1 views

Uploaded by haloanes

Cryptographie

- Answer Key _ Linear Models
- Introduction to neutrosophic Nnearrings
- Prime Yeter
- Algebra
- Channel Coding Basics.pdf
- Ring Homomorphisms and i So Morphis Ms
- THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MATEMATIKA GASING ON MULTIPLICATION CONCEPT TOWARD INTEREST, STUDY MOTIVATION, AND STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOME
- Peterson Brown 61
- Notes Local Rings
- ComAlgSols
- Smarandache Idempotents infinite ring Zn and in Group Ring ZnG
- SRCC GBO 2010 Analysis MBAGuru Answer Key
- Robotics1_Midterm_Test_2016-17_16.11.18
- Factoring Flow Chart
- Exam Timetable
- Rubric 972
- LinearAlgebra1_FinalExamSample.pdf
- jakubac lessplan
- Paper 22
- CoE Curriculum

You are on page 1of 4

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2848942, IEEE

Communications Letters 1

Hai Q. Dinh, Abhay Kumar Singh , Narendra Kumar, and Songsak Sriboonchitta

Abstract—In this article, we discuss the construction of all constacyclic II. Preliminaries

codes over R = Z4 [v]/hv 2 − vi. Some significant properties of linear codes

over R have been explored. The self-dual constacyclic codes for odd length Let R = Z4 + vZ4 , with v 2 = v, be a commutative principal ideal ring

over R are determined. Several examples of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes and with characteristic 4. The finite ring R is of cardinality 16 with 9 different

(3 + 2v)-constacyclic codes over R, whose Z4 -images are new Z4 -linear codes ideals, which are {h1i, h1 + vi, hv + 2i, hv − 1i, h2i, hvi, h2v − 2i, h2vi, h0i}.

with better parameters according to [16], are provided. The ring has precisely two maximal ideals hv + 1i, hv + 2i. The quotient

Index Terms—Gray map, Linear codes, Constacyclic codes, Self-dual codes rings R/hv + 1i and R/hv + 2i are isomorphic to Z2 . The units of R are

1, 3, 1 + 2v, 3 + 2v.

A linear code C of length n over R is a R-submodule of Rn and the

I. Introduction elements of C are called codewords. A linear code C is cyclic if whenever

During the last 50 years, cyclic codes have been well studied because (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) ∈ C, then (cn−1 , c0 , . . . , cn−2 ) is also in C. Let β be an

of their algebraic structures which attracted many researchers to study it unit of R, we define the β-constacyclic shift on Rn as

extensively. In particular, Pless et al. [20] discussed Z4 cyclic codes. They

proved the existence of idempotent generators for certain cyclic codes. The νβ (y0 , y1 , . . . , yn−1 ) = (βyn−1 , y0 , y1 , . . . , yn−2 ),

ring R = Z4 [v]/hv 2 − vi has been recently used as the code-alphabet by many a linear code C is called a β-constacyclic code if νβ (C) = C. If β = 1,

authors. Especially, Bandi et al. [3] explored the linear codes over the ring R then β-constacyclic code is said to be cyclic code, and when β = −1, then

and discussed some important properties of these codes. Recently, Gao et al. β-constacyclic code becomes negacyclic code.

[17] discussed several classes of linear codes over R, including a consideration Each codeword c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) is conventionally recognized via

of the construction of cyclic codes over R. They studied quadratic residue codes its polynomial form c(x) = c0 + c1 x + · · · + cn−1 xn−1 , and the code C is

over R and also obtained several new Z4 -linear codes from R. identified with the collection of all polynomial forms of its codewords. Then,

Constacyclic codes have an important contribution to algebraic coding xc(x) is the β-constacyclic shift of c(x) in the quotient ring hxR[x] n −βi . Therefore,

theory in view of their rich algebraic structures. It is worth noing that recently, we have the following well known result.

constacyclic codes have been used as applications on designing DNA codes for

Proposition 2.1. [6] Let C be a linear code of length n over R. Then C is

DNA computing (see, for example, [13]–[15].) The utmost research focused

on the study of constacyclic codes by using finite chain rings as the alphabet, a λ-constacyclic over R if and only if C is an ideal of hxR[x] n −λi .

for instance in [5], [6], [9]–[11], [20], [21]. In particular, Dinh et.al. [6] Let h = (h0 , h1 , . . . , hn−1 ), k = (k0 , k1 , . . . , kn−1 ) ∈ Rn , the inner

scrutinized the finite chain rings, where they constructed the cyclic codes product is defined as h · k = h0 k0 + h1 k1 + · · · + hn−1 kn−1 . We can say that

and also studied the structure of negacyclic codes. In 2006, Dinh investigated h and k are orthogonal if h · k = 0. The dual of C, denoted by C ⊥ is defined

the repeated root constacyclic codes of length 2s over Z2a in [7]. In this as

series, Dinh [8] considered the ring Z2a of length 2s , where they precisely C ⊥ = {h | h · k = 0, ∀k ∈ C}.

computed the different type of distances of negacyclic codes for such ring.

Later, Dinh [9] considered the Galois ring GR(R,m) of length 2s and conferred A linear code C is said to be self-orthogonal if C ⊆ C ⊥ , and if C = C ⊥ ,

all constacyclic codes over such ring. In 2010, Dinh [10] pondered over the then C is self-dual.

chain ring Fpm + uFpm , where they studied constacyclic codes of length

ps . Moreover, the Hamming distances of such constacyclic codes were also III. A G RAY MAP

obtained. Again, Dinh et.al considered the ring Fpm + uFpm and studied the Let ξ be a Gray map, which maps the elements of R to elements of Z24 , and

construction of constacyclic codes for various lengths in [5], [11]. Several is given as ξ(a + bv) = (a, 2b + a). Note that the Gray map ξ is not bijective,

authors also examined the situation where the code-alphabets are non-chain though it is linear. Recently, some authors studied the constacyclic codes over

rings to derive the structures of constacyclic codes for significant applications Z4 [u]/(u2 −1) by taking various Gray maps in [?], [22]. It is worth noting that

(see, e.g. [2], [4], [19], [22], [24], [25].) In 2011, Zhu et al. [24] discussed the our Gray map is different from their Gray maps. The Gray map can be extended

construction of (1 − 2v)- constacyclic codes over the ring Fp + vFp , v 2 = v naturally ξ : Rn → Z2n 4 , and is given by ξ(k) = (a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 +

and their dual codes were obtained. Zhang et al. [25] again considered the a1 , . . . , an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 ) for any element k = (k0 , k1 , . . . , kn−1 ) ∈ Rn .

