonlinear initial value differential equations is solved numerically by an

iterative variable step-size predictor-corrector algorithm for the pressure, void fraction and velocity

profiles. This method incorporates the capability of predicting choked flow. The method of calculating

transient multiphase flow is presented based on a modified implicit multifield (IMF) method for the

field variables using a drift-flux model. The unsteady numerical finite difference method incorporates

the flexibility for variable advanced timing of convective terms from a fully implicit to purely explicit

form. The method has the capability of treating the mass phases fully implicitly. This numerical

method incorporates spatial coupling of pressure and incremental pressure terms which results in

order-of-magnitude gains in computation time.

Steady and unsteady numerical calculations are presented to demonstrate the numerical validity and

accuracy of each code for a wide range of multiphase steady and transient dissolution flows. These

problems include the numerical calculation of steady full dissolution and single-phase flows and

unsteady calculations of pressure pulse propagation, blowout phenomena, flow oscillation and

asymptotic behavior.

The immediate application of the present work was to analyze multiphase dissolution flows for

compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The steady-state numerical results are summarized as

a parametric study of the effect mass transfer and system parameters have on pressure, void fraction

and velocity profiles for the RPI high solubility carbon dioxide-water system. A comparison of

numerically predicted and RPI experimental results is provided. The unsteady analysis is performed

for a typical CAES start-up transient to demonstrate the dynamic system response of multiphase flows.

The resulting time-dependent pressure, void fraction and velocity profiles are reported at various

nodal positions.

1980

Society of Fluid Dynamics Conference, 1980, Ithaca, New York

Anistropically Scattering Gas-Particulate Suspension—M.F. Modest, B.R. Meyer, F.H. Azad,

Authors—presented at the ASME/AICHE National Heat Transfer Conference, 1980, Orlando,

Florida.

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