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Chapter 18.

xACP Optimization

Chapter 18. xACP Optimization


Table of Contents
18.1. Preparing for Optimization
18.1.1. Input Data Validation
18.1.2. Network Data Validation
18.1.3. Using Groups in ACP
18.1.4. Save Project for Optimization
18.1.5. Configuring Optimizable Parameters
18.1.6. Configuring the ACP Optimizer
18.1.7. Candidate Site Creation (GSM only)
18.1.8. Running the Optimizer

In this section, we will learn how to use the xACP optimizer. So far, we have discussed how to build an ACP PRJ in terms of the required network specific inputs.
Here, we will look at the PRJ details as they apply to the optimization process. This section is divided into the following sub-sections:

 Preparing for Optimization: Input data validation, optimization targets/thresholds, cell-level optimizer configuration

 Running the Optimization: Network-level optimizer configuration including RF parameters, traffic type(s), budget constraints, and optimization weights.

18.1. Preparing for Optimization


18.1.1. Input Data Validation

Before running the optimization process, it is very important to validate the accuracy of the ACP PRJ input data. The most important part of any xACP
project is a complete and accurate set of data. While the users can check and validate the data in any order, the following sequence is recommended.

ACP Consistency Check

Once project import is complete the user should utilize the ACP Consistency Check to aid in verifying a complete project. ACP Consistency Check is
invoked by selecting x-ACP > Consistency Check. As seen in Figure 18.1, “ACP Consistency Check - Physical Tab”, Figure 18.2, “ACP Consistency
Check - Prediction Tab”, and Figure 18.3, “ACP Consistency Check - UMTS Tab”, the xACP consistency check is broken into three categories with
several checks in each category as follows:

1. Physical

a. Loaded Antenna Pattern - Checks that each sector has a valid antenna pattern assigned.

b. Antenna Pattern Validity - Checks the validity of each antenna pattern by detecting if the horizontal or vertical patterns have multiple
consecutive blank entries or 0 values. Mulitple consecutive blank entries or 0 values in the horizontal or vertical antenna pattern does not
always mean the antenna pattern is bad but those with this issue should be checked via Edit > Antenna and viewing the pattern.

c. Ground Elevation - Checks for the existence of ground elevation data for all sectors in the project greater than a user defineable value.

d. Pa Power - Checks that PA power is greater than a user definable value.

e. Mechanical Tilt between - Checks that mechanical tilt is between two user defined values.

f. Antenna Height between - Checks that antenna height is between two user defined values.

g. Electrical Tilt between - Checks that electrical tilt is between two user defined values. Incorrect ET values in antenna patterns are very
common.

h. Azimuth Sanity - Identifies sectors that belongs to same site and Tech-Band that are close or same in Azimuth

2. Prediction

a. Sector missing Pathloss - Checks that every sector has an associated pathloss grid. Since antenna patterns are used to calculate pathloss
when pathloss is not available from the prediction tool (ASSET, PEV, Atoll, etc), this can be a result of incorrect band or missing antenna
as well as the pathloss/RSSI file not present for import.

b. Sector missing RSSI - Checks that every sector has an associated RSSI grid. Possible reasons for missing RSSI grids include: missing
pathloss grid, RSSI Deleted or not generated (can be generated on demand via x-Propagation menu).

c. Sector has number of Best Server pixels < - Checks if any sector has a number of best served pixels less than a user defined value.

d. Sector has number of Drive Data points < - Checks if any sector has a number of drive data points less than a user defined value. If drive
data is not imported, every sector will fail this test.

e. Sector Pixel Confidence - Checks that pixel confidence (Predictions vs. Drive Measurements - See the section called “Pixel Confidence
Report”) mean delta is greater than 6 dB or standard delta is greater than 8 dB.

3. UMTS

a. UMTS Parameters - Checks that Max. PA Power, CPICH Power, SCH Power, PCCPCH Power, SCCPCH Power, Noise Rise, Max. Noise Rise,
Percentage of Loading, and Bad Erlang are within a user-defined range.

b. Simulation Profile Existence - Checks that at least one Circuit Switched and one Packet Switched UMTS Simulation Profile exists. It is very
important that the project contains an accurate representation of the on-air UMTS service mix.

c. RAB Power Consistency - The higher the bit rate, the more power is needed to achieve it at a reasonable BLER (Eb/No). Checks that RAB
powers are as follows:
i. Bit Rate <= 12.2k, RAB power >= -3 dB (relative to CPICH)

ii. 12.2k < Bit Rate <=128k, RAB power >= 3 dB (relative to CPICH)

iii. Bit Rate > 128k, RAB power >= 6 dB (relative to CPICH)

Figure 18.1. ACP Consistency Check - Physical Tab

Figure 18.2. ACP Consistency Check - Prediction Tab

Figure 18.3. ACP Consistency Check - UMTS Tab


As seen in Figure 18.4, “ACP Consistency Check - OLAP Output” results are presented in OLAP view for ease of viewing.

Figure 18.4. ACP Consistency Check - OLAP Output

Path-loss/RSSI Validation

Display the RSSI spatial view for the entire network. This is the position-based received signal information that we imported either using the DM or
the prediction PLOSS files. The RSSI can be displayed by first selecting the desired Tech/Band to be viewed in the Tech/Band Filter and then
selecting Raster > RF > Measurements and Predictions > RSSI from the Layer Manager Display Tree as shown in Figure 18.5, “RSSI Display for All
Cells in the Network”. For dual tech/band PRJs, view each tech/band individually by selecting the appropriate option from the Tech/Band Data Filter
drop-down list.

Figure 18.5. RSSI Display for All Cells in the Network


One or more cells can be selected or deselected by holding the CTRL key and clicking the left mouse button. If no cell is selected (e.g. clicking on
the space between cells), then the entire data will be displayed as shown in Figure 18.5, “RSSI Display for All Cells in the Network”.

Note
It is very important to click on a few cells and display their individual RSSI view one-at-a-time. This is to make sure
that the PLOSS data is mapped to the correct cell, as shown in Figure 18.6, “RSSI Display for Selected cells Only”.

Important
When the user selects one sector for RSCP visualization xACP will use the prediction information for the sector for
the display. When the user selects more than one sector xACP will use the N-Best analysis and display for each
sector information based on the N-Best analysis. Based on the “N” selected by the user for the N-Best analysis, the
information displayed in this case will vary. The larger the “N” selected by the user, the more information will display
when more than one sector is selected.

Figure 18.6. RSSI Display for Selected cells Only


The user should also verify that Best Served areas appear to be realistic by using the “Color Pixels By Best Server” display as seen in Figure 18.7,
“Map colored by best server”.

Figure 18.7. Map colored by best server

Pixel Information

The user may view detailed pixel information by selecting View > Spatial > Pixel Information or by simpling selecting the Pixel Information tool in
the toolbar. As seen in Figure 18.8, “Pixel Information GIS Display” the user is presented with detailed Pixel Information. The Pixel Information
display is capable of both a Dynamic and Static mouse mode. The top “x” readings for the pixel selected are displayed with the best RSSI for the
pixel selected displayed closest to the cursor and others displayed successively further away from the cursor according to RSSI. The “x” number of
Best Servers to display can be set in Tools > Options, Visualization tab (see Section 17.3.3, “Options”). Latitude, Longitude, Terrain Elevation,
Clutter Description, and Traffic Demand are also displayed if the rasters are selected in the Layer Manager. A line is also displayed pointing to the
serving sector and colorized according to n-best server.

Figure 18.8. Pixel Information GIS Display

Pixel Confidence Report

If drive measured data has been imported into the project, the user should utilize the Pixel Confidence Report to understand the error between
driven and predicted data that has been imported. For a given sector the set of all pixels that belong to that sector and analyzed. Pixel confidence is
computed for each pixel on a scale from 0 to 100. The sector confidence is the percentage of pixels with good confidence. The pixel confidence is
computed by computing the absolute error between drive data and prediction data for each pixel and then weighting it by the prediction RSSI at
that pixel. The confidence of drive data at a given pixel is very low if the error between drive data and predicted data is high and prediction is high.

The Pixel Confidence Report can be accessed by selecting x-ACP > Reports > Generate Pixel Confidence Report. When this menu choice is invoked
the user is presented with a dialog wherein a Measured/Predictions Data Filter and a Confidence Threshold can be selected. See Figure 18.9, “Pixel
Confidence Report Dialog”.

Figure 18.9. Pixel Confidence Report Dialog

If the “Filter Report by Threshold” check box is checked pixel confidence algorithm will eliminate pixels for which the pixel confidence is less the
threshold translated. This has the effect of eliminating sectors with poor pixel confidence from the report. Reports are presented when the
generation completes and can be viewed via View > OLAP Reports > ACP > Pixel Confidence Report.

1. Project_name.sector_confidence.txt - This file contains each sector that has both predicted and drive measured data, the number of driven
pixels associated with that sector, the mean delta between the driven and predicted bins, the standard delta between the driven and predicted
bins, and the calculated confidence level for that sector. See Figure 18.10, “ Pixel Confidence OLAP Report”.

2. Project_name.no_readings.txt - This file contains a list of sectors for which no drive measured data was found.

3. Project_name.no_predictions.txt - This file contains a list of sectors for which no predicted data was found.

Figure 18.10. Pixel Confidence OLAP Report


Physical Data Validation

Next, display the cell level physical parameters by selecting Edit > Sector (Physical Tab) as shown in Figure 18.11, “Validating the Physical
Parameters”. The ESD contains the hard and soft parameters for every cell in the network. These parameters can be modified through the GUI for
each cell individually, for a cluster of cells, or globally (Select All). Note, only a single cells information can be displayed at a time. If multiple cells
are selected, only parameters that are same for all selected cells will be populated (viewable).

