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Internet Protocol Television

A Seminar Report

Submitted by

Tek Nath Acharya

0215539

Information and Technology Engineering

College of Science and Technology

Rinchending :: Phuentsholing

May 2018
ABSTRACT

With improvement in research and study in field of technology there has been
significant improvement in technology compared to past. A major change is also
seen in world of Internet. Today application of internet is not only in browsing
and data sharing but applied in many fields such as cloud computing, security
systems, television broadcasting and so on. With technological improvement the
speed and reliability of internet is very good.

One of the major application of internet is in television broadcasting or


providing television services with quality, speed and cost. Using internet
television services can be provided with help of Internet Protocol Television
(IPTV).

IPTV is rapidly changing and maturing technology for delivering TV broadcast


and other media rich content over secured end to end broad band internet
protocol data network managed by an operator. Internet protocol television is
interactive unlike cable television as it has two way communication.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Special thanks to Information Technology Department and college for giving me


this opportunity and ample of resources such as Internet and Library facilities
without which this seminar would not have been possible.

My gratitude to Mr. Parsu Ram Dhungyel, Lecturer, College of Science and


Technology, for coordinating, providing valuable guidance and tips for doing
this this seminar from the beginning.

This work would not have been possible without the help and guidance of Mr.
Yeshi Wangchuk, Head of Department, ITD, College of Science and
Technology. I am thankful for his advice, feedback, suggestions, support and
encouragement.

I am thankful to author of various research papers that I have referred. The


papers provided me with valuable information and content of this paper.

Lastly my sincere thanks to BE 3IT for constant support and encouragement.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..........................................................................................................ii

Table of Contents.......................................................................................................................iii

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. v

List of Tables ............................................................................................................................. vi

List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................vii

1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1

2 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 2

3 IPTV ................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 What is IPTV?.............................................................................................................. 3

3.2 Internet Protocol for IPTV ........................................................................................... 4

3.3 Unicast Multicast and Broadcast ................................................................................. 5

3.3.1 Unicast .................................................................................................................. 5

3.3.2 Multicast ............................................................................................................... 6

3.3.3 Broadcast .............................................................................................................. 6

3.4 Protocols Used in IPTV ............................................................................................... 6

3.5 Signal Transmission ..................................................................................................... 7

4 Multimedia via IP ............................................................................................................. 7

4.1 Video Conferencing ..................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Video Servers ............................................................................................................... 8

5 Characteristics of IPTV ................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Video on Demand ........................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Triple Play.................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 IPTV Set-Top Box (STB) .......................................................................................... 11

5.4 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) ................................................................................... 11

5.5 Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) ............................................ 12


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5.1 Quality of Service (QoS) ........................................................................................... 13

6 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 14

References ................................................................................................................................ 15

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2. 1: IPTV System (Lawrence, 2005).............................................................................. 3

Figure 2. 2 : Unicast Multicast and Broadcast(Solutions, 2013) ................................................ 5

Figure 4. 1: Triple Play (Lawrence, 2005). .............................................................................. 10

Figure 4. 2: Tornado M10 IPTV Set-Top-Box (Lawrence, 2005). .......................................... 11

Figure 4. 3: Configuration of the DSL network(Lawrence, 2005). .......................................... 12

Figure 4. 4: ADSLAM operation (Nuuri, 2011) ....................................................................... 13

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2. 1Elements of IPTV System (Gulen). ............................................................................ 3

Table 2. 2: Unicast and Multicast. .............................................................................................. 5

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Sl. No. Terms Descriptions


1 CST College of Science and Technology
2 ITD Information Technology Department
3 BE Bachelors of Information Technology
4 IP Internet Protocol
5 TV Television
6 IPTV Internet Protocol Television
7 RPT Real-time Transport Protocol
8 VOD Video On Demand
9 PIM Protocol Independent Multicast
10 PC Personal Computer
11 RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol
12 LAN Local Area Network
13 ADSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
15 DSL Digital Subscriber Line
15 STB Set-Top Box

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1 INTRODUCTION

Recently, the use of internet for information sharing, business, research, entertainment and
watching television has swiftly increased. In recent times the growth of satellite, High
Definition Television (HDTV) and cable television has given us with lot of new opportunities
to experience new discoveries in TV broadcast system. Moving from analogue to digital way
of television technology allows better quality an d high definition media content. Now this is
the era of new delivery system known as Internet Protocol Television(IPTV). According to
(Nuuri, 2011) IPTV has been used in the telecommunication industry to offer more interactive
and best TV services to the customers around the world.

