You are on page 1of 10

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

AND THE

BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS

VOL. 77 JUNE-JULY, 1982 NO. 4

A SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO SKARN DEPOSITS

Introduction Terminology,Classification,
and Compositionof
SkarnDeposits
M. T. EINAUDI
Stanford Universitel,Stanford,California 94305

AND D. M. BURT

Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281

$KARNdepositsoccur throughouta broad range of variationof garnet and pyroxeneis alsodiscussed in


geologicenvironments from Precambrianto late Ter- the classification section;papersin the presentissue
tiary age.Mostdeposits of economicimportanceare add considerabledetail to this subject,presenting
relativelyyoung,however,and are relatedto mag- over700 electronmicroprobeanalyses of garnetsand
matic-hydrothermalactivity associated with dioritic pyroxenesfrom a large variety of ore types.In ad-
to graniticplutonismin orogenicbelts.The feature dition, the reader is referred to the "Historical Bib-
that setsskarn depositsapart from other types of liography"(Burt, 1982)and to reviewpapersby Burt
mineral depositsis the gangue--a coarse-grained, (1972aand b, 1974, 1977), Shimazaki(1980), Einaudi
generallyiron-rich,mixtureof Ca-Mg-Fe-A1silicates, et al. (1981), and Einaudi (1982).
formed by metasomaticprocesses at relativelyhigh
temperatureand termed skarn. Hornfels, Reaction Skarn, Skarnoid, and Skarn
Sinceskarnsare becomingincreasinglyimportant Calc-silicaterocksassociatedwith skarn deposits
as sourcesof certain metalsand as subjectsfor sci- displaya broadrangeof textures,compositions, and
entific investigation,the editorsfelt that a call for origins,becauseindividualskarndepositscommonly
paperswould resultin a timely publicationof data are formedin complex,mixedhostrocks,including
and ideasthat couldguidenew or on-goingexplor- carbonate,shale,volcanic,and plutonicrocks.At one
ationand researchprograms.Thus,the presentissue end of the spectrumare calc-silicatehornfels,fine-
of EconomicGeologyis devotedto papersdealing grainedand relativelyhomogeneous rocksformedby
with the geologyand geochemistry of skarndeposits, isochemical(except for devolatilization)metamor-
basedon research beingconducted in NorthAmerica phic recrystallization of impurecarbonates. The term
andJapan.The resultis a majornew descriptiveand hornfelshasalsobeenusedin a descriptivesensefor
analyticaldata basefor two dozenskarndeposits in fine-grainedmetasomaticallyaltered aluminousor
Canada,the UnitedStates,Mexico,Japan,and Korea siliceousrocks,suchas thoseat Cantung(Dick and
(Fig. 1, Table 1). Recentexperimentalstudieson the Hodgson,1982).At the otherend of the scaleare the
stabilities
of calc-silicates
and a historicalbibliogra- coarse-grainedbodiesof calc-silicatein relatively
phyof skarnresearch roundouttheissue. Othertopics pure carbonates, formedby infiltrationand diffusion
that the editorsplannedto include,but whichdid not of metasomaticfluids carrying exotic components,
materialize,were reviewsof metasomaticprocesses andreferredto asskarn(alsotermedsecondary skarn,
(e.g.,FrantzandMao, 1979;WaltherandHelgeson, replacementskarn,skarnproper,ore skarn,and tac-
1980), computationalapproaches to masstransport tite). Calc-silicate hornfels and skarn can be distin-
and water-rock reactions in carbonate environments guishedonthebasisof geologic settings,morphology,
(e.g.,Nortonet al., 1975),and light stableisotopes grain size, and composition,and by the fact that
andfluidinclusions (e.g.,Patterson
et al., 1981).Some skarnsdisplaymetasomaticzoning.However, these
of thesetechniques are only now beginningto be recognitioncriteria are difficult to apply in casesin-
appliedto the studyof skarndeposits--wehopethat volvinginterlayeredshaleor chert and limestone.In
the presentissuewill providean incentivefor further suchcases,localexchange of components betweenthe
studies. two rocktypescanoccur,yieldingreactionskarn(also
The editorsfelt that they shouldbeginthis issue referred to as local exchangeskarn,bimetasomatic
by introducingthe readerto the terminologyand diffusionskarn,and calc-silicatebands).Like horn-
classification
of skarn deposits.The compositionalfelses,theseare metamorphicrocksin that no intro-

