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Contents

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Contents

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Contents

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Contents

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Contents

© Seaside Computing, 2002

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Forward

Refrigeration Basics
An Introduction to the Refrigeration Trade
Forward

There are a great number of technical publications on refrigeration but few are written
from a mechanics perspective. This one is. It illustrates the mechanical refrigeration
process and related topics with straight forward explanations and graphics. It's intent is to
make it easy to understand important concepts and terminology. Traditional refrigeration
textbooks cover such a large scope of material and in such great detail that rudimentary
concepts often become lost in the process. Refrigeration Basics is an introduction to the
Refrigeration Trade and focus's on creating a solid foundation which can be built upon
readily. Learning about refrigeration is a never ending process and well understood
fundamentals make learning more advanced concepts much easier. This book is a
preparation for anyone interested in entering the refrigeration trade and is an introduction
to some of the immediate problems one will face in the field. It is designed for those who:

● are considering going into the refrigeration trade or trade college


● wish an easily understandable overview of HVAC/R (Heating Ventilation Air
Conditioning/Refrigeration)
● wish a reference of basic refrigeration concepts
● are interested in these topics

Electronic Media

This electronic book or "ebook" uses the HTML format for several reasons. (HTML
stands for Hyper Text Mark up Language and is the language that web pages are created
with) HTML is displayed in Internet Browsers and is generally platform independent.
Browsers support animated graphics, hyperlinks and JavaScript. Those capabilities are
used extensively to accomplish the goals outlined above. This is an introduction to
refrigeration in electronic form with interactive and animated graphics and interactive
objects. The first section is called Refrigeration Basics and is a very compact overview of
the refrigeration process. It is a slightly modified version of a web site that was online for
several years and received praises from folks from all over the world. Those compliments
are what inspired me to carry on from where The Refrigeration Basics web site left off.
Here are a few of those compliments:

Compliments about Refrigeration Basics (the original web site):

Applications Engineer at an Instrumentation Company:


I wanted to briefly comment on your basic refrigeration web site. First the quality of the

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writing is excellent. It's not easy explaining technical concepts in a way that is both clear
and interesting; you've succeeded on both accounts. In fact we intend to incorporate your
web site into our training regime. Keep up the good work.

Heating Contractor:
I am a heating contractor from the Boston area. I recently finished a basic HVAC course
that lasted 6 weeks. I have just absorbed more understanding in the last 30 minutes
viewing your Basic HVAC web pages than I did in the 6 week course. I have been in the
heating field for just over 22 years and I am just now willing to give A/C a try. I want to
thank you for taking the time to do what you have done in your web pages. Thanks again
and if your ever in the Boston area, let me take you out for a lobster dinner.

Engineer from Malaysia:


Your tutorial is excellent! I conduct short cold store courses for owners/consultants and
the uninitiated and simplifying these basics are always a challenge. I have my own
methods of doing just that but with your permission, I may want to borrow some of your
ideas.

HVAC Engineer in Yugoslavia:


I have read your site about refrigeration, and I think it is one of the best ones for beginners
because no other site explains the basics of refrigeration so simply and in such an
interesting manner.

Misc:
This is simply an excellent web site, the best I've seen on this subject. Thanks for putting
this information out there for everyone to use.

Misc:
Great refrigeration site, another bulb is now on!

General Manager - Services Instrumentation Company:


I recently discovered your website and I would like to congratulate you on perhaps the
best explanation of the basics of refrigeration I have seen. I have looked at a lot of
textbooks, websites, videos etc. over the last five years always with an eye towards
finding an explanation I could easily use with people without a technical background.
Yours is the first I have seen that comes close. I would also like to ask your permission to
use the material or portions of it in our internal training programs and perhaps our website.

Installation Manager:
Great job. I have some employees (trainees) that need some basic knowledge of this field
and you have explained this more briefly and understandably than anything I have read,
without going into details that would distract from the basic concept. Have you written
anything else in this field with the simplicity of this? Again great job!!

Summary:

Thanks for all the many compliments I have received. And in answer to the question

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posed above by the installation manager...now I have, this electronic book. The original
Refrigeration Basics web site was aimed at the lay person who was merely curious about
the refrigeration process. This book starts off with that original presentation and then
continues on with interactive training for the serious refrigeration apprentice or student or
otherwise interested person. It carries on with the straight forward and down to earth
approach that made the web site so popular. I hope this book is found to be useful and
informative.

Sincerely

Steve Kennedy

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Readme

Readme

Contents

Version
System Requirements
JavaScript, this ebook uses it
Installation
Full screen mode & screen resolutions
Short Cut Icon
How to use this book
Technical Assistance
Site Licence
Hints
Warranty
Errors & Typo's
Disclaimer
Contact Seaside Computing

Version

This Refrigeration Basics CD-ROM is version III. The Version III release contains everything from the previous version as
well as an amazing 100 interactive troubleshooting boards. Learn the basics and then test your troubleshooting skills on
various types of refrigeration and air conditionong systems. All 100 boards utilize high and low side pressure gauges, a 9
point digital thermometer for measuring refrigerant, air, and water temperatures and of course an Amp/Ohm/Volt meter
which measures all test points on the electrical schematics.

System Requirements

● CD-ROM Drive
● Mouse
● Internet Browser (JavaScript enabled)
● screen resolutions supported:
640 x 480
800 x 600
1024 x 768 and higher
● Tested in Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5, and 6.0, and Netscape Navigator 4.7 and 6.2 and 7.0

JavaScript, this "e-book" uses it

To take full advantage of this ebook you must have scripting turned on in your browser. Without it you will not be able to
use the temperature converter, the Causes-Effects trainer, the electrical troubleshooting sections, submit exam answers for
automatic marking, nor use the 100 troubleshooting boards. If using Internet Explorer, scripting can be enabled or disabled
by clicking in a check box. The scripting check box is located:

Internet Explorer:

● Browser Tool Bar


● Tools
● Internet Options
● Security (TAB)
● Custom Level (Button)
● Security Settings (Window)
● Scripting
● Active Scripting
● Enable (Radio Button)
● OK (Button)

Installation

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Readme

There is no need to install anything. All files can be accessed directly from the CD-ROM.

Full screen mode & screen resolutions

Putting your browser in full screen mode will make some pages much easier to navigate. With MSIE (Microsoft Internet
Explorer) you can press F11 to toggle full screen mode. There are many sections with large and sometimes full screen
graphics which also have rows of buttons for user controlled sequential images. The screen shot below demonstrates how a
user controlled "slide show", as well as a related scrollable text area have been designed to fit on screen simultaneously. This
makes it easier to concentrate on the concepts at hand rather than scroll about looking for separate diagrams and text. The
text suggests appropriate moments to click on specific buttons that correlate to the concepts being discussed. Learning is fun
with interactive graphics. They make it easy to comprehend new concepts clearly, build a solid foundation and advance
quickly.

The CD-ROM has been designed to automatically detect your screen resolution settings. There are 3 resolution versions of
Refrigeration Basics on the CD-ROM and the contents.htm file in the appropriate folder will start automatically.

If your system does not automatically start CD-ROM's simply locate the appropriate folder for your screen resolution. The
folders are conveniently named:

● 640x480
● 800x600
● 1024x768

The start page is the contents.htm file. Locate that file and open it. All sections are linked to that page. You may wish to drag
a short cut of the contents.htm file to your desk top or anywhere you prefer on your system. This can be handy even if you
have an operational CD-ROM auto start because once you drag a short cut you will no longer have to open and close the CD-
ROM drive door to make Refrigeration Basics start. You can even assign the custom Refrigeration Basics icon to the short
cut. See the section below called Short Cut Icon for instructions how to do that.

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Short Cut Icon

The file called contents.htm is the start page of Refrigeration Basics. You can create a short cut of which ever contents.htm
start page suits your system settings. (see the section above on resolution versions) You can use a default short cut icon if
you wish, the custom icon graphic is just for fun. An image of the custom icon as shown in the title above. The custom
graphic is on the CD-ROM with the file name master icon.ico. If using Windows 95 or up, follow this procedure to assign
the custom icon graphic to your short cut:

1. Create a folder that can remain in place somewhere on your hard drive. You may name it icon or anything else you
like.
2. Find the icon file called master icon.ico and drag or COPY/PASTE a copy of it to the new folder you just made on
your computer.
3. Go back to the short cut that you created and right click on it. On the drop down list that appears, click on
Properties, Change Icon, Browse, and browse to the folder that you created containing the master icon.ico file.
4. Double click on the master icon.ico file and a new window called Change Icon will open. Click the OK button and
the Apply button and finally the Close button.
5. You can rename the short cut to anything you like, such as for example Refrigeration Basics.

How to use this book

The contents.htm page has button links to each section. The sections are presented in a purposeful order where subsequent
material is usually based on knowledge gained in the previous sections. If you do not go through the book in the order
presented you may find it difficult to comprehend. Most sections have a link to "Review Questions" for that section. Those
questions are hyperlinked to the exact spot in the book where the topic is discussed. Try to answer the questions and then
click the link to see if you knew the answer. At the end of the book is a 100 question multiple choice exam. The exam is an
opportunity for you to test yourself on how much of the material you have grasped from this book. A JavaScript routine
automatically checks your answers and displays your mark in percentage. You might find it amusing taking the test before
and after reading the book to see how your mark changes.

Technical Assistance

If you require technical assistance getting this CD-ROM to work contact Seaside Computing and we will do whatever we
can to assist you. (See our warranty section below)

Site Licence

Without a site licence the Refrigeration Basics CD-ROM is restricted to single point use on a single station. An unrestricted
site licence is available. See the ordering online page at:

www.refrigerationbasics.com

Hints

● Absolutely no side scrolling is required in this ebook. If horizontal scrollbars appear, you are viewing a version of
Refrigeration Basics that was created for a higher resolution than your current screen settings or system capabilities.
See the section on full screen mode & screen resolutions and utilize the version that matches your settings. (3
resolution versions are on the CD-ROM, use the one that's best for you)
● With one or two exceptions, no vertical scrolling is required to be able to see large full screen graphics. If you can't
see a large graphic without vertical scrolling you are using too much screen real estate for toolbars, status bars etc.
Refrigeration Basics is designed to be viewed in full screen mode. See the section on full screen mode & screen
resolutions.

Warranty

This product is warranted to be free from defects for a period of 90 days from date of purchase. All CD-ROM's are tested

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before shipping. Any CD-ROM that fails to work within the 90 day warranty period will be replaced under warranty.
(Shipping Extra) Contact Seaside Computing for shipping instructions.

Errors & Typo's

If you find any mistakes in this production please do inform us of what you found so that we can correct the error. We are
interested in any suggestions that you may have to improve this ebook and appreciate your input. Suggestions about topics to
include in subsequent versions are also very welcome.

Disclaimer

Attempts have been made to keep all information as accurate as possible and many mentions of safety precautions are made
throughout this e-book. It is however not a substitute for hands on training through an indentured apprenticeship nor live
technical school training. Refrigeration Basics is a great introduction to the refrigeration trade and would put anyone at an
advantage prior to entering a trade school or apprenticeship. It is also contains material that is quick and easy to locate and
reference and you will want to have permanently available. However, Seaside Computing Services takes no responsibility
for any mistakes, omissions or errors that happen to reside in any copy or version of Refrigeration Basics.

Contact Seaside

seaside@refrigerationbasics.com

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Refrigeration Basics

Part 1

This section explains in basic terms the principals that are used to
create the refrigeration effect. Graphics and animation's are used in
an attempt to make it easy to understand the concepts involved.