IPTV is defined as a television service where content can be displayed on a display with a set
top box that accesses channels, subscription services, on demand and other interactive
multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network
with desired Quality of Service(QoS) to the public with a broadband Internet connection by
(Punchihewa & De Silva, 2010).

IPTV is accomplished of receiving and showing video content that are encoded as IP packets
from numerous broadcast channels. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) is an IP-based
technology that delivers Triple Play television services such as video, audio and data over
Internet Protocol. (Nuuri, 2011).

In IPTV we can receive video signals from numerous sources and then capture these signals,
digitalise and stream them managed by IP network. It also involves video server which
processes, compresses, edits and stores the captured content which can be live or pre-
recorded. After completion of capturing and managing the media content can be sent over via
IP network to a single station for viewing privately to multiple stations for simultaneous
viewing. Today with increase in quality and speed of internet connection display devices are
capable of displaying best quality TV programs and media content.

According to survey conducted by Digital TV Research, Iceland the IPTV penetration


worldwide will be 68.2% by 2020. (Statista, 2013). In line with this data, Bhutan may also
start planning for IPTV network as it already has Optic Fibre penetration of 200 Gewogs and
196 Community Centres. (Wangchuk, 2015)

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2 SUMMARY

IPTV is an evolving technology platform to provide television broadcasting


services based on wide range of rapidly advancing technologies. There are little
information
about implementation and services in operation for newcomers to observe.
Caution and careful planning would mitigate the risk of failures but advancing
technology is helping in taking its full potential. (Punchihewa & De Silva, 2010)

The biggest advantages with using IPTV over the other distribution methods is
that with IPTV you will be able to decide yourself what information you want to
be provided with and that you will be able to have real on demand services as
VoD. A downside with IPTV is that many of today’s broadband accesses are to
slow to receive an acceptable quality of the television broadcasts. There is also
the problem that there are not that many people that have access to IPTV today.
The service providers have not yet implemented their services in that many
networks yet. IPTV is definitely a part of the future in television, even though it
only will be an option for those with a high bandwidth broadband. (Martinsson)

Among the diverse areas within an IPTV solution, which are to be addressed, it
is obvious that the standardization process related to it is in its early stages. In
the different parts of the whole system, many entities are working. In regards to
the future of IPTV, it can only follow one path, which is close to what the
market has witnessed in the traditional broadcast
world. To make IPTV successful and perfect as per expectations, it has to
guarantee the interoperability between all the building blocks. (Junaid, Rizwan,
Zubair, & Sattar, 2011)

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3 IPTV

3.1 What is IPTV?

IPTV can be widely defined as television service that is delivered over using internet
protocol. It is digital television service that is delivered via IP link using data communications
using broadband network.

Table 2. 1Elements of IPTV System (Gulen).

Element Description
Video Content Paid to content supplier such as broadcast network
Delivery Network Cost of IP network, part common equipment, part per subscriber
Set-top box Often rented, sometimes purchased by consumer
Digital Head End Receives video signal and converts into IP format
Content Server Server that provides media content such as video, audio, advertisement
Electronic Program Guide Guide to IPTV programs and broadcasts

IPTV services include Video on Demand (VOD), voice over IP(VoIP) and even normal web
access. These services together are called as Triple Play services. Network for IPTV can be
public IP network such as internet or can be a different private network dedicated for IPTV
only. It is recommended to use different network for IPTV as it uses higher traffic than other
normal internet services.

Figure 2. 1: IPTV System (Lawrence, 2005).


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Unlike other technologies IPTV is not a standard technology so there are many self-owned
standards instead of global or regional standards. As of now different operators and different
companies have their own way of delivering IPTV. This creates problem during updated and
interoperability. (Nuuri, 2011)

There are many types of IPTV. One of them is Teleco IPTV. Teleco IPTV is mainly intended
to deliver TV programs using normal telecommunication networks provided by various
service providers simultaneously with internet and phone services. This makes sure that
Quality of Service mechanism is strictly followed in the network to make sure that the deliver
is reliable. The other is Local IPTV which is intended to deliver TV programs and media
services across small area or a campus using LAN. In this case content is delivered directly
and user can watch the channels in TV or in their PC.

IPTV provides the following services.

