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What Is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic, or life long, disease that can be serious—even life threatening. There is no
cure for asthma. The good news is that it can be managed so you can live a normal, healthy life.
The more you can learn about asthma, the better you and your loved ones can manage living with
this disease, making the most of every day, and maintaining the quality of life that is important to
you.

Asthma is a lung disease that makes it harder to move air in and out of your lungs. There are
three things that you should know about asthma:

1. Asthma is chronic. In other words, you live with it every day.


2. It can be serious – even life threatening.
3. There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed so you live a normal, healthy life.

Symptoms Of Asthma include:


 Shortness of breath
 Chest tightness or pain
 Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
 A whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling (wheezing is a common sign of asthma in
children)
 Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or
the flu

What Causes Asthma

The exact cause of asthma is not known. Asthma tends to run in families and may be inherited,
but environmental factors may also play a key role. Scientists continue to explore what causes
asthma, but we do know that these factors play an important role in the development of asthma:

1. Genetics. Asthma tends to runs in families. Genetics plays an important role in causing
asthma.If your mom or dad have asthma, then you are more likely to have asthma too.
2. Allergies. Some people are more likely to develop allergies than others, especially if your
mom or dad had allergies. Certain allergies are linked to people who get asthma.
3. Respiratory Infections. As the lungs develop in infancy and early childhood, certain
respiratory infections have been shown to cause inflammation and damage the lung
tissue. The damage that is caused in infancy or early childhood can impact lung function
long-term.
4. Environment. Contact with allergens, certain irritants, or exposure to viral infections as
an infant or in early childhood when the immune system in developing have been linked
to developing asthma. Irritants and air pollution may also play a significant role in adult-
onset asthma.

Treatment For Asthma

Once your healthcare provider makes a diagnosis of asthma, you will be prescribed medicines to
help control your asthma. Medicines prescribed to treat your asthma may seem difficult to
understand and difficult to use. It is important that you work with your healthcare provider on an
asthma action plan designed specifically for your needs. An asthma action plan provides key
information on when to take your medicines on a daily basis and what to do in an emergency.
This will help you take control of your asthma so you can live a healthy and productive life.

Medicine For Asthma

Most asthma patients take two medications: controller medicines, which helps the airways resist
reactions to asthma triggers and controls the inflammation, and quick-relief or rescue medicine,
which are also known as bronchodilators. These medications are used during periods of
wheezing and coughing and open the airways by dilating them and making it easier to breathe.
Long-term control medications are prescribed for people with all types of asthma and are
generally taken every day for a long period of time to control persistent asthma. Included in this
group of medications are inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta-2 agonists, leukotriene
modifiers, cromolyn, nedocromil, and theophylline.

 Inhaled corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory drugs. By reducing the inflammation in the


bronchial tubes, inhaled corticosteroids help prevent blood vessels from leaking fluid into
the airway tissues. This type of medication is very effective because through inhalation, it
delivers medication directly to the lungs. Corticosteroids, while associated with side
effects like hoarseness, loss of voice, cough and oral yeast infections, are the drugs of
choice for many people because they are easy to use, reduce the frequency of asthma
attacks, and diminish the need for other asthma medications. Another popular medicine
prescribed to control asthma is bronchodilators.

 Bronchodilators, like salmeterol and formoterol, are used to prevent nighttime symptoms
and control moderate to severe asthma. They work by opening up airways that are tight
and constricted, allowing a person to breathe easily for up to 12 hours. Bronchodilators
are generally used on a regular schedule and not as an only treatment. This particular
group of medications, however, has been the topic of debate for more than a year.
According to the Food and Drug Administration, who issued a public health advisory for
three types of bronchodilators, Advair Diskus, Foradil Aerolizer, and Serevent Diskus
may increase the possibility of severe asthma attacks and even death in the event of a
severe episode.

 Leukoptriene modifiers are newer medicines and used primarily to lessen the production
or block the action of leukotrienes, which are the materials that are released during an
asthma attack by cells in the lungs. These substances are to blame for the inflammation of
the airways which is the cause of coughing and wheezing. Drugs like Singulair and
Accolate are alternatives to corticosteroids and work well for people suffering from mild
asthma. And for people who have been diagnosed with exercise-induced asthma, doctors
prescribe cromolyn and nedocromil, two drugs that are administered daily through an
inhaler and help prevent mild to moderate asthma attacks. In addition to medications that
help control asthma, there is a group of drugs used to offer quick-relief.

 Quick-relief medicines for asthma are not meant to be used daily. While they may stop an
attack and provide temporary relief, they do not prevent airways from swelling and could
bring on a very bad asthma attack. Also called rescue medications, this group of short-
acting bronchodilators stops asthma symptoms while an attack is in progress. When
symptoms like coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath begins, these
inhalers begin to work within minutes and can last up to six hours. These medications are
also recommended when readings on a peak flow meter are below normal.
ASTHMA

Arranged by group 1:

1. Ainnurrahmah Kamilla (0432950316001)


2. Amefa Krismon Tika R (0432950316002)
3. Ayu Ici Kumala Diarti (0432950316003)
4. Cheptya Nabilla (0432950316004)

SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN BANI SALEH BEKASI

PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN

2018