0361-0128/82/$4/745-1052.50 745
746 M. T. EINAUDI AND D. M. BURT

•. .•.• /•..--KA
MAISHI yERiNGTON...i
I!11
•5 • •NAKATATSU

• •YOSHIOKA PINE
CREEK•
11 •CANANEA

SKARNTYPES: •1 7
& Fe -

% •w
12 I Cu
ß Zn- Pb

I
c•14• Mercator
projection
120 E 180 120W 60W

Locatio• o[ somesEar• •c•sits descried


a•ditio•a] examples(seeTable

duction of exotic componentsfrom outsidethe sedi- originallyapplied to replacementsof carbonatesand


mentary sectionis required and, like skarnsproper, intrusiverocks,respectively,in contactzoneswhere
they are metasomaticallyzoned.They can generally the intrusiverock was presumedto be genetically
be distinguishedfrom skarnby carefulstudyof field relatedto theskarn-formingfluids.Someauthorshave
relationsand mineralcompositions,but all gradations advocatedapplying the term endoskarnto skarn
between reactionskarnsand skarn are possible.This formedin any aluminousrock, includingshaleand
continuumis well illustratedby the descriptionsof volcanicrocks,whereasothershaveappliedthe term
hornfels-marblecontactsat Pine Creek (Newberry, silicateskarnto suchmetasomaticreplacements.
1982, figs. 6, 12, and 15) and Cantung (Dick and The degree of developmentof endoskarn(sensu
Hodgson,1972, figs.9, 26, and 28). Finally, the term lato) and the relative volumesof endoskarnand exo-
skarnoid is used to refer to skarnlike rocks of uncer- skarnvary widely. Endoskarnis widespreadin dis-
tain or complexorigin--often involvingmetasomatic tricts where metasomatic fluids utilized shale lime-
alterationof impurecarbonates, overprintingof skarn stone, volcanic limestone, or dike limestone contacts
onto hornfelsor reaction skarn, or large-scaleho- as conduits,and where thesewere extensivelyfrac-
mogenizationof mixed lithologies(in effect, giant tured and thereforehighly permeable.Suchwas the
reactionskarns).A particularlystriking exampleof case for skarnoid in aluminous rocks and for endo-
skarnoid is described from the Yerington district skarn in granodioriteat Yerington,and to a lesser
(Harris and Einaudi, 1982). extentin hornfelsat Mactung,and is a characteristic
feature of Fe skarn depositsof the circum-Pacific
Endoskarn
andesiticterrains(e.g.,Kamaishi;UchidaandIiyama,
Skarnscan be classifiedaccordingto the rock type 1982) and Zn-Pb skarndepositsformed alongdikes
they replace.The termsexoskarnand endoskarnwere (e.g.,Yeonhwa-II;Yun and Einaudi, 1982). In deeper
IN TROD UC TION 747

TABLE1. Classification
of Calcic SkarnDepositsDescribedin this Volume as well as AdditionalExamples

Iron Tungsten Copper Zinc-lead Tin-tungsten

Examples Shinyamadeposit, Pine Creek, Sasanodeposit Yeonhwa-I, Lost River deposit,


described in Kamaishimine, California Yoshiokamine, SW Yeonhwa-II, and Alaska
present NE Japan MacMillan Pass Japan Ulchin mines,
volume (Mactung), Victoria mine, Nevada Taebaegsan, S.
Yukon-N.W.T., DouglasHill and Korea
Canada CastingCopper Nakatatsumine,
CanadaTungsten mines(Yerington centralJapan
(Cantung), district),Nevada
N.W.T., Canada Caporebasin,Cananea
district, Sonora,
Mexico
Ruth deposit,
Robinsonmining
(Ely) district,
Nevada
Mines GaspS,Quebec,
Canada

Additional 1. Empire mine, 4. Strawberry 7. Morococha,Junln, 11. Linchburg, 14. Moina,


examples B.C., Canada mine, Peril (Petersen, New Mexico Tasmania,
(numbers (Sangster, California 1965) (Titley, Australia
refer to 1969;Haug, (Nokleberg, 8. Veteren,Tripp, 1961) (Kwak and
localities on 1976) 1981) and Liberty 12. Ban Ban, Askins,1981)
Fig. 1) 2. Larap, 5. Sangdong, deposits, Queensland, 15. Uchkoshkon,
Camarines Korea(John, Robinson Australia Kirgiziya SSR
Norte, 196•) mining (Ely) (Ashley, (Lisitsynand
Philippines 6. Fujigantani,SW district,Nevada 1980) Malinko,
(Frost,1965) Japan(Sato, (James,1976) l& Uchucchacau, 1971)
•. Daiquiri, Cuba 1980) 9. Carr Fork mine, Cajatambo, 16. Yaroslavsk,
(Lindgren Bingham Per6 (Alpers, Primorsk,
and Ross, mining district, 1980) USSR
1916) Utah (Atkinson (Materikov,
and Einaudi, 1977)
1978) 17. Itenyurginsk,
10. Mt. Fubilan (Ok Chukotka,
Tedi), Papua- USSR
New Guinea (Aleksandrov,
(Barnford,1972) 1974)

terrains, where plutonsare lessfractured and fluid Endoskarns(sensulato) displaypatternsof mineral


