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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Inventory Control Techniques in Material Management

Rohan J. Madgi1, Prof. Shashank U. Vanakudari2
11M.TECH student, Civil Engineering Dept, Jain College of Engineering, Karnataka, India.
2Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dept, Jain College of Engineering, Karnataka, India.
Abstract - In any infrastructure projects the major Material management is characterized with
constituent is the material where in it involves more than providing the correct material which is required at the
60% of the total cost of project, poor planning and control of construction site at correct time it involves identifying,
material, lack of material when needed, poor identification of arranging, procuring and storing of the materials. The reason
material, re-handling and inadequate storage cause losses in for inventory supervision is to keep stocks over such an
productivity and overall delays that can indirectly increase approach that there is no overstocking which means
total project cost. Effective management of the material deficient of liquidity or under loading which brings about
could reduce the total cost involved in the project. This stoppage for work. In early days, material administration
paper describes about the importance of material was not of greater significance as the materials were
management and of the different inventory control purchased depending on their requirement and availability
techniques that could be applied in order to make effective of money. As the years passed proper plan and control
material management in the infrastructure projects. This techniques were developed for the smooth flow of the
study of the material management in different infrastructure construction activities, minimize the waste, completion of
projects and analyze the material handling process project within specified time frame and to reduce the overall
undertaken by the company and applying inventory control cost of the project. Techniques such as EOQ analysis, ABC
techniques like ABC analysis along with EOQ analysis etc. to analysis, S-curve analysis, VED analysis, HML analysis etc.
achieve the desired results and suggest the best suitable were developed for quantity and quality analysis.
Key Words: Inventory, HML Analysis, EOQ Analysis.
 To rationalize the inventories control techniques
1. INTRODUCTION with the help of HML analysis to avoid the delay of
Building materials constitute a major cost component for a  To measure economic order quantity for the
construction project. Efficient material management and selected items & to minimize the total inventory
inventory control strategies are at the top and help in cost.
achieving the cost reduction goals. It is extremely essential  To offer suitable suggestions for the improvement
for smooth running of construction work. A proper plan for of inventory control practices & to
raw materials, handling, storage, issuance, and recording Minimize the wastage.
purchases is considered as part of inventory management.
Investments are very much in investment, investment in the 1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
majority of investment companies. Therefore, a proper plan
of purchase, handling, conservation and accounting should Literature review is usually done to understand the topic,
be formed in an effective inventory management system. identification of the problem and the suitable suggestions
given by various researches in their paper. Various
The term inventory means stock for products researches carried out in the material management and
alternately a rundown of merchandise. Inventory means a inventory management is studied to know the problems
stock of tangible assets or goods, it can be stock of completed faced in the industry across the world. It helps to find out the
products prepared for sale, raw materials organized for different possible solution that we can obtain from literature
manufacturing, work in progress and consumables, spare, study and understand its meaning from the below listed
store etc. A correct arrangement for purchasing, papers.
conservation, usage and recording is to be viewed as an
element of inventory management. Stock administration Ujjavala Patel May in this contemplate the author has
acknowledges what to be purchased, how to be purchased, discussed about the current material management practices
the extent to which it should be purchased, starting with the as well as inventory techniques. In order to maintain the
place it should be purchased, the place to store and the point inventory at optimum level technique such as EOQ analysis
when to utilize it for construction. were performed. It is thus concluded that by implementing
the above mentioned techniques.
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1586
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

P. Ezhilmathi May in this paper the qualitative data in 11. Two-bin Technique
regards to deviation is designed and actual materials. In the
second phase of the paper the problems of the stock out Among the various techniques listed above, HML
were overcome. The outcome of this study reveals that the and EOQ analysis has been adopted in this work. This
total cost of the project is reduced by using EOQ analysis. technique is chosen as it mainly focuses on categorizing
items based on their varying impact on the overall project
Deepak M.D July in this research the author has cost.
discussed about the material management principles and
practices. Project expense difference occurs when there is no The following flowchart represents the schematic process
proper material management. Thus a procedure is routed.
constructed to arrange materials by EOQ investigation.

Aditya A. Pande May material management is Company identification for collecting
condemnatory part of the construction industry. A properly
execution of material management can successfully bring out
the flow of materials which leads to improve planning ,
increase labour productivity ,and minimize project costs. In Collecting data
this paper materials constitute major part of the project that
is around 52% of total cost so timely available of material
results in completion of the project. Categorizing the class of materials
Minal p chaudhari February material management is based on HML analysis
procedure to give correct material at correct position at
correct moment in correct number. To diminish amount of
project. Company has troubles in procurement and holding
Economic order quantity (EOQ)
of the raw materials not for completed products. In this
paper analysis is done to improve management of inventory analysis
in the company, by adopting this analysis it would result in
effective utilization of economic resources and helps to get Reduction in cost and wastage of
better inventories.
Providing suggestions
Material management techniques symbolize the operational
aspect. Many techniques of material management are in
practice. Techniques are adopted according to the firm’s 2.1 HML ANALYSIS
convenience. Some of the techniques are:
 The HML analysis is same as ABC analysis only
1. ABC Analysis differentiation is instated of the usage value, the
usage of price criteria is considered. It is based on
2. VED Classification
Pareto rule or the 80/20 law.
3. SDE Classification  In this analysis classification is based on percentage
on the HML analysis
4. High, Medium and Low Classification.  H-class item: These are the costly item and
are generally 10-15% of total item.
5. FSN Classification  M-class item: These items are low cost item
as compared to H class items, this are
6. SOS Analysis generally 20-25% of total item.
 L-class item: These items are low class item
7. XYZ Analysis
and generally 60-70% of total items.
8. GOLF Analysis
The procedure of HML analysis:
9. Economic Order Quantity
 List of required materials should be prepared with
10. Minimum-Maximum Technique their unit cost and their annual consumption should

