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General KNOWLEDGE

For
Aviation
[PPL/CPL VIVA FOR CAAB]

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AIR LAW

1. Documents to be carried :-
a. the Certificate of Registration
b. the Certificate of Airworthiness
c. the original or a copy of the Noise Certificate (if applicable), including an English
translation Where one has been provided by the Authority responsible for issuing the noise
certificate

d.the original or a copy of the Air Operator Certificate


e.the Aircraft Radio License
f.the original or a copy of the Third Party Liability Insurance Certificate(s).
2. Explain freedom of air :-
1st :- the right to fly over a foreign country without landing.
2nd :- the right to refuel or carry out maintenance in a foreign country without embarking or
disembarking passengers or cargo.

3rd :- the right to fly from one's own country to another.

4th :- the right to fly from another country to one's own.

5th:- the right to fly between two foreign countries on a flight originating or ending in one's own
country.

6th :-the right to fly from a foreign country to another while stopping in one's own country for non-
technical reasons.

7th :- the right to fly between two foreign countries while not offering flights to one's own country.

8th :- the right to fly inside a foreign country, continuing to one's own country.

9th :- the right to fly inside a foreign country without continuing to one's own country.

3.AERODROME:-A DEFINED AREA ON LAND OR WATER INTENDED TO BE USED EITHER WHOLLY OR IN


PART FOR ARRIVAL,DEPARTURE AND SURFACE MOVEMENTS OF AIRCRAFT.

4.AERODOME CONTROL TOWER:- A UNIT ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL


SERVICE TO AERODROME TRAFFIC.

5.AERODROM TRAFFIC:- ALL TRAFFIC ON THE MANOUVERING AREA ON AN AERODROME AND ALL
AIRCRAFT FLYING IN THE VICINITY OF AN AERODROME.

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6.AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONE:- AIRSPACE OF DIFINED DIMENSIONS ESTABLISHED AROUND AN
AERODROME FOR THE PROTECTION OF AERODROME TRAFFIC.

7.AIRCRAFT:- ANY MACHINE THAT CAN DERIVE SUPPORT IN THE ATMOSPHERE FROM THE REACTION
OF THE AIR OTHER THAN THE REACTION OF THE AIR AGAINST EARTH SURFACE.

8.AEROPLANE:- A POWER DRIVEN HEAVIER THAN AIR AIRCRAFT DERIVING ITS LIFT CHEAPLY IN FLIGHT
FROM THE AERODYNAMIC REACTION ON ITS SURFACES WHICH REMAINS FIXED UNDER GIVEN
CONDITION OF FLIGHT.

METEOROLOGY
1.ISA:-The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure,
temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or
elevations

2.QNH:-The pressure measured at station then reduced down to mean sea level pressure.
QFE :-Is mean sea level pressure corrected for temperature, adjusted for a specific site or datum like
an airfield.

QNE:-The term "QNE" refers to the indicated altitude at the landing runway threshold when 1013.25
mbar or 29.92 inHg is set in the altimeter.

3.PRESSURE ALTITUDE= is defined as the altitude above or below the standard 29.92″ Hg
standard datum plane.

DENSITY ALTITUDE= is the altitude relative to the standard atmosphere conditions (ISA) at
which the air density would be equal to the indicated air density at the place of observation.

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4.CLOUD=is a visible mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere, typically high above
the ground.

5. Type of cloud:-
High clouds Medium clouds Low clouds
Cirrus Altocumulus Stratocumulus

Cirrocumulus Altostratus Stratus

Cirrostratus Nimbostratus Cumulus &

Cumulonimbus

6.VMCConditon :-visual meteorological conditions (or VMC) is an aviation flight category in which
visual flight rules (VFR) flight is permitted—that is, conditions in which pilots have sufficient visibility to
fly the aircraft maintaining visual separation from terrain and other aircraft

7.METAR:- is a format for reporting weather information. A METAR weather report is predominantly
used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre-flight weather briefing.

8.SPECI:- is an aviation special weather report issued when there is significant deterioration or
improvement in airport weather conditions, such as significant changes of surface winds, visibility, cloud
base height and occurrence of severe weather.

9.TAF:- is a concise statement of the expected meteorological conditions at an airport during a


specified period (usually 24 hours).

10.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOG,MIST AND HAZE:-


FOG:-In our meteorological glossary fog is defined as 'Obscurity in the surface layers of the
atmosphere, which is caused by a suspension of water droplets

MIST:-is defined as 'when there is such obscurity and the associated visibility is equal to or
exceeds 1000 m'. Like fog, mist is still the result of the suspension of water droplets, but simply at a
lower density.

HAZE:- A third term you might also hear mentioned is haze. This is a slightly different
phenomenon which is a suspension of extremely small, dry particles in the air (not water droplets)
which are invisible to the naked eye, but sufficient to give the air an opalescent appearance.

11.WINDSHEAR:- variation in wind velocity occurring along a direction at right angles to the wind's
direction and tending to exert a turning force.

12.RAIN:- water that is condensed from the aqueous vapor in the atmosphere and falls to earth in
drops

13.VISIBILITY:-is a measure of the distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned. It
is reported within surface weather observations and METAR code either in meters.

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14.CAVOK:- CAVOK is an abbreviation for Ceiling And Visibility Okay, indicating no cloud below 5,000
ft (1,500 m) or the highest minimum sector altitude and no cumulonimbus or towering cumulus at any
level, a visibility of 10 km (6 mi) or more and no significant weather change.

