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Binary Phase Diagrams

Application to the crystallization of


magmas
Phase Rule
• dF = C – P + 2
• C = no. of chemical components = 1 for this example (Al2SiO5)
• P = no. of phases
• dF = degrees of freedom

Kyanite dF=1-2+2=1
univariant
P (kbar) dF=1-3+2=0
dF=1-1+2=2 invariant
divariant Sillimanite

Andalusite

Temp. (Deg. C)
Igneous Phase Rule for Binary
Systems
• Phase rule: calculates the variability of a
chemical system- the degrees of freedom:
– dF = C – P + 1 (Note: pressure not on graph)
– dF = degrees of freedom
– C = number of chemical components
– P = number of phases
Lever Rule (Tie Line Rule)
• Given a line representing a mixture of 2
components the phase composition is proportional
to the proximity to the end member components

10 cm
7.8 cm

CaAl2Si2O8 Tie Line NaAlSi3O8


Red dot represents a plagioclase crystal of composition
78% Albite and 22% Anorthite (i.e. Ab78 or An22)
Binary Eutectic Phase Diagram
T1 dF=2-1+1= 2 LIQUID
M.P. OF A FIELD
0 Deg. C
dF=2-2+1= 1
dF=2-3+1= 0
72% 28%
T2 EUTECTIC M.P. OF B
FIELD OF -15 Deg. C
A+LIQUID
FIELD OF
B+LIQUID
48% 52%
SOLIDUS
T3
T4 -45 Deg. C
31% 69%
FIELD OF
A+B

A (Water H2O) 69A+31B 53A+47B 41A+59B B (Glycol C2H6O2)

Temp. Vol. % Melt Melt comp. Vol. % Solid Solid comp.

T1 100 69A+31B 0 NA

T2 72 53A+47B 28 A

T3 48 41A+59B 52 A

T4 0 NA 100 69A+31B
Di+An
Binary M

System
MELT

TEMP. T1
An+melt
Di+melt 36% 64%
T2
43% 57%
T3
30% T4
70%
Di+An

CaMgSi2O6 CaAl2Si2O8
20 40 60 80
T3 Magma Chamber Diopside Anorthite

Temp. Vol. % Melt Melt Comp. Vol. % Solid Solid Comp.

T1 100 70An+30Di 0.0 N/A

T2 64 53An+47Di 36 An

T3 57 47An+53Di 43 An

T4 0 NA 100 70An+30Di

An+Di groundmass An phenocrysts


Binary Solid Solution Phase Diagram Fractional crystallization
of composition M
M
An0
An95
T1

45% 55%
An87 T3

T3

An95

An32 An53 An67


NaAlSi3O8 CaAl2Si2O8
Ab An
Equilibrium Crystallization of M
Temp. %Melt Comp. Melt %Solid Comp. solid
T1 100 An67 0 An95
T2 55 An53 45 An87
T3 0 An32 100 An67
Binary Eutectic+Subsolidus Phase Diagram Equilibrium crystallization of
composition M
P=5000 bars
M
MELT

T1 68
32
Or-rich feld. + Liquidus
MELT
T2 Solidus 11 89 Ab-rich feld.
TEMP. + MELT Single Plag.
Ab-rich feld.
feldspar (Or4)
T3
Or-rich feld. phenocryst
at T4
Solvus
(Perthite) K-feld.
Two feldspars
(Or83)
T4 7 93

KAlSi3O8 (Or) NaAlSi3O8 (Ab)

Temp. % solid solid comp. % melt melt comp.


T1 32 Or97 68 Or76
T2 89 Or86 11 Or48
T3 100 Or82 NA NA
T4 100 93%Or83+7%Or4 NA NA
Binary Peritectic Phase Diagram Equilibrium crystallization of
composition X

equilibrium crystallization = T1: %Solid = 48 (pure Fo)


equilibrium crystallization = %Melt = 52
Fo+En in final rock En+Cr in final rock (32%SiO2+68%Mg2SiO4)
T2: %Solid = 100
(45%Fo+55%En)
X
Incongruent
Melt melting En
Fo
En
En En
Fo

T En
Fo+melt Fo
En
Cr+melt En
En
Fo
En
T1
52% 48%
Fo En
T2
En
55% 45%
En
Fo+En En+melt En+Cr
Groundmass composition =
100% En (55% of chamber)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Mg2SiO4 SiO2 Phenocryst composition =
MgSi03 100% Fo (45% of chamber)
(Fo) (En) (Cr)
Replacement of Fo by
En
1300

1200 Congruent melting


(Thermal divide)
1100

1000
o
TC

900

800

700

KAlSiO4 KAlSi3O8 SiO2


Leucite (Lc) Orthoclase (Or) Quartz (Q)
Summary
• Invariant Points: MP, Eutectic, Peritectic
• Univariant lines: Liquidus, Solidus
• Divariant fields: Melt, Melt + Solid, Solid
• Incongruent vs. Congruent melting