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Cnapanopesenne, Ne 5 © 2003 r. B.H. BAHOTPANOB KAHLMIEP A.M. POPUAKOB B BOOBOPOTE BOCTOYHOPLO KPH3HCA 70-X TOHOB XIX BEKA Bovia c Typuweli 1877-1878 rr. wavanacb B Poccum B o6cranopke HeBHaHHOTO Ha- ponworo sHTy3HasMa. >. M. octoesckwit sanuchinan B Te qHH B “[MesHMKe mucaTeas”: “Bee nosapapamor mpyr apyra c BoiHoi” [1. C. 94]. Ho nocpequ BceoSmero noxbema cyiecTBoBan o¥ar o3a6o¥eHHOCTH, onaceHHit H ‘TpeBOr, H 9THM O¥AroM ELT KaGuHeT MuHHCTpoB. Hay Kaniyiepom A.M. Top4axoppim, Anexcanmpom Il a MHOrHMH caHOBHHKAMM CTaporo TOKOMeHHS JOBE cHHpOM KpbIM- ckoii BoliHbI. B TeveHue 20 eT cRoeit cay2kObI BO raze MuicTepcrBa HHOCTPAHHBIX jem KHS3b YMOPHO H YcneUIHO H3Geram BOBTeYeHHA PoccuM B eBportelicKHe KOHCPAUKTEI, CO- aabax TM CAMBIM BHELIHMe YCIORNS [LI NpoReneHHA pechopM. OmHAKO BomHA OOMIeCT- BeHHOM COMMPAPHOCTH C 1OKHEIMH CABAHAMH TposHaa MOTPY3HT CTpaHy B HeReJOMBIE VCHBITaHUR C HeMpescKasyeMbIM HCXOAOM. HI OH, H efO KONAeTH Mo MpaBHTeTBCTB! M.X. Peitrepu (cpunancsi), A.E. Tumamien (puyrpenune nena), TA. Banyes (rocyslaper- BeHHble HMyu{ecTBa) cuMTamH Poccuio K BoliHe HerogroToBAeHHOH. BocroMnHaHHs 0 KPBIMCKOH oontee He BAOXHOBMATH. CTpaHa BbILLIA H3 Hee C ACTPOHOMHYECKHM TOcymap- creenpin gonrom - 800 MH. py6., 1 MoHaROGHAOCE 15 ner, ¥TOOsI BEIKapaGKaTSCA H3 cbuxascooit mer. M.X. Peiirepu nogam 3amucky Ha pbicoualiuee HMa: B CIYYAe HOBO BOHHBI KACTYNNT Ae:PONT — yiaNYT B CTOMMOCTH HeHHbIe GyMarH, BOSHHKHYT TPYAHOCTH C yiiarod npoweHTOB No BHELINHM NONTaM, HOABHTCH HEOGXOMUMOCTS B HOBBIX 3aiiMax Ha OGpemennrensHbIx ycnosusx. OGHMMaHHe HaceneHMa, nyran MHHHCTP Naps, CosRacT GnaronpusTHyio To“BY qa peBOMIOUHOHHOH nponaranqer. FouapoSuTcAa ABANHATS Ter, ¥TOGBI BEPHYTHCA K COCTOTHMIO Ka3HBI Ha 1876 r. PeiirepH 3anpocuacs B OTcTaBKy. Tpe- BOXKWICA BOeHHBIA MuxuCTp J].A. MamroTun: “Boia... 61a 61 nOMCTHHE BeNHKHM Gep- crsuem. CrpaulHoe BHYTpeHHee pacxoyoBaHue cut ycyryOunoce GbI elle BHELIHHM Ha- MIps@keHHeM: BCA TOMe3Had paGoTa NapaTH30Banac Obl, H HEOMepHbIe NOxepTBOBAHHA MoraH 6b1 GpicTpo mpuBecrH rocygapcTBO K MOAHOMY HcTOMeHHIO” [2. C. 165-166; 3. C. 1). Ho, kak compat, OH B OTCTaBKY NoRaBaTb He cram. Tipeobpasosanne Boopy2keHHbIX cu He Gbi10 3anepureHo. JImub B 1874 r. MusOTHHY yaaslocb npeojoseTs cOnpoTHBAeHHe pyTHHepos (BeAHKHX Kus3eH Muxanna u Huxonas Huxonaesnsei, cbeabamapuraios A.M. BaparaicKoro # ®.