15.RVR:- Runway visual range (RVR) is in aviation meteorology the distance over which a pilot of an
aircrafton the centerline of the runway can see the runway surface markings delineating the runway or
identifying its center line. RVR is normally expressed in feet or meters.

16.CLOUD CEILING:- In aviation, ceiling is a measurement of the cloud base height relative to
the ground. Ceiling is reported as part of the METAR (Meteorological Aviation Report) used for flight
planning by pilots worldwide.

17.CLOUD BASE:-The cloud base (or the base of the cloud) is the lowest altitude of the visible
portion of the cloud. It is traditionally expressed either in m or feet above mean sea level.

18.DEW POINT: The dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in air at constant
barometric pressure condenses into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates. At
temperatures below the dew point, water will leave the air.

FLIGHT PLAN

1.BEM:- is the mass of an aero plane plus standard items such as: unusable fuel and other unusable
fluids; lubricating oil in engine and auxiliary units; fire extinguisher, emergency oxygen equipment.

2.DRY OPERATING MASS:-is the total mass of an aero plane (BEM) basic mass ready for a
specific type of operation excluding usable fuel and traffic load. The mass includes items such as; Crew
and crew baggage. Catering and removable passenger service equipment. Potable water and lavatory
chemicals, Food and beverages.

3.OPERATINGMASS:- is the DOM (dry operating mass) plus fuel but without traffic load.
4. Traffic Load:-is the total mass of passengers (PAX), baggage and cargo, including any non-revenue
load.

5.Zero Fuel Mass (ZFM) :-is DOM plus traffic load but excluding fuel.
6.TORA:- The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aero plane
taking off.

7.TODA:- The length of the takeoff run available (TORA) plus the length of the clearway, where
provided.

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8.CLEARWAY:-A clearway is an area beyond the paved runway, free of obstructions and under
thecontrol of the airport authorities.

9.ASDA:- Accelerate-Stop Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length
of the stop way, if stop way is provided.

1O.PNR:- passenger name record (PNR) is a record in the database of a computer reservation system
(CRS) that contains the itinerary for a passenger, or a group of passengers travelling together.

11.SCREAN HEIGHT:- The height above the ground of an imaginary screen that the aircraft would
justclear when taking off or landing, in an unbanked attitude and with the landing gear extended. For
takeoff and landing, this is normally 35 ft. Some definitions take it as 50 ft.

12.CRITICAL POINT:-The Critical Point or CP is the distance along airplane’s flight path where it
will take the same amount of time to fly to the destination as it will to return back and fly to the point of
departure. This can become especially helpful in cases of emergencies and low fuel situations where a
landing has to be made as soon as practicable.

Aerodynamics

1. What are disadvantages of wing sweep?

Sweep reduces a wings coefficient of lift, increases stall speed, thus increasing takeoff
and landing speeds and reducing field performance. Swept wings tend to stall first at the
wingtips, which in turn causes the C of P to move forward producing a nose up pitching moment.
This can lead to a deep stall, particularly in rear engine, T tailed aircraft

2. What is Dutch roll?

Dutch roll is a coupled lateral-directional oscillation, which is usually dynamically stable


but is objectionable because of the oscillatory nature. The damping of this oscillatory mode may
be weak or strong depending on the properties of the aircraft. The response of the aircraft to a
disturbance from equilibrium is a combined rolling-yawing oscillation in which the rolling
motion is phased to precede the yawing motion. Generally, Dutch roll will occur when the
dihedral effect is large when compared to the static directional stability.

3. Span wise flow

Travels from the root to the tip and produces no lift.

4. Chord wise flow

The airflow over the wing that is perpendicular [at a right angle to the leading edge of the
wing]. &The airflow is accelerated over the wing and produces lift.

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5. Where will shockwaves first occur on the wing?

At the point of maximum camber, usually at the wing root an a swept wing.

6. At what point on an aircraft is the local airflow the fastest?

At the point of greatest curvature. [Top of the 747's hump]

7.How does sweepback affect Mcrit?

By sweeping a wing significantly the velocity vector normal to the leading edge is made
less than the chord wise resultant, thus MCRIT is increased.

8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a thin wing?

Advantages:

a. Raise Mcrit to a higher value

b. Buffet, drag rise and control and stability problems are all deferred to a higher Mach number
and when they do occur, they are less severe than on a thicker wing.

c. Wave drag is proportional to thickness/chord [T/C] ratio

Disadvantages

 Structural weaknesses [rigidity/strength]


 Limited storage capacity [fuel and undercarriage]
 Poor low-speed aerodynamic characteristics [low CL, high Vs] and may also be prone to
leading edge stall [sudden, no buffet]

9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sweepback?

Advantages:

 Sweep increases spiral stability, as does dihedral.

 Raise Mcrit to a higher value - Mcrit = Mcrit [straight]__

Cosine sweep angle

Eg. Mcrit straight = 0.8 [Now with sweep angle 30º]

Mcrit [swept] = 0.8___

Cos 30 = 0.8_
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0.87

= 0.92 [in theory, a little less in practice]

This increase in Mcrit means buffet, drag rise and control and stability problems are all deferred
to a higher Mach number and when they do occur, they are less severe than on a similar straight
wing.

