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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/seppur

Bingtao Zhao ⇑

School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Modeling the particle separation efﬁciency has been a topic of interest since the air cyclones was intro-

Received 3 April 2011 duced for gas-particle separation in the ﬁelds of environmental science and chemical engineering. In this

Received in revised form 2 October 2011 work, a new simple time-of-ﬂight model is theoretically developed to predict the particle separation efﬁ-

Accepted 4 October 2011

ciency in cyclones. In this model, the equivalent volume method is employed to geometrically modify the

Available online 17 October 2011

cylindrical-conical type cyclone as a right cylindrical cyclone in order to overcome the nonuniform effect

on the particle separation distance. Based on the analysis of the gas ﬂow pattern and the particle dynam-

Keywords:

ics in the cyclone separator, the differential equation for the time-of-ﬂight model is established according

Cyclone

Particle

to the principle of particle mass balance. The model can be ﬁnally expressed as a simple explicit function

Separation efﬁciency including the main cyclone dimensions and operating parameters, without the need for solving complex

Time-of-ﬂight equation of mathematical physics. The inﬂuences of the short-circuit ﬂow near the bottom of cyclone

Residence time outlet duct and the exchange ﬂow between outer and inner vortex ﬂow are comprehensively considered

to revise the effective residence time of gas ﬂow, a key parameter in the present model. By comparisons

with experimental data as well as other classical separation models for the cyclones with different geo-

metrical conﬁgurations and operating conditions, the results show that the present model has a relatively

high predicted accuracy with the mean squared error of 0.0158. It is demonstrated that the present model

has considerable availability for predicting the particle separation efﬁciency for cyclone separators.

Ó 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction to cyclone design by Chan and Lippmann [6] and Moore and

McFarland [7]. The time-of-ﬂight model assumes that the particles

Cyclone separators are widely used in the ﬁelds of air pollution enter the cyclone in a certain radial distance from the cyclone axis,

control and gas-particle separation for aerosol sampling and indus- and must travel outward from this position to the wall to be

trial applications. With the advantages of relative simplicity to fab- collected. The representative research on this theory was contrib-

ricate, low cost to operate and good adaptability to extremely uted by Leith and Licht [8] and Clift et al. [9]. A recent report on

harsh conditions, cyclone separators have become one of the most time-of-ﬂight model was reported by Zhao [10], but his model

important particle removal devices which are preferably utilized in was based on the combination of the critical particle size and

both environmental and chemical engineering. boundary layer separation. In the 1980’s, a hybrid collection model

In order to describe the performance of cyclone separators, was proposed by Dietz [11]. This model considered both particle

many gas-particle separation theories were developed using interchange between the outer and inner vortices across cyclone

different methods with different simpliﬁcations and assumptions. and particle migration to the wall. Subsequently, the assumption

All these can be roughly divided into the pure theory, the semi- of this model was justiﬁed and extended by Mothes and Löfﬂer

empirical theory and the numerical simulation. The former two in- [12]. Other different hybrid theories also included the particle dif-

clude the equilibrium-orbit model, time-of-ﬂight model and hybrid fusion model by Li and Wang [13] and the boundary layer model

model, etc.; the later mainly refers to the computation ﬂuid for small cyclone by Kim and Lee [14]. In recent years, with the

dynamics (CFD) approach. In detail, the equilibrium-orbit model, development of modern CFD techniques it is now possible to com-

as an early methodology of particle separation, determines the par- putationally simulate the gas-particle ﬂuid ﬂow and separation in

ticle size for which centrifugal force is exactly balanced by the drag cyclone separators. Boysan et al. [15], Zhou and Soo [16] and Grif-

force. Correspondingly, the collection efﬁciency for the critically ﬁths and Boysan [17] promoted this approach to comprehensive

sized particle is often assumed to be 50%. This model was succes- applications. Although the CFD approach can provide the relatively

sively developed by Lapple [1], Barth [2] and Muschelknautz and accurate predictions, it usually needs to solve the complex govern-

Trefz [3], Dirgo and Leith [4] and Iozia and Leith [5], and applied ing equations and spend huge computational cost. From this

perspective, simple, accurate and acceptable models for cyclone

⇑ Tel.: +86 21 55272740; fax: +86 21 55273704. separation efﬁciency are still required.

