You are on page 1of 51

Motor Operations, Testing &

Maintenance
Technical Seminar
April 21, 2017
Southern Cavite Chapter
Topic Outline – Duration – 2 Hours
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
- Electrical Input vs Mechanical Output
- Types of Motor Load Torque Curves
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
C. Standard Connection / Markings
D. Routine Performance Tests
- IR, WR, Surge, Absorption Test
- TR, Vibration, IST, INL, IFL
E. High Efficiency Motors
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Electrical Input
R, ft.
Power: Applied
Power: kW, Hp Force, F
Voltage : AC, DC (lbs.)
Phases : Single; 3Ph
Speed : 0-3600RPM
Standard : NEMA, IEC
Mechanical Output
Driving Capability :
Torque = F x Radius,
Lbs-ft.
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Code kVA/Hp
Electrical Data & Circuits : A 0.00-3.14
B 3.15-3.54
C 3.55-3.99
D 4.00-4.49
E 4.50-4.99
F 5.00-5.59
G 5.60-6.29
H 6.30-7.09
J 7.10-7.99
K 8.00-8.99
L 9.00-9.99
M 10.00-11.19
N 11.20-12.49
P 12.5 – 13.99
R 14.00-15.99
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Torque Information

RPM = (6000/6)(35/50)= 700


NP
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Torque / Hp Ratio :
34
R = ----- = 2.02
16.8
Same
Speed Hp ∞ T
140
R = ----- = 2
70

760
R = ----- = 2
380
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Typical Load Torque Curves :
1). Constant Torque
Hp Torque
Types of Load : T
10O%
. Conveyors
. Feeders P
5O%
. Mills
. Handling Speed
Fixed Volumes O%
O% 5O% 10O%
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
2). Constant Power
Types of Load :
. Rollers
Hp Torque
. Materials being rolled
P
. Diameter changes 10O%
during rolling
5O%
T
Speed
O%
O% 5O% 10O%
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
3). Constant Power / Variable Torque
Types of Load
- Combination of Constant Power & Constant Torque
- Paper Rollers / Feeders / Elevators

Hp Torque
10O%
T

5O% P

O%
O% 5O% 10O% 15O% 30O%
Speed
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
4). Starting/Breakaway Torque
Hp Torque Types of Loads
- high T at low N
P - Extruders ; Screw Pumps
10O%

5O% T

Speed
O%
O% 5O% 10O%

T ∞ (N)(N)
P ∞ (N)(N)(N)
Be sure to Install Torque Capable Motor
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
*Typical Motor Torque Curves ( NEMA)
NEMA NEMA NEMA NEMA I E C IEC
A B C D H N

Insufficient Torque Could Lock Motor.


Ask for the Torque Performance Curves.
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule ( Motoring Effect)
1. Presence of
Magnetic field
N

2. Circulating
Current in
Rotor / EMF
Induced S
+
-3. Rotary
Movement
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Forming N-S Electro Magnets 2 P, 3 Ø
VC

SB
NA NC
VA VB

SC SA
NB

EM more functional / flexible than PM


A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
Opposite Poles defines Motor Speed
Per Phase
P RPM
2 3600
4 1800
6 1200
8 900
10 720
12 600
16 450
18 400
20 360 B N E B S E B N E B S E
24 300
Topic Outline – Duration – 2 Hours
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
- Electrical Input vs Mechanical Output
- Types of Motor Load Torque Curves
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
C. Standard Connection / Markings
D. Routine Performance Tests
- IR, WR, Surge, Absorption Test
- TR, Vibration, IST, INL, IFL
E. High Efficiency Motors
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
Motor
Starting Current
Starting IS
3x – 7 x IFL
Behavior

The INL-IFL
Need to IFL PMAX
Control PNL
In-Rush INL
0
Current NINC PINCREASING
N=0 N=Rated
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
Motor Starting Methods
1.Direct on Line
2.Wye-Delta
3.Part Winding
4.Resistor Start
5.Auto-trans
6.Slip Ring
7.Soft Start
8.Freq Drives
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
ACM with Disc Brake Control