ring Fp + vFp , v 2 = v to explore the structure of polynomial generators of all The Lee weight wL (a) in Z4 is given as min{a, 4 − a}. The Lee weight of

constacyclic codes and their duals. Later, Bayram et.al [2], preferred another any element of R is defined as wL (a + bv) = wL (a) + wLP (2b + a). The

non-chain ring alphabet and explored the frame of constacyclic codes over such Lee weight of a codeword c ∈ Rn is given by wL (c) = n−1

i=0 wL (ci ).

ring. Bayram et. al. [4] considered the ring F4 + vF4 with v 2 = v, where they Let h and k be two codewords, the Lee distance between them is defined as

studied various codes (linear, constacyclic and cyclic). These works motivate dL (h, k) = wL (h − k). Using the definitions of the Lee weight and the Gray

us to study all constacyclic codes over Z4 +vZ4 with v 2 = v via a constructive map, we obtain some useful results.

Gray map, and their Z4 -images. As an application, we will obtain numerous Theorem 3.1. The Gray map ξ is Z4 -linear, and it is a distance-preserving

new Z4 -linear codes, among them, many have better parameters than those

map from Rn (Lee distance) to Z2n 4 (Lee distance).

known currently.

Proof: Let h = (h0 , h1 , . . . , hn−1 ), k = (k0 , k1 , . . . , kn−1 ) be any

The rest of the article is arranged in the following manner. In Section 2, two elements of Rn , where hi = a1i + vb1i , ki = a2i + vb2i and

some basic properties and results of codes over R are discussed. In Section 3, a1i , b1i , a2i , b2i ∈ Z4 for all i ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , n − 1}. For any l1 , l2 ∈ Z4 ,

we define a new Gray map ξ, which maps the elements of R to the elements we have ξ(l1 h+l2 k) = ξ(l1 (a10 +vb10 , a11 +vb12 , . . . , a1(n−1) +vb1(n−1) )+

of Z24 , and some properties of the Gray map ξ are obtained. In Section 4, l2 (a20 + vb20 , a21 + vb21 , . . . , a2(n−1) + vb2(n−1) ))

the structure of cyclic codes over R is provided. We study the structure of the = ξ(l1 a10 +l2 a20 +v(l1 b10 +l2 b20 ), . . . , l1 a1(n−1) +l2 a2(n−1) +v(l1 b1(n−1) +

(1+2v)-constacyclic codes over R in Section 5. For the shift constant −1, they l2 b2(n−1) ))

become negacyclic codes, which are considered in Section 6 by introducing a = (l1 a10 + l2 a20 , 2(l1 b10 + l2 b20 ) + l1 a10 + l2 a20 ), . . . , (l1 a1(n−1) +

permuted version of the Gray map constructed in Section 3. In Section 7, the l2 a2(n−1) , 2(l1 b1(n−1) + l2 b2(n−1) ) + l1 a1(n−1) + l2 a2(n−1) )

structure of the (3 + 2v)-constacyclic codes over R is discussed and various = l1 (a10 , 2b10 + a10 , a11 , 2b11 + a11 , . . . , a1(n−1) , 2b1(n−1) + a1(n−1) ) +

examples of such codes are provided. The self-dual codes of Θ-constacyclic l2 (a20 , 2b20 + a20 , a21 , 2b21 + a21 , . . . , a2(n−1) , 2b2(n−1) + a2(n−1) )

codes over R are conferred in Section 8. We conclude the paper in Section 9. = l1 ξ(h) + l2 ξ(k). That implies ξ is Z4 -linear.

Now h − k = (h0 − k0 , h1 − k1 , . . . , h(n−1) − k(n−1) ) and ξ(h − k) =

H. Q. Dinh is with the Division of Computational Mathematics and Engineering, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang

University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and the Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, ξ(h) − ξ(k). Using the definition of Lee distance, we get

Vietnam; and the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Kent State University, Warren, OH 44483 USA (e-mail: dinhquanghai@tdt.edu.vn).

dL (h, k) = wL (h − k) = n−1

P

A. K. Singh is with the Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology(ISM), Dhanbad, India (e-mail: i=0 wL (hi − ki )

abhay@iitism.ac.in).

= n−1

P

Narendra Kumar is with the Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology(ISM), Dhanbad, India (e-mail: w L ((a1i + vb1i ) − (a2i + vb2i ))

narendravermabhu@gmail.com). Pi=0

S. Sriboonchitta is with the Faculty of Economics, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 52000, Thailand (e-mail: songsakecon@gmail.com). = n−1i=0 w (a

L 1i − a 2i + v(b1i − b2i ))

1089-7798 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2848942, IEEE

2 Communications Letters

= n−1

P

i=0 wL (a1i − a2i ) + wL (2(b1i − b2i ) + a1i − a2i ) For odd length n, the following result provides the structure of cyclic

= wL (ξ(h − k)) codes over R.

= wL (ξ(h) − ξ(k)) = dL (ξ(h), ξ(k)). Theorem 4.4. [17] Let C = vC1 ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2 be a cyclic code of length n

Hence, the result follows. over R. Then C = hvf1 (x)g1 (x) + (1 + 3v)f2 (x)g2 (x)i ⊕ h2vf1 (x)h1 (x) +

The Euclidean weight of a + vb ∈ R is given as wE (a + vb) = 2(1 + 3v)f2 (x)h2 (x)i, where fi (x), gi (x), hi (x), i = 1, 2 are unique monic

wE (a) + wE (2b + a), where wE (a) = min{a2 , (4 − a)2 } and wE (2b + a) = polynomials over Z4 such that f1 (x)g1 (x)h1 (x) = f2 (x)g2 (x)h2 (x) =

min{(2b + a)2 , (4 − 2b − a)2 }. Note that the Euclidean weight of a vector xn − 1, and C1 = hf1 (x)g1 (x)) ⊕ (2f1 (x)h1 (x)i, C2 = hf2 (x)g2 (x)i ⊕

c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) ∈ Rn is the rational sum of the Euclidean weights of h2f2 (x)h2 (x)i over Z4 .

its components. Corollary 4.5. [17] The quotient ring R[x]/hxn − 1i is a principal ideal ring.