Disadvantages:

 Poor oscillatory stability


 Poor lift at low airspeeds [flatter lift curve]
 Less lift for a given airspeed/AoA [higher stall speed]
 High AoA at stall
 Tendency for the tips to stall first causing a pitch up at stall
 Steep deck angle on approach
 A swept wing has a high Vimd [min drag speed] requiring a large acceleration after
rotation to achieve Vy
 Excessive lateral stability [can result in Dutch roll]
 Aero elastic effects such as aileron reversal, reduced tip AoA under G-loading which may
cause a pitch up and tightening turn
 Limited visibility [of the wing] from the cockpit

10. Why are wings swept?

As the air passes over the wing accelerates to near sonic speeds, shock waves form and
compressibility effects become apparent; the drag increases, buffeting is felt and changes in lift
and C of P occur. The speed at which these compressibility effects first become apparent is the
Critical Mach number [MCRIT].

By sweeping a wing significantly the velocity vector normal to the leading edge is made
less than the chord wise resultant. As the wing is only responsive to the velocity vector to the
normal leading edge, for a given Mach number the effective chord wise velocity is reduced (in
effect the wing is persuaded to believe it is flying slower than it actually is). This means the
airspeed can be increased before the effective chord wise component becomes sonic and thus the
critical Mach number is raised. [HTBJ]

11. Why doesn’t the B777 have winglets?

The B777 uses the most aerodynamically efficient wing ever developed for sub-sonic
commercial aircraft, allowing it to climb quickly, cruise at higher levels and higher speeds than
comparable aircraft. [FTBJ B777]

12. Define angle of incidence.

Angle between longitudinal axis and the chord line of the wing.

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13. Define AoA...

Angle between the relative wind and the chord line of the wing.

14.Define pitch attitude...

The angle between longitudinal axis and the horizon.

15.What is the mean camber line?

Line drawn halfway between the upper and lower surfaces of a wing.

16. Define chord.

Measure of the width of the wing.

17. Positive camber, negative camber, symmetrical airfoil definitions.

 Positive camber: mean camber line is above chord line


 Negative camber: mean camber line is below chord line
 Symmetrical airfoil: mean camber line coincides with chord line

18. If you decrease AoA how does that affect induced drag?

If you decrease AoA that will increase velocity which means that induced drag will
decrease.

19. Define 'Mach number'...

Mach number is the ratio of the speed of an object or flow to the local speed of sound,
under the same conditions.

20. How do you get zero lift in a positive camber wing?

You must go to a negative AOA.

21. Define Equilibrium

Sum of the forces is equals zero.


Sum of the moments is equals zero.
Aircraft is moving in a straight line at a constant velocity.

22. Draw the forces acting on an aircraft in a descent.

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23. Draw the forces acting on an aircraft in a climb.

24. Why do some aircraft have winglets?

Tip devices have become a popular technique to increase the aerodynamic performances
of lifting wings, short and slender alike. The idea behind all wingtip devices is to diffuse the
strong vortices released at the tip and optimise the span-wise lift distribution, while maintaining
the additional moments on the wing within certain limits. Investigations and experiments,
indicated that the use of vertical lifting surfaces placed at the wing tips produce a beneficial
effect on both lift and drag characteristics. This is found at the cost of increased bending
moment. The increase in root bending moment is found to be lower than for an equivalent tip
extension. Winglet sections can be airfoils with their own design.

At the tip, due to the pressure differential between the upper and lower surfaces, there is a
significant span wise component to the airflow. On the lower surface, the span wise component

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of flow is outwards, away from the wing root, and on the upper surface, the span wise
component tends to be towards the root. Lift is defined as acting perpendicularly to the flow
local of the airfoil and the surface plan form, then with a bit of cunning engineering, the lift on a
vertical surface at the wing tip, in a flow with a span wise component toward the root such as
occurs on the upper wing surface, could be directed "forward" - in the direction of flight, - and
"inward" - toward the wing root. The forward component of lift manifests itself as a reduction in
total aircraft drag. Of course, the benefit is reduced somewhat by the component of winglet drag
acting aft, but nonetheless, the net result is a reduction in total aircraft drag. And as mentioned
elsewhere, winglets will indeed reduce the strength of the shed vortices in the tip region, but only
as a consequence of the generation of a lift force on the winglet. For a given angle of attack,
installation of winglets can also increase lift, but since aircraft mass is approximately unchanged,
the aircraft would have to fly at a decreased angle of attack to maintain the same lift as in the
pre-winglet case - which further decreases drag.

Winglets can be used to produce extra lift, besides lower drag. The winglets must be mounted on
the rear part of the wing (region of lowest pressure), to minimize interference effects. Drag
reduction rates are of the order of 5 %.

Winglets are applied in the latest generation of Boeing 747, MD 11, Airbus, and most executive
jets and many sailplanes. Data available for the Boeing 747-400 indicate that without winglets
the aircraft. suffers about 2.5 % drag losses, which corresponds to +9.5 tons at take-off.

25. How is range increased when flying into a headwind?

In a headwind maximum range is achieved by flying faster than 1.32 Vimd to minimise
exposure to the headwind.

26. What is the difference between Max Range Cruise [MRC] and Long Range Cruise
[LRC]?

MRC: The speed at which, for a given weight and altitude, the maximum fuel mileage is
obtained. It is difficult to establish and maintain stable cruise conditions at max range speeds.
1.32 Vimd constant speed with variable AoA [dependent on weight].