Coil

Rectifier

VARISTOR
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
2). Wye-Delta Starting Method

6 4 5
1 2 3

W2 U2 V2
U1 V1 W1
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
DOL- PLC Control - Large AC Motor Load
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods

3). Part Winding Method


B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
4). Resistance Start Method
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
5). Auto-transformer Method
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
6). Slip Ring Resistance Method
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
7). VFD / Soft Starting Method
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
Comparative Starting System – 3Ph ACM

Voltage
Dip
High Dip Low Dip
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
Avoid High Thermal Stress Starting Methods
DOL Y-D PW Res Auto-T WR Soft-S FC
Topic Outline – Duration – 2 Hours
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
- Electrical Input vs Mechanical Output
- Types of Motor Load Torque Curves
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
C. Standard Connection / Markings
D. Routine Performance Tests
- IR, WR, Surge, Absorption Test
- TR, Vibration, IST, INL, IFL
E. High Efficiency Motors
C. Standard Connections / Markings
6 & 3 Terminal Leads of 3Ф Motors :
LA

LB
LC

ØA ØB

Phase V & I
LA Phase V & I
3 Leads Out
ØC 3 Leads Out
( Wye )
( Delta )
Same Terminal Voltage; 120Deg out of Phase
C. Standard Connections / Markings
C. Standard Connections / Markings
NEMA Standard – 12 Leads Out
L1
A1
Y

A2 Δ

Y-Y

C2 B2 Δ-Δ
C1 B1

L3 L2
C. Standard Connections / Markings
IEC Standard – 12 Leads Out
L1

A1
Y

Δ
A2
Y-Y

C2 B2 Δ-Δ

C1 B1

L3 L2
C. Standard Connections / Markings
6 Leads Terminal Blocks

Fixed 6 4 5 6 4 5
1
Terminals
Wye 2 3 1 2 3
Connected
To Motor
L1 L2 L3 Controller
For
W2 U2 V2 Wye- Delta
Fixed W2 U2 V2
Starting
Delta U1 V1 W1
U1 V1 W1

L1 L2 L3
C. Standard Connections / Markings
Starting Winding Helps Start 1Ф ACM :
LA
LB
LC
acV

Main
4 1
ØC
5 Run
o
aux
Starting
With 8 switch
Run Coil Starting Coil Capacitor

Single Voltage; Run Coil 90 Deg out of Phase with Start Coil
C. Standard Connections / Markings
Single Voltage Motor Dual Voltage Motor
T1 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4

T5
T5
T8
T6
T7
Single Phase
110 / 220V T8
Topic Outline – Duration – 2 Hours
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
- Electrical Input vs Mechanical Output
- Types of Motor Load Torque Curves
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
C. Standard Connection / Markings
D. Routine Performance Tests
- IR, WR, Surge, Absorption Test
- TR, Vibration, IST, INL, IFL
E. High Efficiency Motors
D. Routine Performance Tests
1). Insulation Resistance Test
 Detects IR : T2 T3

Line to Ground / Line to Line T1

 Applied voltage = < VR


 Megger reading changes in time
due to humidity, degradation,
impurities, heat

Rule of Thumb :
Min. IR= kV +1 ,meg-ohms
D. Routine Performance Tests
2). Winding Resistance Test
- Use DLRO
- Compare WR
Actual/ Original
- Balanced Phase
Resistances
D. Routine Performance Tests
3). Surge Comparison Tester

Good Winding Complete Ground

Turn to Turn Short Partial Ground

Coil to Coil Short Phase to Phase Short


D. Routine Performance Tests
4). -Temperature Rise Test
Motor Insulation Classes
1800C
1550C Equipt
1300C
1200C Inspectors
provided
with
400C Scanners
00C
Insulation class B F H
Max winding temp 1300C 1550C 1800C
D. Routine Performance Tests
5). – Vibration Test
- Motors are factory balanced
- Vibration should not exceed:
Speed Range Max Amp, P-P
3000-4000 0.0010 inch
1500-2999 0.0015 inch
1000-1499 0.0015 inch
99 & below 0.0025 inch
- Measure V, H & Axial vibration
on bearing housing
D. Routine Performance Tests
Velocity Velocity Range Limits & Machine Classes
Severity ISO Standard 10861-1