Theorem 3.2. Let ξ be the Gray map from Rn to Z2n 4 . Then it is Euclidean

distance-preserving. V. (1 + 2v)- CONSTACYCLIC CODES

Proof: From Theorem 3.1, the Gray map ξ is Z4 -linear. Then, we have Consider the unit 1+2v ∈ R as the shift constant, the (1+2v)-constacyclic

h − k = (h0 − k0 , h1 − k1 , . . . , h(n−1) − k(n−1) ) and ξ(h − k) = ξ(h) − ξ(k). R[x]

codes over R are recognized with ideals in the quotient ring hxn −(1+2v)i . Our

Using the definition of Euclidean distance, we get

main goal in this section is to discuss the Z4 -images of such constacyclic codes

dE (h, k) = wE (h − k) of odd length n over R via Gray map ξ. For this purpose, we first start with

= n−1 the following important observation.

P

i=0 wE (hi − ki )

Pn−1 Proposition 5.1. Let π be the (1 + 2v)-constacyclic shift of Rn and ρ be the

= i=0 wE ((a1i + vb1i ) − (a2i + vb2i )) cyclic shift of Z2n n 2n 2

4 . If ξ is the Gray map from R to Z4 , then ξπ(k) = ρ ξ(k)

n

= n−1 for any k ∈ R .

P

i=0 wE ((a1i − a2i ) + v(b1i − b2i ))

Pn−1 Proof: Consider k = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) is in Rn , where ci = ai + bi v

= i=0 wE (a1i − a2i ) + wE (2(b1i − b2i ) + (a1i − a2i )) for some ai , bi ∈ Z4 . We have,

And ξ(k) = (a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , . . . , an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 ),

wE (ξ(h − k)) = n−1

P

i=0 wE (ξ(hi − ki )) ρξ(k) = (2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 ,

Pn−1

= i=0 wE (ξ((a1i + vb1i ) − (a2i + vb2i ))) . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 , an−1 ),

= n−1

P

i=0 wE (ξ((a1i − a2i ) + v(b1i − b2i ))) and

ρ2 ξ(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 ,

Pn−1

= i=0 wE ((a1i − a2i ), 2(b1i − b2i ) + (a1i − a2i ))

= n−1

P . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ).

i=0 wE (a1i −a2i ) + wE (2(b1i − b2i ) + (a1i − a )),

2i

where wE (a1i − a2i ) = min |a1i − a 2i | 2

, |4 − (a 1i − a 2i )|2

and On the contrary,

2

wE (2(b1i − b2i ) + (a1i − a2i )) = min |(2(b 1i − b 2i ) + (a 1i − a 2i ))| , π(k) = ((1 + 2v)cn−1 , c0 , . . . , cn−2 )

2

|4 − ((2(b1i − b2i ) + (a1i − a2i )))| . Thus, = ((1 + 2v)(an−1 + bn−1 v), a0 + b0 v, . . . , an−2 + bn−2 v)

dE (h, k) = wE (ξ(h − k)) = wE (ξ(h) − ξ(k)) = dE (ξ(h), ξ(k)).

= (an−1 + (3bn−1 + 2an−1 )v, a0 + b0 v, . . . , an−2 + bn−2 v).

Hence,

IV. C YCLIC CODES

ξπ(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 ,

Let C1 and C2 be linear codes of length n over Z4 , which are defined as

C1 = {x ∈ Zn n

4 | ∃y ∈ Z4 , vx + (1 + 3v)y ∈ C} and C2 = {y ∈ Z4 | ∃x ∈

n . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ) = ρ2 ξ(k).

n

Z4 , vx+(1+3v)y ∈ C}. Then the code C is written as C = vC1 ⊕(1+3v)C2 . Theorem 5.2. Let C be a (1 + 2v)-constacyclic code over R. Then the Gray

First, we discuss some basic results of cyclic codes over R, which administers image ξ(C) is a 2-quasi-cyclic code over Z4 of length 2n.

the construction of cyclic codes over R in terms of cyclic codes over Z4 .

Proof: Utilizing the Gray map ξ and the (1+2v)-constacyclic shift π, we

Theorem 4.1. A linear code over R can be represented as C = vC1 ⊕ (1 + have ξπ(C) = ξ(C). By Proposition 5.1, we have ρ2 ξ(C) = ξπ(C) = ξ(C).

3v)C2 . Then, C is cyclic if and only if C1 and C2 are cyclic over Z4 . Therefore, the Gray image ξ(C) is a 2-quasi-cyclic code over Z4 of length

Proof: Let (a0 , a1 , . . . , an−1 ) ∈ C1 and (b0 , b1 , . . . , bn−1 ) ∈ 2n.

C2 . Suppose ki = vai + (1 + 3v)bi , for i = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1, For odd length, we spend the remaining of this section to study the

then (k0 , k1 , . . . , kn−1 ) ∈ C. Using the definition of cyclic code structure of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes over R. Here, we describe a more

C, we have (kn−1 , k0 , . . . , kn−2 ) = v(an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 ) + (1 + exclusive shape for the generator of the Z4 -image. Using the fact that

3v)(bn−1 , b0 , . . . , bn−2 ) ∈ C. Hence (an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 ) ∈ C1 and (1+2v)−1 = 1+2v, we have (1+2v)n = 1+2v, if n is odd and (1+2v)n = 1,

(bn−1 , b0 , . . . , bn−2 ) ∈ C2 , which means C1 and C2 are both cyclic codes if n is even. Next, we describe the construction of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes

over Z4 . Conversely, assume that C1 and C2 are cyclic codes over Z4 . over R by giving the following isomorphism.

Let (k0 , . . . , kn−2 , kn−1 ) ∈ C, where ki = vai + (1 + 3v)bi for i =

0, 1, . . . , n − 1. Since (a0 , a1 , . . . , an−1 ) ∈ C1 and (b0 , b1 , . . . , bn−1 ) ∈ C2 , Proposition 5.3. Let Φ : hxR[x] R[x]

n −1i → hxn −(1+2v)i be defined by Φ(c(x)) =

it follows that (an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 ) ∈ C1 and (bn−1 , b0 , . . . , bn−2 ) ∈ c((1 + 2v)x). If the length n is odd, then Φ is a ring isomorphism.