LRC: Speed slightly faster than MRC at a constant AoA [slightly faster than Vimd] As weight
decreases, speed needs to decrease to maintain AoA Reducing speed necessitates reducing thrust,
though because best SFC for a given engine occurs at a particular design RPM, you must climb

In the graph below a drag curve has been re-labelled 'Fuel Flow vs. Velocity'. In order to better
see the origin of this graph the parasite drag and induced drag curves have been drawn in.

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27. Maximum Endurance

Previously we defined SE as 1/FF. in other words an aircraft achieves more endurance


when FF is smaller. Therefore, it is obvious that maximum endurance occurs at the bottom of the
FF curve as shown above.

Since the above FF curve is exactly the same shape as the Drag curve, the lowest fuel
consumption would correspond to the speed for minimum drag, [also known as L/D max AoA].

28. Maximum Range

As discussed previously, the speed for maximum specific range, in zero wind, will occur
where the tangent line drawn from the origin just touches the curve [as shown below]. It is worth
noting that maximum range always occurs at a higher speed than maximum endurance.

More correctly best range always occurs at a smaller angle of attack than best endurance. It is
critical to remember that best range and best endurance both occur at specific angles of attack,
regardless of weight.

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29. Effect of wind on Range

A headwind will decrease the range and a tailwind will increase the range. This is only
common sense.

However, with a headwind the aircraft must fly faster. In other words at a smaller angle of attack.

The tailwind graph below shows that theoretically the pilot should slow down [fly at a greater
angle of attack] with a tailwind.

Note: the tailwind or headwind tangent line is drawn with the headwind or tailwind added. This
ensures that the tangent [FF/V] of the line has the correct magnitude.

As a rule of thumb the pilot should speed up by half the headwind velocity. You can see from the
above graph that this is a reasonable approximation.

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30. Effect of Weight on Endurance and Range

Previously we examined how weight changes affected the total drag curve. You must
remember that only the induced drag changes with weight.

In the diagram below the green curve is the original drag curve. The red curve is the total drag
after some fuel is consumed [weight reduced].

You can see from the above graph that SE improves with lower weight. In other words the
aircraft can fly for longer if it is lighter. However the aircraft must fly slower at the reduced
weight. As proven earlier in our discussion of gliding however, the same L/D max angle of
attack applies in both cases.

If you draw the tangent line in from the origin to both the green and red curves, you can quickly
see that SR also improves at lighter weights. Just as with endurance the aircraft must fly slower
as the weight is decreased. However, it should remain at the same angle of attack.

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In summary, there is an optimum angle of attack for endurance. There is another optimum angle
of attack (smaller) for range. The aircraft should always be operated at the correct angle of
attack, which means that airspeed must be reduced as weight decreases (other factors being
equal.)

31. Effect of Altitude on Range and Endurance (Jet)

The graph below shows how the drag curves and Fuel Flow vs. Velocity curves change
with altitude. As the aircraft climbs into the less dense air the parasite drag decreases, but the
induced drag increases. As a result the total drag curve moves to the right. Remember that the
drag curve is exactly the same shape as the FF vs. Velocity graph for a jet.

As you can see in the graphs below there should be no change in the maximum endurance of the
aircraft with altitude. However, the required endurance speed will increase. As before maximum
endurance always occurs at L/D max. [I.e. always the same angle of attack] On web page 8 we
will discuss the effect of engine and propeller efficiency.

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For a jet range is significantly affected by altitude. As you can see in the graph below, as the
aircraft climbs higher the max SR [V/FF] keeps getting better and better. Therefore, the jet
aircraft should always be operated at high altitude unless there is a very strong headwind.

32. Jet Aircraft range/endurance summary

The TSFC of the jet engine improves up to the altitude for the coldest air temperature. In
the ISA this is the tropopause [TSFC holds constant in the stratosphere]. Endurance will increase
with altitude as long as temperature decreases with altitude. Maximum endurance will therefore
occur at the tropopause. Range will increase with altitude up to the altitude at which Mach
effects arise (see Cruise Control.) Endurance does not increase in the stratosphere, but it does not
decline either. Therefore, pilots should not descend when holding. Wind will be a factor. But,
due to the powerful benefit of altitude a jet will often get better range at altitude even with a
moderate headwind.

33. Jet engine fuel consumption

Both jet and propeller engines consume fuel at a certain rate [FF] Jet engines convert the
fuel-flow directly into thrust

Specific Fuel Consumption


Specific Fuel Consumption is a measure of the fuel consumed by an engine. There are two types
of specific fuel consumption:

1. Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption [TSFC]


2. Power Specific Fuel Consumption [SFC]

TSFC is defined as fuel-low per pound of thrust produced [FF/Thrust]


SFC is defined as fuel-flow per horsepower produced [FF/HP]

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Fuel-flow should be measured in units of pounds of fuel per hour, rather than gallons per hour.
This is because the chemical energy in the fuel is a function of the mass of the fuel. A gallon of
fuel expands or contracts with temperature. Therefore, a gallon of cold fuel contains more energy
than a gallon of warm fuel.