In this section, we will validate the following:

 Status: Defaults to On Air. See Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” for more details.

 Lat / Long: The geographical location of the selected cell

 Ground Elevation: The height above sea level of the selected cell

 Antenna Model: The antenna model (also called the Antenna Family) used at the selected cell

 Antenna Pattern: The radiation pattern of the antenna in use

 Site Band: The frequency band of the selected cell

 Electrical Down tilt: The electrical tilt in use, positive value refers to a down-tilt

 ET Requires Site Visit: Unchecked by default. See Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” for more details.

 ET Requires Tower Climb: Grayed out by default. See Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” for more details.

 Azimuth: The azimuth of the selected cell

 Mechanical Down-tilt: The mechanical tilt in use, positive value refers to a down-tilt

 Height AGL: The antenna radiation center

 ERP (CPICH Power): The effective radiated power (Pilot power for UMTS networks)

 Forward Link Total Loss: Total loss on the forward link

 Reverse Link Total Loss: Total loss on the reverse link

 TMA: Check if TMA is used on the selected cell. Checking this box will result in canceling the reverse link total loss. Not applicable to ACP PRJs.

 Parent Site: Site ID and the frequency band of the selected cells parent site

 Alternative Site Name: Displays the alternative name (if any)

 Alternative Sector Name: Displays the alternative sector name (if any)

 Sharing Physical: Displays the cell ID of other cell(s) sharing the same antenna.

 Antenna With: Typically this applies to dual band/tech cells sharing the same physical Dual-Band antenna.

 Min MT + ET: Defaults to -20. See Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” for more details.

 Max MT + ET: Defaults to 20. See Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” for more details.

Figure 18.11. Validating the Physical Parameters


Dual Band/Technology Cells

As discussed earlier, the ACP module supports multiple bands and technologies in one ACP PRJ. Figure 18.12, “Validating the Physical Parameters
(Dual Band/Tech PRJ)” shows the ESD for a dual band/tech PRJ:

Figure 18.12. Validating the Physical Parameters (Dual Band/Tech PRJ)

In ACP, cells with dual band/tech are represented as two different cells with same lat/long, height, azimuth, and mechanical tilts. They may differ,
however, with regards to the antenna model, antenna pattern, site band and electrical tilts. The band and technology information is also available in
the “General Tab” of the ESD, and it is stored in the “PRJ_name.network.site.CSV” file in the PRJ folder.

Note
The band and technology information is not editable.
For the dual band/tech cells the following applies:

 Antenna Model: Same antenna model on both cells (if using Dual-Band antenna)

 Antenna Pattern: The pattern in use is for the selected cells frequency

 Site Band: This should be the frequency in use for the selected cells technology

 Electrical Tilt: This should be the correct value for the selected band

 Sharing Physical Antenna With: Displays the cell ID of other cell(s) sharing the same physical antenna.

18.1.2. Network Data Validation

Display the cell level network parameters by selecting Edit > Sector (UMTS/GSM Tab) as shown in Figure 18.13, “Validating the Network Parameters”.
Here, we will validate the following (example below is for a UMTS network):

 Reverse Link:

 Maximum Allowed Noise Rise: This is the maximum possible noise rise a cell is allowed to reach.

 Noise Figure: Noise figure (NF) is a measure of how much a device (such an amplifier) degrades the signal to noise ratio for a given cell.

 Noise Rise: Noise rise is the reverse link noise rise calculated by the simulator (or imported simulation results) for a given cell.

 Forward Link:

 Maximum PA Power: Maximum PA power of the selected cell. The calculated ERP is also displayed.

 CPICH Power: The Common Pilot Channel power of the selected cell

 SCH Power: The average Synchronization Channel power. Synchronization channels are active only 10% of the time-slot, therefore, their
average power is calculated using: SCH = 10% of (Max Primary-SCH + Max Secondary-SCH).

 PCCPCH Power: The average Primary Common Control Physical Channel power. The PCCPCH is time-multiplexed with SCH and is active 90% of
the time-slot. It is calculated using:

PCCPCH

= 90% of Max PCCPCH

 SCCPCH Power: The maximum Secondary Common Control Physical Channel power.

 Power Allocated for All TCHs: Total power that can be allocated for traffic on the selected TCHs cell.

 AS Threshold: The active set threshold relative to the strongest pilot.

 Orthogonality Factor: Measure of isolation among different code channels from the same cell.

 Percentage of Loading: The loading is calculated as the ratio of “Actual assigned DL traffic power” to the “Total allocated DL traffic power”.

 Scrambling Code: The scrambling code assigned to the selected cell

 Multipath Profile: Choose from the available (Flat, Pedestrian, vehicular) multipath propagation profiles

 Soft Hand-off Loading: The maximum percentage of loading that can result due to primary users

 Maximum Loading: The maximum allowed loading on the selected cell

 Maximum Traffic Power: The maximum traffic power a RAB can have relative to Allocation Per User/RAB the CPICH power (absolute power in
the case of a User)

Figure 18.13. Validating the Network Parameters


Clutter Attributes Validation

Display the clutter attributes selecting Edit > Edit KPI Objective Settings > Clutter Settings, by selecting the Edit Clutter Attributes tool in the tool
bar, or by double-clicking or right-clicking on the Clutter item in the Layer Manager side bar. Click on the appropriate technology tab. Validate the
clutter specific weights and thresholds as shown in Figure 18.14, “Validating the Clutter Attributes” (example below is for a UMTS network):

Note
Currently, these values are not imported from the planning solution PRJ (ASSET3G, PEV, Atoll) like other
parameters. Therefore, new ACP PRJs have DEFAULT values. If licensed for the User Management module then
default values can be defined by the user. See Section 21.5, “Manage Default Clutter Attributes” for details.

Important
Optimi recommends that the user very carefully consider the pixel counts for the various clutter types (right click on
the displayed raster in Layer Manager, select Generate Histogram) in defining these weights. Optimi further
recommends that the weights for pixel types whose covered counts are 25% or more of the overall covered pixel
count for any one project be no less than half (50%) of the highest clutter weight.

Tip
The user may also import clutter attributes from another project. See Section 20.1.1, “Import/Export Clutter
Attributes” for details.

 Weight: These are relative weightings per clutter type. The optimizer gives priority to pixels based on the weights they carry. The optimizer
uses this info to decide which pixel gets preference when doing the optimization, so pixels with a higher clutter weight have a better chance to
get better coverage and quality. These are not “dB” values.

 FL Threshold Ec: The forward link Ec threshold value (pilot coverage in dBm).

 Max RSCP: The Maximum Best Server RSCP allowed for the clutter above which the pixel is penalized with ACP's Max RSCP Objective Cost
Function. This is used to control the coverage in an Outside Network Border clutter from improving.

 FL Threshold EcIo: The forward link Ec/Io threshold value (pilot quality in dB).

 Penetration Loss - The penetration loss in dB for each clutter type.

Figure 18.14. Validating the Clutter Attributes


Note
Edit > Edit KPI Objective Settings > Global Settings is used in conjunction with the “Site” option and the Auto Weight
Adjustment option. See the section called “ACP Parameters (Optimization Categories and Settings)” for details
regarding these features.

Clutter Import Validation

It is very important that accurate pixel level clutter type information is available in the ACP PRJ (as explained in Section 17.3.6, “Import Clutter”
earlier). To validate the clutter data import, click on the Layer Manager Display tree and select Raster > Physical > Clutter as shown in
Figure 18.15, “Validating the Clutter Type Import”.

Note
Changing the background color (States map) to white may help to better visualize different clutter types.

Figure 18.15. Validating the Clutter Type Import

Elevation Import Validation

It is very important that accurate pixel level terrain elevation (or heights) information is available in the ACP PRJ (as explained in Section 17.3.7,
“Import Elevation” earlier). To validate the elevation data import, click on the Layer Manager Display tree and select Raster > Physical > Elevation
as shown in Figure 18.16, “Validating the Elevation Import”.
Note
Changing the background color (States map) to white may help to better visualize different elevation ranges.

Figure 18.16. Validating the Elevation Import

Pixel Profile

The user has the option of viewing the pixel profile by selecting the Pixel Profile button located in the tool bar. As seen in Figure 18.17, “ The Pixel
Profile Tool” this functionality automatically docks in the right pane of the Main GIS view and shows the user information regarding the pixel profile
between two points as selected in the Main GIS.

Figure 18.17. The Pixel Profile Tool


Information presented includes:

 Origin Lat and Lon

 End Lat and Lon

 Distance

 Elevation Change

This information can be helpful in determining the reason behind certian RF propagation characteristics.

Traffic Demand Import Validation

It is very important that the desired traffic demand grid(s) are available in the ACP PRJ (as explained in Section 17.3.17, “Traffic Demand Grid”
earlier). To validate the traffic demand import, click on the Layer Manager Display tree and select Raster > Physical > Traffic (Demand) and select
the desired traffic map as shown in Figure 18.18, “Validating the Traffic Demand Import”. While the users can add multiple layers to the view, for
validation purpose though, it is better to view one layer at a time. Verify all traffic demand maps, one at a time.

Note
Changing the background color (States map) to white may help to better visualize different traffic values.