First of all, did you know that there is no such thing as cold? You can describe something as cold and everyone will know
what you mean, but cold really only means that something contains less heat than something else. All there really is, is
greater and lesser amounts of heat. The definition of refrigeration is The Removal and Relocation of Heat. So if something is
to be refrigerated, it is to have heat removed from it. If you have a warm can of pop at say 80 degrees Fahrenheit and you
would prefer to drink it at 40 degrees, you could place it in your fridge for a while, heat would somehow be removed from it,
and you could eventually enjoy a less warm pop. (oh, all right, a cold pop.) But lets say you placed that 40 degree pop in the
freezer for a while and when you removed it, it was at 35 degrees. See what I mean, even "cold" objects have heat content
that can be reduced to a state of "less heat content". The limit to this process would be to remove all heat from an object. This
would occur if an object was cooled to Absolute Zero which is -273º C or -460º F. They come close to creating this
temperature under laboratory conditions and strange things like electrical superconductivity occur.

How do things get colder?

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Refrigeration Basics

The latter two are used extensively in the design of refrigeration equipment. If you place two objects together so that they
remain touching, and one is hot and one is cold, heat will flow from the hot object into the cold object. This is called
conduction. This is an easy concept to grasp and is rather like gravitational potential, where a ball will try to roll down an
inclined plane. If you were to fan a hot plate of food it would cool somewhat. Some of the heat from the food would be
carried away by the air molecules. When heat is transferred by a substance in the gaseous state the process is called
convection. And if you kicked a glowing hot ember away from a bonfire, and you watched it glowing dimmer and dimmer, it
is cooling itself by radiating heat away. Note that an object doesn’t have to be glowing in order to radiate heat, all things use
combinations of these methods to come to equilibrium with their surroundings. So you can see that in order to refrigerate
something, we must find a way to expose our object to something that is colder than itself and nature will take over from
there. We are getting closer to talking about the actual mechanics of a refrigerating system, but there are some other
important concepts to discuss first.

The States of Matter

They are of course; solid, liquid and gas. It is important to note that heat must be added to a substance to make it change state
from solid to liquid and from liquid to a gas. It is just as important to note that heat must be removed from a substance to
make it change state from a gas to a liquid and from a liquid to a solid.

The Magic of Latent Heat

Long ago it was found that we needed a way to quantify heat. Something more precise
than "less heat" or "more heat" or "a great deal of heat" was required. This was a fairly
easy task to accomplish. They took 1 Lb. of water and heated it 1 degree Fahrenheit. The
amount of heat that was required to do this was called 1 BTU (British Thermal Unit). The
refrigeration industry has long since utilized this definition. You can for example purchase
a 6000 BTUH window air conditioner. This would be a unit that is capable of relocating
6000 BTU's of heat per hour. A larger unit capable of 12,000 BTUH could also be called a
one Ton unit. There are 12,000 BTU's in 1 Ton.

To raise the temperature of 1 LB of water from 40 degrees to 41 degrees would take 1 BTU. To raise the temperature of 1 LB
of water from 177 degrees to 178 degrees would also take 1 BTU. However, if you tried raising the temperature of water
from 212 degrees to 213 degrees you would not be able to do it. Water boils at 212 degrees and would prefer to change into a
gas rather than let you get it any hotter. Something of utmost importance occurs at the boiling point of a substance. If you did
a little experiment and added 1 BTU of heat at a time to 1 LB of water, you would notice that the water temperature would
increase by 1 degree each time. That is until you reached 212 degrees. Then something changes. You would keep adding
BTU's, but the water would not get any hotter! It would change state into a gas and it would take 970 BTU's to vapourize that
pound of water. This is called the Latent Heat of Vapourization and in the case of water it is 970 BTU's per pound.

So what! you say. When are you going to tell me how the refrigeration effect works? Well hang in there, you have just
learned about 3/4 of what you need to know to understand the process. What keeps that beaker of water from boiling when it
is at room temperature? If you say it's because it is not hot enough, sorry but you are wrong. The only thing that keeps it from
boiling is the pressure of the air molecules pressing down on the surface of the water. When you heat that water to 212
degrees and then continue to add heat, what you are doing is supplying sufficient energy to the water molecules to overcome
the pressure of the air and allow them to escape from the liquid state. If you took that beaker of water to outer space where

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Refrigeration Basics

there is no air pressure the water would flash into a vapour. If you took that beaker of water to the top of Mt. Everest where
there is much less air pressure, you would find that much less heat would be needed to boil the water. (it would boil at a
lower temperature than 212 degrees). So water boils at 212 degrees at normal atmospheric pressure. Lower the pressure and
you lower the boiling point. Therefore we should be able to place that beaker of water under a bell jar and have a vacuum
pump extract the air from within the bell jar and watch the water come to a boil even at room temperature. This is indeed the
case!

A liquid requires heat to be added to it in order for it to overcome the air pressure pressing down on its' surface if it is to
evaporate into a gas. We just learned that if the pressure above the liquids surface is reduced it will evaporate easier. We
could look at it from a slightly different angle and say that when a liquid evaporates it absorbs heat from the surrounding
area. So, finding some fluid that evaporates at a handier boiling point than water (IE: lower) was one of the first steps
required for the development of mechanical refrigeration.

Chemical Engineers spent years experimenting before they came up with the perfect chemicals for the job. They developed a
family of hydroflourocarbon refrigerants which had extremely low boiling points. These chemicals would boil at
temperatures below 0 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. So finally, we can begin to describe the mechanical
refrigeration process.

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Review Questions - Refrigeration Basics

Review Questions - Refrigeration Basics

What is the definition of refrigeration?


Name 3 main processes by which objects can become colder.
What are the 3 states of matter?
What does BTU stand for?
What are the 4 main components in a refrigeration system?
Is low pressure or high pressure present inside the evaporator?
What 2 functions does a compressor perform?
What is the name of the piping that the compressor discharges hot gas into?
What occurs in the condenser?
What occurs in the evaporator?
Name 2 refrigeration accessories.
What does TXV stand for?
Does a condenser reject heat or absorb heat?
Does an evaporator reject heat or absorb heat?
What does the term PT Chart stand for?
What is the typical factory superheat setting on a TXV?
What is the purpose of the receiver?
Where is the liquid line located?
Which line should contain a full column of liquid?
Which line should contain vapour only and no liquid content? Why?
During low load conditions where does unneeded refrigerant reside?
What line does a TXV sensing bulb sense?
What is the line coming out of the condenser and going to the receiver called?
What components can be found in a condensing unit?
Which is bigger, a suction line or a liquid line?
Why does a refrigerated box have insulated walls?
Name a type of metering device... now name another
Does heat flow from cold to hot, or from hot to cold?

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Definitions

Definitions

Temperature

English Metric

Fahrenheit Rankine Celsius Kelvin

Convert Reset

Temperature scales are a way of describing how hot a substance is. A lump of matter contains energy. There are many forms of
energy, one of them is Kinetic energy and measuring temperature is a way of measuring how furiously the molecules contained
in a lump of substance are moving about. This molecular activity causes what we perceive as the temperature of an object. A
refrigeration mechanic must be able to deal with temperatures in various scales. Traditionally the English system has been used
(Fahrenheit degrees) and a whole series of familiar capacity measurements like Horse Power, BTU's, Tons, and PSI have been
the norm. However the metric system which is supposed to be easier to work with is encroaching in many locations. In both
systems there are standard and absolute temperature scales. Try playing with the above temperature converter. Type a value in
any one of the input boxes and click on the Convert Button. Here are several interesting values to try: -40 ºF, 0 ºR, 40 ºF, 373
ºK, 21 ºC

Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit temperature scale was developed by no less than Fahrenheit himself back in the early 1700's. It was based on
scientifically observable occurrences such as human body temperature and melting ice. Those points were assigned arbitrary
values which made sense at the time. The newly created number scale was widened for easier reading and when boiling water
was measured at 212 degrees, Fahrenheit changed the value of freezing water from 30 to 32 degrees to achieve the more
attractive scale of 180 degrees between water's freezing and boiling points. There are 180 degrees in 1/2 of a circle and this was
a temptation too great to resist.

Celsius

In theory the Celsius scale should be much easier to work with. It is based on calling the freezing point of water zero and the
boiling point of water 100. There are therefore 100 degrees between those 2 points. The Celsius temperature scale is also
referred to as the "Centigrade" scale. Centigrade means "consisting of or divided into 100 degrees. I wonder what a comfortable
room of 70º F would be in Celsius? If you don't happen to have a conversion calculator at your disposal you can always rely on
the following 2 formulae:

Kelvin

Scientists use the Kelvin scale, which is based on the Celsius scale, but has no negative numbers. Instead of basing it's zero
point on the freezing point of water, it bases it's zero point on Absolute Zero. which is the theoretical temperature where all heat
has been removed from a substance. Hence any amount of heat added creates a positive temperature. Negative numbers can
mess up a scientist's mathematical calculations. You will find that in refrigeration, we too must use absolute temperature scales
for some things. At Absolute Zero scientists believe that molecular motion would stop.

Rankine

Rankine is the English version of an absolute temperature scale. Add 460 degrees to Fahrenheit temperatures to obtain the

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Definitions

Rankine temperature. Input 0º in the Rankine box on the calculator above and you will see why.

Heat

Temperature is a qualitative measurement. Heat is a quantitative measurement. The temperature "quality" of a object describes
how hot it is but not the total amount of heat it actually contains. Here's a silly example which makes clear the distinction. Let's
say we have two blocks of iron. One is a mere cubic inch, the other is 10 feet cubed. We heat each of them to 150º F and you
verify this with some sort of thermometer. They both have the same temperature but do they both contain the same amount of
heat? When you throw the little cube in your swimming pool nothing noticeable happens to the temperature of the pool water
but when you toss in the huge iron chunk the pool water can be measured to rise somewhat over time. If there was a noticeable
amount of heat transfer from the large chunk of iron but not from the small chunk of iron then surely the large chunk contained
more heat than the small one even though they were at the same temperature. The temperature of an object is a reflection of the
kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules that make it up. Fast molecules = high kinetic energy = high temperature. On the other
hand heat represents the total amount of kinetic energy in an object. Heat is measured in BTU's. Recall that 1 BTU is the amount
of heat required to change the temperature of 1 Lb. of water through 1º F. So it would take 2 BTU to raise the temperature of 2
Lb. of water through 1º F. And it would take 30 BTU to raise the temperature of 3 Lb. of water by 10º F. BTU's (or their metric
counterparts) are the fundamental unit of heat used in the refrigeration industry. Larger quantities of heat are described with the
term Ton. 12,000 BTU = 1 Ton. A building might have a 3 Ton Air Conditioning system which would be equivalent to 36,000
BTUH.

Specific Heat

Different substances have different heat holding capabilities and thermal properties. Just because 1 Lb. of water will change
precisely through 1º F when 1 BTU is applied to it does not necessarily mean that the same thing will happen with 1 Lb. of
copper or 1 Lb. of steel or 1 Lb. of ice cream. There is a need to be able to specify those differences and the method utilized is to
compare all substances to water. Water is given a specific heat value of 1. This means that it that 1 BTU is required to change
the temperature of 1 Lb. of water through 1º F. The specific heat of water can also be described in the metric system. The metric
specific heat of water is 1 calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This value also works out to 1. In other words it would take 1
calorie of heat to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 degree Celsius. Specific heat is a dimensionless quantity. It
is purely a number having no unit of measurement associated with it. In Refrigeration specific heat values are used to calculate
capacity requirements for refrigerating known quantities of product. For example one might need to be able to select
refrigeration equipment capable of cooling 5000 Lb. of beef from 55º F to -20º F. A calculation like that must take into
consideration the fact that the specific heat of a substance usually is different above and below it's freezing point.