The units of TSFC and SFC will be:

TSFC = lb per hr/thrust lb


SFC = lb per hr/HP

34. Converting the Drag vs. Velocity Curve

A perfectly accurate conversion of the drag curve into a Fuel-flow vs. Velocity graph must
take variations in engine and propeller efficiency into account. However, we will find it easier to
break the process into two steps. We will therefore conduct a simple aerodynamic analysis first,
in which we will assume that:

 TSFC is constant for a jet


 SFC is constant for piston and turbo-prop engines

35. FF vs. Velocity for a Jet

We will start by converting a Drag vs. Velocity curve into a Fuel-flow vs. Velocity curve
for a jet aircraft. This will be very easy because the TSFC is a constant.

Remember the definition of TSFC:


TSFC = FF/Thrust

We will assume that: TSFC = FF/Drag (i.e. we assume thrust = drag)

Therefore: FF = TSFC x Drag

36. What is the Critical Drag-rise Mach number [Mcdr]?

Mcdr is that free stream Mach number at which, because of compressibility effects the
drag co-efficient at a specified angle of attack, has risen by 20% of its low subsonic value.

37. Define Mach Number Detachment [Mdet]

Mdet is that free stream Mach number at which the bow wave becomes attached to the
leading edge.

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38. Explain Compressibility Mach Number [Mcomp]...

Mcomp is that free stream Mach number at which, because of compressibility effects,
control of an aircraft becomes difficult and beyond which loss of control is probable.

39. What is Mach Number?

Mach number is the ratio of the speed of an object or flow to the local speed of sound,
under the same conditions.

40. How do you get zero lift in a positive camber wing?

You must go to a negative AOA.

41. If you decrease AoA how does that affect induced drag?

If you decrease AoA that will increase velocity which means that induced drag will
decrease.

42. What is the mean camber line?

A line drawn halfway between the upper and lower surfaces of a wing.

43. Define chord

This is the measure of the width of the wing.

44. Define chord line

Infinitely long line drawn through the trailing edge and leading edge of airfoil (wing).

45. Define angle of incidence.

Angle between longitudinal axis and the chord line of the wing.

46. Define angle of attack

Angle between the relative wind and the chord line of the wing.

47.Define pitch attitude

The angle between longitudinal axis and the horizon.

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48. What is the Mean Camber Line?

It's a line drawn between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil.

49. Define relative wind

Airflow the airplane experiences as moves through the air.


Equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the flight path.

50. Explain IAS, EAS and TAS

IAS: Indicated airspeed

EAS: Equivalent airspeed-IAS corrected for position and compressibility errors

TAS: True airspeed, EAS corrected for atmospheric conditions

51. What limits an aircraft climb performance?

The amount of 'excess thrust' available.

52. How is drag defined?

Drag acts along the dragline of the aircraft


Drag = CD½ρV²S
Induced drag is the by product of the production of lift

53. Define Thrust

Thrust acts along the average centreline of the engines.


Thrust = Mass air flow x [Vj-V], or [mass x acceleration]

54. Define aerodynamic lift

Lift acts through the centre of pressure and acts perpendicular to the relative airflow.

Lift = CL½ΡV²S

CL: Co-efficient of lift [Lifting ability for a particular wing design at a given AoA]
Ρ: Rho represents the value of density [If density doubles, lift doubles]
V: Velocity or TAS of the air flowing around the wing [If velocity doubles, lift quadruples]
S: Surface area of the wing [If wing area doubles lift doubles]

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55. What are the forces acting on an aircraft in flight?

Drag, thrust, lift and weight.

If thrust is greater than drag the aircraft will accelerate. If lift and weight are the same, an aircraft
will maintain a steady, level attitude.If the aircraft is in a turn, lift is reduced due to the reduction
of effective wingspan. The weight of the aircraft though remains the same. To maintain altitude
when in a turn, speed and/or angle of attack has to be increased.

56. What is the Free Stream Mach number [Mfs]

Mfs is the Mach number of the flow sufficiently remote from the aircraft to be unaffected
by it.

57. Explain Local Mach Number [Ml]

Ml is the ratio of the speed of the flow at a specified point to the speed of sound at the
same point

58. Define Critical Mac Number [Mcrit]

MCRIT is that free stream Mach number at which the highest local Mach number reaches
Mach 1.

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59. What is the definition of Subsonic, Transonic, and Supersonic?

Subsonic: - All flow everywhere on the aircraft is less than the speed of sound

Transonic: - Some flow is subsonic and some is supersonic

Supersonic: -All flow everywhere on the aircraft is supersonic

HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS

1. What are the causes of Sudden in Flight incapacitation


Ans: Causes of sudden in flight incapacitation are listed below:
1. Acute Diarrhea
2. Vertigo
3. Hypoxia
4. Carbon monoxide poisoning
5. Decompression sickness
6. G-induced loss of consciousness
7. Migraine
8. Ischemic Heart Disease

2. What is Hypoxia?
Ans: Hypoxia means inadequate oxygen supply to the tissue.

3. What are the Signs and Symtoms of Hypoxia?

Ans: The signs and symptoms of hypoxia can vary between different people, and by how
long the symptoms have been present. Some of them include:

 Dizziness or fainting (syncope)


 Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
 Confusion, lethargy, and/or lack of judgment
 Headache
 Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
 Elevated respiratory rate (tachypnea)
 Euphoria and a sense of well-being
 Tingling, warm sensations
 Elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
 Lack of coordination
 Visual changes, such as tunnel vision

 Elevated red blood cell count (polycythemia) in people with chronic hypoxia
 A bluish tinge to the lips and extremities (cyanosis )

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4. What is Hyperventilation?
Ans: Over-breathing, causing changes in the acid/base balance of the body. Can be caused not only
by Hypoxia but also by anxiety, motion sickness, vibration, heat, high G or shock.