Figure 18.18. Validating the Traffic Demand Import


Note
The “Layer Manager Tree” can be used to change the Opacity of available layers as shown in Figure 18.19, “Layer
Manager”.

Figure 18.19. Layer Manager

Using OLAP Tables for Data Validation

Imported PRJ data can also be viewed/validated using OLAP Tables. OLAP Tables are available by selecting View > OLAP Table. Selecting the
parameters of your choice from this menu will provide information in the OLAP Table format. OLAP Tables are very flexible and powerful, the user
can customize these as needed. These tables can be exported and saved in CSV, Excel, Word and HTML file formats. Figure 18.20, “Validating PRJ
Data Using OLAP Tables” shows a Physical Sector Data OLAP Table.

Figure 18.20. Validating PRJ Data Using OLAP Tables

18.1.3. Using Groups in ACP

The groups in ACP are provided for organizing purposes. The users can create and assign different cells to different groups as needed.

While groups provide the ease of better managing a PRJ, they do not tell the optimizer what parameters to optimize. The idea is to use the groups while
configuring the optimizer settings on a cell-level. Refer the example shown in the section called “Dual Band/Technology Cells”.

Groups Creation Tools

The user is provided with tools to create groups automatically if desired. These tools are:

 Generate Tech/Band Groups - Accessed through Tools > Generate Tech/Band Sector Groups. This utility creates Tech/Band Sector groups
based on the Tech/Band assigned to each sector. These groups provide ease of setting attributes by Tech/Band combination.

 Generate Sector Status Groups - Accessed through Tools > Generate Sector Status Groups. This utility creates Sector Status groups based on
the Sector Status assingned to each sector as seen in Edit > Sector > Physical tab.

 Generate Co-Located Technology Groups - This tool is accessed by selecting Tools > Generate Co-Located Technology Groups. When this tool
is invoked, the user is presented with a dialog wherein the attributes, technologies, and Group Class name of the group to be created can be
entered. See Figure 18.21, “ Generate Co-Located Technology Groups Dialog”.

Figure 18.21. Generate Co-Located Technology Groups Dialog

Once created, the Group Class and Groups created can be used to easily select sectors and/or sites via the Edit > Sector dialog as seen in
Figure 18.22, “ Edit > Sector - Apply Co-Located Technology Group Filter”.

Figure 18.22. Edit > Sector - Apply Co-Located Technology Group Filter
This provides the user with an easy method of selecting sectors and/or sites that have multiple technologies for the setting of certain
attributes. As an example, once the groups are created, GSM sectors that are co-located with UMTS sectors can easily be selected and marked
“Special Purpose” in the Edit-Site dialog so that GSM sites will not be removed in a GSM Site Selection optimization leaving only a UMTS site at
that location.

 Generate Tech/Carrier Sector Groups - Accessed through Tools > Generate Tech/Carrier Sector Groups. This utility creates Tech/Carrier Sector
groups based on the Tech/Carrier assigned to each sector. These groups provide ease of setting attributes by Tech/Carrier combination.

Manual Groups Creation

The Groups tab of the ESD allows the user to define groups of cells in the PRJ. Groups can be created or deleted by using the Edit Groups window
as shown in Figure 18.23, “Edit-Sector - Creating Groups”. The Edit Groups window can also be accessed via Edit > Groups.

Figure 18.23. Edit-Sector - Creating Groups


Each group in ACP belongs to a group class. The user must create a group class before adding group(s) in it. Both, the class and group, must be
created before assigning them to a cell. By default, all ACP PRJs have a group class called “REGIONS” that has five groups defined in it. These
default groups cannot be deleted; however their use is optional.

Groups and Classes are defined as follows:

 Class: A cell can be a member of more than one class.

 Group: A cell can be a member of only one group within a class.

To create a new class, simply enter a name in the top Name input field and click on the New Class button. This creates a class type and will be
shown in the List of Classes frame. To add a group to that class, select it from the List of Classes frame and enter a name of a group in the bottom
Name input field and click on the New Group button. Repeat this to add more groups to the same class. To delete a group, open the Edit Groups
window and simply select the class or group to be deleted, click on the Delete Class or Delete Group button.

Groups Assignment

Once the groups have been created, the group assignment can be performed by simply selecting a cell (or group of cells) and choosing the desired
group from the desired class and clicking on the Apply button as shown in Figure 18.24, “Edit Sector - Assigning Groups”.

Figure 18.24. Edit Sector - Assigning Groups


The following methods can be used to assign groups to different cells:

1. One cell at a time (using “Select”)

2. A geographical cluster of cells (using “Select Pixels in a Polygon”)

3. Cells with some common properties (using OLAP Tables)

Figure 18.24, “Edit Sector - Assigning Groups” above shows the usage of methods 1 & 2.

Method 3 involves selecting sectors using the OLAP view. In the example seen in Figure 18.25, “ Configuring By-Sector Contraints Using OLAP” the
Physical Sector OLAP view has been used to filter and select all GSM1900 sectors with Antenna Family = 7770_00. Edit > Sector, ACP tab is then
invoked to set the Electrical Tilt as desired. See Chapter 4, OLAP Table Overview for details regarding the manipulation of OLAP views.

Tip
In order to change ACP constraints for sectors with multiple antennas, the sectors selected must have the same
number of antennas. Sectors with the same number of antennas can be selected via OLAP by applying a filter to the
Number of Antennas field in OLAP and using the select buttons in OLAP to select these sectors. Setting up
constraints for different sectors can also be accomplished through the import of ACP Optimization settings. See the
section called “Import/Export Optimization Constraints” for details regarding the Import/Export of ACP Optimization
settings.

Figure 18.25. Configuring By-Sector Contraints Using OLAP


18.1.4. Save Project for Optimization

Before proceeding with the optimization, it is very important that we save a copy of the unoptimized (or Baseline) ACP configuration. The optimization
process updates the existing predictions as well as all the optimizable parameter values in the configuration files, so it is essential to preserve the
baseline configuration before optimization. The images of Figure 18.26, “Saving the Baseline Configuration” and Figure 18.27, “ Copying the Baseline
Configuration” illustrate the recommended steps:

Figure 18.26. Saving the Baseline Configuration


Figure 18.27. Copying the Baseline Configuration

 Copy the Baseline configuration by right-clicking on the Baseline configuration in the Configuration Manager sidebar (or via File > Manage
Configurations > Copy) and selecting “Copy” (sample directory shown in Figure 18.27, “ Copying the Baseline Configuration”).

 Enter a name for the new configuration.

 Select “Sector measurements / predictions, N-best Grids, and Traffic (Demand)” in the “Grid data to include” section of the Copy Configuration
dialog.

 Select “Set source configuration as baseline configuration.

18.1.5. Configuring Optimizable Parameters

The network parameters that can be optimized are available in the ACP tab of the Edit > Sector dialog as shown in Figure 18.28, “Edit Sector -
Optimizable Parameters”. In this dialog, the user can set optimizable parameters on a per cell basis. Each optimizable parameter has a button
or drop down menu next to it.

Figure 18.28. Edit Sector - Optimizable Parameters


Dual Band/Technology Cells

The optimizable parameters of dual band/tech cells must be configured for each band or technology individually. While the users may choose any
method to configure dual band/tech cells, it is recommended to utilize “Groups” to accomplish this task. Once the groups are created and assigned
to appropriate cells, it becomes very convenient to edit and apply settings on a per group basis. For example, Figure 18.29, “Configuring
Optimizable Parameters for Dual Band/Tech cells” shows a scenario where the GSM1900 cells are being configured to be optimized for the antenna
type and electrical tilt. In this case, the following groups were defined:

 Group Class = TECH_BANDS

 Group Names (within the TECH_BANDS class) = GSM850 BAND, GSM1900 BAND, UMTS850 BAND

Next, cells were associated to different groups depending upon their respective band/tech.

Finally, the optimizable parameters were configured for each group separately. Exact details on how to configure each parameter are presented in
the remaining Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters” sub-sections.

Figure 18.29. Configuring Optimizable Parameters for Dual Band/Tech cells


Sector Status (Active/Inactive Sectors)

This feature allows the user to set certain sectors On Air or Off Air so that they will or will not be considered in optimization, reporting, and
simulation functions. Additional choices include Candidate On Air and Candidate Off Air which are used in conjunction with the ACP “Site” option.
See the section called “The “Site” Option (Site Selection)” for details on this feature. The Status setting is located in the Edit - Sector "Physical" tab
"Status" drop down menu as seen in Figure 18.30, “Active/Inactive Status Drop Down”. The user is also provided with a Sector Status Physical GIS
layer as seen in Figure 18.31, “ The Sector Status GIS View”. The n-best server grids are rebuilt automatically when one or more sector/sectors is
changed from on-air to off-air or vice versa. As a part of this feature, in Tools - Options "RF Settings" tab (as seen in Figure 18.32, “RF Settings
Tab”), the user can specify the use of Predictions, Drive Measurements, or Combined (Combined is available after smoothing or scaling) for all
operations.

Tip
The user can also create groups based on the sector status by selecting Tools > Generate Sector Status Groups.

Figure 18.30. Active/Inactive Status Drop Down


Figure 18.31. The Sector Status GIS View

Figure 18.32. RF Settings Tab


Antenna Type Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for antenna type optimization by clicking on the button next to the Antenna Model field in the
“ACP” tab of the Edit > Sector window. The user will be presented with the Antenna Model Optimization Range dialog as shown in Figure 18.33,
“Antenna Type Optimization - Set Range Window”.