circulation is more restricted,endoskarnforms only zoningthat dominantlyreflect progressive addition
narrow zonesat the immediate intrusivecontact(e.g., of calciumto the protolith.Under relativelyreducing
Pine Creek). In caseswhere an endoskarn-exoskarnconditionszoningtoward limestone(or toward major
coupletis developed,ore generallyis restrictedto the fissuresin the absenceof limestone)consistentlyin-
exoskarn; however, where limestone is absent, en- volvesthe sequencebiotite --, amphibole--• pyrox-
doskarnsmay containore (e.g., Yoshioka;Shimazaki, ene --, (garnet).Any K-feldspargenerallydisappears
1982). Finally, in caseswhere skarndevelopsnear or with biotite, and plagioclaseremainsan important
over the tops of plutonic cupolas,as in most skarns phasethroughoutexceptin the rare caseswheregar-
related to porphyry copper plutons(e.g., Gasp• de- net becomesdominant;the diagnosticassemblage is
posit,Allcock, 1982; Ruth deposit,Westra, 1982) and pyroxene-plagioclase.Thissequence istypicalof most
in tin skarns(e.g., Lost River; Dobson,1982), endo- W skarn and some Cu skarns,and is described in this
skarngenerallyis absent.Endoskarn,therefore,is fa- issuefor the diorite, quartz monzonite, and pelitic
vored in thoseareaswhere fluid flow is dominantly hornfelsat Pine Creek, the pelitic hornfelsat Mac-
into the pluton (presumablyat depth) or upward tung, and the black shaleat Yoshioka.Under rela-
alongits contactswith carbonates, ratherthan where tively oxidizingconditions,epidote-quartzis favored
metasomaticfluid flow is dominantly up and out of over pyroxene-plagioclase (Liou, 1978; Shimazaki,
the pluton. Infiltration, rather than diffusive ex- 1980) and garnet tendsto be more abundant.Such
change,is the major metasomaticprocessinvolved. cases are common in most Cu and Pb-Zn skarns and
748 M. T. EINAUDI AND D. M. BURT

Jo sense;whether the sourceof major componentsin


CI MnSI206 theseskarnswasthe rock or the fluid may be deter-
mined only after detailedstudy;it will vary from
/• o Fe depositto deposit,and perhapsit will alsovary with
•'
+
Cu
W
time in an individualdepositasa functionof chang-
ing water rock ratiosand compositionalevolutionof
the skarn-formingfluid at its source.
Caleie Exoskarn

The bulk of the world'seconomicskarn deposits


occursin calcic exoskarns,and these are the major
types describedin this issue.Garnet and pyroxene
are the dominant minerals in calcic exoskarn and
representthe first productsof water-rock reaction.
Zoningduring the early stagesmostcommonlycon-
sistsof garnet--, pyroxene--, (wollastonite)--, mar-
ble. Many tin and tungstenskarnsdisplayan unusu-
/ •_ • ,,, '• •,, o•+ + '+*• ••+•• +•+++ ally high aluminumcontent,in which caseidocrase
occursin addition to, or in place of, pyroxeneor
CI MgSI206 CI FeSI206
moll % wollastonite(e.g., Pine Creek, Mactung, Lost River).
Di Hd
Many Zn-Pb skarnsare unusuallyMn rich, in which
F;c. 2. Plot of electronmicroprobeanalyses of pyroxenes from casebustamiteor rhodonite occursin place of wol-
calcicskarndeposits by metal(Tables1 and2). Datafrom lastonite(e.g., Nakatatsu,Yeonhwa-Ulchin).
classified
Haug (1976),Alpers(1980),Ashley(1980),Guy (1980),Sweeney The compositions of garnetsand pyroxenes in cal-
(1980),Newberry(1980, 1982),Nockleberg(1981),Burtonet al.
(1982),Dick and Hodgson(1982),Harrisand Einaudi (1982),Mei- cic exoskarns are summarized in Figures 2 and 8,
nert (1982),ShimizuandIiyama (1982),Uchidaand Iiyama (1982), with the bulk of analysestaken from papersin the
and Yun and Einaudi (1982). presentissue.Pyroxenesdisplay an increasein Mn

are illustratedby the endoskarnsin doleriteand slate Sps- Aim


at Nakatatsu(Shimizuand Iiyama, 1982) and in the ( Mn,Fe)3AI2
SI3012

quartz monzoniteat Yeonhwa-II. An intermediate


caseis displayedby endoskarnin granodioriteat Yer- x/•/ o Fe
ington.The relativeoxidationstateof endoskarnis ca
mirrored in the silicateand ore assemblages of exo-
skarns(seebelow).
Exoskarn
Classification of exoskarn can be made on the basis
of dominantmineralogy,which in mostcasesreflects
the composition of the carbonaterock replaced.Mag-
nesianskarncontainsan importantcomponentof Mg
silicates,such as forsteritcor its alteration product
serpentine,commonlyassociatedwith diopside,cal-
cite, and spinel. Although most magnesianskarns
formed in dolomite, some, such as the Yerington
skarns,formed after hydrothermaldolomitizationof
limestone.Except for a portion of the Yerington
skarns,all depositsdescribedin this issueare calcic Ca3AI2SI3012 Ca3 Fe2SI3012

skarns,containingan importantcomponentof Ca or Gr mo,.• Ad


Ca-Fe silicatessuchas garnet, pyroxenoids,or ido- F•c. 3. Plot of electronmicroprobeanalysesof garnetsfrom
erase.Althoughmostcalcicskarnsreplacelimestone, calcicskarndepositsclassifiedby metal (Tables1 and2). Data from
some, such as the skarn at the Mason Valley mine Haug (1976), Ashley (1980), Guy (1980), Sweeney(1980), New-
berry (1980, 1982),Nockleberg(1981),Burtonet al. (1982), Dick
(Einaudi, 1977) and at Costabonne(Guy, 1980), re- and Hodgson(1982), Dobson(1982), Harris and Einaudi (1982),
placed magnesianskarn. Thus, the modifiersmag- Meinert (1982), Shimizu and Iiyama (1982), Uchida and Iiyama
nesianand calcicshouldbe usedonly in a descriptive (1982), and Yun and Einaudi (1982).
INTRODUCTION 749