 In IPTV set-top box user can play and pause the live transmission. This feature
enables user to watch program later without missing their favourite part.
 IPTV system allows users to record multiple programs to watch later.
 IPTV provides the best quality audio and video content provided the internet
connection is fast enough to deliver the content that user is streaming.
 Since IPTV service is delivered over the Internet, the system is not affected by
weather changes. Therefore, the system can provide normal transmission while
the weather is rainy, cloudy or windy. (Lawrence, 2005)

3.2 Internet Protocol for IPTV

The Internet Protocol or IP is a common protocol which delivers a data transmitting


mechanism to achieve packet flows amongst devices connected to the Internet. It is also a
usual method for configuring data packets over a large network such as the Internet. A packet,
which is defined as a collection of information, can be sent in a well-defined format over the
IP network. In the IPTV system, a video signal will be divided into multiple IP packets and
then the packets will be sent across the IP network. Internet Protocol is widely used in
different networks such as Local Area Network or LAN, wireless Wi-Fi network and
telephony networks.

If people are already using the broadband services, they do not need additional network to
access IPTV. IP is an excellent network technology for many applications such as transaction

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of data (for example, email or banking), local area network, sharing files, web surfing and
many more. (Nuuri, 2011)

3.3 Unicast Multicast and Broadcast

Figure 2. 2 : Unicast Multicast and Broadcast(Solutions, 2013)

Method Benefit Disadvantage Use

Unicast Allows media play and pause Consumes more Providing on-demand
options to the user if it is bandwidth as use services
supported by IPTV set-top box increases

Multicast As many users as possible can No support for For streaming of media
stream from single source individual control of content
signal media stop and start

Table 2. 2: Unicast and Multicast.

3.3.1 Unicast

Unicast is a type of communication in which a single sender and a single receiver


interconnect with each other over the network. In this case it only involves one node and a
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single sender send the packet to a single receiver. In IPTV technology, video on demand is the
main example of unicast transmission where the user can stop, pause, play, and replay the
media contents. Therefore, with unicast transmission the user can control the data without
disturbing other users on the same network. Some other examples of unicast include http,
telnet, SSH, SMTP, pop3. With these applications, the information can be sent from only one
sender to only one receiver. In IPTV, the channel transmission may be sent directly to a
specific viewer using unicast one to one transmission process. The sane content can also be
delivered to other user but not by using the same node.

3.3.2 Multicast

In the multicast transmission the information can be sent from a single source to a
selected group of stations or destination. The multicast process is commonly used to
establish communication between a single sender and multiple receivers. Therefore, a
single device sends data packets to a group of devices at the same time. The use of
multicast programme is much more operative when the same packet of information is
sent to many users at the same time. The multicast transmission is more complex to
apply than unicast transmission as more work is necessary on the communication to
add and remove users from the groups.

3.3.3 Broadcast

With broadcast transmission, the packet of information is sent from only one sender to
all receivers connected to the Internet. Therefore, all the receivers can get the data
packet from the main source.

3.4 Protocols Used in IPTV

 RTP: Real-time Transport Protocol is used to deliver packet formatted audio and video
content over IP network. RTP is used to stream channels controlled by Real Time
Streaming Protocol(RSTP). It is also commonly used in streaming media content,
telephony, video and teleconferences. RTP and RTP Control Protocol (RTPCP) work
together, RTP delivers streaming content and RTPCP maintains statics to provide
QoS.
 RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol or network controlling protocol is used in
controlling media servers and sessions. RTSP is used in controlling unicast and

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multicast deliveries. RTSP is unidirectional meaning data can only be sent to user
from the server and there is no data way back.
 PIM: Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) is a set of multicast routing protocols that
provide data distribution over IP networks such as the Internet, Wide Area Network
(WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN). As it is obvious from its name, protocol
independent, PIM is independent and it uses routing information provided by various
routing protocols such as BGP or Border Gateway Protocol. In IPTV, Protocol
Independent Multicast (PIM) is commonly used to route IPTV multicast streams
between networks. (Nuuri, 2011)
 IGMP: The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used to manage
membership in IP multicast groups. The protocol is widely used in online streaming
video and gaming. In IPTV, the Internet Group Management Protocol is a main part of
the multicast specification over IP network. Therefore, the protocol is used by IPTV in
order to connect to a TV channel and to change from one TV channel to another.

3.5 Signal Transmission

Signals are transmitted in many ways. Signals can be transmitted over diverse ways such as
cable and satellite to the TV, computer or other display devices. If the channels are free, the
cable company is oriented to collect signals from all the different stations and goes to the
viewer’s home via cable or network. If the channels are payable, the cable companies
scramble and keep the signals from being picked up by the people who do not pay for the
service and then go to the subscriber’s homes via cable or the Internet. Today, the cable
companies are using satellite dishes Instead of traditional antennas to collect signals from
different stations included in their own service package. With this process, the signal
problems caused by the landscape or by the curve of the earth can be eliminated.

4 MULTIMEDIA VIA IP

Multimedia plays a central role in IPTV as well as networking. Multimedia applications


utilize different media types including graphics, audio, text, animations and video.