E-mail address: zhaobingtao@usst.edu.cn

1383-5866/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2011.10.006

172 B. Zhao / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 85 (2012) 171–177

Nomenclature

b cyclone inlet width (m) t res total gas residence time (s)

B particle outlet diameter (m) vi gas velocity at cyclone inlet (m/s)

c particle concentration (kg/m3) vh tangential gas velocity (m/s)

c0 initial particles concentration (kg/m3) v hw tangential gas velocity at cyclone wall (m/s)

Cc Cunningham correction factor vr radial gas velocity (m/s)

dp particle diameter (m) v rp radial particle velocity (m/s)

D cyclone body diameter (m) z axial coordinate direction (m)

De gas outlet diameter (vortex ﬁnder diameter) (m)

h cyclone cylinder height (m) Greek letters

H cyclone height (m) g particle separation efﬁciency

l natural vortex length (m) g^ predicted particle separation efﬁciency

P characterized angular momentum parameter in Mothes l gas dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

and Löfﬂer model qg gas density (kg/m3)

Q incoming volumetric gas ﬂowrate (m3/s) qp particle mass density (kg/m3)

Q df gas ﬂowrate of outer downward ﬂow (m3/s)

Q sf gas ﬂowrate of shortcircuit ﬂow (m3/s) Subscripts

Q uf gas ﬂowrate of inner upward ﬂow (m3/s) i cyclone inlet

r radial coordinate direction (m) p particle

Rw cyclone body radius, Rw ¼ D=2 (m) r radial coordinate directions

Rw equivalent (modiﬁed) cyclone radius (m) w near the wall

Re gas outlet radius (vortex ﬁnder radius), Re ¼ De =2 (m) h tangential coordinate directions

S gas outlet duct length (m)

where

In most theories the actual cyclone body diameter (cylindrical

diameter) is usually considered as the characteristic dimension to ðD BÞðS þ l hÞ

Dc ¼ D ð3Þ

calculate the separation efﬁciency. However, for a conventional Hh

cylindrical-conical type cyclone, the distance that particles move or

to the cyclone wall is signiﬁcantly different between the cylindrical " 2 #

and the conical part of cyclone. It is directly related to the particle pD2 h pD2 ðH hÞ B B

separation and collection capability. In addition, the previous V cs ¼ þ 1þ þ for l > H S ð4Þ

4 4 3 D D

time-of-ﬂight models [8,9] did not take fully into account the effects

of the short-circuit ﬂow near the bottom of cyclone outlet duct and

exchange ﬂow between outer and inner vortex ﬂow on the effective 1=2

residence time. In order to describe gas-particle separation in cy- V cs

Rw ¼ ð5Þ

clone separators as accurate and simple as possible, this work fo- pH

cuses on developing a simpliﬁed theoretical model for predicting

where l is called as the natural vortex length of cyclone separator. It

cyclone efﬁciency based on the time-of-ﬂight model. The model is

is deﬁned as the vertical distance from the bottom of the vortex

established based on the revised cyclone diameter and effective res-

idence time. Subsequently, the availability of the model is evaluated

by comparison with experimental data and other classical theories

D

under the different cyclone geometries and operating conditions.

De

2. Theoretical approach

S

a

Fig. 1. To avoid the nonuniform effect on particle collection dis- b

tance caused by difference between cylindrical and conical shape,

the cylinder-conical geometry is equivalently modiﬁed as a right

H

tive volume, as shown in Fig. 2. According to the ﬁgure, the equiv-

alent cyclone radius can be calculated by:

" 2 #

pD2 h pD2 ðS þ l hÞ Dc Dc

V cs ¼ þ 1þ þ for l 6 H S ð1Þ

4 4 3 D D

1=2 B

V cs

Rw ¼ ð2Þ

pðS þ lÞ

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of typical cyclone dimensions.

B. Zhao / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 85 (2012) 171–177 173

Rw* Q and the radial gas velocity is neglected.

Re The tangential gas velocity distribution in separation region can

be obtained by a semi-empirical model proposed by Mothes and

z=0 Löfﬂer [12] with considering the wall friction:

Q

z v hw

v h ðrÞ ¼

S

ð7Þ

ðr=Rw Þ½1 þ Pð1 r=Rw Þ

0.1Q

where v hw is the tangential gas velocity in the vicinity of the real cy-

Qsf clone wall and P is the characterized angular momentum

parameter.

