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FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

For
Preparation of Lok Sewa Aayog examinations

by
-Prashanta Pokhrel
(Food Research Officer, DFTQC)

Makalu Publication, Kathmandu


CONTENTS

PART I OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS ..................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.


Food Chemistry 460 MCSs ................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Food Processing, technology and Quality Control; 251 objective questions ...... Error! Bookmark not
defined.
Food Standards 50 questions ...........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
SOME TIPS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANT EXAM: .................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
Food Engineering 127 questions .......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Food microbiology 116 questions ....................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
SOME IMPORTANT NOTES IN MICROBIOLOGY................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
Nutrition & Biochemistry 103 questions............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
FOOD ENGINEERING 295 QUESTIONS ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
MCQs in Nutrition and Biochemistry (120) ........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
MCQs Set 1 (Food Engineering 20 questions) ....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
MCQs Set 2 (75 questions Food technology)......................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
MCQs set III (Food engineering 130 questions) ..................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Very short notes on food science, nutrition, microbiology and quality control . Error! Bookmark not
defined.
MCQs set 4 (microbiology 120) .........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
MCQs set 5 (Food Science 110 question) ...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Self-Aptitude MCQs Set 6 (Human Nutrition and biochemistry 180 questions) . Error! Bookmark not
defined.

PART II : SUBJECTIVE ...............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.


SECTION 1: QUALITY CONTROL ............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.1 Quality Control and Quality Assurance ........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.2 Good Manufacturing Practice .....................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3 Good laboratory Practice ............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.4 Good Agriculture Practice ...........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.5 ISO/IEC 17025:2017 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration
laboratories ....................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6 Prerequisites of food safety management system ........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7 HACCP: Hazard analysis and critical control point .........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7.3 Q: WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING HACCP IN FOOD INDUSTRIES IN
NEPAL? ................................................................................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
1.8 CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CODEX) ............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.8.1 CODEX STANDARDS PROCEDURES ............................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
1.9 Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreements ..............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.10 Current gap/limitations of food acts and rules with reference to SPS requirements ........Error!
Bookmark not defined.
1.11 Current GAPS/limitations of food acts/rules...............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.12 How to reduce food adulteration in Nepal .................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.13 How to improve the food regulation system of Nepal? ...............Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.14 How to improve the food regulation system of Nepal with respect to SPS/TBT? ..............Error!
Bookmark not defined.
1.15 Food Safety..............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.16 Food safety situation in Nepal ...................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.17 Technical barriers to trade (TBT) ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.18 ISO 9000 family ........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
ISO 9000:2015 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS -- FUNDAMENTALS AND VOCABULARY
............................................................................................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
1.18.1 SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF ISO (LATEST) ......................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
ISO 9001: 2015: QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS -- REQUIREMENTS .... ERROR! BOOKMARK
NOT DEFINED.
1.18.2 OTHER ISO 9000 SERIES STANDARDS....................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
1.19 Total Quality Management .......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.20 Statistical quality control ..........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1. T-test: ........................................................................................................................................
2. Z-test ............................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
3. Chi-square test (Χ2-test) ...........................................................................................................
1.22 Risk based food inspection system .......................................................................................
1.23 ..........................................................................................................................................
SECTION 2: NUTRITION ............................................................................................................................
2.1 Double Burden of Malnutrition ...................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2 Different uses of food composition databases/table ....................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3 1000 Golden Days ......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.4 Assessment of Nutritional Status.................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.5 Nutrition status of Nepalese from 2001 to 2016 (NDHS) ...............Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.6 Prevention of malnutrition .........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.7 List of some nutrition deficiency diseases ....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8 Role of food technologist in reducing poverty and malnutrition. ...Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.9 Food based nutrition to minimize non-communicable diseases.....Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.11 Food Toxicity ...........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.12 Elimination of toxic factors in food ............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.13 Therapeutic nutrition ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.14…………….

2.15…………….

SECTION 3: POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY ...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.