Mm/s In/s Small Medium Large Machines


RMS PEAK Machines Machines Rigid Supports Less Rigid Supports
Class III Class IV
Class I Class II
0.28 0.02
0.45 0.03 Good
Good
0.71 0.04 Good
Good
1.12 0.06
Satisfactory
1.80 0.10
Satisfactory
2.80 0.16 Unsatisfactory Satisfactory
4.50 0.25 (Alert) Unsatisfactory Satisfactory
7.10 0.40 (Alert) Unsatisfactory
11.20 0.62 (Alert) Unsatisfactory
Unacceptable (Alert)
18.00 1.00 Unacceptable
(Danger) Unacceptable Unacceptable
28.00 1.56 (Danger)
45.00 2.51 (Danger) (Danger)
D. Routine Performance Tests
6). - No-load Current Tests
 Determine unbalance currents IFL
 Compare Ist vs INL vs IFL 80%

 Observe Sparkling 60% INL


 Listen to bearing noise 20%

Ist > =
3 x INL / IFL
Topic Outline – Duration – 2 Hours
A. Operating Principles/ Behavior - ACM
- Electrical Input vs Mechanical Output
- Types of Motor Load Torque Curves
B. Motor Starting & Control Methods
C. Standard Connection / Markings
D. Routine Performance Tests
- IR, WR, Surge, Absorption Test
- TR, Vibration, IST, INL, IFL
E. High Efficiency Motors
E. High Efficiency Motors
Today & the Future Savings / Profitability
Competitiveness
Client’s Expectations

Energy Efficiency
Conservation

Power Quality

Reliability

Availability
E. High Efficiency Motors
Re-engineering & Automate Processes

Load Characteristics
Adaptable output
input Machineries
Variable Materials :
- Best Quality
- dimension - Lost Cost Product
- Weight/ viscosity - Timely Production
- other material Driving forces
properties
System interface (PLC)
interference
- machine speed - temperature - volume of flow air pressure - hardness
- gas pressure - wear - other properties

Consult Energy Savings Company


E. High Efficiency Motors
Shift From Electro-Mechanical to
………….. Modern Static Drives
- Able to provide desired variable Torque
- Step changes to Automatic Speed changes
- Slow to Faster Action
- Frequent Repairs to Maintenance
Free Static Devices
- From Simple to Automated System

VFD,
Servo
Motors
E. High Efficiency Motors
Install HEMs
Premium HEM
Motors Has :

HEMS ACM
Lower Slip
Normal ACM

Lower Losses
Higher EFF
Higher PF
E. High Efficiency Motors
Efficiencies of Commercial Motors
Electric Motors Efficiency Classes, 4 Poles
EFF4 –
Super
Premium
E3 –
Premium
Efficiency 3%
E2- 4%
High
Efficiency 8% 2001- Premium Eff
E1- 1992- NEMA EPACT
Standard Energy Policy ACT

Efficiency
TC-58- BPS-DTI ------------------Motor Kw Ratings ---------------
E. High Efficiency Motors
Premium Efficiency Motors (HEMS)
Motor Design Improvements :
- Larger & Longer Rotor Bars
- Larger & Longer Copper Wires
- Smaller Air-gap
- Silicon instead of carbon steel
- Copper instead of aluminum cast
EPACT Motors -1992, USA

TC-58- BPS-DTI
Motor Operation, Testing &
Maintenance
Thank You for
Listening….
Renato B. Ong
Rene Electrical Tech Center
CP-0917-544-7589
Rewinding & Rehabilitation of Motors,
Generators, Transformers, Pumps
Rene Electrical
Technology Center