C2 . Hence, (kn−1 , k0 , . . . , kn−2 ) = v(an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 ) + (1 + Proof: Observe that

3v)(bn−1 , b0 , . . . , bn−2 ) ∈ vC1 ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2 = C. Hence, C is a cyclic

Φ(xn − 1) = (1 + 2v)n xn − 1 = (1 + 2v)xn − 1

code over R.

If ρ denotes the cyclic shift on Z2n 4 , then we have the following result.

= (1 + 2v)(xn − (1 + 2v)) = 0.

Proposition 4.2. Let n-tuple k ∈ Rn , then ξρ(k) = ρ2 ξ(k). The remaining proof is obvious.

Proof: Let k = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) be an element of Rn , Corollary 5.4. For odd length n, there is a one-to-one correspondence between

where ci = ai + bi v for some ai , bi ∈ Z4 . We have, ρ(k) = the ideals of hxR[x] R[x]

n −1i and the ideals of hxn −(1+2v)i .

(cn−1 , c0 , . . . , cn−2 ) = (an−1 + bn−1 v, a0 + b0 v, . . . , an−2 + bn−2 v) and

ξρ(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ). Let Φ̄ be the permutation of Rn as the polynomial form analogous to the

Conversely, ξ(k) = (a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , . . . , an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 ), ring isomorphism Φ. We define it as follows Φ̄(c0 , c1 , ..., cn−1 ) = (c0 , (1 +

ρξ(k) = (2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + 2v)c1 , (1 + 2v)2 c2 , ..., (1 + 2v)n−1 cn−1 ). Now, we are ready for the next

an−2 , an−1 ), and ρ2 ξ(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + result.

a1 , . . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ). Which implies that ξρ(k) = ρ2 ξ(k). Lemma 5.5. Let C be a linear code of odd length n over R. Then C is cyclic

Proposition 4.2 gives us a narration of the Gray Z4 -images of cyclic codes. if and only if Φ̄(C) is a (1 + 2v)- constacyclic code of length n over R.

These Z4 -images are described in the following result. Proof: As Φ̄ is the polynomial form analogous to the ring isomorphism

Proposition 4.3. Let C be a cyclic code of length n over R. Then its Gray Φ, a cyclic code C over R is an ideal of hxR[x] n −1i and its image Φ̄(C) is an

R[x]

image ξ(C) is a 2-quasi-cyclic code of length 2n over Z4 . ideal of hxn −(1+2v)i . That means Φ̄(C) is a (1 + 2v)-constacyclic code of

Proof: The proof is similar to [23, Theorem 9]. length n over R.

1089-7798 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2848942, IEEE

Communications Letters 3

Next, we describe the generator of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes of odd For odd length, we describe the construction of (3+2v)-constacyclic codes

length n over R. over R. Using the fact that (3 + 2v)−1 = 3 + 2v, we get (3 + 2v)n = 3 + 2v,

Theorem 5.6. Let n be odd number and C = vC1 ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2 be a (1 + for n is odd and (3 + 2v)n = 1, for n is even. Similar to Proposition 5.3, we

R[x]

2v)-constacyclic code of length n over R. Then C is an ideal of hxn −(1+2v)i have the following isomorphism.

generated by C = hvk1 (x̄)(p1 (x̄) + 2) + (1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)(p2 (x̄) + 2)i ⊕ Proposition 7.3. Let Ψ : hxR[x] R[x]

n −1i → hxn −(3+2v)i be defined by Ψ(c(x)) =

h2vk1 (x̄)l1 (x̄) + 2(1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)l2 (x̄)i , where x̄ = (1 + 2v)x, and c((3+2v)x). If the length n is odd, then Ψ is a ring isomorphism. In particular,

ki (x), pi (x), li (x), i = 1, 2 are unique monic polynomials over Z4 such that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the ideals of hxR[x]

n −1i and the

k1 (x)p1 (x)l1 (x) = k2 (x)p2 (x)l2 (x) = xn − 1 and C1 = hk1 (x)p1 (x)i ⊕ R[x]

h2k1 (x)l1 (x)i , C2 = hk2 (x)p2 (x)i ⊕ h2k2 (x)l2 (x)i over Z4 . ideals of hxn −(3+2v)i .

For odd length n, we define the permutation Ψ̄ of Rn by

VI. N EGACYCLIC CODES Ψ̄(c0 , c1 , ..., cn−1 ) = (c0 , (3 + 2v)c1 , (3 + 2v)2 c2 , ..., (3 + 2v)n−1 cn−1 ). The

following is straightforward.

The permuted version of ξ is defined as ξı (r) = Lemma 7.4. Let C be a linear code of odd length n over R. Then C is cyclic

(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an−1 , 2b0 + b0 , 2b1 + a1 , . . . , 2bn−1 + an−1 ). Using if and only if Ψ̄(C) is a (3 + 2v)- constacyclic code of length n over R.

the permuted version of ξ, we study the constructions of the negacyclic codes

For odd length n, we describe the generators for (3 + 2v)-constacyclic

over R. A quasi-twisted operator ϑl on (Zn l

4 ) is given as codes over R in the following result.

ϑl (c(1) | (c(2) | . . . | (c(l) ) = (π(c(1) ) | π(c(2) ) | . . . | π(c(l) )), Theorem 7.5. Let C be a (3 + 2v)-constacyclic code of odd length n over

R[x]

where π is a constacyclic shift operator. A code of length ml over Z4 is said R such that C = vC1 ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2 . Then C is an ideal of hxn −(3+2v)i

to be quasi-twisted (QT) code of index l if ϑl (C) = C. In the special cases, generated by C = hvk1 (x̄)(p1 (x̄) + 2) + (1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)(p2 (x̄) + 2)i ⊕

where the constacyclic shift operator π is the cyclic (negacyclic) shift, a QT h2vk1 (x̄)l1 (x̄) + 2(1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)l2 (x̄)i , where x̄ = (3 + 2v)x, and

code is called a quasi-cyclic (quasi-negacyclic) code of index l. ki (x), pi (x), li (x), i = 1, 2 are unique monic polynomials such that

k1 (x)p1 (x)l1 (x) = k2 (x)p2 (x)l2 (x) = xn − 1 and C1 = hk1 (x)p1 (x)i ⊕

Here, we use the shift constant −1, i.e. β-constacyclic codes become

h2k1 (x)l1 (x)i , C2 = hk2 (x)p2 (x)i ⊕ h2k2 (x)l2 (x)i over Z4 .

negacylic codes. We explain the construction of negacyclic codes over R. For

this purpose, we first verify the following result.