Figure 18.33. Antenna Type Optimization - Set Range Window

In the above case, only two antenna types are available to the optimizer (as a valid option) when optimizing the antenna type for the selected cells.

The “Pole Shared Antenna” check box when checked tells the optimizer that the sector shares a pole, not just an antenna, with the same band
different technology sector that it is antenna shared with. The antenna must be shared and the pattern match or it won't apply.

Note

The button next to the Antenna Model field can be used to manually change the current antenna assignment for
the selected cell. Please remember, changing current antenna assignment will result in changing the current network
configuration that would require updated RSSI information.

Tip
ALL available electrical tilts for both the existing antenna and any antenna selected in the Set Range dialog will
automatically be selected and, as such, considered by the optimizer. The user can also choose to use “Select a
Range of Items” in the Electrical Tilt Set Range dialog to limit the Electrical Tilts considered by the optimizer. It is
NOT necessary to select the existing antenna in the Antenna Set Range dialog in order for the optimizer to consider
all of the Electrical Tilts for the existing antenna.

Electrical Down-tilt Optimization


A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for electrical down-tilt optimization by clicking on the button next to the Electrical Downtilt field in the
“ACP” tab of the Edit > Sector window. The user will be presented with the Electrical Tilt Optimization Range window as shown in Figure 18.34,
“Electrical Down-tilt Optimization - Set Range Window”.

Figure 18.34. Electrical Down-tilt Optimization - Set Range Window

Note the following in the Figure 18.34, “Electrical Down-tilt Optimization - Set Range Window” above:

 All selected cells are currently using the same antenna family (7770_00).

 All selected cells are currenly using the 7770_00 antenna family in the Antenna 1 position.

 All selected cells have the same # of antennas.

 These cells are going to be optimized for electrical down-tilt and the available (or valid) option is to choose a tilt from 0 to 9 degrees from the
(7770_00) family.

 The user can opt to select a range of items that will be correlated to the appropriate patterns by the optimizer.

Tip
For multi antenna projects the user may set ET constraints by antenna model, regardless of the position of that
antenna on the sector, by exporting optimization constraints and setting up the constraints as desired per antenna
model. The file can then be imported back into xACP to set the constraints. Antenna model and antenna pattern are
exported as a part of the optimization constraints file to aid the user. See the section called “Import/Export
Optimization Constraints” for details regarding the import and export of optimization constraints.

ET Requires Site Visit and ET Requires Tower Climb

Two check boxes are available in the Edit > Sector, ACP tab dialog so that the user can indicate the type of Electrical Tilt for the sector/sectors in
question as seen in Figure 18.34, “Electrical Down-tilt Optimization - Set Range Window”. Some antenna's electrical tilt can be changed via remote
control of a servo in the antennas (ET Requires Site Visit) where others are done manually on the antenna itself via a tower climb (ET Requires
Tower Climb). “ET Requires Tower Climb” check box is grayed out by default until the “ET Requires Site Visit” is checked. Depending on the type of
Electrical Tilt, the user will select one or both and the solution will add the dollar cost of the site visit and/or tower climb to the overall costs for the
changes to the site in question if a site visit and /or tower climb was not already required for other changes.

Pole Shared Antenna

This check box allows the user to apply pole sharing to sectors that share the same physical antenna and pole. The sectors in question must share
an antenna and the sectors must be using the same antenna pattern (Electrical Tilt). If not, it will fail, the box will be unchecked, and a message
output to the log.

Note
The antenna pattern (or antenna type) to antenna family mapping, which is required for electrical down-tilt
optimization, is explained in Section 17.3.10, “Import Antenna Type and Electrical Tilt”.

Important
To optimize Electrical Tilt and not Antenna, it is not necessary to select the existing antenna for optimization. If the
user desires to optimize Electrical Tilt and not Antenna, all sectors can be selected via the “Select All” button and
“Optimize this variable” selected in the Set Range dialog for Electrical Tilt. All available electrical tilts for the existing
antennas will be considered by the optimizer as a result.

Azimuth Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for azimuth optimization by clicking on the button next to the Azimuth field in the “ACP” tab of the Edit
> Sector window. The user will be presented with the Azimuth Optimization Range window as shown in Figure 18.35, “Azimuth Optimization -
Range Window”.

Figure 18.35. Azimuth Optimization - Range Window

Range Settings

 Relative - The valid optimization values are considered relative to the existing azimuth values.

 Absolute - The valid optimization values are considered absolute (regardless of the existing azimuth values).

 Minimum - The minimum setting to be considered.

 Maximum - The maximum setting to be considered.

 Increment - The increments to be considered.

 Minimum Increment - The minimum increment to be considered.

Select Action

 Edit Range Settings - Allows the user to edit the Range Settings (the default).

 Convert to Absolute Range - Allows the user to convert Relative values to Absolute values (based on the current setting for the sector).

 Convert to Relative Range - Allows the user to convert Absoute values to Relative values (based on the current setting for the sector).

This button gives the user the option of converting the Range Type from Relative to Absolute for Azimuth, Mechanical Tilt, and PA/CPICH Power as
seen in figure Figure 18.35, “Azimuth Optimization - Range Window”. The change is accomplished by taking the following steps:

 Select Edit > Sector.

 Select the sectors for which the range is to be changed.

 Select the “Convert to Absolute Range” or “Convert to Relative Range” button. Range settings will be greyed out.

Figure 18.36. Change Range Type Example


 Select “OK”.

 Select “Apply” in the Edit > Sector dialog.

In the example in Figure 18.36, “ Change Range Type Example” the Azimuth for the selected sector is 30°. The Range was set for +/- 30°, relative.
When the Range Type is changed to Absolute, the correct values for 30°, +/- 30° (Absolute) are automatically populated. The provides the user
with an easy method to set absolute ranges for these attributes based on relative ranges so that the optimizer will be restricted to an absolute
desired range when multiple optimizations are run.

Mechanical Down-tilt Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for mechanical down-tilt optimization by clicking on the button next to the Mechanical Tilt
field in the ACP” tab of the Edit > Sector window. The user is presented with the Mechanical Tilt Optimization Range dialog as shown in
Figure 18.37, “Mechanical Down-tilt Optimization - Range Window”.

Figure 18.37. Mechanical Down-tilt Optimization - Range Window


Range Settings

 Relative - The valid optimization values are considered relative to the existing azimuth values.

 Absolute - The valid optimization values are considered absolute (regardless of the existing azimuth values).

 Minimum - The minimum setting to be considered.

 Maximum - The maximum setting to be considered.

 Increment - The increments to be considered.

 Minimum Increment - The minimum increment to be considered.

Select Action

 Edit Range Settings - Allows the user to edit the Range Settings (the default).

 Convert to Absolute Range - Allows the user to convert Relative values to Absolute values (based on the current setting for the sector). See
the section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

 Convert to Relative Range - Allows the user to convert Absoute values to Relative values (based on the current setting for the sector). See the
section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

Height AGL Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for antenna radiation center or height AGL optimization by clicking on the button next to the Height
AGL field in the “Physical” tab of the Edit > Sector window. Doing this will bring the Set Range window as shown in Figure 18.38, “Height AGL
Optimization - Range Window”.

Figure 18.38. Height AGL Optimization - Range Window


Range Settings

 Relative - The valid optimization values are considered relative to the existing azimuth values.

 Absolute - The valid optimization values are considered absolute (regardless of the existing azimuth values).

 Minimum - The minimum setting to be considered.

 Maximum - The maximum setting to be considered.

 Increment - The increments to be considered.

 Minimum Increment - The minimum increment to be considered.

Select Action

 Edit Range Settings - Allows the user to edit the Range Settings (the default).

 Convert to Absolute Range - Allows the user to convert Relative values to Absolute values (based on the current setting for the sector). See
the section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

 Convert to Relative Range - Allows the user to convert Absoute values to Relative values (based on the current setting for the sector). See the
section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

Height Options

 Synchronize Heights - Checking this checkbox for one or more sectors of a site will result in the optimizer considering only height changes
wherein all sectors for that site will be at the same height.

Important
If the Synchronize Heights option is selected for one or more sectors of a site whose sectors are not all at the same
height, the selection will be rejected when the “Apply” button is selected and the option automatically turned off.
Height tolerance is +/- one foot (.3048 meters).

Height Optimization is not allowed for multi antenna sectors.

ERP (CPICH for UMTS networks) Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) can be configured for ERP (CPICH for UMTS networks) optimization by clicking on the button next to the ERP (CPICH)
field in the “Physical” tab of the Edit > Sector window. Doing this will bring the Set Range window as shown in Figure 18.39, “ERP (CPICH for UMTS
Networks) Optimization - Range Window”.

Figure 18.39. ERP (CPICH for UMTS Networks) Optimization - Range Window
Range Settings

 Relative - The valid optimization values are considered relative to the existing azimuth values.

 Absolute - The valid optimization values are considered absolute (regardless of the existing azimuth values).

 Minimum - The minimum setting to be considered.

 Maximum - The maximum setting to be considered.

 Increment - The increments to be considered.

 Minimum Increment - The minimum increment to be considered.

Select Action

 Edit Range Settings - Allows the user to edit the Range Settings (the default).

 Convert to Absolute Range - Allows the user to convert Relative values to Absolute values (based on the current setting for the sector). See
the section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

 Convert to Relative Range - Allows the user to convert Absoute values to Relative values (based on the current setting for the sector). See the
section called “Azimuth Optimization” for details.

