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First summative in Earth Science (Rock Cycle)  Igneous rocks are formed by the

cooling of and crystallization of hot, molten


 The Rock Cycle is a group of changes.
rock material called magma.
Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock
or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock  Sedimentary rocks are formed
can change into metamorphic rock or into when weathered products are transported by
igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change running water and later deposited in the
into igneous or sedimentary rock. ocean where it is lithified.
 A metamorphic rock is a result of
a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The
original rock is subjected to very high heat
and pressure, which physical and/or chemical
changes.
Igneous Rocks
 It makes up 95% the Earth’s crust
 It’s composition:
a. Oxygen – 46% Iron – 6% Sodium – 3%
b. Silicon – 27% Calcium – 4% Magnesium 3%
c. Aluminum 8% Potassium – 3%
 The most common igneous rock:
A. granite
B. Basalt
Types of Igneous Rocks
 The rocks resulting when lava solidifies are
classified as extrusive rocks.
 The magma that does not reach the surface
and crystallizes at great depths are called
intrusive rocks.

Intrusive rocks

• Intrusive igneous rocks crystallize


below Earth's surface, and the slow cooling
 A rock is an indefinite mixture of that occurs there allows large crystals to
naturally occurring substances, mainly form. Examples of intrusive igneous rocks
minerals. Its makeup may vary in are diorite, gabbro, granite, pegmatite,
containment of minerals and peridotite.
and organic substances, and its
More Examples of intrusive Igneous Rocks
composition is never exact.
 The Three Types of Rocks • A. granite
A. Igneous Rock
B. Sedimentary Rock
C. Metamorphic Rock

• B. rhyolite
• C. diorite
• D. andesite
• E. basalt

• F. gabbro


Uses of Igneous Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
 Granite, Basalt, Pumice are some of  Sedimentary rocks are formed when
the examples of Igneous Rocks. Granite: Used for weathered products are transported by
expensive kitchen worktops, for construction of running water and later deposited in the
monuments, bridges, office buildings, ocean where it is lithified.
decorative aggregates, flooring and interior  These rocks account for about 75% of the
decoration. Granite looks smooth and shiny rocks on the surface.
when polished and is the most commonly used  Weathering is the breakdown of
igneous rock. rocks at the Earth’s surface, by the action of
rainwater, extremes of temperature, and
More Examples of intrusive Igneous Rocks biological activity. It does not involve the
 granite removal of rock material.

There are three types of


weathering, physical, chemical and
 B. rhyolite
biological.
 Physical weathering is caused by the
effects of changing temperature on rocks,
causing the rock to break apart. The process is
 C. diorite sometimes assisted by water.
 Chemical weathering is caused by
rain water reacting with the mineral grains
in rocks to form new minerals (clays) and
 D. andesite soluble salts. These reactions occur
 E. basalt particularly when the water is slightly
acidic.
 Physical Weathering

 F. gabbro
Extrusive igneous rocks
 Extrusive igneous rocks form when
magma reaches the Earth's surface a volcano
and cools quickly. Most extrusive (volcanic)
rocks have small crystals. Examples include
basalt, rhyolite, andesite, and obsidian.
 Chemical Weathering
Biological Weathering
 Trees put down roots through joints or cracks
in the rock in order to find moisture. As the
tree grows, the roots gradually prize the rock
apart.
 Biological Weathering

 Many animals, such as these Piddock shells,


bore into rocks for protection either by
scraping away the grains or secreting acid to
dissolve the rock.

 Chemical Weathering

Water contains many weak acids such as carbonic


acid. This is weak, but abundant, acid is formed • Even the tiniest bacteria, algae and lichens
when carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere mixes produce chemicals that help break down the
with rainwater. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen gases rock on which they live, so they can get the
create other types of acid rain that act as chemical nutrients they need.
weathering agents.

• Carbonation is the process of rock


minerals reacting with carbonic acid.
Carbonic acid is formed when water combines
with carbon dioxide. Carbonic acid dissolves
or breaks down minerals in the rock.
 CO2 + H2O → H2CO3
(carbon dioxide + water → carbonic acid)

 CaCO3 + H2CO3 → Ca2+ + 2HCO3-


(calcite + carbonic acid → calcium +
bicarbonate)
 Oxidation is another kind of
chemical weathering that occurs when
oxygen combines with another substance and
creates compounds called oxides. Rust, for
example, is iron oxide. When rocks,
particularly those with iron in them, are
exposed to air and water, the iron undergoes
oxidation, which can weaken the rocks and
make them crumble.