®. Bepra) 1 so6ureca Baene- HMsl BCecOCHOBHOM BOMHCKOH NOBHHHOCTH. u0T Ha LepHOM Mope TAK H He GBI HOcTpo- eH, nce jeHer He xBaTano. J[ve “nonosKH”, B cyLIHOCTH - GpOHHpORAHHEIe, KPYrAbIe 10 (hopMe THXOXogHbIe OapxH, TPOMKO HMeHORABUIMECA “OPOHEHOCHDIMH CHIaMA”, B CueT He ummm [4. C. 196]. Onn commumich TONBKO ATA 3AlllHTEI CBOHX Geperon. Hit nepeOpocuTs Bunorpanos Baaguien Huxonaesus —9-p vcr. Hayk, rnapabih Haysnbih compynnux Mucruryra cnananoneyenus PAH. 16 BOMMBIM MYTEM ROHCKA, Hu BbICARMTE KPYMML YeCakT 6 TRLIY MpOTHBHUKa He MIpewcTaB- IANOCb BOIMOKHBIM. Ha Tearpe MOpcKHX ONepantuil - MOMHOE NpeBOCXO|CTBO TYPOK. Cems 2KenesHLIX LOpOr HaXxOMNach B 3a4aTOUHOM cocrosuMu. Bex6pexsioe Mpoctpali- cTBO H Gesopoxbe — TO, ¥To CUHTANOCb patbuue MpenMyt{ecTBOM Poccitt, 8 ycHOBHAX ObI- cTpoTeHbix Bow KoHUa XIX B. OGepHyzece HenOcTaTKOM, MOXsHO ObLIO npourparh Boll- Hy, He Yeres MoypecTH BOlicKa K TpanHuaM. B Hanpannenua Barkan, K PyMbiHwu, nema e]MHCTBeliHad OAWOKOAeHKa C OrpanHeHHO!t nponycKHok crlocoGHocTHio. B caMoit PyMb!- HHH TonoxeHe O4UIO He Yume, “UyryHKy” sslech CTPOHT mpyccKuil MpegNpHAMaTeNb - apanriopuct B. UirpycGepr 1, kak c yloBleTBOpeHHeM oTMeIa P. Inrembc, BOCKHTHTETb- Ho Henpowno. B JambHeHUeM Mpuuusoce HaCTex coopy>kaTb CBOHMM cHIaMu AMHHKO Bee psi — Tanan, 0 4em H.M. Papai-Muxaiiioncknit pacckazan 8 poMane “Mrpkexepsi”. A Ha Kony crosao 6yayutee Poccnm — Bbipperes 1H Oa H3 THCKOB OTCTaTOCTH Ha ny- Tax pecbopM i1H TpeoOpasoBaHHA NipuyeTcA cBepHYTS, H CTpawa OcTaHeTCA BeKOBATS Ha oSounte esponelicko ABHANZaNMH. Bee cxasaHHoe oTHOCHTca K (PaKTOPaM, BHAMMBIM Jin 1OGoro axasHTHIecKOrO yMa. Cyutecraopasu 1 unbie, CKpBITHIe OT OOULECTREHHOCTH u H3BECTHLIe SIMUL y3KOMY KPyry amy, Tlepsor 2anaueii AUIMIOMaTHH Nepex BOHNO! ABNAeTCR OTPAHUeHMe “ucCHa BeposT- HbIX MPOTHBHMKOB, 3 YTO MPHXORMTCA MAATHT, HHOFAa OHeHD jloporo. Jemapum B Bewe MoKa3a/lH, 4TO OHA 3aNOMMT 3a CBOii HeliTpalMTer HenOMepHyt0 Heny. Ee BOxkTeTeHHH pac- npoctpatiamuch wa Bocwma a Tepneropuny. [napa BuewenonuTHNecKOro BeNOMCTBA rpad JJ. Aunpaum Bospaxan npoTus o6pazopanua wa