Note
For UMTS networks always use “Relative” when optimizing the CPICH power.

Maximum Radio Power (UMTS) Optimization

A cell (or a group of cells) in UMTS can be configured for Maximum Radio Power optimization by clicking on the button next to the Power Relative to
CPICH field in the “UMTS” tab of the Edit > Sector window. Doing this will bring the Set Range window as shown in Figure 18.40, “Maximum Power
Optimization - Range Window”.

Figure 18.40. Maximum Power Optimization - Range Window


Range Settings

 Relative - The valid optimization values are considered relative to the existing azimuth values - only relative range is enabled for Maximum
Radio Power Optimization.

 Minimum - The minimum setting to be considered.

 Maximum - The maximum setting to be considered.

 Increment - The increments to be considered.

 Minimum Increment - The minimum increment to be considered.

Import/Export Optimization Constraints

Optimi xACP includes the ability for the user to import and/or export sector optimization settings. This functionality provides the user with an easy
means of repeating optimization settings and/or sharing them with other users of the same project. As seen in Figure 18.41, “ Import Optimization
Settings” the user is provided with the ability to import two separate constraint files:

Note
“sector_name” is a required field. The user may choose to import one or more of the other fields in each file.

 ACP per Sector Flags, Settings, and Costs. The file is a .csv (comma separated values) file with the following fields:

 sector_name

 antenna_number

 antenna_model

 antenna_pattern

 optimize_antenna_model

 dollar_cost_antenna_model_change

 optimize_antenna_height

 use_absolute_range_antenna_height

 min_range_antenna_height

 max_range_antenna_height

 increment_antenna_height

 min_increment_antenna_height

 dollar_cost_antenna_height_change

 optimize_antenna_azimuth
 use_absolute_range_antenna_azimuth

 min_range_antenna_azimuth

 max_range_antenna_azimuth

 increment_antenna_azimuth

 min_increment_antenna_azimuth

 dollar_cost_antenna_azimuth_change

 optimize_antenna_mTilt

 use_absolute_range_antenna_mTilt

 min_range_antenna_mTilt

 max_range_antenna_mTilt

 increment_antenna_mTilt

 min_increment_antenna_mTilt

 dollar_cost_antenna_mTilt_change

 optimize_eTilt

 use_range_eTilt

 use_absolute_range_eTilt

 min_range_eTilt

 max_range_eTilt

 increment_eTilt

 min_increment_eTilt

 dollar_cost_eTilt_change

 optimize_power

 use_absolute_range_power

 min_range_power

 max_range_power

 increment_power

 min_increment_power

 dollar_cost_power_change

 min_et_plus_mt

 max_et_plus_mt

 min_pa_power

 max_pa_power

 ACP per Sector Antenna Models. The file is a .csv (comma separated values) file with the following fields:

 sector

 antenna type

Note
For the Sector Antenna Models file each sector/antenna type combination is a distinct row.

Tip
For the latest format of the files, Optimi recommends exporting constraints from a project and modifying the
exported file for import.

Figure 18.41. Import Optimization Settings


Optimizable Parameters Validation

After setting all the optimizable parameters, use the “Layer Manager Display Tree” to verify your settings as shown in Figure 18.42, “Display Tree -
Optimizable Parameters Validation”.

Figure 18.42. Display Tree - Optimizable Parameters Validation


18.1.6. Configuring the ACP Optimizer

After configuring the optimizable parameters on a per cell basis, we are now ready to set these parameters on a network wide basis. The various
optimization parameters windows are available by selecting xACP > Optimization > ACP as shown in Figure 18.44, “Optimization Parameters - ACP Tab”.

Figure 18.43. Running the Optimizer - xACP > Optimization


ACP Optimization

In this dialog the xACP optimization parameters are configured as shown in Figure 18.44, “Optimization Parameters - ACP Tab”.

Figure 18.44. Optimization Parameters - ACP Tab

ACP Parameters (Optimization Categories and Settings)

Check the desired RF parameters that need to be optimized. One or more parameters can be checked at the same time.
Note
The RF parameters check-boxes in this dialog apply to the entire network. Cell-level settings are applied using the
Edit > Sector (Physical Tab) window as explained in Section 18.1.5, “Configuring Optimizable Parameters”.

The “Site” Option (Site Selection)

The “Site” checkbox provides the user with a means of having xACP add sites to the network as a part of each iteration before performing ACP
optimization to optimize Coverage, Quality, and Capacity. The algorithm evaluates the coverage, quality, and capacity of the selected network or
networks and adds sites considering the sectors marked “Candidate On-Air” (see the section called “Sector Status (Active/Inactive Sectors)”) as
part of the candidate sites. Sectors marked “On Air” are considered to be part of the current network. The algorithm will automatically target the
Service Levels populated for each band/technology combination in Edit > Edit KPI Objective Settings > Global Settings and add sites to the network
until the target Service Levels are reached. See Figure 18.45, “ Edit Global Service Levels Dialog”.

Figure 18.45. Edit Global Service Levels Dialog

The algorithm will automatically add a number of sites for each iteration such that all sites will be added if the target Service Levels are reached.

The user is provided with an “Evaluate Network” option so that the current Network Service Levels can be understood in setting the Global Service
Level settings. See the section called “Evaluate Network” for details regrading the Evaluate Network feature.

If, for example, the user wishes to run Concurrent ACP/Site Selection for the entire network, all UMTS sectors should be marked “Candidate On-
Air”. If the Network Evaluation dialog shows 93% SL for Ec, 20% SL for Ec/Io, and 100% SL for FL EbNo and RL EbNo, the user would set the
Global Service Levels as seen in Figure 18.45, “ Edit Global Service Levels Dialog”. The user can then select which physical attributes will be
optimized as well as the “Site” option. When started, the optimizer will add sites for each iteration and performs ACP before adding more sites in
the next iteration. xACP will continue in this manner until the Global Service Levels are reached. When the optimization completes, sectors
belonging to sites added to the network will be marked “Candidate On Air” and sectors belonging to sites not added to the network will be marked
“Candidate Off Air”. In the Group Class defined, the user will find an “Existing” group as well as the Selected and Not Selected groups defined.

When using the “Site” option, the optimizer also considers the “Cost of Adding Candidate Site” as set in Edit > Site > Costs tab. Sites that are
cheaper to add to the network will be preferred according the to cost matrix in Figure 18.46, “ Financial Costs Matrix”. If the “Cost of Adding
Candidate Site” is the same for all sites (defaults to $1) it will have no effect on the optimizer.

Figure 18.46. Financial Costs Matrix

Tip
The Global Service Levels default to 100%. Since most networks do not have Service Levels of 100% for all KPIs,
leaving the setting at default will usually result in the optimizer adding all sites marked “Candidate On Air” to the
network.

Important
The number of sites added for each iteration is based on the number of iterations populated by the user according to
the formula # Sites Added/Iteration = Number candidate sites / (Number of iterations - 2). If, for example, 5
iterations are selected, approximately 33% of the sites will be added for each iteration. Optimi recommends using a
number of iterations such that approximately 10% of the candidate sites will be added for each iteration.
Benchmarking performed by Optimi shows that this will provide the best results while keeping optimization time to a
minimum. Optimi also recommends using the Auto Weight Adjustment (checked by default) feature when using the
Concurrent ACP/Site Selection feature. This option causes ACP to target the Global Service Levels so that both the
ACP and Site Selection portion of the algorithm will be tagetting the same Service Levels.

Note
If the Capacity Layer option is selected and the Concurrent ACP/Site Selection is run, the optimizer will consider the
capacity layer algorithm in adding sites to the network. This means that capacity layer site will automatically be
preferred and thus added first to the network.
Tip
Capacity can be set by sector in Edit > Sector > General tab Max Erlangs or in Edit > Site, Capacity tab. The
optimizer will use whichever capacity limit it “bumps” into first. If the “Capacity at Tech/Band” option is checked in
Edit > Site, Capacity tab, xACP will apply the max erlang value entered by the user to each Tech/Band associated
with each site. If a single site has, for example, two GSM band, checking the “Capacity at Tech/Band” option
effectively doubles the capacity for this site at the site level.

Important
The Cost of Adding a Candidate site can be set in Edit > Site, Costs tab.

Tilt Settings

The Tilt Settings button allows the user to specify settings that will restrict uptilt and/or force downtilt for sectors based on Overshooting Rank (see
Section 23.4, “OSS Based ACP Reports” for details regarding the Boomer Status Report and Overshooting Rank). Also the automatic downtilt can be
forced based on DCR stats, loaded from OSS.

Figure 18.47. ACP Tilt Settings Dialog

As seen in the user has the following options:

 Downtilt Boomers - Enables the automatic tilting and no uptilt for boomers feature.

 Threshold 1 - No uptilt (ET + MT) will be allowed by xACP for sectors whose Overshooting Rank (as viewed in the Boomer Status Report) is
higher than this value.

 Threshold 2 - .xACP will force 2 degrees of tilt (ET + MT) on sectors whose Overshooting Rank (as viewed in the Boomer Status Report) is
higher than this value AND whose Bad Coverage Threshold is below the translated value.

 Bad Cov. Threshold - Bad Coverage Threshold (as seen in View > OLAP Table > Network > UMTS > OSS Data) used in conjunction with
Threshold 1 which sectors must be below for the forced 2 degrees of downtilt to be applied.