Quf 0.9Q H-S (if l >H-S)

Under the initial assumptions the dynamical relationship acting

l (if l H-S) or

on the particle (the drag force obeys Stokes’ law) in the radial

direction is given by:

Qdf

2

d r 18l dr v 2hp

2

þ 2

¼0 ð8Þ

dt C c qp dp dt r

2 2

be obtained by neglecting the second derivative d r=dt . Actually, it

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of modiﬁed cyclone dimensions. is equivalent to considering that the particle moves outward with

the settling velocity in the radial direction [8–13]. Therefore, we

have:

ﬁnder to the end of the vortex at which the outer vortex is reversed 2

!

or turned into the inner vortex. l is actually the effective vortex C c qp dp v 2hp ðrÞ

v rp ðrÞ ¼ ð9Þ

length in cyclone separator if it is less than the dimension H–S. 18l r

Otherwise, H–S should be the effective vortex length because it de-

pends on the geometrical dimensions of cyclone. Considering:

The most famous and widely used relation for estimating the v hp ¼ v h ð10Þ

natural vortex length is the Alexander’ formula [18]:

Eq. (9) then becomes:

!1=3 !

2

D 2

C c qp dp v 2h ðrÞ

l ¼ 2:3De ð6Þ v rp ðrÞ ¼ ð11Þ

ab 18l r

Afterward, Ji et al. [19], Büttner [20] and Qian and Zhang [21] where Cc is the Cunningham correction factor.

also proposed their expression for l, respectively. Ji’s correlation

gave qualitatively opposite trends with the experimental results

2.3. Separation efﬁciency

when used to examine the effects of De/D and D2/ab. Büttner

founded Alexander’s formula did not consider the inﬂuence of

To obtain the separation efﬁciency for cyclone separators, a con-

the inlet velocity on the natural vortex length, and suggested that

trol volume is considered as illustrated in Fig. 3. In this control vol-

l had a dependency to cyclone inlet Reynold number Rei. However,

ume, it is assumed that uncollected particles in any plane

this dependency may be obvious for the small cyclones but not for

perpendicular to the cyclone axis presents a status of complete

the industrial ones [22]. Qian et al. proposed a complex correlation

radial back-mixing, the boundary layer near the equivalent wall

which consists of 21 constant, linear, interaction and squared

is neglected and particles which move to the equivalent wall will

terms to determine l using the response surface methodology.

be trapped. If the particle concentration in the control volume is

Although including more cyclone parameters, his correlation does

c, then the particle ﬂux toward the equivalent wall is cv rp ðRw Þ.

not consider the effect of cyclone scale and particle load on l. Actu-

Therefore, over a height dz the sedimentation rate of particles at

ally, the experimental result indicated that the natural vortex

the equivalent wall is 2pRw cv rp ðRw Þdz. Correspondingly, the rate

length is highly related to the vortex instability, vortex intensity,

of particles separated from the control volume is dðpR2 w cdzÞ=dt.

underﬂow, angular momentum of the spinning vortex core and

According to particle mass balance, we have:

even particle load, etc. [22,23], besides cyclone geometrical dimen-

sions. All these factors make it difﬁcult to model the natural vortex dðpR2

w cdzÞ

length accurately. Although some semi-empirical correlations for ¼ 2pRw cv rp ðRw Þdz ð12Þ

dt

natural vortex length have been attempted by different investiga-

After simpliﬁcation and rearrangement, Eq. (12) becomes:

tors using different methods, none of the correlations ﬁt all exper-

imental data perfectly well. In terms of acceptability, availability,

universality and simplicity, Alexander’s correlation is ﬁnally

R w*

selected to determine cyclone natural vortex length in the present

work.

dz

2.2. Gas-particle dynamics c

are made: The particle is spherical in shape, the particle load is

so low that the motion of a particle is not inﬂuenced by the

presence of neighboring particle, the tangential and axial velocity Fig. 3. Control volume for particle separation model.

174 B. Zhao / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 85 (2012) 171–177

Table 1

Geometrical dimensions and operating conditions of cyclones compared in this work.