Latent Heat

Latent Heat is the heat given up or absorbed by a substance as it changes state. It is called latent because it is not associated with
a change in temperature. Each substance has a characteristic latent heat of fusion, latent heat of vapourization, latent heat of
condensation and latent heat of sublimation.

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Definitions

Sensible Heat

Sensible Heat is associated with a temperature change, as opposed to latent heat. This is so-called because it can be sensed by
humans. If the air in a building was to be heated from 60 ºF to 70 ºF only sensible heat would be involved. However, if the air in
a building was to be cooled from 80 ºF to 70 ºF and humidity was to be removed from the air at the same time, then both
sensible and latent heats would be involved.

Insulator

Electrical wires are coated with an insulating material so electricity stays in the conductor (wire). Thermal insulation on the
other hand tries to keep heat from transferring. Thermal insulation does not stop heat transfer, it only slows down the rate of
transfer. The greater the amount and quality of insulation, the greater the insulating effect and the slower is the thermal transfer.
There is insulation inside cooler and freezer walls and in the perimeter walls of conditioned spaces. If fiberglass batting is being
used it should be noted that the glass fibers are actually a poor insulator. It is the tiny pockets of trapped air in-between the
fibers that actually are responsible for the insulating effect.

Conductor

The chart below shows the specific heat values of several materials. Notice the very small specific heat value that copper has.
This means it would take a mere .093 BTU to raise 1 Lb. of copper through 1 degree. Copper has a bigger temperature change
for the same heat input compared to many other materials. Copper transfers heat readily and would not make a very good
insulator, it conducts heat too well. The smaller the specific heat number, the better of a conductor a material is. You can see
why heat transfer devices like evaporators and condensers are made from materials like aluminum and copper.

Material Specific Heat (Btu/


Lb./ºF)

Water 1.00

Air .24

Aluminum .22

Iron .12

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Definitions

Copper .093

Concrete .23

Glass .20

White Pine .67

Ice .50

Rock .20

Pressure

Pressure is what occurs when a force is applied over an area. More specifically, pressure is the ratio of the force acting on a
surface to the area of the surface. The equation for pressure represents this rather straightforwardly; P=F/A This equation means
that Pressure equals Force divided by Area. Let's look at a couple of very simple examples. As is demonstrated in the sketch
below, the same weight can exert completely different pressures depending on how much surface area it is spread out over. Note
that when you multiply FT by Lb.s you get a unit called FT Lb.. (pronounced Foot Pounds) This is a legitimate unit of pressure
however in refrigeration we use pounds per square inch not pounds per square foot. This is abbreviated to PSI. Just as with
temperature, pressure has many different scales that can be used and can be described with the English system or the Metric
system. The remainder of this book will be referring to the English system of measurements. We seldom deal with gravitational
forces as shown in the diagram although it is an important concept to be aware of. Rather, we deal with the pressures and
temperatures of gases and that is what the next section is all about.

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Review Questions - Definitions

Review Questions - Definitions

What is the English absolute temperature scale?


What is the Metric absolute temperature scale?
What is the Celsius scale also known as?
Is heat a quantitative measurement or a qualitative measurement?
The specific heat of water is one BTU, True or False?
Will a good thermal conductor have a high sensible heat or a low sensible heat?
How much heat would it take to raise the temperature of 10 gm of water one degree C?
Copper is a better thermal conductor than aluminium, which has a greater specific heat?
What is the formula for pressure?
What does PSI stand for?
Convert 0º Kelvin to ºRankine.
The specific heat of a substance is the same at all temperatures. True or False?
If a weight is imposed over a larger area it will exert a larger pressure. True or False?
There is one temperature which is identical in the Fahrenheit scale and the Celsius scale.
What is it?
Which is a better thermal insulator, concrete or wood?
How much pressure would be exerted by a 3 LB weight over a 5 square inch area?
What are the English units that enthalpy uses?

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Gases 1

Gases

Part 1

The image on the left represents a refrigerant jug


containing nothing but refrigerant vapour. The pressure
inside the jug is immune to the atmospheric pressure
on the outside of the jug. It can be considered a sealed
system unto itself. What then is the pressure inside the
jug? The answer is that it depends on which refrigerant
is inside the jug and also on the temperature of the
refrigerant. If the temperature of the refrigerant is
increased that will cause the pressure of the refrigerant
to increase. The molecules of refrigerant become more
energized with an increase in temperature and bounce
about more violently which increases the pressure they
exert against the inside walls of the jug. The pressure
inside the tank is the sum total of the pressure that all
the individual molecules exert on the inside walls of
the jug. The force caused by a single molecule is
unmentionably small. However there is an even more
unmentionable quantity of molecules contained in the
jug so it adds up to something measurable on a
macroscopic scale.

This next image represents a more common situation


as far as refrigeration mechanics are concerned. We
work with refrigerant in both it's liquid and vapour
form. A jug of nothing but vapour is not very much
refrigerant at all. Refrigerant jugs come from the
supplier containing 80% liquid and 20% vapour. The
location where the surface of the liquid meets the
vapour is called the liquid/vapour interface. If this jug
is warmed up the pressure will increase but there is
something very special about a system containing both
liquid and vapour. The pressure will obey some precise
rules known as the Pressure Temperature Relationship.
That is to say, a refrigerant at a particular temperature
will have a known pressure. This is always true when
there are Saturated Conditions. Saturated Conditions
occur when liquid and vapour are in contact with each
other. Every mechanic carries with him PT Charts
which stands for Pressure/Temperature chart. There is
a different one for each refrigerant. They show a

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Gases 1

temperature scale and corresponding pressures which


are to be expected when there are saturated conditions.
This is one of the primary diagnostic tools that a
mechanic uses.

Note that the same pressure exists everywhere inside


the jug and is exerted in all directions. The gas is
pressing down on the surface of the liquid with the
same pressure that the liquid is pressing up. In theory
the pressure at the bottom of the jug will be slightly
higher due to the gravitational head imposed by the
column of liquid above it but this difference is so small
that it can be considered insignificant. If you had a
vertical pipe full of liquid rising 50 feet for example,
then gravitational head can become more significant
and corrective steps may need to be taken with the
systems design.

If there is a mere single droplet of liquid in contact


with vapour the PT relationship remains true. There is
an interaction between the liquid and vapour which
causes an equilibrium. If the pressure of the vapour is
lower than it should be then some of the liquid
immediately flashes into a gas which increases the
pressure of the gas and therefore makes it difficult for
more liquid to evaporate. Recall that in the
Refrigeration Basics section we learned that a liquid
evaporates when the pressure above it's surface is
reduced which makes it easy for individual molecules
to escape. When saturated conditions exist an
equilibrium will always develop between the vapour
and liquid and this equilibrium will always create a
predictable pressure at any given temperature.

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Gases 1

When a jug of new refrigerant is shipped from the


factory it is only filled to the 80% level for a specific
reason. Everything expands and contracts with
temperature and liquids are no exception. When the
liquid expands due to an increase in temperature the
vapour portion is compressed in the process allowing
the liquid to take up more volume. A container of
refrigerant must NEVER be completely filled. If the
temperature of a full jug increased, the liquid would try
to expand and having nowhere to go hydrostatic
pressure could develop and the container could rupture.
To prevent refrigerant jugs from becoming bombs
rupture disks are incorporated in every jug. Still, you
must never allow a rupture disk to blow. Refrigerant
must not be vented to atmosphere under any
circumstances.

If a jug is filled with used refrigerant there is the


likelihood that refrigerant oil is entrained within the
refrigerant. Oil has a different density than refrigerant
and could throw off weight calculations. Because there
is no way of knowing the amount of oil entrained
proper practice is to not fill the jug more than 60% full
by weight when dealing with recovered refrigerant.
This is to ensure that there will be sufficient vapour to
allow thermal expansion of the liquid.

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Gases 1

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Review Questions - Gases

Review Questions - Gases

The location where the surface of a liquid meets vapour is called what?
Under what circumstances can a PT Chart predict the pressure of a refrigerant?
One PT Chart shows the pressure/Temperature relationship of all refrigerants, True?
If over 99% of a container is gas rather than liquid then the PT Chart is no longer reliable,
True?
What does Saturated Conditions mean?
When transferring new refrigerant into a jug, what percentage of a full jug must not be
exceeded?
When transferring used and possibly oily refrigerant into a jug, what percentage of a full jug
must not be exceeded?
What does hydrostatic pressures mean?
What are the 2 main components of air?
How many pounds would a 1 square inch column of air the full height of the atmosphere
weigh?
What instrument can be used to measure atmospheric pressure?
What does PSIG mean?
What is the term for removing air and moisture from a refrigeration system?
What is significant about 760 mm Hg pressure?

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Gauge Manifold Set

Gauge Manifold Set

The gauge manifold set is one of the most important tools in


a mechanics possession. With it, pressures can be measured,
gases can be transferred and vacuums can be drawn. A
standard issue gauge set has a low side gauge on the left and
a high side gauge on the right. The left hand wheel and hose
are blue. The right hand wheel and hose are red and the
middle hose is yellow. This makes it easy to grab the hose
you want without having to trace it back. This book uses the
following colour coding to indicate various states of
refrigerant depicted in graphics.

Lets take a close look at how the manifold actually works.


We'll assume you have repaired a leak in a system and are
now charging it with refrigerant. You have the blue hose
hooked up to the low side of the system, the red hose hooked
up to the high side and the yellow hose is hooked up to a jug
of refrigerant. Click on the Charge Button and notice all the
things that happen.

● The graphic simulates you turning the blue hand wheel counter
clockwise which moves the low side stem away from the seat.
● This allows the higher pressure refrigerant from the jug to flow
into the left chamber of the gauge manifold set.
● From there the refrigerant can flow in 2 directions. It flows into
the low side of the system thereby charging it and it also flows
into the Bourdon tube of the low side gauge allowing it to
register the amount of pressure you are working with.

Charge Stop

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Gauge Manifold Set

Review Questions - Gauge Manifold Set

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Review Questions - Gauge Manifold Set

Review Questions - Gauge Manifold Set

On a gauge manifold set, what does turning the blue hand wheel clockwise do?
What are the standard colours of the hoses on a gauge set?
What is the effect of turning both hand wheels clockwise?
What is the effect of turning both hand wheels counter-clockwise?

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Access Valves

Access Valves

Service Valves

Service Valves are one of the types of access points to the refrigerant side of a system. They
can be located on compressors, receivers, accessories as well as located inline in piping. They
allow a mechanic to perform tests, pump downs and isolations. The diagram below allows a
close look at how a Service Valve works. Click the Buttons and note the various positions in
which a valve stem can be placed.

1. Back Seated.
The access port is
closed. The service
valve caps are in place.

2. Cracked off of the


Back Seated position.
The access port is open.
OK for reading operating
pressures.

3. Mid Seated.
Best position for
evacuation. All
chambers are as open
as possible.

4. Cracked off of the


Front Seated position.
Used for test throttling
refrigerant flow to the
compressor with the
SSV (Suction Service
Valve).