VIII. S ELF - DUAL CODES OF Θ- CONSTACYCLIC CODES OVER R

Proposition 6.1. Let ξı be a permuted version of the Gray map and π be the

negacyclic shift operator. Then ξı π(k) = ϑ2 ξı (k), for any k ∈ Rn . Let Θ be a unit of the type 1+2v or 3+2v. In this section, we investigate

Proof: Let k = (k0 , k1 , . . . , kn−1 ) ∈ Rn , where each ki = ai + the structure of self-dual codes of Θ-constacyclic codes over R. First, we recall

bi v for some ai , bi ∈ Z4 . ξı (k) = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an−1 , 2b0 + a0 , 2b1 + the following result.

a1 , . . . , 2bn−1 + an−1 ) and ϑ2 ξı (k) = (3an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 , 3(2bn−1 + Theorem 8.1. ( [9], [10]) Let C be a Θ-constacyclic code of length n over R.

an−1 ), 2b1 + a1 , . . . , 2bn−2 + an−2 ). On the other hand, π(k) = Then its dual code C ⊥ is a Θ−1 -constacyclic code over R. The structure of

(3.kn−1 , k0 , . . . , kn−2 ) = (3an−1 + 3vbn−1 , a0 + vb0 , . . . , an−2 + vbn−2 ) the dual code C ⊥ of C can be explained in the following result.

and ξı π(k) = (3.an−1 , a0 , . . . , an−2 , 3(2bn−1 +an−1 ), 2b0 +a0 , . . . , 2bn−2 +

Proposition 8.2. Let C be a linear code of length n over R such that C =

an−2 ). Therefore, ξı π(k) = ϑ2 ξı (k). vC1 ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2 , where C1 and C2 are linear codes over Z4 . Then C ⊥ =

Theorem 6.2. If C is a negacyclic code over R, then ξı (C) is a vC1⊥ ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2⊥ .

quasi-negacyclic code of index 2 over Z4 . Proof: Define C10 = {x ∈ Zn n

4 : ∃ y ∈ Z4 , v(x)+(1+3v)(y) ∈ C }, and

⊥

Proof: Clearly, (ξı π)(C) = ξı (C). From Proposition 6.1, we have C2 = {x+y ∈ Z4 : v(x)+(1+3v)(y) ∈ C }. Then C = vC1 ⊕(1+3v)C20

0 n ⊥ ⊥ 0

(ξı π)(C) = ϑ2 (ξı (C)) = ξı (C). Therefore, ξı (C) is a quasi-negacyclic code and this expression is unique. If x01 ∈ C10 , then there exists y10 ∈ Zn 4 such

of index 2 over Z4 . that vx01 + (1 + 3v)y10 ∈ C ⊥ . That means there exist x1 ∈ C1 and y1 ∈

C2 such that [vx01 + (1 + 3v)y10 ] · [vx1 + (1 + 3v)y1 ] = 0. This implies

0 0 0 0

VII. (3 + 2v)- CONSTACYCLIC CODES vx 1 ·x1 +(1+3v)y1 ·y1 = 0, which in turn implies x1 ·x1 = 0 and y1 ·y1 = 0.

0 ⊥ 0 ⊥ ⊥

So x1 ∈ C1 , which implies C1 ⊆ C1 . Now, let x ∈ C1 , which means

Any element g ∈ R can be written as g = 3a + (2a + b)v and the Gray x ∈ Zn 4 . Next, we consider vx1 + (1 + 3v)y1 ∈ C, then vx · vx1 + (1 + 3v)y1

map ξ is given as ξ(g) = (a, 2b+a), where a, b ∈ Z4 . We study the Z4 -images = vx · x1 = 0 (Since x1 ∈ C1 ). Therefore, vx ∈ C ⊥ . So, by the definition

of (3 + 2v)-constacyclic codes of odd length n over R via the Gray map ξ. of C 0 , x ∈ C 0 , which means C ⊥ ⊆ C 0 and hence C 0 = C ⊥ . Similarly,

1 1 1 1 1 1

For this purpose, we start with an important result. C 0

= C ⊥

.

2 2

Proposition 7.1. Let π̄ be the (3 + 2v)-constacyclic shift of Rn and ρ be a The next proposition describes the self-dual codes over R.

2n 2 n

cyclic shift of Z4 . If ξ is Gray map, then ξπ̄(k) = ρ ξ(k), for any k ∈ R .

Proposition 8.3. Let C = vC1 + (1 + 3v)C2 be a Θ-constacyclic code over

Proof: Let k = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn−1 ) be in Rn , where ci = 3ai +(2ai +bi )v R. Then C is a self-dual code over R if and only if C1 and C2 are self-dual

for some ai , bi ∈ Z4 . We have, codes over Z4 .

ξ(k) = (a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , . . . , an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 ), Proof: Suppose, C1 and C2 are both self-dual codes over Z4 . Then, C1 =

C1⊥ and C2 = C2⊥ , which gives C = vC1⊥ + (1 + 3v)C2⊥ = C ⊥ .

ρξ(k) = (2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 ,

On the other hand, if C is a self-dual code, then for any c ∈ C, c =

. . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 , an−1 ), vx + (1 + 3v)y for x ∈ C1 and y ∈ C2 . But also c ∈ C ⊥ , so by the unique

ρ2 ξ(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , expression of C ⊥ , x ∈ C1⊥ and y ∈ C2⊥ . So, C1 ⊆ C1⊥ and C2 ⊆ C2⊥ . Vice

. . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ). versa, we can prove that C1⊥ ⊆ C1 and C2⊥ ⊆ C2 . Therefore, C1 = C1⊥ and

C2 = C2⊥ .

Reversely, The following result illustrates the dual of cyclic codes of odd length n

π̄(k) = ((3 + 2v)cn−1 , c0 , . . . , cn−2 ) over Z4 .