Scale Moderate Large Large Large Small Small

D (m) 0.152 0.305 0.250 0.300 0.031 0.031

De/D 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.330 0.500

a/D 0.542 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.410 0.400

b/D 0.250 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.230 0.160

S/D 0.750 0.500 0.500 0.500 1.160 0.500

H/D 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 3.050 2.500

h/D 2.000 1.500 1.500 1.500 1.450 1.000

B/D 0.083 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.480 0.375

vi (m/s) 12.20 10.00 15.20 20.18 3.35 13.33

qp(kg/m3) 1420 870 876 2700 980 1050

Cyclone I: [24]; Cyclone II: [4]; Cyclone III: [5]; Cyclone IV: [10]; Cyclone V: [25]; Cyclone VI: [26].

100 passes through the region between the gas outlet (vortex ﬁnder)

5 wall and equivalent wall. When the incoming ﬂow Q arrives at

8 4

the bottom of the gas outlet duct, about 4–16% with an average

Separation efficiency η (%)

outlet duct [23] because of the radial pressure gradient. The resi-

60 6 dence time in this part should be:

1- Barth (1956)

2

2- Leith & Licht (1971) pðR2

w Re ÞS

2 3 3- Dietz (1981) tres1 ¼ ð19Þ

40 Q

4- Mothes & Loffler (1988)

5- Li & Wang (1989) As a consequence of short-circuit ﬂow, approximate 90% of the

7 6- Iozia & Leith (1990)

20 incoming ﬂow Q continues to participate in the formation of the

7- Clift et al. (1991)

outer downward vortex ﬂow and the inner upward vortex ﬂow.

8- Present model

Experimental data If we assume that the interface between outer and inner vortex

1

0 as well as the interface between downward and upward ﬂow are

0 2 4 6 8 10 all located at r = Re, and the ﬂowrate exchanged between the outer

Particle size dp (μm) downward ﬂow Qdf and inner upward ﬂow Quf is linear [11,12],

then in the effective separation region the effective ﬂowrate is lin-

Fig. 4. Comparison of present model with experimental data from Ref. [24] and early varied from 0.9Q at the location of z = S to 0 at the location of

other theoretical models. z = S + l (if l 6 H–S) or H (if l > H–S).Taking average value of 0.9Q/2

for calculation purpose, the residence time in this part should be:

dc 2v rp ðRw Þdt

¼ ð13Þ

c Rw pðR2 2

w Re Þl

tres2 ¼ for l 6 H S ð20Þ

Integrating Eq. (13) with the boundary conditions: c = c0|t=0 and

ð0:9Q Þ=2

t = tres|c=c, yields: or

c 2v rp ðRw Þtres pðR2 2

¼ exp ð14Þ w Re ÞðH SÞ

c0 Rw tres2 ¼ for l > H S ð21Þ

ð0:9Q Þ=2

According to the deﬁnition of the particle grade separation efﬁ-

ciency in cyclone: Therefore, the total residence time tres can be estimated by:

c

g¼1 ð15Þ

c0

Combining Eqs. (14) and (15), we ﬁnally obtain the grade sepa- 100

5

ration efﬁciency model:

Separation efficiency η (%)

2v rp ðRw Þt res 80

g ¼ 1 exp ð16Þ

Rw

where v rp ðRw Þ is the particle settling velocity at the equivalent wall 60 1- Barth (1956)

and is calculated according to Eq. (11): 2- Leith & Licht (1971)

2 4 6 3 3- Dietz (1981)

2

! 40 4- Mothes & Loffler (1988)

C c qp dp v 2

h ðRw Þ

v rp ðRw Þ ¼ ð17Þ 5- Li & Wang (1989)

18l Rw 8 6- Iozia & Leith (1990)

20 7 7- Clift et al. (1991)

where v h ðRw Þ can be calculated according to Eq. (7): 8- Present model

1 Experimental data

v hw 0

v h ðRw Þ ¼ ð18Þ 0 2 4 6 8 10

ðRw =Rw Þ½1 þ Pð1 Rw =Rw Þ

Particle size dp (μm)

tres is the total residence time of gas ﬂow. To analyze tres the gas

ﬂow distribution in the modiﬁed cyclone is also indicated in Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Comparison of present model with experimental data from Ref. [4] and other

It can be seen that the incoming ﬂow Q is unchanged during it theoretical models.