5. Front Seated.
Good for compressor
pump down efficiency
test with the SSV
(Suction Service Valve).
DO NOT front seat the
DSV (Discharge Service
Valve) and then run the
compressor. That would
immediately create an
extremely dangerous
1 2 3 4 5 condition as the
discharge gas would
have no where to go.
Front Seating a King

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Access Valves

Valve (a service valve


on the outlet side of a
receiver) will cause a
system to pump down.

Some service valves have more than one access port. This is to accommodate the sensing
lines from pressure controls. Their port can be located in the middle chamber between the 2
seats so that they will always sense pressure no matter what position the valve stem is in. You
can verify this with the Buttons. If you ever need to replace a control tied into such a location
there is a special procedure required in order to remove the sensor lead without losing
refrigerant gas. That is one of the purposes of "pumping down" a system.

Schraeder Valves

The Schraeder Valve is very common


and comes in a great number of
variations. It has a depressible core like
you see in tire valves and service hoses
come with depressors to suit. The swivel
access tee is handy for creating a second
access port at a service valve location for
a control sensing line while leaving a
service port still available. Many systems
have Schraeder valves and no service
valves. You therefore lose all of the
functionality that a service valve has and
merely have an access point. However it
is possible to install a Schraeder valve
anywhere in a system. The cores in
Schraeder valves are replaceable and if
they fail to seat properly often a new
core will stop the leak.

Line Tap Valves

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Access Valves

The Line Tap Valve, also known as


saddle valve and piercing valve can be
very handy for accessing otherwise
unavailable sections of a sealed system.
They are the only way to obtain access to
a pressurized system which was factory
charged through a process tube which
was then crimped off and welded tight.
The valve comes in 2 halves which can
be placed around an active section of
refrigeration piping and locked in place
with Allen screws. A depressor pin is
temporarily inserted and cranked down
with the valve cap. This pierces the pipe.
When the pin is removed, the needle
retracts leaving a sealed access port
which is accessible by a depressible
Schraeder valve stem. The seal relies on
a rubber O-ring and it can be unwise to
install this type of access valve on a hot
discharge line. It is best to use them only
when there is no other choice and any
time it is convenient they should be
replaced with a more secure or welded in
place access valve.

Review Questions - Access Valves

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Access Valves

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Review Questions - Access Valves

Review Questions - Access Valves

How many distinctive positions are there with the valve stem in a typical service valve?
What is the best position of the valve stem for evacuating a system?
What valve stem position can be extremely dangerous and under what circumstances?
In what position should the valve stem be when the system is in normal use and not being
serviced?
In what position should the valve stem be when measuring system operating pressures?
What is a line tap valve used for?
What is a Schraeder valve used for?
Where should a line tap valve not be installed?

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Metering Devices

Metering Devices

Thermostatic Expansion
Valve

The TXV (also called TEV) is a modulating


type of metering device. It is superior to a
fixed restriction device because it can vary
the flow of refrigerant to meet varying load
conditions. It will attempt to keep as much
of the evaporator as possible filled with
liquid refrigerant while still ensuring a preset
amount of superheat by the time the
refrigerant exits the evaporator.

Click Button 2 to see the 3 operating forces


involved. There is 1 opening force and 2
closing forces. (The evaporator pressure
acts through an internal passage to the
underside of the diaphragm.) Click back
and forth between Buttons 3 and 4 to see
how the valve varies the flow rate. When
there is a greater bulb pressure the needle
Labels: Forces: More Flow: backs away from
Less Flow: the Stem:
Adjust seat andExtallows more
Equalized:

1 2 3 refrigerant
4 flow. This makes 5 sense because 5
if there is greater bulb pressure that means
that the sensing bulb was subjected to a
warmer suction line and that there was less
Capillary Line than the optimum amount of liquid
refrigerant in the evaporator. Under those
circumstances there would be too much
evaporator area left over for superheating
the gas. When the bulb got hotter, the bulb
pressure increased, that pressure
transferred through the capillary line to the
upper side of the diaphragm, that applies an
opening force through the push rods, flow
increases and superheat decreases. The
TXV hunts until it settles into a balanced
condition. If the load changes it
accommodates the change.
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Metering Devices

The Capillary Line (or cap line) metering


device is merely very small copper
tubing. Various diameters and lengths
are used to suit the required flow rates
and pressure drops of the associated
equipment. They should be protected by
a filter/strainer immediately upstream to
help prevent clogs by foreign debris.
Capillary lines are commonly used on
small appliances and equipment. Larger
and more expensive equipment usually is
manufactured with TX Valves or some
other modulating type of metering
device. No receiver is required with a
capillary line system as the flow rate
does not modulate. However this makes
a Cap Line system a "critical charge
system" which means the charge must be
very close to the designed amount. The
capillary tube is not sensitive to load
changes and should only be used on
equipment with fairly constant loads,
such as domestic refrigerators and
freezers, room air conditioners and small
appliances. You will see it used on some
larger Air Conditioning systems as well.

Accurator or Fixed orifice

The fixed orifice metering device is a


small brass "piston" with a precisely
drilled hole through which the refrigerant
is forced to flow. This causes a pressure
drop in the same manner that a capillary
line does. The device can be placed in a
cylinder where it is allowed to slide to
one end or the other depending on which
direction the refrigerant flow is coming
from. At one end the taper on the piston
mates with a seal and refrigerant flow is

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Metering Devices

forced through the orifice. If driven to


the other end, there is no seal for the
piston to mate with and the refrigerant
can flow around the piston and no
metering takes place, the refrigerant
simply bypasses the orifice and
continues on it's way without undergoing
any pressure drop. As such the accurator
can be used as a very inexpensive
metering device for a reverse cycle
system. (heat pump) It replaces both a
TX Valve and a check valve however it
has no modulating flow capabilities like
a TXV does.

Automatic Expansion Valve

AEV's are constant pressure valves. They


maintain a constant pressure (hence
temperature) in the evaporator. They
therefore offer freeze protection and are
used in some window air conditioners as
well as other types of systems. They used
to be common place in small refrigerators
and freezers but have been replaced to a
great extent by TXVs and capillary lines.

Button 2 shows the operating forces of the


valve. There is no pressure from a remote
bulb thermostatic charge like a
Thermostatic Expansion Valve has. The
AEV has no remote bulb. There are only 2
opposing spring forces and the force of the
evaporator refrigerant pressure. The spring
forces are adjusted so that during operation
Labels: Forces: More Flow: Less Flow:
they balance each other and the valve is
1 2 opened 3sufficiently to 4 allow enough liquid to
flow into the evaporator to maintain the
desired pressure and therefore the desired
temperature. If the evaporator
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Metering Devices

Electronic Expansion Valve

Electronic Expansion Valves (EEV) are


very accurate and can provide increased
system capacity through better
evaporator injection. They are also used
as re-injection valves for compressor
cooling. They use a thermister as a
sensor. A thermister is a temperature
sensitive resistor. As the resistance
changes the current flow is varied to a bi-
metal element in the valve body which as
it bends opens and closes the valve.

Hand Operated Expansion Valve

Hand expansion valves are used on


flooded and pumped liquid recirculated
systems for accurate control of liquid
feed to evaporators. The spindle has fine
threads which makes precise adjustment
possible. A Hand Expansion Valve may
be located in a bypass line piped in
parallel with the float chamber on large
capacity system to provide cooling if the
float valve metering device should fail.

High Side Float

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Metering Devices

The High Side Float Valve is a liquid


level operated control valve. The float is
located on the high pressure side of the
system and is operated by the liquid
refrigerant level coming from the
condenser. The High Side Float allows
liquid refrigerant to flow into the
evaporator at the same rate that
refrigerant is being condensed. High
Side Float systems are critical charge
systems because the liquid flows directly
from the condenser into the valve body
rather than into a receiver. An
overcharged system will allow the
compressor to slug liquid, an
undercharged system will starve the
evaporator and reduce system capacity.
A pressure reducing valve is usually
placed at the evaporator inlet to reduce
frosting of the line immediately after the
High Side Float Valve.

Low Side Float

Low Side Float Valves are used with


flooded evaporator systems to maintain a
constant level of liquid refrigerant. It
derives its name from the fact that the
float ball is located in the low pressure
side of the system. The float valve
regulates the flow of liquid into the
evaporator at the same rate that it is
evaporated and drawn off by the
compressor. The float may be installed
directly in the evaporator or in an
accumulator or in a separate float
chamber.

Review Questions - Metering Devices

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Metering Devices

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Review Questions - Metering Devices

Review Questions - Metering Devices

What does TXV stand for?


What does AEV stand for?
What does EEV stand for?
Which type of metering device can allow unobstructed reverse flow?
What are the operating forces of a TXV?
What are the operating forces of an AEV?
Which type of metering device can be internally or externally equalized?
Where in the system is a low side float located?
Name one example of where a hand operated valve metering device might be used.
Is a receiver required with a capillary line system? Why or why not?
What is the purpose of an external equalizer line?
What is the factory superheat setting on a TXV?
What happens if the evaporator pressure starts to drop in an AEV system?
What accessory does a TXV system require and why?
Is a High Side Float system a critical charge system?
Is a Capillary Line system a critical charge system?
What type of sensor does an EEV use?

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Compressors

Compressors

Reciprocating

Reciprocating compressors use a piston


and cylinder arrangement to compress
the gaseous refrigerant. The crank arm
pulls the piston down in the cylinder.
When the pressure inside the cylinder is
less than the suction pressure outside of
the cylinder, the suction valve is opened
by the pressure difference and gas enters
the cylinder. When the piston moves
upwards, the suction valve is closed, the
gas is compressed and the discharge
valve opens when the pressure inside the
cylinder is greater than the high side
pressure on the other side of the
discharge valve. Reciprocating
compressors may have a single cylinder
or many cylinders as well as multiple
heads. The next 3 types of compressors
shown below are all reciprocating
compressors.

Start Stop

Open

The image depicts a small cast iron


"open" type compressor. It is called open
because all parts of the compressor can
be opened up for service and repair. With
a belt driven compressor it is easy to use
any compressor driver to power the unit.
For example it is more cost effective to
be able to apply a 32 VDC motor to an
open compressor than it would be to
purchase a specialty hermetic
compressor wound for 32 VDC
operation. Open type compressors are
available in a large variety of sizes.

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Compressors

Small ones are commonly used in marine


galley refrigeration and driven by DC
motors or the boat engine when there is
an unavailability of AC voltage. Open
compressors can be direct drive rather
than pulley/belt drive. An example is a
diesel engine directly driving a
compressor through a shaft and flexible
coupling. There is no electrical motor
encased in the unit so there is no risk of
an electrical burnout contaminating the
system. Open compressors are becoming
less common because they are expensive.

Hermetic

Hermetic compressors are named as such


because they are a hermetically sealed
unit. The mechanical parts that make up
the compressor as well as the electric
motor that drives the compressor are
both contained within the hermetically
sealed shell (or can). They are less
expensive to manufacture than open and
semi-hermetic compressors and are in
wide spread use. Their quality and
reliability has improved to the point
where they offer stiff competition to
some of the other types. Since the
compressor driver is built into the same
"can" as the compressor it must rely on
suction vapours to cool the motor
windings. If the motor burns out it can
contaminate the entire system. If a
hermetic compressor fails to work
properly it must be replaced. Some are
designed with service valves, many have
piping stubs and must be braized in
place. They come in many sizes from
very small fractional horse power units
to large 25 Ton cans.