= ((3 + 2v)(3an−1 + (2an−1 + bn−1 )v), 3a0 + (2a0 + b0 )v, . . . , Lemma 8.4. [18]. If C = hf (x)g(x)i ⊕ h2f (x)h(x)i is a cyclic code

3an−2 + (2an−2 + bn−2 )v) of odd length n over Z4 with f (x)g(x)h(x) = xn − 1, then C ⊥ =

hh∗ (x)g ∗ (x)i ⊕ h2h∗ (x)f ∗ (x)i, where f ∗ (x) = ±xdeg f (x) f (x−1 ), g ∗ (x) =

= (an−1 + bn−1 v, 3a0 + (2a0 + b0 )v, . . . , 3an−2 + (2an−2 + bn−2 )v). ±xdeg g(x) g(x−1 ) and h∗ (x) = ±xdeg h(x) h(x−1 ).

Hence, Using Lemma 8.4, we study the dual codes of Θ-constacyclic codes of

ξπ̄(k) = (an−1 , 2bn−1 + an−1 , a0 , 2b0 + a0 , a1 , 2b1 + a1 , odd length n over R.

. . . , an−2 , 2bn−2 + an−2 ) = ρ2 ξ(k). Proposition 8.5. If C = hvk1 (x̄)(p1 (x̄) + 2) + (1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)(p2 (x̄) + 2)i⊕

h2vk1 (x̄)l1 (x̄) + 2(1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)l2 (x̄)i is a Θ-constacyclic code of length

Theorem 7.2. Let C be a (3 + 2v)-constacyclic code over R. Then the Gray n over R, where x̄ = (1 + 2v)x or, x̄ = (3 + 2v)x and

image ξ(C) is a 2-quasi-cyclic code over Z4 of length 2n. ki (x), pi (x), li (x), i = 1, 2 are unique monic polynomials over Z4 such

Proof: Let π̄ be the (3 + 2v)-constacyclic shift and Gray map ξ, then we that k1 (x)p1 (x)l1 (x) = k2 (x)p2 (x)l2 (x) = xn − 1 and C1 =

have ξπ̄(C) = ξ(C). From Proposition 7.1, we get ρ2 ξ(C) = ξπ̄(C) = ξ(C), hk1 (x)p1 (x)i ⊕ h2k1 (x)l1 (x)i , C2 = hk2 (x)p2 (x)i ⊕ h2k2 (x)l2 (x)i

which shows ξ(C) is a 2-quasi-cyclic code over Z4 of length 2n. over Z4 . Then C ⊥ = hvl1∗ (x̄)(p∗1 (x̄) + 2) + vl2∗ (x̄)(p∗2 (x̄) + 2)i ⊕

1089-7798 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2848942, IEEE

4 Communications Letters

h2vl1∗ (x̄)k1∗ (x̄) + 2(3 + 2v)l2∗ (x̄)k2∗ (x̄)i, where k∗ (x) = ±xdeg k(x) k(x−1 ) 7 3231 31 3121 (14, 43 27 , 4)

and ki∗ (x̄), p∗i (x̄), li∗ (x̄) are monic polynomials over Z4 . 7 3121 31 3231 (14, 43 27 , 4)

15 10231 33300111 13201 (30, 44 215 , 4)

Proof: From Theorem 8.1, if C is a Θ-constacyclic code over R, then

15 13201 33300111 10231 (30, 44 29 , 16)

the dual C ⊥ is a Θ−1 -constacyclic code over R. Moreover, from Proposition 23 321011120031 31 310023330321 (46, 411 223 , 4)

8.2, we have C ⊥ = vC1⊥ ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2⊥ . Thus, Theorem 5.6, Theorem 7.5

and Lemma 8.4 imply our result. IX. C ONCLUSION

The following result gives the self-dual cyclic codes over Z4 . In this article, linear constacyclic codes over the finite commutative

Lemma 8.6. [18] Let C = hf (x)g(x)i ⊕ h2f (x)h(x)i be a cyclic code over non-chain ring R = Z4 + vZ4 , where v 2 = v are studied by defining a new

Z4 of length n, where f (x), g(x) and h(x) are monic polynomials such that Gray map from R to Z24 . The ring R has 4 units, namely, 1, 3, 1 + 2v, and

xn − 1 = f (x)g(x)h(x). Then C is self-dual if and only if f (x) = h∗ (x) 3 + 2v, which provide 4 classes of constacyclic codes. Algebraic constructions

and g(x) = g ∗ (x). and properties of all such constacyclic codes of odd length over the ring R are

established. The self-dual codes of Θ-constacyclic codes over R are studied.

Next, we study the necessary and sufficient condition for self-dual of

As applications, we present some examples of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes and

Θ-constacyclic codes over R.

(3+2v)-constacyclic codes over R, whose Z4 -images are new Z4 -linear codes

Theorem 8.7. Let C = hvk1 (x̄)(p1 (x̄) + 2) + (1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)(p2 (x̄) + 2)i ⊕ with improved parameters according to data-base [16]. It would be interesting

h2vk1 (x̄)l1 (x̄) + 2(1 + 3v)k2 (x̄)l2 (x̄)i be a Θ-constacyclic code of length to study such constacyclic codes of even lengths.

n over R, where ki (x), pi (x), li (x), i = 1, 2 are unique monic polynomials

over Z4 such that k1 (x)p1 (x)l1 (x) = k2 (x)p2 (x)l2 (x) = xn − 1 and C1 = ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

hk1 (x)p1 (x)i ⊕ h2k1 (x)l1 (x)i , C2 = hk2 (x)p2 (x)i ⊕ h2k2 (x)l2 (x)i over Z4 . The authors would like to sincerely thank the referees for a very meticulous

Then C is self-dual if and only if k1 (x̄) = l1∗ (x̄), p1 (x̄) = p∗1 (x̄) and k2 (x̄) = reading of this manuscript, and for valuable suggestions which help to create

l2∗ (x̄), p2 (x̄) = p∗2 (x̄), where k∗ (x) = ±xdeg k(x) k(x−1 ). an improved final version. H.Q. Dinh and S. Sriboonchitta are grateful to the

Proof: From Theorem 8.1, if C is a Θ-constacyclic code over R, then its Centre of Excellence in Econometrics of Chiang Mai University, for partial

dual C ⊥ is a Θ−1 -constacyclic code over R and using Proposition 8.2, we get financial support.

C ⊥ = vC1⊥ ⊕ (1 + 3v)C2⊥ . Moreover, by Proposition 8.3, C is self-dual over

R if and only if C1 and C2 are both self-dual over Z4 . So, by using Theorem R EFERENCES

8.5 and Lemma 8.6, we deduce our result. [1] Aydin N., Asamov T., A database of Z4 codes, J. Comb. Inf. Syst. Sci. 34, 1 −

12, (2009).