B. Zhao / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 85 (2012) 171–177 175

100 100

5

1

Separation efficiency η (%)

80 80

6 8 8 3

60 60 1- Barth (1956)

1- Barth (1956) 4

2- Leith & Licht (1971) 2- Leith & Licht (1971)

2 3 3- Dietz (1981) 2 7 3- Dietz (1981)

40 4 40

4- Mothes & Loffler (1988) 4- Mothes & Loffler (1988)

5- Li & Wang (1989) 6 5- Li & Wang (1989)

7 6- Iozia & Leith (1990) 6- Iozia & Leith (1990)

20 20 7- Clift et al. (1991)

7- Clift et al. (1991)

8- Present model 8- Present model

5 Experimental data

1 Experimental data 0

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Fig. 6. Comparison of present model with experimental data from Ref. [5] and other Fig. 8. Comparison of present model with experimental data from Ref. [25] and

theoretical models. other theoretical models.

5

and experimental data are illustrated in Figs. 4–9, respectively.

The evaluation parameter, mean squared errors (MSEs) of efﬁ-

Separation efficiency η (%)

3 P

are deﬁned as E2g ¼ 1n ni¼1 ðgi g

^ i Þ2 , are listed in Table 2. It can be

8

seen that, in these cases, one particular model may agree better

60 1- Barth (1956) with the speciﬁc experimental data than the other models but

6 7 2- Leith & Licht (1972)

none of the models can perfectly match the separation efﬁciency

4 3- Dietz (1981)

40 4- Mothes & Loffler (1988) for all cyclone separator with different geometrical designs and dif-

5- Li & Wang (1989) ferent operating conditions. The present model, however, still

2 6- Iozia & Leith (1990) shows considerable agreement with the experimental results,

20 7- Clift et al. (1991) although it also employs the assumption of completely radial

8- Present model back-mixing for particles. According to Figs. 4–9 and Table 2, it

1 Experimental data

0 can be found that at least in the experimental cases currently used,

0 2 4 6 8 10 the present model and some classical models including Barth,

Mothes & Löfﬂer, Iozia & Leith and Li & Wang have the better per-

Particle size dp (μm) formance on prediction of cyclone efﬁciency than other models.

Comparably, a relatively moderate accuracy for efﬁciency predic-

Fig. 7. Comparison of present model with experimental data from Ref. [10] and

tion is given by the Leith and Licht’s model, a most popular cyclone

other theoretical models.

efﬁciency model. The prediction discrepancy may be attributed to

the rough estimation of residence time for gas ﬂow. The separation

efﬁciency calculated by this model also appears to have underesti-

t res ¼ tres1 þ t res2 ð22Þ

mation for larger particles and overestimation for smaller size par-

ticles. The Clift et al.’s model revised the residence time for gas

3. Results and discussion ﬂow as approximately twice as that of Leith and Licht, but it still

100 5

model, the separation efﬁciency curves for different cyclones are

computed and compared with the experimental data in the present

Separation efficiency η (%)

Dirgo and Leith [4], Iozia and Leith [5], Zhao [10], Kim and Lee

[25] and Xiang et al. [26], include different scales which are conﬁg-

60 1- Barth (1956)

ured with the different geometrical dimensions and operated in

8 4 2- Leith & Licht (1971)

different work conditions. Speciﬁcally, the diameter of the cyclones

2 3- Dietz (1981)

ranges from 0.031 to 0.305 m and the inlet velocity ranges from 40 4- Mothes & Loffler (1988)

1 7

3.35 to 20.18 m/s, as shown in Table 1. Besides the present model, 5- Li & Wang (1989)

other representative cyclone separation models are employed for 3 6- Iozia & Leith (1990)

20 7- Clift et al. (1991)

comparison and evaluation. These models were developed using

8- Present model

different methods with different simpliﬁed assumptions, including 6 Experimental data

the model of Barth [2], Leith and Licht [8], Dietz [11], Mothes and 0

Löfﬂer [12], Li and Wang [13], Iozia and Leith [5] and Clift et al. [9]. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

All models were coded and implemented on a computer with the Particle size dp (μm)

following conﬁgurations: processor, Inter(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU

P8700 (2.53 GHz); memory, 4.00 GB (DDR2-800 2 2 GB); hard Fig. 9. Comparison of Present Model with Experimental Data from Ref. [26] and

drive, 400 GB (5400 rpm). Other Theoretical Models.