Important
The Boomer Status Report must be invoked for the ACP Tilt Settings feature to work properly. If no Boomer Status
Report is available, the feature will have no effect on the optimization outcome.

Note
Forced downtilt changes for sectors whose Overshooting Rank (as viewed in the Boomer Status Report) is greater
than Threshold 2 will be forced to the top of the scheduled changes.

Azimuth Settings

The Azimuth Settings button allows the user to specify the minimum angle of separation between sectors of the same site. See .

Figure 18.48. The ACP Azimuth Parameters Dialog

Important
The Minimum Angle of Separation setting takes into account the beamwidth of the antenna. This means that the
angle translated will be the minimum angle between the two closest 3 dB points of adjacent sectors. For example, if
a three sectored site has 80° beamwidth antennas (240° total) and the sectors are oriented equally around the site,
a setting of 40° or more will prevent the Azimuths from changing other than a change that will move all three
sectors the same amount in the same direction. This also means that a setting of zero will prevent sector overlap
within the 3 dB points of the antenna pattern.

Height Settings

The Height Settings button allows the user to specify whether or not the optimizer should synchronize height settings. See Figure 18.49, “ The ACP
Heights Parameters Dialog”.

Figure 18.49. The ACP Heights Parameters Dialog

Note
The “Synchronize Heights” option must be turned on at the sector level for this setting to have any effect. See the
section called “Height AGL Optimization” for details.

Site Settings

The Site Settings button allows the user to specify the maximum number of sites to add when using the “Site” (Concurrent ACP/Site Selection)
option as seen in Figure 18.50, “ Max # Added Sites Dialog”.

Figure 18.50. Max # Added Sites Dialog

Checking the box and specifying a maximum number of sites to add will result in the optimizer ceasing to add sites to the network once that
number of sites is reached regardless of the Service Level.

$ Cost per change

This is the $ cost associated with each RF parameter change. The available $ amount is limited by the total $ Budget value. The overall objective
function of the optimizer is a combination of RF and budget costs.

Note
The budget cost may be overwritten by entering large $ budget limit and small individual budget items (i.e.,
$cost/change)

$ Budget

This is the total available $ budget allocated for the optimization session. A lower $ budget may result in limiting the total number of possible
changes.

# Changes/Milestone

This is for administration purposes only. This value does not limit the number of changes the optimizer can make. It simply divides the total number
of changes by the value entered in the #Changes/Milestone field such that each milestone (group of changes) results in a net improvement to
system performance. For this reason, Optimi recommends that recommended changes be implemented in complete milestones only.

For example, using a value of 30 in the #Changes/Milestone field means that the “AcpChangesScheduleAggregate” report will get a maximum of 30
changes per milestone. If in the example of 30 Changes/Milestone, the optimizer comes up with a total of 100 changes, now the report should
have the following:

 Milestone1 = 30 changes

 Milestone2 = 30 changes

 Milestone3 = 30 changes

 Milestone4 = 10 changes

Run Schedule Changes

This check-box should be selected if the user desires that the Aggregate Schedule file be created. The schedule generator groups the changes into
those that require a site visit (Azimuth, MT) and those that do not require a site visit (ET, Power). It then finds the changes that provide the most
positive effect on the system and do not require a site visit and schedules those changes first, grouped by site. It then moves on to changes that do
require a site visit. In SLOW mode, this process is undertaken again to find the next best changes (once the first set are applied). This continues
until all changes are considered. In FAST mode, the first order of changes is taken. For this reason, SLOW mode provides a more accurate schedule
but can take many hours in a large project. SLOW mode is recommended

Tip
If the user desires to run more than one optimization to experiment with different settings, it is recommended that
Run Schedule of Changes NOT be selected until the final run. This will save time.
Technology and Band

Select the appropriate PRJ technologies and bands. The ACP module allows the users to include sites of multiple technologies and bands in one ACP
PRJ. However, as detailed in Section 17.3.8, “RF Data”, PLOSS data relevant to each technology and band must be present for each cell.

Note
Only band/tech combinations for which there are prediction, measured, and/or combined RSSI grids in the project
will be available in the GUI for optimization.

Technology/Band Traffic Grid

Here, the user can select the desired traffic demand grid from the drop-down list to be used while optimizing the network. For UMTS
band/technology combinations the traffid demand grid is associated with the UMTS Simulation Profiles configured in Edit > UMTS > Simulation
Profiles.

Use Capacity Algorithm (GSM)

This check-box allows the user to optimize both layers (bands) of a dual-band GSM network concurrently. When selected, the “other” band will be
grayed out. The user must set the capacity and coverage layer bands via the drop down dialogs. The solution will load data from both bands. Where
the best-server RSSI for the capacity layer band is >= the Capacity Layer Coverage Threshold setting for the capacity layer band (settable in Edit-
Clutter Attributes), that capacity layer band will be assigned all of the traffic from that bin and the capacity layer band will be optimized. The
coverage layer or “other” band will be ignored. Where the best-server RSSI for the capacity layer band is NOT met, the coverage, or “other” band
will be optimized. This allows for optimization considering dual-band networks layered using Hierarchical Cell Structures. The user can exclude high
frequency band sectors from the capacity layer rules by specifically assigning them to the coverage layer. This can be done from the Edit > Sector...
window by clicking on the Coverage Sector option for the sectors of interest.

Sector Group Settings

The Sector Group Settings portion of the dialog provides the user with a means of defining the group class and group names for sites that are kept
and sites that are removed as a result running a Concurrent ACP/SS optimization (see the section called “The “Site” Option (Site Selection)”).
Sectors whose status is“On-Air” before optimization will be placed in a group name named “Existing” in the defined group class.

Evaluate Network

Selecting this button results in the xACP solution calculating the Coverage, Quality, Capacity and Dominance Service Levels for the band/technology
combinations checked. The user is provided with a tab showing the Service Levels for each band/technology combination as well as an “All” tab as
seen in Figure 18.51, “ The Network Evaluation Dialog”.

Figure 18.51. The Network Evaluation Dialog

The Service Levels presented are calculated using the Data Source as set in Tools > Options, RF Settings tab and include all sectors marked On Air
or Candidate On-Air. If the user wishes to evaluate the network without Candidate On Air sectors, these sectors must be marked “Off Air” before
invoking Evaluate Network The user can also initialize the optimizer by selecting “OK” (“Run Optimizer in Batch Mode” UNchecked) and note the
values under “Initial” on the left side of the ACP Optimization Status dialog. See the section called “Sector Status (Active/Inactive Sectors)” for
more details regarding sector Status.

The Objective Tab

Here the user can enter the technology specific optimization weights with relative importance given to coverage, capacity and quality. The set of
weights displayed in the objective tab depends upon the number of technologies checked in the ACP tab. Each set of weight applies only to the
labeled technology. Additionally, this window facilitates the inclusion of population, clutter and traffic data for optimization consideration as shown
in Figure 18.52, “Optimization Parameters - Objective Tab”.

Note
For multiple band or technology PRJs, the optimizer will search for the best combination of changes given that they
impact both technologies/bands.

Figure 18.52. Optimization Parameters - Objective Tab


Optimization Weights

These technology specific weights are relative values (unit less). A value of 100 for all is the same as a value of 10 for all. What is important is the
relative difference between these weights.

For a new network, with no or minimum knowledge of the network performance, the user may start the optimization using equal weights for
capacity, coverage and quality. After the initial optimization run, the user can refer the optimization results to get a much better feeling about the
current performance of the network. At that point, the weights can be tuned as needed. For more details, refer to Section 19.5, “The Reports Tool”.

Large Cell Prevention - Traffic Growth %

The Large Cell Prevention - Traffic Growth % value provides the user with a method of preventing the optimization results from including very large
service area sectors. When the optimizer is run on UMTS systems that have very low traffic, the resulting design can result in some sectors with a
very large service area. This can occur because the optimizer is concerned only with coverage and quality (including traffic quality) taking into
consideration the traffic demand grid set for optimization by the user. As traffic grows, sectors with a very large service area can become
problematic. By populating a value in the provided box the user can quickly and easily limit the downlink loading for each sector based on its
current Max Loading. This has the effect of evenly spreading the loading amongst the sectors and preventing large cell service areas. This is
accomplished by setting the Max Loading for each sector according to the formula: Max Loading = Max Loading/(1 + growth/100). For example, if
Max Loading is set to 50% for all sectors, setting a value of 100% for Traffic Growth will result in a Max Loading of 25% for all sectors. Using this
feature the user can optimize a UMTS network while considering a unitform growth factor.

Calibration Options

“Iterations to calibrate” - This field is applicable for UMTS ACP and LTE ACP, it provides the user with a method of having the Optimi X solution
calibrate the optimizer loading between iterations. When translated to a value > 0, the optimizer will run a simulation every “x” iterations in order
to re-calibrate Forward Link Loading and uplink Noise Rise that has an impact in UMTS/LTE network quality and coverage for both uplink and
downlink. This option can make the final-optimized system's coverage, quality, and capacity better. Benchmarking performed by Optimi indicates
that the resulting improvement is typically very small and thus may not be worth the addition time it takes to run the simulator every “x” iterations.

x Population

Checking on the “x Population” check box allows the optimizer to prioritize pixels based on the population data imported using the Import > Traffic
> Population Count. Pixels with a high population count will get priority in terms of receiving better coverage, capacity and quality.

x Clutter

Checking on the “x Clutter” check box allows the optimizer to prioritize pixels in different clutter types based on the Clutter weightings (as set in
Edit > Edit KPI Objective Settings > Per Clutter Settings).