Example. We present some examples of (1+2v)- constacyclic codes and [2] Bayram A., Siap I. , Cyclic and constacyclic codes over a non-chain ring, J.

(3 + 2v)- constacyclic codes over R. It has already been proven that the Gray Algebra Comb. Discret. Struct. Appl. 11 − 13, (2014).

images ξ(C) of constacyclic codes over R are 2-quasi-cyclic codes.The Gray [3] Bandi R. K., Bhaintwal M., Codes over Z4 + vZ4 , Advances in Computing,

images ξ(C) yield Z4 -linear codes. Thus, the Lee weights of the Z4 -images are Communications and Informatics (ICACCI 2014), 422 − 427, (2014).

obtained. It is worth noting that these Z4 -images are Z4 -linear codes. In Tables [4] Bayram A., Oztas E. S., Siap I., Codes over F4 +vF4 and some DNA applications,

Designs,Codes and Cryptography, DOI 10.1007/s10623-015-0100-8, (2015).

1, 2, 3 and 4, we consider the coefficients of the polynomials in ascending [5] Chen B., Dinh H.Q., Liu H., Wang L., Constacyclic codes of length 2ps over the

sequence, for instance, the polynomial 1 + x + 2x2 + 3x4 represents 11203. In ring Fpm + uFpm , Finite Fields Appl. 37, 108 − 130, (2016).

all the cases, we consider k(x) = k1 (x) = k2 (x), p(x) = p1 (x) = p2 (x) and [6] Dinh H.Q., López-Permouth S.R., Cyclic and negacyclic codes over finite chain

l(x) = l1 (x) = l2 (x). In Tables 1 and 2, we have obtained all new Z4 -linear rings, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 50, 1728 − 1744, (2004).

[7] Dinh H.Q., Repeated root constacyclic codes of length 2s over Za 2 , Contemp.

codes. Some of these Z4 -linear codes have better parameters according to [16] Math. 419, 95 − 110, (2006).

and denoted by (∗). Aydin has added some of these codes to the Z4 data-base [8] Dinh H.Q., Complete distances of all negacyclic codes of length 2s over Z2a ,

[16] on 31/12/2017. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 53, 147 − 161, (2007).

[9] Dinh H.Q., Constacyclic codes of length 2s over Galois extension rings of F2 +

. Table 1. Examples of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes uF2 , IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 55, 1730 − 1740, (2009).

n k(x) p(x) l(x) Z4 -Parameters

[10] Dinh H.Q., Constacyclic codes of length ps over ring Fpm + uFpm , J. Algebra

7 31 3231 3121 (14, 43 26 , 8)∗

324, 940 − 950, (2010).

9 1001001 111 31 (18, 41 23 , 12)∗

[11] Dinh H.Q., Dhompongsa S., Sriboonchitta S, On constacyclic codes of length 4ps

15 130131031 111 300001 (30, 45 216 , 4)

over the ring Fpm + uFpm , Discrete Mathematics 340, 832 − 849, (2017).

[12] Dinh H.Q, Singh A.K., Nguyen B.T., Sriboonchitta S., On the Symbol-Pair

15 10231 33300111 13201 (30, 44 211 , 8)

Distance of Repeated-Root Constacyclic Codes of Prime Power Lengths, IEEE

15 13201 33300111 10231 (30, 44 210 , 16)∗

Trans. Inform. Theory 64 , 2417-2430 (2018).

17 102313201 113030311 31 (34, 41 29 , 20)∗

[13] Dinh H.Q, Singh A.K., Pattanayak S., Sriboonchitta S., Cyclic DNA codes over

(42, 412 214 , 8)∗

21 30000001 111 1301001031031

the ring F2 + uF2 + vF2 + uvF2 + v 2 F2 + uv 2 F2 , Des. Codes Cryptogr. 86

23 310023330321 321011120031 31 (46, 41 212 , 28)∗

(2018), 1451-1467.

23 321011120031 31 310023330321 (46, 411 211 , 16)∗ [14] Dinh H.Q, Singh A.K., Pattanayak S., Sriboonchitta S., DNA cyclic codes over

25 11111 100001000010000100001 31 (50, 41 221 , 8)∗ the ring F2 [u, v]/hu2 − 1, v 3 − v, uv − vui, Int. J. Biomath. 11 (2018), 1850042

27 3001 1000000001000000001 1001001 (54, 46 224 , 8)∗ (19 pages).

31 132303332212233303231 12130103121 31 (62, 41 211 , 40)∗ [15] Dinh H.Q, Singh A.K., Pattanayak S., Sriboonchitta S., Construction of cyclic

35 1300013130131310313100031 12301110321 31 (70, 41 211 , 20)∗ DNA codes over the ring Z4 [u]/hu2 − 1i based on the deletion distance, Theor.

Comput. Sci. (2018), to appear.

. Table 2. Examples of (3 + 2v)-constacyclic codes [16] Database of Z4 codes (on line), http://www.Z4 codes.info (accessed on

n k(x) p(x) l(x) Z4 -Parameters 3 September 2017).

7 31 3231 3121 (14, 43 27 , 4) [17] Gao J., Fu F. W., Gao Y., Some classes of linear codes over Z4 + vZ4 and their

9 1001001 31 111 (18, 42 27 , 8) applications to construct good and new Z4 -linear codes, Applicable Algebra in

15 300001 130131031 111 (30, 42 211 , 12)∗ Engineering, Communication & Computing 1 − 23, (2016).

15 10231 33300111 13201 (30, 44 215 , 4) [18] Huffman, W. C., and Pless, V. (2010). Fundamentals of error-correcting codes.

15 13201 33300111 10231 (30, 44 29 , 16)∗ Cambridge university press.

17 102313201 31 113030311 (34, 48 217 , 4)

[19] Moro E.M., Szabo S., On codes over local Frobenius non-chain rings of order

21 30000001 1301001031031 111 (42, 414 220 , 4)

16, Contemp. Math. 634, 227 − 241, (2015).

23 321011120031 31 310023330321 (46, 411 223 , 4)

[20] Pless, Vera S., and Zhong qiang Qian. (1996). Cyclic codes and quadratic residue

25 100001000010000100001 31 11111 (50, 44 225 , 4)

codes over Z4 , IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 42(5), 1594 − 1600.