5. What are the symptoms of Hyperventilation?


Ans: Hyperventilation can be a serious issue. Symptoms can last 20 to 30 minutes. You should seek
treatment for hyperventilation when the following symptoms occur:
1. Dizziness
2. Tingling
3. Visual disturbances
4. Hot or cold sensations
5. Anxiety
6. Increased heart rate
7. Spasms
8. Loss of consciousness

6. what is Spatial Disorientation?


Ans: Spatial Disorientation means the inability to correctly interpret aircraft attitude, altitude or
airspeed, in relation to the Earth or point of reference, especially after a reference point (e.g., the
horizon) has been lost. Spatial disorientation is a condition in which an aircraft pilot's perception
of direction does not agree with reality. While it can be brought on by disturbances or disease
within the vestibular system, it is more typically a temporary condition resulting from flight into
poor weather conditions with low or no visibility.

7. What causes motion sickness?


Ans: Motion sickness is caused by a mismatch between the visual and vestibular signals.

8. What is Carbon-monoxide poisoning?


Ans: Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after too much inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO).
Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, but, being colorless, odorless, tasteless, and initially non-
irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect. Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete
combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply to enable complete oxidation to
carbon dioxide.

9. What is the difference between Hypertension and Hypotension?

Ans:Hypotension is when someones blood pressure is below normal levels than are expected (low blood
pressure).

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Hypertension is the exact opposite. Hypertension is when someones blood pressure is above normal levels
than are expected (high blood pressure).

• Hypertension is commoner than hypotension.

• Hypertension does not cause symptoms at early stages, but hypotension immediately shows symptoms.

• Hypotension features dizziness, tiredness, and blurred vision while hypertension features headache,
visual halos and chest pain.

• Hypotension does not cause fits during pregnancy while hypertension does.

• Intravenous fluid and sympathomimetic treat hypotension while diuretics and vasodilators treat
hypertension.

INSTRUMENTATION
1.What is MEA?
Ans: The minimum en-route altitude (MEA) is the altitude for an en-route segment that provides
adequate reception of relevant navigation facilities and ATS communications, complies with the airspace
structure and provides the required obstacle clearance.

2. What is MOCA?
Ans: MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA)- The lowest published
altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off-airway routes, or route segments which meets
obstacle clearance requirementsfor the entire route segment and which assures acceptable
navigational signal coverage only within 25 statute (22 nautical) miles of a VOR.

3. What is MORA?

Ans: There are two types of Minimum Off Route Altitudes (MORAs) – one is called a route
MORA and the other is the grid MORA.

MORA's give at least 1,000 feet altitude clearance above terrain, and 2,000 feet in mountainous (an area
of changing terrain were the changes of terrain elevation exceed 3000 feet within a distance of 10NM)
terrain.

Route MORAs provided an obstacle clearance within 10 nautical miles (19 km) on both sides of the
airways and within a 10-nautical-mile (19 km) radius around the ends of the airways.

Grid MORAs provide an obstacle clearance altitude within a latitude and longitude grid block, usually of
one degree by one degree.

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4. What is the different between MDA and DA?
Ans: Decision Altitude (DA) is a specified height or altitude in the precision approach at which a
missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been
established and The Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) is a specified altitude or height in a Non-
Precision Approach below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference.

5. What is procedure turn?


Ans: A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed when it is necessary to perform a course
reversal to establish the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final approach course. The procedure turn
or holding in lieu of a procedure turn is a required maneuver.

6. What is Racecourse Track?


Ans: A racetrack procedure consists of a turn from the inbound track through 180 degree from
overhead the facility or fix on the outbound track, for 1,2 or 3 minutes, followed by a 180 degree turn in
the same direction to return to the inbound track

7. What is Base turn?


Ans: A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the outbound
track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track.

8.What is MAPT?
Ans:Missed approach point (MAP or MAPt) is the point prescribed in each instrument approach at
which a missed approach procedure shall be executed if the required visual reference does not exist.

1. What is FAF?
Ans: A specified point on a non-precision instrument approach which identifies the commencement
of the final segment.

10.What is Transition Altitude?


Ans: The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference
to altitudes.The transition altitude is a published height above sea level at which pilots climbing to their
cruising level change their barometric altimeter datum from the regional pressure setting to the common
international standard setting of 1013.2hPa.

11.What is Transition Level?


Ans:The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude.The transition level is
the flight level ABOVE which pilots have to use the standard altimeter setting 1013 hPa or 29.92 inHg.

12. What is MSA?

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Ans: The Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) is the lowest altitude which may be used which will
provide a minimum clearance of 300 m (1 000 ft) above all objects located in the area contained within a
sector of a circle of 46 km (25 NM) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation.

13. What is TCH?


Ans:Threshold crossing height (TCH). The theoretical height above the runway threshold at
which the aircraft’s glideslope antenna would be if the aircraft maintained the trajectory established by
the mean ILS glideslope or MLS glidepath.

14. Describe entries of VOR?

Ans: There are 3 main recommended holding pattern entries outlined in the FAR/AIM. Direct
entries, teardrop/offset, and parallel entries are standard practice. Depending on the type of entry you will
use, the following procedures can be used to execute the hold entry.