Bankatax Kpynmoro cnapaticKoro rocygaperea, Gynp ‘ro CepOus mmm Bosrapus. C nomnucanuem Byganewrckoit xomeniint ‘rAHYAM AO TOcHeARero BHA. MT0rH Bois: NO Weil, O YeM Mano KTO 3Hall (WaKe NOCom B Koncrasraonose HIT. Urwatbes), sapaee ypebisaauce. TMpencroapittas ascrpo-nen- TepcKast OKKYMAINA BYX NPOBMHIMI THDKENBIM THETOM Jers Ha CopecTs A.M. Top'akosa. H eure onno oGcroatenberso cienyer yauTbIBaTs. Fopyakoe gent Obi WapCKUM Mit HNCTPOM I 3HAM1 4apanee, ¥TO zumepsl GaNKAHCKoll IIMTLI NOCHE OcBOGOKTeHMA OOparaT 80H 630PKI HE K CAMONeP2ABHIO, a B CTOPOHY Banana c ero COGAAIHHTEABUBIM PbIHKOM, HepeyOBbIM CTPOEM, KOHCTHTYNHOHHbIMH NOpAKAMH H 'paxkAaHCKHMH CBOGOTAMH, ROSH- uaH Xe OtuuHaMbHolt Poccnu B perMone He Oxpenny?, a ocnaGeror. Bor Koncrararyia Topuakona, orHocauaaca K {866 r.: “Uro YKperdeT Hame TpamMIMOHHOe BIMAHMe Ha Boctoke, Tak 970 HeHaBMcTs x TypKaM, ByAY4l OcBOOOxKeHBI OT ura, XpUCTUAHe Mocme- AYIOT Roporoit cBOUX HUTepecoB. MbI jis HX — NpexNe BCErO KOHKYpeHTSt, KOTOPbIM He- Nero MpojlawaTs, MY KOTOPBIX HeYero HoKyiars”. MasibiM GalKaHCKMM CrpaHaM YrpO%a- eT “BHYTpeHHaA AHApXUs, BHELIHEe CONepHMYECTBO, OTKPEIBAIOUIee Nowe Jt HHOCTPaH- Horo symanusn” [5. Orueret. 1866. JI. 97, 91]. B YHcHe KOMIOHeHTOB MexXRyHAPOWHBIX OTHOMEHM NpusHaTeMbHOCTe He 3HAYATCA, SHELIA TOMHTHKA ~ OcoG2 XOTOAHOKPOBHAA, HAYMCTO MMMLeHHAs cepleMHEIX HOPBIBOB. O. Bucmapky npunannexkat copa: “OcpoGoxseHuble Hapogei He O1aroxapHel, a TPeo- patenbHBI”, # OATBEpX/la OH HX TPHMepaMH, BIATHIMM M3 HCTOPHH poccuitcKo-GaTKaH- ckux cpseit [6. C. 244]. Tak 470 HHKAK Hemb3s CKaSaTb, 40 TPeBOTY MHHMCTPOB BO3HHK- JIM wa TlycTOM Mecre. A.M. Topuaxos He 651 ObI coGoil, ecm GbI He Ucueptian BCeX BOIMOXHOCTell paape- utr BosHMkiuni B 1875 r. Ha Baakanax Kpu3He MupHBIM nytem. Ero BeqoMcrBo Ges yo- ‘Taam paspaGaTHIBasIO NpOeKTHI pedpopM, KOTOPbIe MPOMeKUBANUCh CKBOIb “ABCTPHHCKOE curo” a moctynamu Ha “pacnpany” B Jloujox, ocae Hero oT HUX Mas10 4TO OcTaBAMOCb. Hocaenwait aya Hageskabt MembKnyn Ha Hcxoge 1876 r., Korma MpencraBnTemt epxas, co6papuiics B Koxcrantmonone, npy Gombumax yeunuex HIT. Mriarbena ete 10 dop- MaNbHOTO OTKPHITUS KOnPepeRUssH ROTOBOPILTNCE © MPOrpamMe pedopM, sarsBUelicn, to Maemo Topyakopa, npueMaeMbiM MunUMyMOM: OObenHHeHMe Bochum « Pepuerosn- uBI, O6pasoBanne aByx Bonrapwit — Bocrosnoit 1 SanapHok co cromuyams 2 TeIpHOBO H Coin, co cBoeit agMaimcTpalmeii, caoSogoi sepoucnOReAaHHa, PabeHCTROM Npas XPHC- ‘Tuan a mycystsmax (7. C. 210]. Buicoxas Mopra, pi sakyacHoit nonnepxke BenuxoOpH- ‘TaHMM, copBatia oroBopeHHOCTS. Korfa AumLIOMaTs! CoOpanuce Ha OcbuuHaTbHoe sacena- 7 Hue TIpH NlomHOM KBOpyMe, pasiarcs nYuiedHBI caMIOT, H MUNHCTP HOCTpAHEBIX jem CaB- cer panocruo oOBsBHA, “TO ero REMHYeCTHO CyTAH RapOBAd MO/LLAHLIbIM KOHCTHTYIHIO CO BCeMH TONaraIollMMHCA KHTETAM MpaBbaMH, H TAO ObITh XHONOTATE O KAKUX-TO OCOGLIX IpHBHAerHax Jy1t XPHCTHAH HeT IpH4HH, [locust pasouMHce HecomOHO XTe6aBiIH. Eme ono couemanue qumiomaros (JTowgon, MapT 1878 r.) BbipaGoTano YT0-To Bpowe xojaraiicraa nepen cynTaHoM 0 pecpopmax Ha Gaze OCTHTHyTBIX B KOHCTaHTHHOTOMe 1O- Tonopestiocreit. Bpataniter o6ycropiinn axe 9TOT poOKuit eMaput cornactem [eTep- Gypra Ha pocnyck yxke cocpenoToYeHol » BeccapaOHH apmuu, Ho nocTynuBurait oT [op- Tol OTKA3 MOMOXHN KONE 3aBKIaBINelica SLIO MeperoBopHOlK cyere. BO3MO%XHOCTH MHPHOTO yperyaAMpoBalina GsIIM HCUepRaKst, ColepxKaTe GecKoHey- Ho nepeOpomenuori n BeccapaOuio ynapHbiit Kyiak He Ob110 HHKAKO BOIMOXxHOCTH. 12 (24) anpens 1877 r. Anexcangp II Hognucan p Kuuiunepe Makucpect 0 Bolte. B ocpH- Uuansubix qoxyMenrax Penurra6a ee ueaK hopMymMposassice Tak: “Buppats H3 BnacrH TYpoK Ty xpuctHanckyio crpany, BomrapHio, B KOTOpoit OHM COBEpLIMAK CTOTBKO 3/10- neitcrs” (8. C. 210]. Hestorouncaennpie romoca, TBepANBULMe 4TO-TO O TPYMHOCTAX 2KeprBax, Obi 3armynienss. & M. TocroescKwit uMewopat HX HOcHTeNeit B rHeBe H mpe- apensu “oOwetenose Kama” H “caMoonaeBHHKaMs” W npuosiean: “Boita! Mot ncex cuits- nee!” [1. C. 100, 94). Kannep A.M. Fopuakos oxasamcs Mexk jByx OrHeit, CuHTaa, 470 OT BOIMOXKHOI AH- nepcu Ancrpo-Bexrpum yqaocb orropoautsca BysarenmiTcKoit KOHBeHUMeH, OH cOcpe- OTOH CHIIbI Ha TOM, {TOGI HPeLoTBpATHTS BMeIaTeabcTaO BeaHRObpuTaKuu, B yore rnapbt Popun odpepuc rpaca 9. pes or 6 Max 1877 r. rosopustocs, YTo AHIMA He OTTy- CTHT HAKaKHX TeppHTOpHaNHsIx H3MeHeHHi Ge3 ee corsmacut H He CMOXET COXpaHHTb neitrpaaurer, ecim BoeHHBIe seficTeua CTakyT yrpoxaT CystKkomy Kanany, [epcnqcko- My sammpy, He ronops y>xe