TABLE2. Major Characteristicsof the Five Classesof Calcic Skarn DepositsListed in Table 1

Iron Tungsten(reduced) Copper Zinc-lead Tin-tungsten

Typical size 5-200 m.t. 0.1-2 m.t. 1-100 m.t. 0.2-$ m.t. 0.1-8 m.t.

Typical grade 40% Fe 0.7% WOa 1-2% Cu 9% Zn, 6% Pb, 5 0.1-0.7% Sn


oz/ton Ag
Metal Fe, (Cu, Co, Au) W, Mo, Cu, (Zn, Cu, (Mo, Zn, W) Zn, Pb, Ag, (Cu, Sn, F, W, (Be, Zn)
associated Bi) W)

Tectonic setting Oceanicislandare; Continentalmargin, Continentalmargin, Continentalmargin, Continental;late to


rifted continental syn-to late syn- to late syn- to late postorogenie or
margins orogenie orogenie orogenie anorogenie
Associated Gabbroto syenite; Quartz diorite to Granodioriteto Plutonscommonly Granite
igneousrocks mostlydiorite, quartz quartz monzonite absent;
somewith monzonite,rarely granodioriteto
diabase alaskite granite,diorite to
syenite

Cogenetic Common; basalt; Absent Rare; andesitc, Absent Absent


volcanicsin andesitc quartz latite
ore zone

Pluton Largeto small Large plutons, Smallstocks,dikes, If present,stocks Stocks,batholiths


morphology stocks,dikes batholiths brecciapipes and dikes

Alterationin igneousrocks
Endoskarn Extensivein Very local; Local;epidote- Local, but intense; Very rare
plutons, pyroxene- pyroxene-garnet epidote-
volcanics; plagioclase pyroxene-garnet
epidote-pyroxene
Other ExtensiveNa Localquartz- Can be very Local argillic, Extensivegreisen
silicates biotite-muscovite- extensive(e.g., propylitic
sulfide prophyryCu);
biotite-orthoclase,
quartz-sericite-
pyrite
Exsokarn High in Fe; low in High in AI, Fe; low High in Fe, S; low High in Fe, Mn, S; High in AI, F; low
composition S, Mn in S in AI, Mn low in AI in Fe, S

Early minerals Ferrosalite (Hd2o_ Ferrosalite- Andradite(Ad•o_•0o), Manganoan Idocrase,


so),granditc hedenbergite diopside(Hds_so), hedenbergite spessartine-rich
(Ad2o_9s),
epidote, (Hd6o_•o,
Jos_2o), wollastonite (Hdao_•o,
Join-40), granditc,Sn
magnetite granditc (Ad•o_s), andraditicgarnet andradite,
idoerase, (Ad2o_•0o, malayaitc,
wollastonite spessartine•_•0), danburite,
bustamite, datolite
rhodonite

Late minerals Amphibole, Spessartine(sas- Actinolite, (chlorite, Mn actinolite, Amphibole, mica,


chlorite, ilvaite almandine (s4o)- montmorillonoids) ilvaite, chlorite, chlorite,
granditc, biotite, dannemorite, tourmaline,
hornblende, rhodochrosite fluorite
plagioclase
Ore minerals Magnetite, Scheelite, Chalcopyrite,pyrite Sphalerite,galena, Cassiterite,
(chalcopyrite, molybdenite, hematite, pyrrhotite,pyrite, (scheelite,
cobaltitc, chalcopyrite, magnetite, magnetite, sphalerite,
pyrrhotite) (sphalerite, (bornitc, (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite,
pyrrhotite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite) magnetite,
magnetite,pyrite, molybdenite, pyrite,
Biø) tennantite) arsenopyrite.)

Notes:Basedon Einaudi et al. (1981).Sizeexpressed in millionsof tons(m.t.). Rangeof garnetand pyroxenecompositions (mole
%) encompasses the mosttypicalcompositionsof all studiedexamples.Garnetexpressed asandradite(Ad), spessartine,
and almandine--
remainderis grossularite.
Pyroxeneexpressed as hedenbergite(Hd) and johannsenite(Jo)--remainderis diopside.Ore mineralsand
metalsin parenthesesare relativelylessabundant.Tungstenskarnssummarizedhereare reducedtypes,as definedin Einaudiet al.
(1981,table6). Althoughmagnetiteis minedfrom manyskarntypes,the Fe skarns summarized hereare thosedominatedby magnetite
and occurringwith marieto intermediateplutohieand volcanicrocks(Einaudiet al., 1981, table 8)
750 M. T. EINAUDI AND D. M. BURT

Sps -Alrn, Jo spessartine+ almandineand thesehavea Gr/Ad ratio


greater than 85:65.