Semi-Hermetic

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Compressors

The Semi-Hermetic compressor gets it's


name from the fact that it is partially
serviceable (rather than completely
sealed and non-serviceable like a
hermetic compressor). The head can be
removed and the valve plate and valves
can be changed to extend it's life. The
driver is encased in the compressor body
just like a hermetic and if the motor
burns out it can contaminate the system
with acids necessitating special clean up
procedures. If the refrigerant gas enters
via the far bell housing, the cool
refrigerant vapours must pass over the
motor windings before entering the
pistons. The compressor would then be
called suction cooled. If the suction line
enters elsewhere such that the refrigerant
vapours do not pass over the motor
windings then the windings must be
cooled by some other means such as a
fan or water loops around the compressor
body.

Scroll

Scroll compressors can look just like a


reciprocating hermetic compressor from
the outside. But that's where the
similarity ends. Instead of pistons, scrolls
use two interlocked, spiral shaped scroll
plates. One is stationary and the other
orbits within it. This movement draws
gas into the compression chamber and
moves it through successively shrinking
pockets formed by the scroll’s rotation.
Click the Start Button to see an
animation of this effect. When it reaches
the center it’s released through a
discharge port in the fixed scroll. During
each orbit, several pockets are
compressed simultaneously, so operation

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Compressors

is virtually continuous. (For clarity, only


one pocket is shown in the animation)
Scrolls, also called Compliant Scroll
Compressors have fewer moving parts
than a reciprocating compressor. They
have become increasingly popular for
use in heat pumps due to their inherent
ability to tolerate liquid refrigerant to a
greater extent than reciprocating
compressors. One prominent compressor
OEM has started production runs of
large 25 Horse Power hermetic scroll
compressors for air conditioning use.

Start Stop

Rotary

Rotary compressors do not use pistons.


Instead they use blades (or vanes) to
provide separation between the high side
and low side pressures. There are 2 main
types of rotary compressors; rotating
blade and stationary blade. Click the
buttons to see how they work. Suction
gas is coloured blue, gas being
compressed is coloured red. Rotary blade
compressors can have more than just 2
blades. The rotary compressor is
commonly used in window air
conditioners, and PTAC (incremental
units), although rotary compressors come
in much larger sizes as well.

Stop Rotary Blade


Stationary Blade

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Compressors

Screw

Screw or Helical Rotor design is


relatively new to refrigeration. The
compressor consists essentially of two
mating, specially shaped helically
grooved rotors or screws. The male
(driving) rotor has helical lobes along the
length of the rotor which mesh with the
corresponding helical grooves or flutes
on the female (driven) rotor. As the
rotors rotate, the lobe cuts off the space
from the inlet port so that the vapour is
trapped. Rotation of the gears forces this
vapour through the rotors and reduces
the space occupied by the vapour. In this
way the vapour is compressed. The
interlobe space opens up to the outlet
port and the vapour is discharged. The
rotors revolve at very high speed (up to
3550 RPM) and the flow of vapour
through the compressor is practically
continuous. The compressor is usually
directly driven by an electric motor.
Motor and compressor are often
combined in a single casing to form a
hermetic unit.

Centrifugal

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Compressors

In a centrifugal compressor the suction


gas enters a rotating element, called an
impeller, in the axial direction and is
discharged at a higher velocity near the
ends of the impeller nearest the volute.
The gas acceleration is caused by a
change in diameter of the impeller in the
direction of gas flow. This increase in
velocity (and thus velocity head) is
converted to static head as the gas
contacts the volute walls, effectively
increasing the total pressure of the gas
from suction to discharge. Centrifugal
compressors are continuous flow,
available in single or multi-stage
configurations. The compressor can be
driven by various devices including
electrical motors, gas turbines, and
engines. Centrifugals are available in
very large capacity, even in the
thousands of Tons and are widely used
for large scale air conditioning in large
buildings.

Review Questions - Compressors

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Review Questions - Compressors

Review Questions - Compressors

Why is an "open type" compressor called open?


Name 2 types of rotary compressors
When does the discharge valve open in a reciprocating type compressor?
Do scroll compressors use pistons?
Which type of compressor has helical lobes and helical grooves?
Which type of compressor is available in very large sizes, even in the thousands of Tons?
Which type of compressor is non-serviceable?
Name 3 types of hermetic compressors
When is a Semi-Hermetic compressor called suction cooled?
Why is a Semi-Hermetic compressor called Semi-Hermetic?
In what type of equipment are rotary compressors commonly found?
Name a feature of the scroll type compressor.

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The Refrigeration Circuit

The Refrigeration Circuit

We will now start taking a closer look at the refrigeration circuit. The layout below is similar to the one introduced in the Refrigeration Basics section. Three
Service Valves have been added. Can you name them as well as all the other main components and accessories?

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The Refrigeration Circuit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Reset

In the graphic below refrigerant has been added and the system is in operation. The various refrigerant states are represented by different colours and you will
notice that some additional colours have been added to the reference scale. One is for superheated gas and the other is for subcooled liquid. As the refrigerant
travels through the evaporator changing state it reaches the point where all the liquid has become vapour. That should occur before reaching the end of the
evaporator. Since heat content from the air passing through the evaporator fins is still being added to the refrigerant vapour, and since there is no longer any liquid
refrigerant in direct contact with the vapour, saturated conditions no longer are present and the gas will become superheated as more heat is added to it. The gas
becomes more and more superheated as it continues to travel through evaporator. As it passes by the location of the TX Valve sensing bulb, it warms the pipe it is
travelling through which in turn warms the sensing bulb of the TX Valve. This increases the pressure of the charge inside the bulb. Bulb Pressure is one of the
operating forces of the TXV which allow the valve to throttle to maintain the desired superheat set point.

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The Refrigeration Circuit

After passing the bulb location the gas continues to pick up heat through the suction line and the superheat increases further. This is especially true if there is a long
suction line going through a hot location. The temperature of the superheated gas is usually colder than ambient conditions and we know which way heat travels. It
is therefore standard procedure to insulate all suction lines but that only decreases the amount of heat transfer, it does not eliminate it. Too much superheat is
undesirable and the absence of superheat risks liquid slugging the compressor. You can see that a refrigeration system must be kept in balance if it is to work
properly and reliably. The superheated gas is drawn into the compressor where it is compressed and the Heat of Compression adds even more superheat to it. That
is heat that occurs from the work exerted on the gas in the process of compressing it. The highest temperature, pressure and superheat location in the entire system
is right there at the discharge valve. (not the Discharge Service Valve, but rather the discharge valve on the valve plate which the piston discharges through)

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The Refrigeration Circuit

The discharge gas loses superheat in the first part of the condenser. It continues to cool and droplets of liquid form as enough heat is rejected. At some point all of
the refrigerant will have changed back into a liquid. There is another process that occurs next. You might think of it as the opposite of superheat. It is called
Subcooling. Recall that superheat can only occur when saturated conditions are not present in the immediate area. Likewise subcooling can only occur when
saturated conditions are not present. So as the liquid refrigerant travels away from the vapour/liquid interface and continues to reject heat into the condenser air
stream, it gets cooled below what it would be during saturated conditions. Each degree cooler is a degree of subcooling. 10º F of superheat are desirable just as 10º
F of subcooling are desirable. However subcooling has nothing to do safety margins to prevent liquid slugging. It is desirable for system efficiency and we shall see
how shortly. First lets summarize what happened to the refrigerant as it made it's way through the condenser:

● very hot superheated gas


● gas cools to saturated conditions
● liquid droplets start to form
● a liquid/vapour interface forms
● subcooling occurs

After leaving the condenser and entering the receiver the refrigerant finds itself in a location where there is once again a liquid/vapour interface. There are therefore
undeniably Saturated Conditions in the receiver but below that interface the subcooled liquid resides. The vapour in the receiver can be thought of as stagnant. It is
trapped there not really participating in the flow of refrigerant travelling around the loop. Rather it just watches as subcooled liquid travels by below it. There is a
dip tube in the receiver which insures that liquid is the only thing that enters the liquid line. It travels through the King Valve at the exit of the receiver and begins
the journey down the Liquid Line. It travels through the Filter/Drier and Sight Glass and onwards.

Every system is different. Some may have very long Liquid Lines. If they are sufficiently long the refrigerant will experience a pressure drop. We have learned
what can occur to a liquid if it's pressure is lowered. Some of the liquid might flash into a gas. That would be an obvious efficiency loss as we would like all the
liquid travelling towards the evaporator to change state in the evaporator and pick up heat from the product being refrigerated. Unfortunately this process can and
does occur. If inadequately sized lines are used the problem would be even worse. Any flash gas that forms in the liquid line takes away from the delivery capacity
of the TXV. The valve is sitting there capable of metering refrigerant 100% of the time. If part of it's time is wasted by gas passing through it instead of liquid being
metered then system capacity suffers. So liquid line flash gas is something to be avoided. If a condenser is doing it's job properly some degree of subcooling will
have occurred. Each degree of subcooling achieved is a step away from allowing flash gas to occur in the liquid line.

Now you know why a sight glass can be handy. It can be a quick indicator of whether you have a full column of liquid reaching the TX Valve. To complete the
refrigerant loop we still must go through the TXV. There is such a large pressure drop as refrigerant passes through the restriction of the metering device it is
inevitable that some of the refrigerant will flash into a gas. Although this occurs in the evaporator the heat it absorbs is from adjacent droplets of liquid refrigerant
that have also just passed through the valve rather than from the intended product. Evapourator flash gas must be tolerated, liquid line flash gas should be avoided
where possible by proper piping and design practices.

Review Questions - Refrigeration Circuit

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The Refrigeration Circuit

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Review Questions - Refrigeration Circuit

Review Questions - Refrigeration Circuit

What is the name of a valve installed directly on a compressor to allow high side access?
What is the name of a valve installed directly on a compressor to allow low side access?
What is the name of an accessory that has a dip tube to ensure that only liquid exits the
component?
What component sometimes is directly mounted to liquid line filter drier?
What is the name of a service valve mounted on the outlet of a receiver?
What is the name of the component where vapour changes to a liquid?
Is it true that when refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, the superheating
process is complete?
When a piston compresses a gas the work that is done creates heat. That heat is called
what?
What is it called when a liquid is cooled below Saturated Conditions?
What is the location called where gas meets liquid?
What is a desirable amount of superheat?
What is a desirable amount of subcooling?
Is subcooling desirable? Why or why not?
What is vapour in the liquid line called?

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Pump Down

Pump Down Procedures

A system can be pumped down by front seating the King Valve and running the compressor. When you close the King Valve you stop refrigerant flow at the
receiver. Hence the low side of the system gets emptied out by the compressor and all the refrigerant that was in the low side gets added to the high side.
The receiver should be sized so that it can contain the entire system charge and still only be 80% full. The condenser can also hold a substantial amount of
refrigerant. When you stop the compressor the low side should stay at the pressure you reduced it to. If it rises it may be an indication that the valves are
worn in the compressor and pressure is leaking back through from the high side of the system. Another possibility is that you still have some liquid in the
low side and it is slowly boiling off and increasing the pressure. When you close the King Valve everything downstream of it temporarily becomes part of
the low side. So the Filter/Drier and Sight Glass and liquid line which were all full of liquid may still have some liquid left. How much you pump down is
up to you. It depends what you are trying to accomplish. If you need to change out a Filter/Drier then you need to pump down to 1 ATM (0 PSIG) so that
when you open up the system you do not lose refrigerant and you also do not suck in any air. If you needed to change an evaporator you would need to
pump down the low side completely. Click on the Buttons and study the different effects when you pump down to varying degrees. Note that the service
valve caps and stems change, the Suction Pressure gauge changes and the state of refrigerant changes. Click back and forth to see all the changes easily. The
only thing that does not change is the high side pressure. That's because no matter how much or little liquid there is in the high side, there are still saturated
conditions.