Note
The clutter specific thresholds (such as Ec, Ec/Io, Eb/No, etc. for UMTS PRJs) are always considered regardless of the
“x Clutter” check-box being checked or unchecked.

x Traffic

Checking on the “x Traffic” check box allows the optimizer to prioritize pixels based on the selected traffic distribution(s). The optimizer allows the
user to optimize the network simultaneously for multiple traffic types that represent the different services offered to the network subscribers. For
example, different services could be defined for voice users and Internet users, or for indoor users and outdoor users. This traffic distribution is:

 NOT used to calculate the interference resulting due to the network users (traffic).

 Used ONLY to weight pixels (differentiate between pixels) in terms of the traffic these pixels carry.
The optimizer uses this information to decide which pixel gets preference when doing the optimization, so pixels with relatively more traffic have a
better chance to get better coverage and quality.

Dominance - Number of Servers and C/I Threshold

The Dominance section provides the user with a method of setting dominance criteria. The user is provided with fields to populate a Number of
Servers and a Dominance threshold. The optimizer will consider bins that have less than the translated number of servers within the translated
signal threshold of the best server to be covered from a dominance perspective. For example, if the user populates 8 servers and a threshold of 12
dB, any bin which has 7 or less servers within 12 dB of the best server will be considered to be covered from a dominance perspective. Using this
option will prevent the optimizer from making changes that would result in the loss of a dominant server for the area in question and thus
introducing a potential interference problem.

Tip
Dominance Weight must be > 0 for the Use Neighbor Penalty feature to function correctly.

Use Neighbor Penalty

The Use Neighbor Penalty checkbox provides the user with a means of using the dominance settings to enforce a penalty when one or more of the
“x” servers within “y” dB is not a neighbor. When the Use Neighbor Penalty checkbox is checked, xACP will generate the user-defined number of
direct neighbors for each sector and use the dominance settings to apply a penalty for each bin where one or more of the “x” servers within “y” dB
of the best server is not a neighbor. This feature has the effect of preventing large uptilts that can be problematic as system traffic grows.

Warning
Like any setting that constrains the xACP optimizer, benchmarking performed by Optimi shows that the “Use
Neighbor Penalty” option can result in sub-optimal results. While limiting large uptilts can be good for future system
growth they are sometimes required for optimal system performance in the present. Optimi recommends that the
user verify the project is complete by using the ACP Consistency Check (see the section called “ACP Consistency
Check”) and add any expected growth to loading and/or demand grid values to be used for optimization.

UMTS Multi Carriers Options

UMTS Multi Carriers Options provides the user with a method of setting the coverage criteria for multi carrier UMTS optimization:

 At least one carrier has coverage - The optimizer will consider the bin covered if at least one carrier meets the coverage criteria.

 All carriers have coverge - The optimizer will consider the bin covered only if all carriers meet the coverage criteria.

Active Set Size

This value is the target Active Set Size for UMTS. The optimizer will seek to keep the Active Set Size at or below the translated value.

HSDPA CIR Target

This value is the target CIR for HSDPA enabled services. The optimizer will seek to keep the the CIR for HSDPA enabled services at or above the
translated value.

LTE Options

The max IoT value is the maximum allowed level of Interference-over-Thermal (IoT) per sector before ACP starts penalizing due to excessive uplink
interference. This IoT term penality prevents the uplink capacity from growing when increasing the coverage area if there is a degradation in the
uplink quality. The IoT penalty is included as part of the uplink capacity penalty contribution combined together with the sector overload.

The Optimizer Tab

Clicking on the Optimizer Tab will display the window as shown in Figure 18.53, “Optimization Parameters - Optimizer Tab”.

Figure 18.53. Optimization Parameters - Optimizer Tab


Number of Iterations

Enter the total number of iterations for the optimizer. The number of iterations needed for each PRJ will vary depending on many factors (# of
parameters to be optimized, # and location of cells, etc.). Initially, you can start with a relatively lower number such as 5 or 10. When the
optimizer is running, try to look at the relative improvement from one iteration to the next.

The idea is to note the improvement as the optimization proceeds. At some point, you will start seeing that more iterations are not helping in
providing more improvement. At that point, you may choose to stop the optimizer. So, even if you have started the optimizer with 100 iterations
to be done you may stop the optimizer at any time.

Important
When running ACP optimizations with out the “Site” (Concurrent ACP/Site Selection) option, the optimizer will
automatically stop when convergence is reached. This means the user can translate a very large number of iterations
and let the optimizer stop itself when convergence is reached.

Note
Before moving to the Objective Tab, make sure to click on “Apply” to save your settings.

Speed of convergence

Here the users can pick from the following three options:

 Slowest

 Fastest

 Medium

The quality of the optimized solution is related with the speed of the convergence. Typically, fastest speed results in a lesser quality solution. The
Fastest and Medium options can be used in the beginning of a PRJ to get a feeling of much improvement is taking place.

Run Optimizer in Batch Mode

By checking this check box the user can choose to have the optimizer run in “Batch Mode”. This will cause the solution to “Start” the optimization
and commit the results automatically. This is helpful for extremely large projects wherein it can take up to two hours to reach the “Start” dialog.

Auto Weight Adjustment

By checking the “Auto Weight Adjustment” check box as seen in Figure 18.53, “Optimization Parameters - Optimizer Tab” the user can choose to
have the optimizer automatically adjust the Coverage, Quality, and Capacity weights during the optimization process as it targets the Service Levels
translated in Edit > Edit KPI Objective Settings > Global Settings. Selecting this option will result in the optimizer automatically adjusting the
appropriate weight downwards as that particular target is approached. The weight adjustment is proportional to the distance from that particular
target. This means that as one particular target is approached, the weight for that KPI is adjusted downwards so that proposed changes will be
more beneficial to the other KPIs. This results in more balanced performance for the optimized system. This feature is especially useful for systems
that are not well balanced as it relates to Coverage, Quality, and Capacity and is recommended when using the ACP “Site” option (see the section
called “The “Site” Option (Site Selection)”).

Bias Search by Financial Cost

By checking the “Bias Search by Financial Cost” check box in xACP > Optimization, ACP tab as seen in Figure 18.44, “Optimization Parameters -
ACP Tab” the user has the option of forcing the optimizer to consider the changes with smaller dollar costs associated with them first. This will
result in better performance when the optimizer is given a limited budget while also resulting in a larger dollar cost to achieve the best (unlimited
budget) performance solution.

Tip
The cost for each type of change can be configured by sector. The “Bias Search by Financial Cost” will take these
costs into account so that sectors with a lower dollar cost for a particular type of change will be considered first.

As a part of the Bias Search by Financial Cost feature, the user is provided with the ability to set a “% percentile accepted changes per dollar” limit
in the Optimization Status dialog as seen in Figure 18.54, “ xACP Optimization Status Dialog - Financial Optimization Selected”. This provides the
user with a method of telling the optimizer to accept only changes that make up a certain percentage of the overall budget translated by the user.
Benchmark testing performed by Optimi indicates that for most ACP optimizations 75% or more of the overall improvement can be achieved using
50-60% of the budget. For example, translating this value to 50% will result in the optimizer applying only the most important changes that use
only 50% of the budget.

Figure 18.54. xACP Optimization Status Dialog - Financial Optimization Selected

Optimi recommends using this option only when the user desires to use a limited budget rather than using an unlimited budget and employing the
Schedule of Changes to pick a “cut off” point for changes to be applied based on dollar cost and/or cumulative performance improvement.

Incremental Changes

This option provides the user with a method of forcing the optimizer to explore smaller, incremental changes as it searches for the best solution.
Benchmarking performed by Optimi indicates that this option can provide better results for large projects. Note that the Incremental Changes
feature can also increase optimization times.

Important
The Incremental Changes option will only allow changes of +/- 2 degrees around the current value of the parameter.
For this reason no changes will occur for attributes whose minimum increment value (Edit > Sector, ACP tab) is set
to be larger than 2 when Incremental Changes is enabled.

After setting all three tabs in the Optimization Parameters window, we are now ready to start the optimization. Click on “Apply” to save your
settings. Next, click on “OK”.

For PRJs with some missing or incomplete data, the users may get the following window:

Also, consider looking at the Message Log, there might be warning messages as shown:
In such cases, update/modify your PRJ and start the optimizer again.

18.1.7. Candidate Site Creation (GSM only)

The user may choose to have xACP create potential candidate sites by selecting xACP > Candidate Site Creation. When this menu selection is invoked,
the user is presented with a dialog as seen in Figure 18.55, “ The Candidate Site Creation Dialog”.

Figure 18.55. The Candidate Site Creation Dialog

The user may choose the GSM band to be considered in creating the candidate sites. The algorithm will add candidate sites midway between any sector
with capacity problems (Carried Erlang > Maximum Erlang) and its neighbors. A minimum of 3 and a maximum of 8 sites will be created for each
overloaded sector. Sites will be added starting with a location that is midway between the overloaded sector and its closest neighbor first. If no
neighbors are defined, the algorithm will add the candidate sites starting midway between the overloaded sector and the closest site and work towards
the furthest site from the overloaded sector until the maximum of 8 is reached. Candidate sites created will be created in the band selected in the drop
down using the physical characteristics (height, antennas, azimuth, etc.) of the site whose sector is overloaded. If the site whose sector is overloaded is
dual band (multiple bands tied to the same physical site), only sectors for the band of the overloaded sector will be created for the new site.