SHASTA Classificationof Skarn Deposits


$karn depositscommonlyare classifiedon the basis
of the dominanteconomicmetal. Fifteen deposits,
representativeof five major classesof ealeie skarn
deposits(Fe, W, Cu, Zn-Pb, Sn), are describedin this
issue.These, and additional representativesof each

A
KAMAISHI
A
• A A A A A A A
class,are listedin Table 1 and their geographicdis-
tribution is illustratedin Figure 1. A correlationof
the metalscontainedwith the tectonicsettingand
eale-silieateassemblages and compositions(Zharikov,
1970; Burr, 1972a; Shimazaki, 1980; Einaudi et al.,

Gr, Di
EMPIRE,
B.C. • Ad, Hd
1981)issummarized in Table2 andFigures4 through
7. The sequenceof descriptivepapersin this issue
reflectsan idealizedevolutionof tectonicsettings
from island-arediorite-andesite(Fe), to continental
marginorogeniegranodioritesand quartz monzonites
FIG.4. Ironskarndeposits: compositionaldistribution
of garnets (W, Cu, and Zn-Pb), to postorogenie or anorogenie
(black)andpyioxenes (verticalruling)plottedin termsof grossu-
larite (Gr), andradite (Ad), and spessartine + almandine(Sps granites(Sn-W).
+ Alto) and of diopside(Di), hedenbergite
(Hd), and johannsenite A systematicrelationshipis seenbetweenthe com-
(Jo).Data from Haug (1976), Uchidaand Iiyama (1982),and Bur- positionof pyroxenesand garnetsand the skarntype
ton et al. (1982).
as definedin Table 2. An increasein hedenbergite
and johannseniteand a decreasein diopsidecontent
of pyroxenesis exhibited through the depositse-
contentwith an increasingFe/Mg ratio. This trend quence Cu --• Fe -• W -• Zn-Pb (Fig. 2), and an in-
can be explainedon the basisof the idealized sub- creasein grossularand spessartine + almandineand
stitutionalorderor preference(Burt, 1977)for cations a decreasein andraditecontentof garnetsisexhibited
in the M1 structuralsite,basedon mean M•-0 distance, through the depositsequenceCu -• Fe -• Zn-Pb -•
whichis Mg(2.077•) --* Fe+2(2.108 •) -• Mn(2.178 W (Fig. 8). Althoughskarnscannotbe uniquelychar-
,i0. A notablecompositional gapis present(Fig. 2). acterizedby their garnet or pyroxenecompositions
It isdefinedby the maximumMn contentand extends alone,consideration of bothyieldsa relativelyunique
from the diopside-johannsenite join well into ternary fingerprint(Figs.4 to 7) which servesasan additional
compositions;the absenceof diopside-johannsenite aid in classification and in definingenvironmentsof
solidsolutionsis presumablydue to the unusualso- formation.
lution compositionrequired, whereasthe absenceof Compositionalvariationsof the type illustratedin
pyroxenesnear the johannsenite cornerresultsin part Figures4 to 7 can be eastin terms of the idealized
from the instability of johannseniterelative to bus- endmembersgrossularite + hedenbergite("reduced"
tamiteat skarn-formingtemperatures(>400øC:Lamb W skarnssuchas Mactung and Pine Creek) and an-
et al., 1972; Albrecht and Peters, 1975) and in part dradite + diopside(Cu skarns),end memberswhich
from lack of analysesfrom the most Mn-enriehed largely reflect relatively reduced (sulfide-poor)and
examplesof Zn-Pb-Ag deposits(e.g., Simonsand oxidized (sulfide-rich)conditions,respectively.De-
Munson, 1968). viations from this scheme include the Mn enrichment
Garnets(Fig. 8) displaya broad range in compo- of pyroxene in the Zn-Pb class(Yeonhwa-Ulehin,
sition,but the majority are grossular-andradite solid Nakatatsu),the iron-rich grandite-ferrosaliteassoci-
solutionscontaininglessthan 15 mole percentspes- ation of Fe skarns (Kamaishi), and the distinctive
sartine+ almandine.Within this granditc area, the Fe+2-Mn-enriehed aluminousgarnetsthat occurlate
spessartine + almandine content increaseswith in- in the developmentof W and Sn skarns(Mactung,
creasingsubstitution of A1 for Fe+3 (increasingGr/ Pine Creek, Lost River). Continuumswithin classes,
Ad). No skarngarnetsplot on the grossular-andraditei.e., from "reduced" tungsten (Mactung) to "oxi-
join at Gr/Ad > 70:80;this compositional area would dized" tungsten(Costabonne)(Fig. 5), aswell aslinks
be represented by metamorphicgarnetsin hornfelses between classes,i.e., between "oxidized" tungsten
and reactionskarns.Only tin and tungstenskarnde- (Costabonne) and somesulfideskarns(e.g.,Cananea,
positscontaingarnetswith morethan 20 molepercent Fig. 6), are alsopresent.
INTRODUCTION 751