3.1 Controlled atmosphere storage ..................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2 Modified atmosphere storage/packaging ..............................................................................7
3.3 Difference between fermentation and biochemical reaction ........Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.4 Current agricultural strategies of Nepal: ......................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.4.1 AGRICULTURE POLICY: 2061 ...................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
3.4.2 ADS: AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (2015-2035) .... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
DEFINED.
3.5 Food Security .............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.6 Question: how current policies help to improve the food security of Nepal?.....Error! Bookmark
not defined.
3.7 Generals post harvesting methods for fruits and vegetables .........Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.8 Solution to reduce post harvest losses.........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.9 Post harvest loss assessment ......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.10 Classification of Spices ..............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.11 How can you enhance the market access of Nepalese honey, ginger, tea, large cardamom in
international market? ......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.12 What are the potential health hazards posed by current practice of food adulteration?
Explain the measures that are imperative to curb such adulteration practice and misbranding?
.......................................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.13 Status of indigenous food processing technology in Nepal ..........Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.14 How to commercialize traditional/ethnic foods of Nepal?...........Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.15 Latest developments in food processing technology in context to Nepal .. Error! Bookmark not
defined.
3.16 Functional foods ......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.17 Functional foods of Nepal .........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.18 Food security and food sovereignty ...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.18.3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOOD SECURITY AND FOOD SOVEREIGNTY ERROR! BOOKMARK
NOT DEFINED.
3.19 Recent advances in food processing technology .........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.19.1 NOVEL NON-THERMAL METHOD OF FOOD PROCESSING ....... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
DEFINED.
3.19.2 THERMAL METHODS OF FOOD PROCESSING........... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
3.20 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION............................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
3.21. Zero energy cool chamber .......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.22 Refrigerator or Chill Storage......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.23 Freezing and Freeze Storage .....................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.24 Cellar Storage ..........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.25 Minimal processing of fruits and vegetables ..............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.26 ................................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

Part III: past objective questions from 2068 to 2074 .............................................................................


OFFICER EXAMINATION NFC PAST 2 YEARS QUESTIONS .... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANT PAST 2 YEARS QUESTIONS ........... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.9
Recommended Daily allowance FAO (1974) ............................................................................ 350
Glimples of MCQs

MCQs
Glimples of short notes…

Glimples of subjective part

3.2 Modified atmosphere storage/packaging


MAP can be defined as the enclosure of food in a package in which the atmosphere inside a package is
modified or altered to provide an optimum atmosphere for increasing shelf-life & maintaining quality of
food.
MAP is used to delay deterioration of foods that are not sterile and whose enzymic systems may be still
operative.
MAP is generally combined with chilling/refrigeration (with the exception of bakery items).
The gases used in MAP are atmospheric gases (mainly N2, O2, CO2) ………………….
….
Passive modification: Commodity MA. An environment with high CO2 and low O2 passively evolves
within a sealed package over a time as a result of respiration of the product
…..
4.2 Post harvest loss estimation
…… ………. ….(I) ‘Xj’ stands for the factors affecting losses at each step and ‘i’ represents critical stages
from harvesting to sales. Si =∑f (Xj) ………………………………………………………………………………. (II)
The equation (II) represents post-harvest losses at particular stage in the food supply channel.
About author
- Has 10 years of experience in the field of food science & technology, working in DFTQC
(Nepal government) since 7 years
- Has experience of teaching in Purvanchal and TU affiliated colleges
- Has nearly a dozen national and international publications
- Has worked as a resource person in more than 3 dozen trainings
- Has more than dozen trainings obtained related to the field of food science and
technology
- Has visited many food industries in Asia and Europe

Key features of the book


 Contains more than 3000 MCQs
 Includes Subjective part
 Past 8 years questions with
answers
 Guide to exam preparation for
Officer and Technical assistant of
DFTQC, DDC, NARC and NFC

Makalu Publications, Kathmandu ISSN : XXXXXXXXXXXX