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Pump Down

Normal Operation: Low Side to: Low Side to: Compressor to: Compressor to:

Normal 1 Atm Vacuum 1 Atm Vacuum

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Pump Down

Low Side to 1 Atm (0 PSIG)

This procedure brings the low side to equilibrium with atmospheric pressure. Once achieved you can open up any part of the low side for servicing.
Examples are, changing out Filter/Drier or sight Glass or TXV. If you are going to be involved with tedious or time consuming repairs you should pump
down the low side completely and when done, evacuate the low side with a vacuum pump.

Low Side to Vacuum

To completely empty out the low side front seat the King Valve and run the compressor for as long as required to achieve maximum vacuum. Used when
major work is required on the low side. (e.g. replacement or relocation of evaporator, or tedious or time consuming repairs requiring the low side to be
opened up for an extended time.)

Compressor 1 Atm (0 PSIG)

This procedure allows quick servicing of anything on the low side of the system. An example is a change of a sensing line located on the Suction Service
Valve (SSV) in a location that can not be isolated from the low side pressure. (e.g. tied in to the SSV between the 2 seats) Front Seat the SSV and run
compressor until 1 Atmospheric Pressure is reached, stop compressor, effect changes.

Compressor to Vacuum

This procedure can be used as a Compressor Efficiency Test. If you suspect a lack of capacity is being caused by a worn out compressor, front seat the SSV
and see how deep of a vacuum the compressor can pull on it's own internal volume. It is a very quick and easy test as the volume is relatively small
compared to trying to pump down the entire low side. A new compressor will pull at least 15" Hg Vac. It will also hold that vacuum if you stop the
compressor from operating and not allow it to bleed back. If the vacuum will not hold, it indicates that high side pressure is leaking back through worn,
chipped, cracked or broken discharge valves on the valve plate. Be careful that you are not getting fooled by poorly installed test gauges allowing air to leak
in or the SSV inadequately seating, either of which would spoil the bleed back test. In summary: A compressor that passes a pump down test achieves close
to 15" Hg or more and can hold that vacuum when turned off.

Review Questions - Pump Down Procedures

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Pump Down

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Review Questions - Pump Down Procedures

Review Questions - Pump Down Procedures

What valve can be used to pump down a system?


When holding the entire system charge, what is the maximum percentage full that a
receiver should be?
If a pump down bleeds back what might that indicate?
The high side pressure of a pumped down system depends on the quantity of refrigerant
pumped into the high side. True?
What pressure would you pump down the low side to for replacing a LL Filter/Drier?
What valve is used to perform a compressor efficiency test?
A compressor can pump down to 6mm Hg VAC and when turned off the pressure rises
back instantly. Is the compressor good?

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Evacuation

Evacuation

The piping system of a new refrigeration system must be pressure tested and evacuated before charging with refrigerant. The same is true for systems that
have been opened up for major repairs. If service was required on the low side it may be possible to pump down and isolate the refrigerant or residual
refrigerant to the high side leaving only the low side to be pressure tested and evacuated. The size of the system and whether the refrigerant is contaminated
and an educated guess as to the amount of refrigerant left in the system will have a bearing on whether or not to recover the residual charge and start over
with fresh refrigerant. The evacuation is necessary to remove all traces of air and moisture and nitrogen used to pressure test the system. Otherwise there
would be non-condensables in the system which will cause high head pressure and moisture which is a component which leads to the formation of acids.
When the system is charged it should contain liquid and gaseous refrigerant and refrigerant oil and nothing else. Any time a system is opened up the filter/
drier should be changed. When evacuating use both hoses and put all service valve stems in the mid seated position for least restriction. Tighten the packing
glands on the service valves, and replace the service valve caps. Short, large diameter hoses are best for evacuating and greatly reduce the time required for
evacuation. Most manufacturers recommend evacuating down to at least 250 microns. You may even come across specifications requiring a 50 micron
evacuation. To achieve vacuums that low you would have to use large diameter and very short copper connections between the vacuum pump and the
system. Standard flexible hoses just do not provide enough of a seal and also present too much restriction to flow to achieve those types of vacuums.

Triple Evacuation

A triple evacuation is best:

● 1st evacuation
● break vacuum with dry nitrogen
● 2nd evacuation
● break vacuum with dry nitrogen
● 3rd evacuation

By introducing dry nitrogen into an evacuated system a couple of times you help to "blot up" residual moisture. Dry nitrogen is capable of absorbing a small
quantity of moisture. You might consider the habit of introducing nitrogen just through the high side (especially when in the nitrogen pressure testing
process) That way you can see if there is high side to low side flow. If you determine that there is a restriction, it will be easier to rectify the situation now
rather than later when you try charging the system. If the system has an LLSV this test will not be possible (unless you energize the LLSV coil)

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Evacuation

Boiling Temperatures of Water

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Evacuation

You have learned that there is a relationship between the pressure being exerted on the
surface of a liquid and the liquids ability to evaporate. The removal of unwanted moisture
from within a refrigeration system relys on this relationship. When the pressure is
sufficiently reduced by a vacuum pump water droplets will change state to a vapour and
be drawn off by the vacuum pump. However there is another component to the equation
and that is temperature. At cooler temperatures the water will have a greater tendancy to
stay in liquid form. So if it is possible to warm up a piping system this will improve
moisture removal. That is not always possible so it is important to note the precise effect
temperature will have on waters boiling point at various pressures. The chart on the left
demonstrates the effect of temperature. Consider for example a pleasantly cool day of 64º
F and you are evacuating a system in preparation for charging it. If you are not using a
micron gauge, your gauge manifold set might be showing a pressure of 29+ "Hg VAC.
The needle might even be buried against the stop post but there is no way you can be sure
of the exact pressure because of the relative coarseness of the scale. If in fact the pressure
was only down to 16,000 microns, you can see from the chart that you would NOT HAVE
EVEN STARTED to boil off any water inside the system. This demonstrates the
importance of using a micron gauge to determine the status and progress of an evacuation.

Micron Gauge Pressure Test

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Evacuation

A micron gauge indicates when an evacuation has achieved the desired level of vacuum. It can also be
used deduce whether the system is indeed tight, has a leak, or still has moisture. If you valve off the
evacuated system to the micron gauge and monitor the pressure you can tell the difference by the type
of graph that develops over time. It is a good idea to test your vacuum pump directly on the micron
gauge. If you can not pull an adequate vacuum, make sure you do not have leaks in your gauges or
connections and/or change the oil in the pump. Vacuum pumps use a special dehydrated vacuum pump
oil and it must be changed as often as required to enable good evacuations each time. You don’t get
hundreds of hours use out of each oil change. A single dirty evacuation can be grounds for changing
your vacuum pump oil.

Review Questions - Evacuation

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Evacuation

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Review Questions - Evacuation

Review Questions - Evacuation

Name 3 things that are removed from a system by evacuating it.


What should be done any time a system is opened up?
How many hoses should be tied into a system for evacuating?
What test instrument tells you when an adequate evacuation has been achieved?
How often should vacuum pump oil be changed?

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Charging

Charging

Part 1

Click back and forth between buttons 1 and 2 and see how many differences in operation you can find between the two systems. Can you come to a
conclusion about the operation of these two systems? When you are done click the Answers button to find out if you came to the correct conclusions.

1 2

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Charging

Answers

There are some points that should be made about the preceding example. A sight glass that is not full (while the system is operating) may indicate an
undercharged system. However there are other things that can cause that symptom as well. For example, if the LL Filter (Liquid Line Filter) was partially
clogged but still allowing some flow, the sight glass wouldn't be full yet the system could be fully charged. That condition is called a High Side Restriction.
Fortunately there is a simple way to identify this situation. A partially clogged filter/drier can cause enough pressure drop to lower the temperature of the
liquid passing through it making the drier and downstream liquid line cold. This is the refrigeration effect taking place and the drier and liquid line can even
get cold enough to allow frost to form. If the liquid line feeding the filter/drier is 105 ºF and the shell of the filter/drier cold to the touch, the high side
restriction will be obvious.

The key to diagnosing a malfunctioning system is to gather as many symptoms as you can. Several symptoms consistent with a potential cause are more
likely to lead you in the right direction than a single indicator. You must also eliminate other possible causes as with the high side restriction example.

It is logical that an undercharge will cause higher than normal superheat. Normal operation is to have as much of the evaporator as possible filled with liquid
in order to pick up heat when it changes state. At the same time it must not be so full that there is no room left over for superheating the vapour. With
undercharged conditions there is a lack of liquid and a surplus of vapour in the evaporator. That translates to a great deal of evaporator area that is available
for superheating. Hence undercharge and high superheat go hand in hand.

The refrigerant pressure in the evaporator is affected by the thermal loads imposed on the evaporator, the removal of vapour from the continual suction of the
compressor as well as the continual addition of refrigerant from the metering device. With an undercharged system the metering device can not feed the
evaporator at the rate it is supposed to because there is not a full column of liquid in the liquid line. There also may be lower than normal high side pressure
pushing liquid through the TXV. Without the required feed rate to the evaporator, the compressor tends to empty out the low side. That's why the suction
pressure becomes lower than normal. This also explains why an over sized compressor will also cause lower than normal suction pressure. (The greator
suction capacity removes vapours at a faster rate than the rest of the system was designed to keep up with.)

The Discharge Pressure is the result of compressing the low side vapours. So lower suction pressure tends to lower the high side pressure. However there are
other forces also affecting the high side pressure. This is especially true if the system has some type of head pressure control. For example, a water cooled
system has a water regulator valve that may totally mask the high side pressure from the symptoms you would expect with an undercharge. It will reduce the
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Charging

water flow trying to maintain it's head pressure setting and can possibly maintain normal high side pressure with undercharged conditions. Air cooled
systems that have some form of head pressure control will also mask the expected symptoms. Measuring several parameters will reduce the number of
possibilities and narrow the number of possible causes of problem.

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Review Questions - Charging Procedures

Review Questions - Charging Procedures

Suction Pressure has an effect on head pressure. True or False?


What happens to a jug of refrigerant if you vapour charge from it?
Where is a liquid charging valve located?
What is high side pressure called when measured from the DSV?

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

Determining Superheat & Subcooling

OEM's (Original Equipment Manufacturers) and refrigerant manufacturers provide PT Charts to the refrigeration industry. PT Charts make it possible to
diagnose the refrigerant side of a system even if you are not familiar with the particular refrigerant being used. There are a great many refrigerants out there
and they each have there own pressure and temperature characteristics. (Pressure Temperature Relationship). Examine the PT Chart shown below. Across
the top row are listed several common refrigerants. Down the first column on the left is a temperature scale in ºF. If you want to know what pressure
refrigerant R134A should be when it is 40 ºF you find R134A on the top row and go down until you line up with the 40ºF row to find 35.1 PSIG.
Remember, that will be true for Saturated Conditions only.

To calculate Superheat measure the suction pressure at the TXV bulb location and convert
that pressure to temperature by using the PT Chart. Measure the actual temperature at the
bulb location and compare the two. The difference between the two is Superheat.

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

To calculate Subcooling measure the high side pressure at the condenser outlet and convert
that pressure to temperature by using the PT Chart. Measure the actual temperature at the
condenser outlet location and compare the two. The difference between the two is Subcooling.