Direct Entry:
- Upon reaching the holding fix, turn in the direction of assigned turns to the heading for your outbound
leg.
- Fly this leg for 1 minute and than turn in the direction of turns assigned to the heading for your inbound
leg and intercept your assigned holding radial.

Parallel Entry:
- Upon reaching the holding fix, turn to parallel the inbound course on an outbound heading for 1 minute.
- After 1 minute, turn toward the protected side (holding area) and intercept the holding radial inbound on
an inbound heading. Upon reaching the fix, begin holding procedures.

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Teardrop Entry:
- Upon reaching the holding fix, turn 30° toward the protected side (holding area) and fly for 1 minute.
- After 1 minute, begin a turn back to intercept the assigned holding radial inbound to the holding fix.

15. What is the difference between precision and non-precision approach?

Ans: A precision approach is an instrument approach and landing using precision lateral and
vertical guidance with minima as determined by the category of operation. Note. Lateral and vertical
guidance refers to the guidance provided either by:

a) a ground-based navigation aid; or

b) computer generated navigation data displayed to the pilot of an aircraft.

c) a controller interpreting the display on a radar screen

Non-precision approaches which are pilot-interpreted make use of ground beacons and aircraft equipment
such as VOR, NDB and the LLZ element of an ILS system, often in combination with DME for
range.Non-precision approaches are often conducted with less use of automated systems than precision
approaches. However, on many modern aircraft, automatic systems may be left engaged until reaching the
MDA/H, or beyond.

16. How many types of Reversal Procedure are there?


Ans: There are four types of track Reversal Procedure, these are :
1.45°/180° Procedure Turn
2. 80°/260° Procedure Turn
3. Base Turn
4. Racetrack

17. What is rate 1 turn? Write down the formula.

Ans:Aircraft maneuvering is referenced to a standard rate turn, also known as a rate one turn
(ROT). A standard rate turn is defined as a 3° per second turn, which completes a 360° turn in 2
minutes. This is known as a 2-minute turn, or rate one (180°/min).

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18. How many segments are there in Instrument Approach?
Ans: An instrument approach procedure may have as many as four separate segments depending
on how the approach procedure is structured.
1.Initial Approach- The segment between the initial approach fix and the intermediate fix or the point
where the aircraft is established on the intermediate course or final approach course.
2. Intermediate Approach- The segment between the intermediate fix or point and the final approach fix.

3. Final Approach- The segment between the final approach fix or point and the runway, airport, or
missed approach point.

4. Missed Approach- The segment between the missed approach point or the point of arrival at decision
height and the missed approach fix at the prescribed altitude.

19.
Aircraft on the Ground vehicles or
Signal Aircraft in flight
ground personnel

ICAO - Land at this airport and proceed to


apron (this is not a clearance to either land
Return to starting Return to starting
Flashing white or taxi. Clearances to land and taxi will
follow.) point point

FAA - Not applicable


Cleared to
Steady green Cleared to land Cleared for takeoff
cross/proceed

Cleared to approach airport, or return to


Flashing green Cleared to taxi N/A
land

Steady red Continue circling, give way to other aircraft Stop Stop

Immediately taxi
Clear the
Flashing red Airport unsafe, do not land clear of runway in
taxiway/runway
use

Alternating red Exercise extreme Exercise extreme


Exercise extreme caution
and green caution caution

Blinking runway
Vehicles, planes, and pedestrians immediately clear landing area in use
aviation lights

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NAVIGATION

1. Define
a) Great Circle: A circle on the surface of the earth whose centre and radius are those of the
earth itself is called a Great Circle.Only one great circle may be drawn through two places on
the surface of the earth which are not diametrically opposite.
b) Rhumb Line: A Rhumb Line is a regularly curved line on the surface of the earth which cuts all
meridians at the same angle.
c) Heading: The direction in which the nose of the aircraft is pointing during flight.Or, The angle
between the reference datum and the longitudinal axis of an aircraft measured horizontally in
degrees, clockwise from the datum, from 000 degrees to 360 degrees
d) TMG:The actual path of an aircraft over the earth, or its graphic representation.
e) Variation:the angular difference between true north and magnetic north is known as
Variation.
f) Deviation: the angular difference between magnetic north and compass north is known as
Deviation.
g) Bearing:The horizontal direction to or from any point usually measured clockwise from true
north, magnetic north or some other reference point, through 360 degrees.
h) IAS:the airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator.
i) CAS: indicated airspeed corrected for instrument or position error.
j) TAS: the actual speed of the aircraft relative to the surrounding air. True airspeed is calibrated
airspeed corrected for pressure and temperature.
k) Ground Speed:Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground.
l) Track Error:Angle between actual track and TMG.
m) Drift:The angle between the Heading andthe Track is the drift angle.
n) LMT:Local mean time is the time according to the mean sun. It obviously varies from one
longitude to another since the mean sun can only be directly overhead at one meridian at one
time.
o) UTC:Universal Co-Ordinated Time.UTC is the LMT at the Greenwich meridian.
p) Conformal: (of a map projection or a mathematical mapping) preserving the correct angles
between directions within small areas, though distorting distances.

2. What is CP and PNR? Describe the Calculation of Cp and PNR?


Ans. Critical Point or Point of Equal Time is the point between two aerodromes

from which it would take the same time to fly to either aerodrome.