4.1 Video Conferencing

Video conferencing also called as video teleconference is a telecommunication technology


that transfers audio and video data between two different locations at the real time. Video
conferencing would make a stimulating creation differentiator for an IPTV. Video

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conferencing includes the real time streaming of audio and video data over a broadband
service and the system is also included within the IPTV set-top box.

4.2 Video Servers

Video servers carry out two main purposes. The first one is c storage function that is
responsible for keeping files of digital video contents on a hard disk. The second one is
delivery function that is responsible for carrying and transferring video contents over an IP
network for viewing.

Ingest servers: they are used to collect contents from different sources such as studio camera
or satellite receiver, videotape, hard disk inside camera, and any other sources that produce
video signal. After collecting these contents, the ingest server makes them available for use in
a variety of applications. When the video has been ingested, then it can be transmitted to the
various devices for further processing.

 File servers: they are used in the video making process to collection video clips
momentarily from a colour improvement terminal before these clips passed to another
work space. File servers can also handle worked contents into their ultimate forms.

 Production servers: these servers are used to play the final video contents that are
prepared to be played in highly consistent streams. Consistency is a key feature for
production servers as any let-downs can cause the broadcaster to go off the air.

 Archives servers: these servers are used to store a vast quantity of contents from
diverse sources such as live transmissions, newscast clips and bought programming.

 Video on demand servers: these servers are responsible for storing contents
which are required by users for viewing.

 Live streaming servers: these servers are planned to take live streams and then
generate numerous copies of the streams for broadcast over an internet connection.
Live streaming servers do not need storing for this process, but in its place they need

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to have a vast amount of processing capability to generate IP packets for the separate
receiver of the stream.

5 CHARACTERISTICS OF IPTV

Characteristics of IPTV include the services provided and the architecture of IPTV system.

5.1 Video on Demand

With help of VOD users can also watch their TV program on their TV or Computer screen. In
VOD mode user can select preferred program from the list of on-demand services provided by
the service provider. This technology streams the contents using a set-top box, computer or
other devices in real time and downloads TV programs that can be watched and viewed later.
A VOD system consists of a set-top box along with a standard TV receiver. video on demand
stores the video contents and has the ability to deliver multiple copies of a single content. It
performs network interface function that is also similar to other video servers. But in this
case, the video on demand server needs to support a huge number of simultaneous streams.

True VOD is the distinct type of video on demand, where individual user can receive
an individual video stream which is under their control. Therefore, viewers have a free
choice to start, stop, pause, replay, and forward the video contents. In this case,
viewers typically pay a fee for each title viewed by them. They can pay fees either
from their prepaid account or it might be a monthly bill.

Near Video on demand is similar to true VOD, but in this case the viewers do not have any
control over the individual video stream. Stagger casting is one common type of near video on
demand, in which multiple copies of a program are played at short time intervals

Free video on demand is a deviation of VOD where viewers do not need to pay if they want to
view video. In most VOD systems, this content is bounded to long form advertisements,
monitors and other low cost content.

Subscription VOD has the same delivery technology and viewer control as VOD that gives
users limitless access to a selection of plans for their stable monthly payments. In this VOD
service, the users have control over a video stream where they can start, stop, pause, rewind
and fast forward video contents.

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A Personal Video Recorder (PVR) is an electronics device that compresses and records
incoming video encoding in a digital format to the hard disk located either in the set top box
(STB) or it might be a USB flash drive, secure digital (SD) memory card or other local or
networked mass storage devices.

5.2 Triple Play

Triple Play means the delivery of voice, data and video over a single access
subscription. An IPTV broadband network can handle all three services. The common
applications for this procedure are Telephony, Television and high-speed internet
services.

Figure 4. 1: Triple Play (Lawrence, 2005).

The telephony option offers call services such as call forwarding, caller ID, call
waiting, call screening, selective call blocking and call conferencing. The network
operators are interested in carrying out all these services using the same access
technology called Internet Protocol (IP), where IP is playing as a host for all the
communications and signalling. The medium for the transmission of these services
might be fibre optic cable, conventional cable or satellite transmitter. Figure 4.1 shows
delivery of triple play services over the network.

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5.3 IPTV Set-Top Box (STB)

A set-top box (STB) is an IPTV device that is usually used to receive and decode
digital television transmission and to turn the signal into content which is then
displayed on a television screen or other display devices. In order to view and watch
programs on the television screen or other display devices, the STB must be connected
to the usable device using an Internet connection.

Figure 4. 2: Tornado M10 IPTV Set-Top-Box (Lawrence, 2005).