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

The above systems are called Close Coupled because the components are so close together. Taking a pressure reading at the SSV in the above examples was
virtually the same as taking a reading right at the bulb. However many systems are not close coupled and it may not be possible to obtain a pressure reading
right at the bulb location. There may be a couple of pounds of pressure drop in a long Suction Line due to frictional losses. A reading at the SSV location
would then be different than if taken at the bulb location. To try and be more accurate with Superheat calculations we can add in a estimated pressure loss
factor as shown below.

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

P1
P2

Click Button P2 to add a second temperature probe to the meter. Can you calculate the amount of subcooling that this system has? Try to come up with a
solution before clicking on the Answer Button.

Answer
(see above)

The above calculations yielded nice even figures for superheat and subcooling. You will not see those occur in the field on a consistent basis, those amounts
are just what to aim for. When troubleshooting you are keeping your eyes open for symptoms that stray far from normal.

The above two subcooling examples both had high side pressures that converted to 105 ºF. I could have used any other refrigerant as an example and the
high side pressure I chose would still have been the corresponding pressure for 105 ºF. There is a reason for that. All* systems have a design condensing
temperature of 105 ºF. Systems are designed to run under a range of condensing temperatures, typically 55 ºF to 90 ºF. If you want to reject heat into 90 ºF
air then you must be hotter than 90 ºF. You only need about a 10 ºF TD (Temperature Difference) between the evaporator and entering air to effect
reasonable heat transfer but there is an additional factor to consider with the condenser. You have the additional heat of compression to reject on top of the
heat you picked up with the evaporator. So instead of being 10º F hotter than 90º F they design to be 15º F hotter. 90 + 15 = 105. Never forget that because
with a PT Chart you can determine what a normal "text book" head pressure should be for any refrigerant you come across. It is however only a starting
point. On a very hot day, high side pressures can be a lot higher than on a cool day. Mechanics working in very hot climates are going to have a completely
different idea of what a normal head pressure is compared to mechanics working in more moderate climates.

Evaporator temperatures are selected to suit the application. They will be different for air conditioning than they are for refrigeration. Products such as
flowers and meat require high humidity conditions to keep the product from drying out. This is a problem because moisture is removed from the air as it
passes through the evaporator fins and is cooled below the dew point. However less humidity is removed from the air when there is less of a difference
between the evaporator temperature and the entering air temperature.

Moving air also dries things out. Refrigerated boxes that should have higher humidity conditions therefore use oversized evaporators to allow for less of a
temperature difference and slow moving fans to reduce air movement. There is also a type of evaporator called a gravity coil which uses no fans at all. They
are designed with wide fin spacing and a lot of pipe surface and rely on establishing natural convection currents to distribute the cooled air. These
convection currents form by gravity causing the colder denser air to sink which displaces the warmer less dense air which rises up and then sinks through
the gravity coil becoming colder etc. These convection currents are slow moving and do not dry out the product as much as fast moving air. Anytime you
see a gravity coil, you know it has been selected either with high humidity conditions in mind or because there was difficulty in providing power for
evaporator fan motors. (such as with mobile refrigeration with a belt driven compressor and condenser fan motor and no electricity available for the fans)

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Determining Superheat & Subcooling

Although there are many variations possible with entering air temperatures, evaporator temperatures, slow or fast moving air, high or low humidity
conditions and high or low load conditions two things remains relatively constant; superheat and subcooling. At least it is hoped that they will remain
relatively constant. That is why superheat and subcooling are corner stones when it comes to diagnosing refrigeration equipment.

*There are of course exceptions to every rule.

Review Questions - Superheat & Subcooling

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Review Questions - Superheat & Subcooling

Review Questions - Superheat & Subcooling

Will a PT Chart predict actual temperature from measured pressure with superheated
conditions?
How do you measure superheat?
How do you measure subcooling?
What is a close coupled system?
Where would you measure the temperature when making a subcooling calculation?
If a system is operating with 9 ºF superheat is there a problem?
Is there anything significant about 105 ºF?
Name 2 things that can be done to reduce humidity removal in a "high humidity
refrigeration system"

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Accessories

Accessories

Accumulator

Accumulators are used in the suction line just upstream of a compressor to help prevent liquid slugging.
They have an inverted trap which has it's inlet in the vapour section which reduces the chance of liquid
getting back to the compressor. There is a small opening on the underside of the trap which causes a
Venturi effect and sucks up oil that gets caught in the bottom of the accumulator. Oil must be returned
to the compressor sump where it belongs.

Check Valve

Check valves allow flow in one direction only. One example of where they are used is in heat pumps.
In a heat pump the liquid line reverses direction of flow when the modes change. Check valves are used
to force refrigerant flow through the appropriate metering device.

Stop Flow

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Accessories

CPRV

Crankcase Pressure Regulator Valves are installed in the suction line just upstream of the compressor.
They are adjustable and are set to limit the suction pressure to a pre-determined maximum. This set
point is usually the amount of pressure that causes the compressor to use all of it's FLA rating. That is
in fact how to set them. Monitor the amperage draw of the compressor and cause an overload condition
by allowing high evaporator loading. Dial the CPRV until the compressor is not exceeding it's FLA
rating. CPRV's are used with electric defrost freezer systems to keep the compressor from overloading
at the termination of every defrost when the evaporator has higher than normal temperatures. Freezer
compressors have large displacements which are intended to suck the rarefied vapours of refrigerant at
low temperatures. It is easy therefore to make the compressor overload at the initial start up. That's
because the box will have a very high load relative to cold freezing temperatures, the refrigerant will
not be rarefied and can overload the compressor driver beyond it's normally intended operating range.
The system does not necessarily have to have the final charge adjustment but there must be enough
refrigerant in the system to bring on the fans via the FDT (Fan Delay Thermostat) and load (actually
over load) the compressor. You can then adjust the CPRV to a setting that does not allow the
compressor to over load ever again. The CPRV is set to allow no more than a pre-determined maximum
outlet pressure. Think of a CPRV as a "dial-an-amp".

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Accessories

Crankcase Heater

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Accessories

If a compressor is located in a cold location refrigerant will migrate into the oil in the compressor
sump. Since the internal volume of the compressor is actually part of the low side of the system, at start
up when the crankcase pressure is reduced, liquid refrigerant entrained in the oil will flash causing the
oil to foam and be carried away with the evaporating refrigerant. This can be devastating to the
compressor. To prevent this oil slugging crankcase heaters are used to warm the oil and evaporate the
refrigerant out of it. The top image shows the leads from an internal CCH which is supplied from the
factory built in place. The bottom picture is a strap on type crankcase heater and can be added on to
hermetic compressors when required.

Air Conditioning Condensing units located outdoors are often equipped with crankcase heaters. If an
air conditioning system stays idle all winter, the CCH should be turned on the day before the initial
season start up. CCH's are low wattage and take a long time to boil off liquid refrigerant.

Distributor

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Distributors are used to distribute refrigerant to parallel passes in evaporators. By distributing the flow
through multiple passes the frictional losses and therefore the pressure drop is kept to a minimum in
medium and large sized coils. Large coils can have many distributor tubes. Since the flow must be
equal through all the passes the distributor tubes must all be the same length. Since the manifolds are
all at different distances from the distributor, the distributor tubes can sometimes appear to be a snarly
mess. But, functionality over-rides neatness, so the excess tubing simply has to be bunched up as
compactly as possible without kinking. This is done at the factory so you will probably never have to
deal with it unless repairing a leak. It is just important to know that equal flow through all the passes is
mandatory.

EPRV

Evaporator Pressure Regulator Valves are used to prevent evaporator pressure from falling below a pre-
determined value set by the EPRV. That makes it possible to operate multiple boxes (multiple
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Accessories

evaporators) with different temperature set points from the same condensing unit. EPRV's are also used
to prevent coil freeze ups during low load conditions. The valves are adjustable by removing the cap
and accessing the adjustment screw. The Schraeder access port is on the inlet side of the valve so the
evaporator pressure can be monitored while setting the valve.

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Accessories

Hand Valve

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Accessories

There are many uses for refrigerant rated hand shut off valves. For example oil separators must have a
shut off valve in the oil return line. Otherwise, if the float valve happened to be open it would be
impossible to pump down the system for service because pressure would bleed back through the oil
return line. Another use is for isolating built in pressure gauges so that they can be easily changed out
should the need arise. The life of a high side gauge can be extended by closing the isolation valve so
that the gauge is not subjected to constant compressor pulsation's. The valve in the picture has flare
fittings but valves are also available with sweat fittings. When there is an arrow on an accessory, that
indicates that the component is uni-directional and will only seal or operate properly if flow is aligned
with the arrow.

Hot Gas Bypass Regulator

Hot Gas Bypass Valves offer a method of capacity control. During low load conditions they impose a false load on
an evaporator by allowing some hot discharge gas to enter after the TXV. The compressor can therefore continue
operating. The hot gas bypass valve extends the run cycle of an air conditioning compressor which improves
humidity removal. Hot Gas Bypass Valves also limit the minimum evaporator pressure which prevents coil icing.

Liquid Line Filter Drier

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Accessories

Contaminants such as moisture, dirt, acids, sludge and wax can attack refrigeration systems causing
higher condensing temperatures, plugged metering devices and system corrosion. Filters are designed
to trap unwanted contaminants. Proper evacuation procedures must remove as much moisture as
possible because the moisture absorbing capability of the desiccant in a filter/drier is measured in mere
droplets. Filters are available with flare as well as sweat fittings. Larger sizes are available with
replaceable cores. The first drawing shows a flare drier with the protective end caps removed. Those
caps should only be removed when the drier is ready to be installed immediately.

LLSV

Liquid Line Solenoid Valves are used in automatic pump down systems. They can also be used in a
Parallel Drop system where at the end of a refrigeration call, the LLSV, compressor and CFM all drop
out at the same time. That system does not pump down but does offer positive shut off to stop liquid
migration. The drawing shows a sweat type but they are also available with flare fittings. Look for a
direction of flow arrow on the valve body as they only block flow properly in one flow direction.
Solenoid valves are typically NC (normally closed) and must be energized to allow flow.

Muffler

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Accessories

Compressor pulsation's are amplified by the piping system and the resulting noise can become a
nuisance. To quiet things down mufflers are often placed in the discharge line, especially in air
conditioning systems where noise is more likely to be a problem. Mufflers contain baffles which break
up the pulsations and reduce the noise output. They are similar in appearance to some liquid line filter
driers so don't mistakenly identify a discharge line as a liquid line nor a muffler for a filter.

Oil Separator

Oil is required to lubricate the moving parts within a compressor. Unfortunately oil and refrigerant have an affinity for each other and oil is constantly being
depleted from the compressor sump and circulating about the piping system. Oil can get logged up in parts of the piping system and not return to the
compressor sump. The rate of oil depletion must be equalled by the rate of oil being returned otherwise it is only a matter of time until the compressor is
destroyed from lack of lubrication. Piping systems are designed as a trade off between pressure drop (system efficiency) and velocity (oil return). In other
words larger pipes have less pressure drop which is good for system efficiency and smaller pipes cause higher velocities which improve oil movement and
the return of oil to where it belongs. Another problem with oil getting out in the piping system is that it acts as an insulator reducing heat transfer in coils.
Oil separators capture most of the oil as it leaves the compressor and return it back to the compressor sump where it belongs. There are three types of oil
separators; impingement, helical, and coalescing.