Certain assumptions have to be made for the calculation:

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D is the total distance between airfields

X is the distance from the PET back to A

D-X is the distance to the destination (B)

H is the groundspeed home

O is the groundspeed to B

Time = Distance ÷ Groundspeed

PET is the point where time to destination is equal to the time to return to aerodrome of

departure.

Time to destination =D-X/O

Time to return = X/H

X/H = D-X/ O

X = DH/O + H

PNR or PSR: The point of safe return (PSR) is the point furthest from the airfield of departure that an
aircraft can fly and still return to base within its safe endurance.

The distance to the PSR equals the distance from the PSR back to the aerodrome of

departure.

Let:

E Safe endurance

T Time to the PSR

E – T Time to return to the aerodrome of departure

O Groundspeed to the PSR

H Groundspeed on return to the aerodrome of departure

Time to the PSR T x O

Time to return to the aerodrome of departure (E – T) x H

(E – T) x H = T x O

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T =EH/O+H

3. What is Diversion? Describe the procedure?


Ans. Actof diverting orturningaside,asfromacourse. Diversion procedures are intended to facilitate
changing your destination while en route in the event of encounter bad weather or landing is not
possible at the destination aerodrome.

Diversion procedure:

 Make the decision to divert early!

 Once made, choose a prominent feature from which to carry out the diversion. This point can be
ahead of you, off to one side or even behind you.

 Draw a line from your divert point to your new destination.

 Make all the necessary calculations - heading, distance, ETA, performance factors (drift down, terrain
clearance etc) - based on this diversion point. Also, review the airspace, weather and NOTAMs for the
new destination.

 On arrival at your diversion point, turn onto your new heading.

 Transmit your diversion intentions.

 Maintain communication channel 121.5 and 123.45

 Then as per normal navigation techniques to get to your destination.

Principle of Flight

1. How many primary flight controls are there?


Ans: There are 3 primary flight controls in an aircraft. They areailerons, elevators, andthe
rudder.

2. What are the secondary controls?


Ans: The secondary flight controls are: flaps, trimming devices, spoilers, slats, slots and speed
brakes. The secondary flight controls are not always all present on an aircraft.

3. What are the uses of flaps?

Ans: Flaps are now fitted to most aircraft because:

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 They permit a slower landing speed, which decreases the required landing distance.
 They permit a comparatively steep angle of descent without an increase in speed. This
makes it possible to safely clear obstacles when making a landing approach to a small
field.
 They may also be used to shorten the takeoff distance and provide a steeper climb
path.

4.What happens when air passes through Venturi?


Ans: When air flows through Venturi, it speeds up. It’s dynamic pressure increases and static
pressure drops. As the equation of continuity, the mass flow must remain constant, so the reduction in
the venturi tube’s cross-sectional area results in an increase in velocity.

5.What do you mean by stall?


Ans: A stall is a condition where the aircraft can no longer sustain in the air due to decrease lift
as the angle of attack increase beyond a certain point.

6.What are the forces acting on aircraft during Straight and Level Flight?
Ans: There are four forces acting on the aircraft in Straight and Level Flight. LIFT, WEIGHT,
THRUST and DRAG.

7.How Aircraft moves when all forces are equal in Straight and Level Flight?
Ans: When an airplane is flying straight and level at a constant speed, the lift it produces
balances its weight, and the thrust it produces balances its drag. However, this balance of forces
changes as the airplane rises and descends, as it speeds up and slows down, and as it turns.

8.How Aircraft moves while there is no thrust during Glide?


Ans: In a glide without Thrust, the Weight component along the flight path supply the propulsive
force and balance Drag. In a Glide there are only three forces acting on the Aircraft, Lift, Weight and
Drag.

9.What is the effect of Weight on gliding range?


Ans: Variations in aircraft weight do not affect the glide angle provided that the correct airspeed
is flown. Since it is the lift over drag (L/D) ratio that determines the gliding range, weight will not affect
it. The only effect weight has is to vary the time the aircraft will glide for. The heavier the aircraft is, the
higher the airspeed must be to obtain the same glide ratio.

10.How many types of Drag are there?


Ans: Drag is divided into two main types:

(1) PARASITE DRAG- independent of lift generation, and

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(2) INDUCED DRAG- the result of lift generation

Parasite drag is further sub-divided into:

a) Skin Friction Drag

b) Form Drag, and

c) Interference Drag

11. What are the forces acting on an aircraft while Climbing, Descending, And
Turning?

Ans: Forces acting on an aircraft during climb-

The lift and drag are aerodynamic forces that are acting on the aircraft relative to the flight path.
The lift is perpendicular to the flight path and the drag is along the flight path. The thrust of the
aircraft is also usually aligned with the flight path. The weight of the aircraft is always directed
towards the center of the earth and is, therefore, along the vertical axis.

Forces acting on aircraft during descend-

a) In a descent Lift is less than Weight. This is because Lift only has to balance the component of
Weight perpendicular to the flight path.

b)In a descent Thrust is less than Drag. This is because Weight is giving a forward component in
the same direction as Thrust.

Forces acting on aircraft during turning-

In a turn, there are two components of lift act on the aircraft. The horizontal component of lift
which causes the aircraft to turn known as centripetal force and the vertical component of lift that
balance the weight.

12.What happens to the ball while skid/spin?

Ans:When the aircraft skid, the ball deflect outside (opposite side of bank) and when the aircraft
spin it shows spin direction.

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