o Koxtcrantutionoae a YepHomopcKux mporupax ([5. >. Kak- uenspus, 1877. II, 71. I. 341-350]; nonpoGuee 06 aHrao-pyccKHX OTHOMIEHHSX B TOAbI polit cM.: [9]). Hocay p Jlonaone T.A. Uysanony npHiutocs nyctHTbca B TaKENBIE OOpACHEHHS, “HOKaILIBAa”, 1TO CAMONePIKABMIO H BO CHE He CHAO BrOprateca B_ETH- Tet H HifbIe MecTa, cTomb 2ke OTMaTeHHBIe. Hatepranme WMpoKOMacuITa6HOH, ecaM He cka3aTb banTacTHuecKOl KaPTHHbI BOIMORHBIX POCCHIICKHX MOMONSHOBEHHi CBHAC TENE CTHOBAMO 0 TOM, UTO KAGHHET Ce HeNHeCTBA 3afacaeTca HpeLLOTAMH JI BMEUATE MLCT Ba B BOiny. AM. Topuakon, ¢ caHKUHM HMMepatopa, an HeOOXOmUMBIe ycHOKOHTeMBHBIe 3anepe- Hust: 3axnat KoucraTauonona “He BxOAWT 8 1”1aHBI” PoccH, a Bompoc o [ponmsax “Aa COXpAaHeHIa Mupa H BCeOGUWero CHOKOHeTBHA” AOIDKEH OBITS “yperynupoRaK c o6UKerO corsacus Ha ChpanesiMBsix M felicTReHHO rapaHTAponaHitbix ycaosuax” (10. C. 80-82]. TakHM O6pa30M, Babe, eHCTBHTETBHO HMEBIIMe OOteesportelicKoe 3HateHHe Mpo- Gnembi caMojepxanHe 3apanee OTANANO Ha CYR apeoMara flep2KaB, B KOTOPOM OGBIHHO npeOxinao 8 MenbutMucTBe, Cam uMiepatop ele B OxTAGPE 1876 F. jad GpHTAHCKOMY nocay Q. Mlodrycy “caamentoe vecTHoe cnosO”, 470 OH He AyMaeT NocaraTs Ha Kon- cTaHTHHONONS, 4 OTKpeUmBares OT nacKepuA [leTpa Beaukoro Exatepaunt I. B wiome calenyrouero Toya Taps, MOYeMY-TO BTailHe OT KAHIVIepa H BOCHHOTO wAKCTpA, MOBTO- pia a0 3anepenne [2. C. 308-309; 11. P. 323]. Bynysu cessan Synanewckoi KoHBeHIHe H BbILaHHbIMM AHTaMH aBaHicamH, CTpe- Mach MpepOTBPATHTs NOCTOPOHHee BMeUIATeMbcTBO B HpoTHROGOPeTBO c Typuuelt, Pop- yaKOB XOTEM TOKasH30BaTb MaciTaGbI BOWHEI. OH Haflestca, uo He MoTpebyeTca nepe- cexars Bankaucxuit xpeGer. Yenopus Mupa, IIpHeMseMble JuIt OcmancKolt MMIepHit H lepxkab, pHCoBamHcb emy crenyomAm OGpazoM: Boamrapua Ao rpswbt rop — aBrosoMHoe KHWKECTBO, TYPeUKHe KPeHOCTH TOATEKAT cPbITHIO, HHHOBHUKN — ynanenMio; 1OxHaK Bosrapus, Bocaua # Tepuerosuna nonyyator yapexjeHHa, MpH3HaHHBIe epskanaMu OT- BeYAOUysME HX noTpeGKocTam; Cep6ua, UepHoropua H PymBriHa nopaexkaT pacummpe- HMI, HOCAe Hel, BOIMOXHO, YAacTca MPeAOCTaBUTS Ke3aBUCUMOCTS; Poccus BOsBpalaeT ce6e HOxny: Beccapa6itio H IpHo6petaer nopr BatyM. Oxa “He craweT MpoTHDMTECA” BosHarpaxneniio Apcrpo-Beurpun Bocuneit 4 Pepueropnnol Re