5.4 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Digital Subscriber Line or DSL is a high-speed Internet service that participates with
cable Internet to provide high-speed internet access to the local customers. There are
several options of Internet access such as dial up, cable, DSL, satellite, fibre optic,
mesh wireless or point distribution wireless.

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Figure 4. 3: Configuration of the DSL network(Lawrence, 2005).

DSL operates over a standard telephone connection like dial-up connection, but it is
faster than dial-up, because DSL does not tie up the phone line. DSL Internet access is
carried across the phone network using a DSL modem, which connects to the
telephone wall jack and computer. Now, many IPTV service providers deliver their
IPTV services using the DSL network. The main components of the DSL network are
central office (CO), remote terminals (RT), feeder plant and Digital Subscriber Line
Access Multiplexer (DSLAM). A DSL modem must be installed to receive signals
from the DSLAM and convert them into the appropriate form for the display devices
such as a PC or a TV set. (Nuuri, 2011)

5.5 Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)

A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer or DSLAM is a network device that connects
multiple DSL connections using multiplexing technique to make faster connections to the
internet. It is one of the key delivery elements in IP video transport that receives signals from
multiple customer DSL connections and puts them on a high-speed backbone line.

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Figure 4. 4: ADSLAM operation (Nuuri, 2011)

At the Telephone Company or TELCO, the DSLAM device collects the data from its modem
ports and combines their data and voice traffic into one complex composite "signal" using
multiplexing method. Depending on the type of product and setup, a DSLAM connects the
DSL lines over its Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Internet Protocol and frame relay.
DSLAM enables a telephone company to offer the fastest DSL phone line services with the
fastest backbone network technology called ATM to the business partner or home
users. (Nuuri, 2011).

5.1 Quality of Service (QoS)

Quality of Service or QoS is a combination of networking technology and networking


technique. IPTV system requires a high level of QoS to provide best IPTV services to
the customers. There are two main categories of the QoS, audio quality and video
quality. (Nuuri, 2011)

Audio quality is the quality of the audio output that enables the system to recreate the main
characteristics of the original audio signal.

Video quality is a quality of video output that enables the video transmission system to main
characteristics of the original video signals.

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6 CONCLUSION

This seminar paper describes the IPTV system, a TV system that uses internet
protocol (IP) and shows how IPTV technology in real life functions although
still not available in Bhutan. IPTV delivers Triple play facilities (audio, data and
video services) using internet protocol (IP). IPTV is not the alike Internet TV.
Internet TV programs can be watched by everybody through the Internet where
the connection speed cannot be certain and the programs mandatory bandwidth
is controlled.

In practice, the image size and resolution are thus inferior than a steady antenna
broadcast. In IPTV systems, the TV programs are distributed to the particular
group of users as an alternative of everyone connected to the Internet. The
connection speed will be definite and the quality of video will be the same as the
antenna broadcast. On the other hand, users need to have a IPTV set-top box in
order to watch their much-loved TV line-ups on a television screen or other
display devices.

During the working on IPTV system, I have learned much about the architecture
and characteristics of the IPTV system and I have realized the key role of the IP
for this particular technology. I also learnt how triple play services are delivered
using internet protocol.

The increase of internet speed and the growth of IPTV technology can change
the minds of people to choose watching TV programs over the internet. Since
IPTV technology is still very popular, the number of both providers and users is
increasing quickly and the technology is now very significant in the
telecommunication industry. So, this technology is likely to become more usable
in the near future. Therefore it is best for Bhutan to start exploring potential of
IPTV.

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REFERENCES

Gulen, S. (n.d.). Internet Protocol Television. Nortel Netas.

Junaid, Q., Rizwan, S., Zubair, R., & Sattar, A. (2011). Overview and Analysis of Internet
Protocol. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND
ENGINEERING, 4.

Lawrence, H. (2005). How IPTV system works. Retrieved from


http://www.iptvarticles.com/iptvmagazine_2005_10_IPTV.htm

Martinsson, E. (n.d.). IPTV the future of television? 2006: CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF


TECHNOLOGY.

Nuuri, A. (2011). INTERNET PROTOCOL. TURKU UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED


SCIENCES.

Punchihewa, A., & De Silva, A. M. (2010). Tutorial on IPTV and its Latest Developments.
Palmerston North: Massey University.

Solutions, A. D. (2013). Network Considerations for IPTV. p. 9.

Statista. (2013). Countries with the highest IPTV penetration worldwide by 2020. Retrieved
from https://www.statista.com/statistics/322763/iptv-penetration/

Wangchuk, N. (2015). Overview on Bhutan’s Optical Fiber Network. Thimphu: Bhutan


Power Corporation Limited.

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