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1587
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

be obtained. Prepare the list of items and calculate 2.5 ECONOMICAL ORDER QUANTITY
their unit cost, annual demand and annual usage.
 The materials listed should arranged starting from The EOQ is calculated as below,
materials from highest cost
 Catergioes the materials as per HML classification. Example: 1) Concrete M50 grade
 Represent it in graphical from. D= Total quantity (5289 M3)
2.2 ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ): S= Ordering cost per order (5366.72)
a) The formula is written as: H= holding cost (193.5)


Q= the EOQ order quantity. = 541.7 m3

D=annual order of the product in. This is the Total quantity 2.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
of the Material procured by the company.
Results of HML Analysis
S= product order cost. The flat fee charged for production of
order and is self-sufficient of Q. This is obtained by
calculations done.

H= Holding is portion of product cost, considering 5% of the

per unit Rate.( This Rate is considered low comparatively,
Since the materials is procured for various projects and
precast yard having a exclusively excess storage area)


The Data obtained from the company reflects the annual

expense for the financial year 2016-17. The expense shown
in the table is inclusive of cost of ordering and the discount Results of EOQ Analysis
in some case. The ordering cost is found out by eliminating
the cost of material. Total Quantity (A), Expense (B), No of
orders (F) are obtained from primary Data

 The total number of times placing the order can be

reduced such that documentation, processing and
2.4 CALCULATION OF HOLDING COST time can be saved i.e. Total number of orders as per
EOQ =1574 Total number of times ordered by
Holding cost is considered to be 5% of the unit cost of the company =8919.
material. This is significantly lower since the material is  By applying Economic order quantity analysis to the
procured for various projects and precast yard having a materials, the inventory cost of Rs.20, 24,529 can be
exclusively excess storage area. saved.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1588
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3. CONCLUSIONS  Minal P. Chaudhari (2016) “Inventory control

Technique”, International Journal of latest
 The study makes us to understand there is no Technology in Engineering Management & Applied
proper material management practice adopted by Science”, Volume 5, Issue 2.
the company which is leading to increase total
inventory cost and delay of material.  Harsh Soni (2016) “Analyzing Inventory
 Based on HML Analysis. material management control technique on
residential construction project”, International
Particulars H M L Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas
in Education, Volume 2, Issue 3.
Control High in-between Short
 Sachin S. Pal (2016) “Study of Material
Requirement short in-between High
Management Technique on Construction Project”,
Check Tight in-between No International Organization of Scientific Research
Journal, Volume 13, Issue 4.
Safety stock High short Rare
 Dr. Angel Raphella (2014) “Inventory
 The total number of times placing the order can be management”, International Journal of Emerging
reduced such that documentation, processing and Research in Management & Technology, Volume 3,
time can be saved i.e. Total number of orders can be Issue 4.
saved around 75%.
 By applying Economic order quantity analysis to the  Miss Monika R. (2014) “Inventory
materials, the inventory cost around 4% can be Management Technique in Construction”,
saved. International Journal of Engineering Science &
 Also by knowing the demand of usage of materials, Research Technology,
we can determine the reordering level by keeping
some amount of safety stock such that there will be  Rakesh Nayak (2016) “Management of
continuous supply of material and no delay of work. Construction Materials on Project site”,
International Journal of Engineering Development
4. REFERENCES and research, Volume 4, Issue 2.

 Ujjavala Patel (2017), “Application of Inventory  Yogesh Kumar (2016) “HML Analysis for
Material Management Techniques in Construction Inventory Management”, International Journal for
Project”, Journal of emerging technologies and Research in Applied Science & Engineering
innovative research, vol. 4, Issue 5. Technology, Volume 4, Issue 3.

 P.Ezhilmathi (2017), “Role of material  I. Jayanth (2018) “A Descriptive Study on
management in apartment building”, International Inventory Control Management in Construction
Journal of scientific Research in Science and Industries”, International Research Journal of
Technology, volume 3, Issue 4. Engineering and Technology, Volume 5, Issue 2.

 Deepak M.D (2015), “An Empirical case study  D. P. Patil (2017) “Application of Inventory
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 Aditya A. pande (2015), “Study of material
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 Ashwini R. Patil (2013), “Analyzing Material
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