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Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell nucleus splits in two, followed by division of the

parent cell into two daughter cells. The word "mitosis" means "threads," and it refers to the
threadlike appearance of chromosomes as the cell prepares to divide. Early microscopists were
the first to observe these structures, and they also noted the appearance of a specialized
network of microtubules during mitosis. These tubules, collectively known as the spindle, extend
from structures called centrosomes — with one centrosome located at each of the opposite ends,
or poles, of a cell. As mitosis progresses, the microtubules attach to the chromosomes, which
have already duplicated their DNA and aligned across the center of the cell. The spindle tubules
then shorten and move toward the poles of the cell. As they move, they pull the one copy of each
chromosome with them to opposite poles of the cell. This process ensures that each daughter
cell will contain one exact copy of the parent cell DNA. Interphase: Cells may appear inactive
during this stage, but they are quite the opposite. This is the longest period of the complete cell
cycle during which DNA replicates, the centrioles divide, and proteins are actively produced. For
a complete description of the events during Interphase, read about the Cell Cycle. Prophase:
During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated
proteins) condenses into chromosomes. Each replicated chromosome comprises two
chromatids, both with the same genetic information. Microtubules of the cytoskeleton,
responsible for cell shape, motility and attachment to other cells during interphase, disassemble.
And the building blocks of these microtubules are used to grow the mitotic spindle from the
region of the centrosomes. Prometaphase: In this stage the nuclear envelope breaks down so
there is no longer a recognizable nucleus. Some mitotic spindle fibers elongate from the
centrosomes and attach to kinetochores, protein bundles at the centromere region on the
chromosomes where sister chromatids are joined. Other spindle fibers elongate but instead of
attaching to chromosomes, overlap each other at the cell center. Metaphase: Tension applied by
the spindle fibers aligns all chromosomes in one plane at the center of the cell. Anaphase:
Spindle fibers shorten, the kinetochores separate, and the chromatids (daughter chromosomes)
are pulled apart and begin moving to the cell poles. Telophase: The daughter chromosomes
arrive at the poles and the spindle fibers that have pulled them apart disappear. Cytokinesis: The
spindle fibers not attached to chromosomes begin breaking down until only that portion of
overlap is left. It is in this region that a contractile ring cleaves the cell into two daughter cells.
Microtubules then reorganize into a new cytoskeleton for the return to interphase.

Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, do not have a nuclear membrane surrounding their


cellular DNA, so cell division is happens differently than in eukaryotes. Even though the
cell does not undergo mitosis, the end result is the same. The single chromosome is
replicated, and the two copies split into two halves of a dividing cell. In these organisms,
the process is called binary fission.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoplasma_laboratorium

https://www.science20.com/news_articles/synthia_life_scratch_no_cell_controlled_synthetic_geno
me_may_save_our_energy_future

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_sequencing#N-terminal_amino_acid_analysis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_primary_structure
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuOaEe89_HE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvLy_1_Y3tk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MK7TiR_YNlc