Sites and sectors are named “Added_x” where “x” is the number of the site added starting with 0.

The Candidate Site Creation feature creates a set of files in a “configuration_name.Candidate_Site” sub-folder found in the configuration folder. Files
created are as follows:

 Candidate_Site-ReportGSM”Selected_Band” BAND.csv - File containing the Lat and Lon of the sites added.

 added_GSM”Selected_Band” BAND.wizard.tx - Wizard Transmitter file for import into xWizard via File > Import > Project Data in xWizard.

 added_GSM”Selected_Band” BAND.wizard.cel - Wizard Site file for import into xWizard via File > Import > Project Data in xWizard.

 added_GSM”Selected_Band” BAND.physical.site.csv - Physical site file in xACP format.

 added_GSM”Selected_Band” BAND.physical.sector.csv - Physical sector file in xACP format.

The files created can be used to import the created sites and sectors into the user's prediction tool and run predictions for import into the xACP project.
Once the candidate sites and sectors are imported into the xACP project with predictions, the user may run the ACP “Site” option so that the optimizer
can select the sites that best solve the capacity problems. See the section called “The “Site” Option (Site Selection)” for details.

18.1.8. Running the Optimizer

Automating ACP Functions

Manage Optimization Scenarios

In order to take advantage of ACP Batch Operations the user must first create Optimization Scenarios via Edit > Manage Optimization Scenarios. As
seen in Figure 18.56, “ The Manage Optimization Scenarios Dialog”, the user may Add, Load, or Delete Optimization Scenarios. The user has the
following choices:

 Add From Config - An Optimization Scenario will be created from the current configuration.

 Load Into Config - A previously added Optimization Scenario can be loaded into the current configuration.

 Delete - Delete Optimization Scenarios

Figure 18.56. The Manage Optimization Scenarios Dialog

Tip
Optimization scenarios consist of saved Global (ACP Opt Parameters), Sector, Clutter Attributes, and/or Simulation
Settings. Optimi recommends setting up sector-level constraints and then using different global settings (x-ACP >
Optimization > ACP) to save Optimization Scenarios.

ACP Functions

The user can use the Task Flow Manager to create and execute ACP Functions to ease the operations associated with xACP Optimization. The user
can also choose to run ACP Functions Asynchronously to take advantage of multiple core computers by running multiple optimizations concurrently.

As seen in Figure 18.57, “ Task Flow Manager - Add, Edit Remove”, by selecting Tools > Task Flow Manager the user can Add, Edit, or Remove Task
Flow templates. Templates may be added at either the User or Project level.

Figure 18.57. Task Flow Manager - Add, Edit Remove

Once the Task Template is created, the user can add the Copy Configuration and/or ACP Functions item to the Task Flow Template by simply
dragging them to the Task Flow template name as seen in Figure 18.58, “ Task Flow Manager - Edit Task Flow”. The user may also choose to run
the operations Asynchronously by checking the “Run Asynchronously” checkbox for the appropriate tasks.

Figure 18.58. Task Flow Manager - Edit Task Flow

For detailed information regarding the use of the Task Flow Manager, see the section called “Task Flow Manager ”.

As seen in Figure 18.59, “ Setting ACP Function Properties”, once the Task Flow template is created, the user can define the variables associated
with the task as follows:

 Optimization Scenario - The Optimization Scenario to be used (see the section called “Manage Optimization Scenarios”)

 Source Configuration - The configuration that the optimization is to be run on (the configuration must exist).

 Target Configuration - The configuration name the optimization will use when saving the optimized configuration. If left blank, changes will be
written to the source configuration.

 Run Simulator - Option to run the UMTS Static Simulator

 Generate GSM Statistics - Option to generate GSM statistics

 Generate UMTS Statistics - Option to generate UMTS statistics

 Run ACP - Option to run ACP


 Run Scrambling Code Opt - Option to run SC optimization

 Generate LTE Statistics - Option to generate LTE statistics

 Generate WiMAX Statistics - Option to generate WiMAX statistics

Figure 18.59. Setting ACP Function Properties

Important
The Task Flow User tool will execute the operations according the to the settings that are translated and applied in
the various forms. This means that for the process to fully complete automatically, the “Run ACP in batch mode”
option must be checked in xACP > Optimization, Optimizer tab. Optimization and/or Simulation will be performed
according to the settings found applied and save in the chosen Optimization Scenario. Statistics will be generated
using the settings the user employed (or saved via Apply and Save) when the statistics were run previously.

The Optimization Summary window

The optimizer provides the following summary of the current optimization scenario:

Please, verify this info with your desired optimization goals.

KPIs Service Level warning

The optimizer will display a warning as shown in Figure 18.60, “ACP Optimization Service Level Threshold Warning” if KPIs for current configuration
is 100%. It prompts the user to change corresponding thresholds so that optimizer can improve that KPI if that is the interest of the user. For
example if “Percent Covered” in Optimization Dialog is 100% user can increase target “Coverage Threshold (dbm)” in “Edit Clutter Attributes” for
GSM or “FL Threshold Ec(dbm)” for UMTS so that “Percent Covered” is not 100% and ACP will try to improve coverage for the network then.

Figure 18.60. ACP Optimization Service Level Threshold Warning


The Optimization Status window

Next, the optimizer provides a status window. In this dialog can specify the following:

 % percentile accepted changes - The user can input a desired percentage of the total accepted changes to be applied. Since the optimizer
applies the most important changes first, the final changes often result in minimal improvement. The provides the user with a method of
leaving out the less significant changes. Benchmarking performed by Optimi indicates that for most projects 75-80% of the changes will result
in 90% or more of the overall improvement.

 per dollar - By checking this box the user can specify a % percentile accepted changes per dollar. This provides the user with a method of
telling the optimizer to accept only changes that make up a certain percentage of the overall budget translated by the user and is therefore
most useful when employing the “Optimize Financial Cost” feature (See the section called “Bias Search by Financial Cost”). Benchmark testing
performed by Optimi indicates that for most ACP optimizations 75% or more of the overall improvement can be achieved using 50-60% of the
budget. For example, translating this value to 50% will result in the optimizer applying only the most important changes that use only 50% of
the budget.

Note
The Optimi X solution will run the UMTS simulation according to the settings found in xACP > UMTS Simulation.

In the Optimization Status Window the user can also monitor changes in RF costs, monetary costs, and the percentage of covered and good quality
pixels as shown in Figure 18.61, “Optimization Status Dialog”. Click on “Start” to initiate the optimization process.

Note
If you currently have one or more GIS layers viewable (Clutter, Elevation, DM, etc.) you may want to either remove
them or make them invisible by clicking on “View the Layer Manager” and un-check the “Visible” check-box. For
networks covering large areas, this might result in increasing the speed of the optimization.

While the optimizer is running, compare the following:

1. “Initial Cost” with the “Current Cost” and the “Best Cost”. The lower the cost the better it is.

2. Percentages: Improvement from Initial values to the current values.

3. Dollar Cost: Current Dollar cost should be zero for all parameters. This cost will increase with each change in the parameter values (as set in the
RF Tab of the optimization window)

Figure 18.61. Optimization Status Dialog

The optimizer stops after finishing the user-defined number of iterations with the following message:

Alternatively, the user also has the option to click on “Pause” to stop the optimizer at any time while it is still running, as shown:
Once the optimizer is paused, the user has three options, as shown:

Resume:

Start optimization from where it was paused.

Commit

Changes: Accept, save the optimization results, and exit the optimizer.

Cancel:

Ignore the optimization results and exit the optimizer

In cases where the optimization stops after completing all iterations, the window looks as follows:

In the above case, the user has only two options either save the results by clicking on Commit Changes or ignore the results by clicking on Cancel.

Note
When the optimizer stops after completing all of the requested number of iterations, the “Iteration” field (total
number iterations) in the status window goes back to zero.

When committing changes, the user is informed that the PRJ will be saved automatically. This is a reminder, in case the user has not saved the
“baseline” or unoptimized PRJ separately, the original network configuration will be overwritten.

After selecting “Yes”, if the “Run Schedule of Changes...” check box in xACP > Optimization, ACP tab was checked (see the section called “Run
Schedule Changes” for details) before optimization was started, the user will be presented with a dialog showing the schedule of changes as seen in
Figure 18.62, “ Schedule of Changes Dialog”. The '% Changes Applied' value in the textbox correlates to the selected changes on the screen and
vice versa.

Figure 18.62. Schedule of Changes Dialog


If the “Target SL Coverage” and “Target SL Quality” settings are left at the default of 100%, the Optimi X solution will, by default, check the
changes such that total dollar budget is not exceeded and such that the final milestone is complete (no partial milestones - see the section called “#
Changes/Milestone” for details regarding milestones). If the “Target SL Coverage” and/or “Target SL Quality” values are translated to something
other than the default of 100% the Optimi X solution will seek to find a place in the list of changes that will fulfill those translated values and such
that the final milestone is complete. If such a place in the list of changes cannot be found, NONE of the changes will be selected. In this case the
user must select the changes he/she desires to be applied. Once “OK” is selected the selected changes are applied and written to the output files.

Note
When the user selects a particular change in the list, all changes down to and including that change will be selected.
This allows the user to pick a place in the changes list above which all changes will be selected and applied when
“OK” is subsequently selected.

17.4. Ready for Optimization Chapter 19. xACP Analyzing Results