Sps - Aim, Jo Sps - Aim, Jo

Gar

/
YUKON - N.W.T. PINE
• CREEK

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ,•

GARNE

A A A A A A A A /X A A A A /•

BLACK ROCK

ir C0•

I
A A A A A A A A

Gr, Di Ad, Hd G•, Di Ad, Hd

FIG.5. Tungstenskarndeposits: compositional


distribution
of garnets(black)and pyroxenes
(vertical
ruling)plottedasin Figure4. Data from Guy (1980),Newberry(1980,1982),Nockleberg (1981),and
Dick and Hodgson(1982).

Garnetsand pyroxenesin most casesare not de- actionssuch as hedenbergiticpyroxene + O2 --* an-
positedsimultaneouslyat equilibrium in one spot. draditeq-quartzq-magnetiteserveto placelimitson
Therefore, the compositionaltrends summarized the skarn-formingenvironment,and Burt's (1972a)
above reflect a general skarn-formingenvironment T-fo• grid for the systemCa-Fe-Si-C-O-Hservesas
and not a specificcontinuousreactioninvolvinggar- a point of departurefor suchstudies.Most skarns
net, pyroxene,and additional phases.However, re- treated in this issuewould require considerationof
752 M. T. EINAUDI AND D. M. BURT

the nine-component systemCa-Fe-Mg-Mn-AI-Si-C- Sps- Aim, Jo


O-H and its complexsolidsolutions over a temper-
aturerangeof 600ø to 200øC.Theoreticalmodelsfor
composition-activityrelationshipsin minerals are
beingdeveloped (e.g.,Bird and Helgeson,1980),but
experimental verificationisabsentfor mostimportant ERINO
skarnminerals.Papersin thisissuedealingwith the
stabilityof hedenbergite-johannsenite (Burtonet al.,
1982) and hedenbergite-diopside (Gamble, 1982)
A A A A A A A
solidsolutionsrepresent a firstattemptat thisproblem
and allow more accurate estimates of the oxidation-
sulfidation states of skarns.
The oxidation-sulfidation
state of skarn deposits
must correlate with a combination
ing depth, reducingcapacityof hostrocks,and in-
trinsicoxidationstateandacidityof magmas.Assum-
of factors involv-
•WARNY, ABIC,

marized by Einaudi et al. (1981), the reducedlow


sulfide skarns tend to be associated with the more
reducedS-typeor ilmenite seriesmagmasand with
PIRE,
N.M.
I-type or magnetiteseriesmagmasof intermediate
depth environments,whereasthe oxidized,high sul-
fide skarns tend to be associated with the more oxi-
dizedI-type magmasof hypabyssal environments. An
understanding of the causesof the systematicvaria-
tionsin metal contentand calc-silicatecompositions KATATSU
of skarndepositsmustbe tied to a firmer baseof fluid
inclusionstudiesto determinetemperaturesand chlo-
rinities,and of light stableisotopes
to understandthe
sourcesof water and water-rock ratios; such data, in
YEONHWA- ULCHIN
conjunctionwith detailed field mapping and doc-
umentationof mineral abundanceand compositions

Sps - Aim, Jo

CANANEA •
A

Gr, Di Ad, Hd

Pyx-..• Gar-• FIG. 7. Zinc-leadskarn deposits:compositionaldistributionof


garnets(black)and pyroxenes(verticalruling) plottedas in Figure
A
4. Data from Burtonet al. (1982), Shimizuand Iiyama (1982), and
Yun and Einaudi (1982).

for protolithand skarn,will ultimatelyyield a better


understanding of the sourceand compositionof the
A ...... A...... •'• .... A ''A A A A A metasomaticfluid, of whether the fluid components
are locally derived or introducedfrom outsidethe
sedimentarysection,and of the extent of wall-rock

Gr,
')/BINGHAM
A
Di

A A A A • • A /\
Ad, Hd
bufferingof volatilefugacities.With suchan under-
standing, the genetic relations between a given
magmatype and a given skarntype may begin to
emerge.

FIG. 6. Copper skarn deposits:compositionaldistributionof Acknowledgments


garnets(black)and pyroxenes(verticalruling) plottedasin Figure
4. Data from Sweeney(1980), Meinert (1982),and Harris and Ei- The editorsthank the many individualswho served
naudi (1982). as reviewersof the papersin this issue.
INTRODUCTION 758

REFERENCES involvingandradite and hedenbergite:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p.