176 B. Zhao / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 85 (2012) 171–177

Table 2

Comparison of mean squared error (MSE) of efﬁciency between theoretical model and experimental data.

[8] 0.0139 0.0994 0.0542 0.0273 0.0036 0.0637 0.0480

[11] 0.0344 0.0615 0.0152 0.0324 0.0095 0.0197 0.0264

[12] 0.0096 0.0266 0.0075 0.0007 0.0317 0.0282 0.0198

[5] 0.0381 0.0277 0.0053 0.0081 0.0059 0.0062 0.0128

[13] 0.0457 0.0198 0.0163 0.0090 0.0029 0.0154 0.0162

[9] 0.1034 0.1451 0.0901 0.1187 0.0575 0.0306 0.0829

Present model 0.0123 0.0316 0.0045 0.0055 0.0008 0.0326 0.0158

Cyclone I: [24]; Cyclone II: [4]; Cyclone III: [5]; Cyclone IV: [10]; Cyclone V: [25]; Cyclone VI: [26].

presents relatively poor prediction for cyclone efﬁciency because it can be accurately modeled. Moreover, due to the limitation of

did not take into consideration the effect of conical shape on the assumptions, the present model is merely suitable to be applied

average distance that particles move to the wall. As important hy- in the dilute, instead of dense gas-particle two-phase ﬂow separa-

brid multi-region models, the Dietz’s and Mothes & Löfﬂer’s mod- tion in cyclones. In the later occasion, the effects of particle load,

els applied the different simpliﬁed methods to develop their agglomeration and collision on separation performance can not

models, respectively. For the large and moderate scale cyclones, be easily ignored.

the Mothes and Löfﬂer’s model has good performance on

prediction of cyclone separation efﬁciency while the Dietz’s model 4. Conclusions

provides the low prediction on separation efﬁciency due to not

considering the effect of radial particle dispersion and re- A new simple theoretical separation model is proposed to deter-

entrainment at the interface of adjacent region. But for the small mine the collection efﬁciency for cyclone separators. The model

cyclones, on account of both the short natural vortex length and considers the effects of the cyclone geometrical shape and the

the weak turbulent dispersion the Dietz’s model appears to be effective residence time affected by the short-circuit ﬂow and the

superior to the Mothes and Löfﬂer’s model. As a whole, the particle exchange ﬂow on the gas-particle separation process. The result

separation efﬁciencies by the present model are consistent with demonstrates that the present model has considerable usefulness

that by the Iozia and Leith’s model, a modiﬁed Barth’s model, and reliability when compared with the experimental data as well

which also shows the enormous usefulness for the cyclone separa- as several classical models on the prediction for cyclone efﬁciency.

tor with the different operating conditions in the present cases. Nevertheless, additional work is still necessary to improve the

This result may be related to the model parameters (particle cut present model and make it more efﬁcient and extensive, particu-

diameter and slope exponent) which are obtained from the ﬁtting larly in the operating conditions of high temperature, high pres-

for large number of experimental data using regression analysis. sure and high particle load, etc.

Additionally, although the Li and Wang’s model gives a similar pre-

diction with the Barth’s model, further investigation indicates that Acknowledgement

it is in conﬂict with the experimental and other theoretical results

when being used to exame the effect of variation of cyclone outlet This work was sponsored by Shanghai Natural Science Founda-

diameter on separation efﬁciency [27]. Since this model simpliﬁed tion (No. 08ZR1415100).

the cyclone ﬂow as 2D (tangential and radial direction) curved

channel ﬂow, the increasing gas outlet diameter shortens the radial References

separation distance of the curved channel. As a consequence, their

model gives a high prediction on separation efﬁciency. In fact, [1] C.E. Lapple, Gravity and centrifugal separation, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. Q. 11

(1950) 40–48.

however, increasing gas outlet diameter increases the possibility

[2] W. Barth, Design and layout of the cyclone separator on the basis of new

of particle escape from gas outlet duct via short-circuit ﬂow, result- investigations, B.W.K. 8 (1956) 1–9.

ing in the decrease of separation efﬁciency. [3] E. Muschelknautz, M. Trefz, Pressure drop and separation efﬁciency in

It should be noted that in cyclone the particle dispersion and re- cyclones, VDI-Heat Atlas Lj (1992) 1–8.

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