27 1001001 1000000001000000001 3001 (54, 43 227 , 4)

[21] Singh A.K., Kewat P.K., On cyclic codes over the ring Zp [u]/huk i, Designs,

31 132303332212233303231 31 12130103121 (62, 410 231 , 4)

Codes and Cryptography 74, 1 − 13, (2015).

35 12301110321 31 1300013130131310313100031 (70, 424 235 , 4)

[22] Shi M., Qian L., Sok L., Aydin N., Solé P. , On constacyclic codes over

Z4 [u]/(u2 − 1), their Z4 - images, Finite Fields and Their Applications 45, 86 −

Table 3. Examples of self-dual codes of (1 + 2v)-constacyclic codes 95, (2017).

[23] Yildiz B., Aydin N., On cyclic codes over Z4 + uZ4 and their Z4 - images , Int.

n k(x) p(x) l(x) Z4 -Parameters

J. Information and Coding Theory, 4, (2014).

7 3231 31 3121 (14, 43 23 , 8)

[24] Zhu S., Wang L., A class of constacyclic codes over Fp + vFp and its Gray

7 3121 31 3231 (14, 43 23 , 8)

image, Discrete Mathematics 311, 2677 − 2682, (2011).

15 10231 33300111 13201 (30, 44 211 , 8) [25] Zhang G., Chen B., Constacyclic codes over Fp + vFp , Cornell University,

15 13201 33300111 10231 (30, 44 210 , 16) Computer Science, arXiv: 1301.0669, (2013).

23 321011120031 31 310023330321 (46, 411 211 , 16)

1089-7798 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

- Answer Key _ Linear ModelsUploaded byPrincess Faith
- Introduction to neutrosophic NnearringsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Prime YeterUploaded byTruong Dang
- AlgebraUploaded byقاضي محمود الحق
- Channel Coding Basics.pdfUploaded byMohd Faiz Bin Rohani
- Ring Homomorphisms and i So Morphis MsUploaded byNurul Faridhatul Aini
- THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MATEMATIKA GASING ON MULTIPLICATION CONCEPT TOWARD INTEREST, STUDY MOTIVATION, AND STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMEUploaded byNERRU PRANUTA M
- Peterson Brown 61Uploaded bysumayyaindikar
- Notes Local RingsUploaded byEpic Win
- ComAlgSolsUploaded bysticker592
- Smarandache Idempotents infinite ring Zn and in Group Ring ZnGUploaded byMia Amalia
- SRCC GBO 2010 Analysis MBAGuru Answer KeyUploaded byRaja Panchal
- Robotics1_Midterm_Test_2016-17_16.11.18Uploaded byAland Bravo
- Factoring Flow ChartUploaded byliberty3051
- Exam TimetableUploaded byjfenwick92
- Rubric 972Uploaded byjeanebeerman
- LinearAlgebra1_FinalExamSample.pdfUploaded byLivardy Wufianto
- jakubac lessplanUploaded byapi-253491573
- Paper 22Uploaded byEditor IJSET
- CoE CurriculumUploaded byRizza Punsalan
- Taller PID Control ADRCUploaded byCARLOS EDUARDO HERNANDEZ MEDINA
- 1st grade sample lessonUploaded byapi-290870386
- wfwfUploaded byZiyvo
- 1st Periodical Examination Math 5Uploaded byRayan Castro
- Quadratic_Q.pdfUploaded byRohit Pandey
- sudokkuUploaded bydeepakcbp
- Sets and Venn Diagrams Igcse QuestionsUploaded bysil
- simple Examples for new to c languageUploaded byNishant Bhakta
- Word 2007 Equation Editor TipsUploaded bystefanrey007
- rubric.docUploaded byKogilavani Muniandy

- Time-Delay Systems an Overview of Some Recent Advances and Open ProblemsUploaded bymaniahmad
- AzizUploaded byhaloanes
- A Delay Decomposition Approach to Stability of Linear Neutral SystemsUploaded byhaloanes
- Topologie Des Espaces NormésUploaded byhaloanes
- Noguchi Et Al. Imaging of Internal Stress a Sapphire CrystalUploaded byhaloanes
- 853-818-1-PB (1).pdfUploaded byhaloanes
- Kavian Degré TopoUploaded byhaloanes
- Reponses_Exam.1.H10Uploaded bynabara
- Bibliographie Thèses Et Articles de RevueUploaded byhaloanes
- TP_8Uploaded byhaloanes
- Degre Topo AlireUploaded byhaloanes

- Math Essay 2-47Uploaded byfuck fuck
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byRainingGirl
- Engineering Journal::Fuzzy Hv-submodules in Γ-Hv-modulesUploaded byEngineering Journal
- ALGEBRA,COMMUTATIVEUploaded bySamir Kumar Hazra
- Introduction to Abstract Algebra [Lecture Notes]Uploaded byJohn
- 2009-2010 PhD Student HandbookUploaded byviethunghg81
- HandbookUploaded byHao Li
- Wikipedia-WikiProject_Mathematics_List_of_mathematics_articles_(S).pdfUploaded bymars
- ComAlg5Uploaded bysticker592
- Prime Ring with Symmetric Skew 3 - Reverse DerivationUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Abstract Algebra Working Group p11Uploaded byAniruddha Singhal
- Syllabus of ITUploaded byanisha_basak
- Lecture 12Uploaded byalin444444
- Emmy Noether - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byjoe smoe
- A Diagrammatic Approach to Categorifying Quantum Groups IIUploaded byLucius Gregory Meredith
- AlgebraUploaded byK Kunal Raj
- Cameron GroupsUploaded bySrinivas Rau
- 12Nts-2up.pdfUploaded bySantiago Achig
- TRB-MathsUploaded bygcrajasekaran
- CatPIDUploaded bygauravchandok
- Measure Theory - LiskevichUploaded byNiflheim
- [Christian_U._Jensen]_Generic_Polynomials__Constr.pdfUploaded byNERRU PRANUTA M
- Koch 321Uploaded byCEPRE FISMA
- 21 Syllabus M.sc Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byShubham
- Nucl.Phys.B v.607Uploaded bybuddy72
- GROUP THEORYUploaded byTammanurRavi
- best notesUploaded byAdi Subbu
- Exercicios gerales Aneis e IdeaisUploaded byMoisés Toledo
- csesem3Uploaded byprem420
- Foa g Nov 1817 PublicUploaded byFelipe Fernandes Lulia Jacob