784-797.
Albrecht,J., and Peters,T., 1975,Hydrothermalsynthesis of py- Guy,B., 1980,•tude g(•ologique
et p•trologique
du glsement
de
roxenoidsin the systemMnSiOa-CaSiOa at pf = Z kb: Contr. Costabonne:Bur. RecherchesGeol. Min. [Paris]Mem. 99, p. 237-
MineralogyPetrology,v. 50, p. 241-246. 250.
Aleksandrov, S. M., 1974,Geochemistry of boron-tinmineralization Harris, N. B., and Einaudi, M. T., 1982, Skarn depositsin the
in the magnesian skarnsof easternChukotka:Geochemistry In- Yeringtondistrict, Nevada: Metasomaticskarn evolutionnear
ternat., v. 11, p. 532-539. Ludwig:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 877-898.
Allcock,J. B., 1982,Skarnand porphyrycoppermineralizationat Haug, J. L., 1976, Geologyof the Merry Widow and Kingfisher
MinesGaspS,Murdochville,Quebec:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 971- contactmetasomaticskarn magnetite deposits,Northern Van-
999.
couverIsland,BritishColumbia:Unpub. M.S. thesis,Univ. Cal-
Alpers,C. N., 1980, Mineralogy,paragenesis,
and zoningof the gary, 117 p.
Luz vein, Uchucchacua,Per& Unpub. B.A. thesis,Harvard
Hochella,M. F., Jr., Liou, J. G., Keskinen,M. J., and Kim, H. S.,
Univ., 138 p.
1982, Synthesisand stability relationsof magnesiumidocrase:
Ashley,P.M., 1980,Geologyof the BanBanzincdeposit,a sulfide- ECON. GEOL., v. 77, p. 798-808.
bearingskarn,southeastQueensland, Australia:ECON.GEOL.,v.
James,L. P., 1976, Zonedalterationin limestoneat porphyrycop-
75, p. 15-29.
per deposits,Ely, Nevada: ECON.GEOL.,v. 71, p. 488-512.
Atkinson,W. W., Jr., and Einaudi,M. T., 1978, Skarnformation
andmineralizationin the contactaureoleat Carr Fork, Bingham, John,Y. W., 1963,Geologyand originof Sangdong tungstenmine,
Utah: EGON.GEOL.,v. 73, p. 1326-1365. Republicof Korea: ECON.GEOL.,v. 58, p. 1285-1300.
^ktinson,W. W., Jr., Kaezmarowski,J. H., and Erickson,^. J., Kwak, T. A. P., and Askins,P. W., 1981,Geologyand genesis of
1982,Geologyof a skarn-breeeia orebodyat the Victoriamine, the F-Sn-W(-Be-Zn)skarn(wrigglite)at Moina, Tasmania,Aus-
Elko County, Nevada:EGON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 899-918. tralia: ECON.GEOL.,v. 76, p. 439-467.
Bamford, R. W., 1972, The Mount Fubilan (Ok Tedi) porphyry Lamb,C. L., Lindsley,D. H., andGrover,J. E., 1972,Johannsenite-
copperdeposit,Territory of Papua and New Guinea: ECON. bustamite: inversionandstabilityrangelabs.l:Geol.Soc.America,
GEOL., v. 67, p. 1019-1033. Abstractswith Programs,v. 4, p. 571-572.
Bird,D. K., andHelgeson, H. C.,'1980,Chemicalinteraction of Lindgren,W., and Ross,C. P., 1916,The iron depositsof Daiquiri,
aqueoussolutionswith epidote-feldsparmineral assemblages ih Cuba: Am. Inst. Mining EngineersTrans., v. 53, p. 40-66.
g•ologiesystems. 1. Thermodynamicanalysisof phaserelations Liou, J. G., 1973, Synthesisand stability relations of epidote,
in the systemCaO-FeO-Fe2Os-AI2Os-SiO2-H20-CO2: Am. Jour. Ca2AI•FeSi•O•(OH):Jour. Petrology,v. 14, p. 381-413.
Sci., v. 280, p. 907-941. Lisitsyn,A. Y., and Malinko,S. V., 1971,Physiochemieal conditions
Burt,D. M., 1972a,Mineralogyandgeochemistry of Ca.-Fe-Siskarn for developmentof borosilicates and boratesin limy skarnfor-
deposits: Unpub. PhD thesis,Harvard Univ., 445 p. mation:Internat. GeologyRev., v. 15, p. 1773-1780.
-- 1972b, Silicate-sulfideequilibria in Ca-Fe-Si skarn deposits: Materikov,M.P., 1977, Depositsof tin, in Smirnov,V. I., ed., Ore
CarnegieInst. WashingtonYear Book71, p. 450-457. depositsof the USSR:London,Pittman, v. 3, p. 229-294.
-- 1974, Metasomaticzoning in Ca-Fe-Si exoskarns:Carnegie Meinert, L. D., 1982, Skarn, manto, and breccia pipe formation
Inst. Washington,Pub. 634, p. 287-293. in sedimentaryrocksof the Cananeamining district, Sonora,
-- 1977,Mineralogyand petrologyof skarndeposits: Soc.Italiana Mexico: ECON. GEOL., v. 77, p. 919-949.
MineralogiaPetrologiaRend.,v. $$, p. 859-873. Newberry,R. J., 1980, The geologyand chemistryof skarnfor-
-- 1982,Skarndeposits--historical bibliographythrough1970: mation and tungstendepositionin the central Sierra Nevada,
ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 755-763. California:Unpub. Ph.D. thesis,StanfordUniv., 325 p.
Burton,J. C., Taylor, L. A., and Chou, I-M., 1982,The fo•-T and -- 1982, Tungsten-bearing skarnsof the SierraNevada, I: The
fs•-T stabilityrelationsof hedenbergite and hedenbergite-johan- Pine Creek mine, California: ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 823-844.
nsenitesolidsolutions:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 764-783. Nokleberg,W. J., 1981,Geologicsetting,petrologyand geochem-
Dick, L. A., and Hodgson,C. J., 1982, The MactungW-Cu(-Zn) istry of zonedtungsten-bearing skarnsat the Strawberrymine,
contact metasomaticand related depositsof the northeastern central Sierra Nevada, California: ECON.GEOL.,v. 76, p. 111-
155.
CanadianCordillera:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 845-867.
Dobson,D.C., 1982,Geologyand alterationat the LostRiver Sn- Norton, D., TitIcy, S. R., Gerlaeh,T., Knight, J. E., and Knapp,
W-F deposit,Alaska:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 1055-1052. R. B., 1975, Hydrothermalsystemsnotebook:Tucson,Univ. Ar-
izona, Dept. Geosciences,p. V-I-V-12.
Einaudi,M. T., 1977, Petrogenesis
of the copper-bearing
skarnat
the Mason Valley mine, Yerington district, Nevada: ECON. Patterson,D. J., Ohmoto, H., and Solomon,M., 1981, Geologic
GEOL., v. 72, p. 769-795. settingand genesisof eassiterite-sulfide
mineralizationat Renison
-- 1982, Skarnsassociatedwith porphyry copper plutons, I. Bell, westernTasmania:EGON.GEOL.,v. 76, p. 393-438.
Descriptionof deposits,southwestern U.S., II. Generalfeatures Petersen,U., 1965, Regionalgeologyand major ore depositsof
and origin,in TitIcy, S. R., ed., Advancesin the geologyof the central Peru: ECON.GEOL.,v. 60, p. 407-476.
porphyry copperdeposits,southwestern United States:Tucson, Sangster,D. F., 1969,The contactmetasomatie magnetitedeposits
Univ. Arizona Press,p. 139-183. of southwesternBritish Columbia: Canadian Geol. Survey Bull.
Einaudi,M. T., Meinert, L. D., and Newberry, R. J., 1981, Skarn 172, 85 p.
deposits:ECON.GEOL.,75TH ANN. VOL., p. $17-$91. Sato,K., 1980, Tungstenskarn depositof the Fujigatani mine,
Frantz,J. D., andMao,H. K., 1979,Bimetasomatism resultingfrom southwestJapan:EGON.GEOL.,v. 75, p. 1066-1082.
intergranulardiffusion:II. Predictionof multimineraliczonese- Shimazaki,H., 1980, Characteristicsof skarn depositsand related
quences:Am. Jour. Sci., v. 279, p. 302-323. acid magmatismin Japan:ECON.GEOL.,v. 75, p. 173-183.
Frost,J. E., 1965, Controlsof ore depositionfor the Larap mineral -- 1982, The Sasanohastingsite-bearing copper skarn deposit
deposits,CamarinesNorte, Philippines:Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, formed in aluminoussedimentat the Yoshiokamine, Japan:
StanfordUniv., 175 p. ECON. GEOL., v. 77, p. 868-876.
Gamble,R. P., 1982,An experimentalstudyof sulfidationreactions Shimizu,M., and Iiyama, J. T., 1982, Zinc-leadskarn depositsof
754 M. T. EINAUDI AND D. M. BURT

the Nakatatsumine, centralJapan:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 1000- Kamaishimine,northeastern


Japan:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 809-
1012. 822.
Simons,F. S., and Munson,E., 1968, Johannsenite
from the Ava- Walther, J. V., and Helgeson,H. C., 1980, Descriptionand inter-
vaipaminingdistrict,Arizona:Am. Mineralogist,v. 48, p. 1154- pretationof metasomatic phaserelationsat high pressures and
1158. temperatures: I. Equilibriumactivitiesof ionicspeciesin non-
Sweeney,M. J., 1980,Geochemistry
of garnetsfrom the North ore ideal mixturesof COz and HzO: Am. Jour.Sci.,v. 280, p. 575-
shoot,Binghamdistrict,Utah: Unpub. M.S. thesis,Univ. Utah, 606.
154 p. Westra,G., 1982, Alterationand mineralizationin the Ruth por-
Titley, S. R., 1961,Genesisand controlof the Linchburgorebody, phyry copperdepositnear Ely, Nevada:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p.
SocorroCounty, New Mexico: ECON.GEOL., v. 56, p. 695-722. 950-970.
Uchida, E., and Iiyama, J. T., 1982, Physico-chemical
study of Yun, S., and Einaudi, M. T., 1982, Zinc-leadskarnsof the Yeonhwa-
skarnformationin the Shinyamairon-copperore depositof the Ulchindistrict,SouthKorea:ECON.GEOL.,v. 77, p. 1018-1082.