Impingement separators use screens in the upper half to cause fine particles of oil to collect and form
larger ones. The velocity of the discharge gas is reduced when it enters the large volume of the oil
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Accessories

separator which helps the oil droplets to impinge on the screen. The droplets grow large enough in size
to fall to the bottom. When sufficient oil has been collected a float operated needle valve opens and
allows the difference in high side and low side pressure to return the oil to the crankcase. The black
arrow in the graphic is above the fitting for the oil return line. Impingement separators are
approximately 80% to 85% efficient and are in common use. The drawing shows a serviceable type
impingement oil separator. They are also available as a sealed unit.

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Accessories

Helical separators depend on the interior shell design to force the gas/oil mixture along a spiral path.
That creates a centrifugal force which forces the oil droplets to the outside of the spiral where they
collect and drain to the float valve below. A supposed drawback to this type of unit is that centrifugal
force only works effectively on relatively large oil droplets. This means that smaller droplets remain in
the gas and are recirculated through the system. However manufacturers of helical separators claim that
up to 99% efficiency can be achieved.

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Accessories

In coalescing separators, the refrigerant/oil mixture is passed through a filter of exceptionally pure,
extremely fine glass fibres, which form a capturing matrix. This matrix excites the oil molecules,
causing them to collide and form larger droplets which are forced to the filter's outer drain layer where
they drain by gravity into the sump. Coalescing units are capable of delivering between 95% to 99%+
efficiency, depending on the grade of filter core used and the design details. There are some coalescing
oil separator manufacturers that claim their units have 99.99% efficiency.

The layout diagram below shows an impingement type oil separator installed in the discharge line. Note that the oil return line must have an isolation valve.
If the system ever must be pumped down for service the hand valve can be closed to keep high side pressure from bleeding back to the low side. Although
bleed back may only occur if the float valve happens to be open, there must be a remedy for that possibility. One must be absolutely certain never to put a
system into operation with the oil return line valve shut. There is no excuse possible for ever making that mistake.

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Accessories

P-Trap

P-Traps can be used at the evaporator outlet to provide a place for oil to drain to during the off cycle.
An oil film on the inside of the evaporator tubing acts like an insulator. That effect is certainly not
desirable in the evaporator. The proper place for the oil is back in the compressor crankcase. If the
bottom of the P-Trap partially fills up with oil, the left over area above the oil level becomes smaller.
When the system starts operating the refrigerant flow must squeeze through this smaller volume hence
it speeds up. This fast moving refrigerant gas, whipping around the smooth curve of the P-Trap picks
up and entrains the oil and gets it moving back to it's proper location.

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Accessories

P-Traps and risers should be used to improve oil return. Large vertical suction line rises may have
several traps to assist with oil return. Consult piping manuals to determine when and how many traps to
use in such a situation.

Receiver

Receivers are reservoirs on the high side of a system which hold refrigerant. They have a dip tube to the
outlet side which ensures that a full column of liquid refrigerant feeds the liquid line. They store
refrigerant which may be needed at another time by an evaporator with a TXV when the evaporator
load increases and more flow is required. Capillary Line systems do not require receivers because that
type of metering device does not modulate the flow. Therefore no reserve of refrigerant will be needed
because increased flow rates will not occur. Receivers also provide a location to store refrigerant when
a system is pumped down for servicing. Extra large receivers store refrigerant which may be needed
later by refrigerant side head pressure controls for partially flooding condensers. They should be sized
to hold the entire system charge when it is pumped down and still have 20% left over for expansion of

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Accessories

the liquid refrigerant if the temperature increases. Receivers have safety relief valves and/or fusible
plugs to vent the refrigerant in the event of an over temperature/pressure condition such as would occur
in a a fire. Normally, high pressure conditions are sensed by a high pressure safety control and the
pressure stops rising when the compressor is shut down. In the event that pressures keep on rising there
needs to be a way to keep the receiver and piping from exploding and becoming shrapnel, hence the
fusible plug and/or safety relief valve. It is a good idea to pipe a safety relief to the outdoors, however
codes must be followed. No shut off valve may be installed in a relief vent line and the relief venting
pipe must not be sized down from the piping size of the relief itself. The piping line that goes from a
condenser to a receiver is called a condensate line. (Refrigerant that has condensed in the condenser
then flows through the condensate line.) Moisture that is condensed out of the air by an evaporator
drips into a condensate pan and then flows out a drain line also called a condensate line.

Sight Glass

A sight glass can be placed in the liquid line to show the condition of the refrigerant. There may be a
moisture indicating dot in the center of the glass. The dot changes colour when moisture is present.
Sight glass moisture indicators are available with different colours and some are capable of several
colour graduations indicating various moisture concentrations. There are colour scales to compare the
indicator dot colour to. A full sight glass should not be relied on to indicate whether a system is charged
properly. Superheat, subcooling, weighed in charges and manufacturers charging charts are much more
reliable. A sight glass can not indicate an over charge and a bubbling sight glass does not always
correctly indicate an undercharge. For example, a high side restriction upstream of a sight glass can
cause it to bubble. It is therefore proper practice to locate a sight glass downstream of a liquid line filter
drier so that a partially plugged drier will cause bubbling in the sight glass and perhaps be noticed.
Filter/driers have direction of flow arrows stamped on them. Be sure to install the sight glass on the
downstream side of the filter/drier and install the filter with respect to the correct direction of flow in
the liquid line.

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Accessories

Suction Filter

Suction filters are primarily used to protect a new replacement hermetic compressor from residual acid
from a previous burn out of a hermetic compressor. Residual acid must not be allowed to start attacking
the new compressor winding insulation. Suction filters must be replaced as often as required in order to
to absorb all of the residual acid. A built in Schraeder access port is usually located on the upstream
side of the filter so that the pressure can be compared to the downstream pressure which can be
measured at the SSV. The pressure drop across the suction filter can thereby be determined indicating
when it must be replaced. Some filters even come equipped with both upstream and downstream access
ports. Since system capacity is very sensitive to suction line pressure drop they must eventually be
removed. Larger systems may have permanent suction filters which accept replaceable cores. When no
longer needed for clean up of a burn out the cores are usually replaced with a felt filter that has minimal
pressure drop.

Suction/Liquid Heat Exchanger

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Suction/Liquid Heat Exchangers increase the efficiency of a system. Heat from the liquid line is
transferred to the cold suction line through the heat exchanger. A first impression might be that it seems
like Peter is being robbed to pay Paul and no net benefit will occur. It is not desirable to warm the
suction line. However cooling the liquid line is desirable and there is a net benefit to overall system
performance due to the decrease in liquid line flash gas attributable to the heat exchanger. Many small
capillary line systems utilize this effect by having the capillary line soldered to the suction line.

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Accessories

Vibration Absorber

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Accessories

Vibration absorbers are used to join piping to compressors to reduce vibration imposed stress on
welded piping joints. They must be aligned in parallel with the compressor crankshaft and the far end
from the compressor must be securely mounted. That leaves the opposite end free to flex in the
intended manner with the oscillations of the compressor. Those can be especially severe at start up and
shut down when the compressor "kicks" from momentum. The cut-away in the drawing shows the
flexible construction of the inner tube and how it is reinforced by an outer casing of woven metal
fibres. If a vibration absorber leaks it must be replaced.

Review Questions - Accessories

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Accessories

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Review Questions - Accessories

Review Questions - Accessories

Where are accumulators installed?


How does an accumulator return trapped oil?
What accessory is used to keep a compressor from overloading?
What is the purpose of a crankcase heater?
What is the purpose of an EPRV?
Are EPRV's adjustable?
Name 2 examples where hand shut off valves can be useful?
What is the purpose of a hot gas bypass valve?
Name 5 things that filter/driers collect.
What is an LLSV used for?
Why is there a direction arrow on an LLSV?
How do discharge mufflers reduce noise output?
Name 3 types of oil separators.
What is the most efficient type of oil separator?
What method is used by helical oil separators to extract oil?
How do receivers ensure that liquid and not vapour enters the liquid line?
List 3 purposes for receivers.
What percentage full should a receiver not exceed when
the entire system charge is pumped down?
Name 2 types of safety devices that are used with receivers.
In which refrigeration line is a sight glass installed?
What does a yellow dot in a sight glass indicate?
Name 4 methods that are more reliable than a full sight glass for charging systems.
Does a bubbling sight glass always indicate a shortage of refrigerant?
What are suction filters used for?
Why must suction filters not be left in place permanently?
What is the purpose of a Suction/Liquid Heat Exchanger?
One end of a vibration absorber must be fastened securely
in order to work properly. True or False?

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Piping

Piping

Velocity versus Pressure Drop

With a water piping system the size of the pipe is selected with the required delivery rate in mind. If pipe bigger than required
is selected the only thing that suffers is the job cost. Refrigeration piping also needs to be selected to carry the required flow
rate but there is a further complication. Refrigerant and oil have an affinity for each other. Refrigerant oil is constantly being
depleted from the compressor sump and carried away by the refrigerant. The piping system has to be designed to return that
oil back to where it belongs. The size of the pipe is an important factor in accomplishing that goal. The size selection of
refrigeration piping is a compromise between pressure drop and velocity. If the piping is too small there will be excessive
pressure drop and the capacity of the system will suffer. On the other hand if the piping is too large then velocities will be
slow and oil will not be carried along by the refrigerant. If oil is being depleted from the compressor and not being returned
then the compressor will eventually run out of oil and seize up.

Long Radius Elbows

Pressure drop is going to occur but should be minimized wherever


possible. This is especially true with suction lines. That's why long radius
elbows are always used with refrigeration piping. A long radius elbow
has a longer sweep and will have less pressure drop than a short radius
elbow. Use short radius elbows for water lines. Only use a short radius
elbow in a refrigeration line if it is absolutely necessary for clearance
considerations.

Number of Fittings used

Piping should be laid out to use a minimum number of fittings. If you can lay out a section of piping with 3 elbows instead of
5 elbows then that is the thing to do. It is most crucial to minimize pressure drop in the suction line so plan your piping layout
around the optimum route for the suction line.

Slope

Horizontal runs of suction line should be sloped with at least 1/4" per foot back towards the compressor so that gravity can aid
with oil return.

Dips and Sags

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Piping

Dips and sags in suction lines are to be avoided. Dips and sags create
traps where oil will collect. The piping system must be laid out to
optimize oil return. This is so important with suction lines as it is mere
vapour that must make the oil travel along with it.

Kinks

If you are manually bending some soft copper and you accidentally kink the pipe, cut out and discard the kinked section and
try again. It is infinitely easier to correct the problem now than it is after the system is in operation. There is no excuse for
allowing unnecessary pressure drop to affect a system for it's entire operational life.

Flaring

When flaring pipe keep things plumb. Always leave a section of straight
pipe by the flare to allow the flare nut to be backed away from the
fitting. Leave enough room for future re-flaring of the pipe should it
become necessary. A flaring block needs a straight section of pipe to
clamp onto.

Reaming

Always ream cut pipe ends. Roller cutters deform the pipe inwards and create a ridge which will cause an unnecessary and
unwanted pressure drop. If no cut pipe ends were reamed, that unwanted pressure drop would be multiplied by the number of
cut joints in a system which can be substantial. Also be careful to knock chips clear of the pipe before inserting a fitting.

Outside Diameter

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Piping

Copper refrigeration piping is specified by the OD (Outside Diameter)


This is contrary to the plumbing industry which uses the ID or Inside
Diameter. You can convert between the 2 systems by knowing that the
wall thickness’ of copper pipe approximates 1/16th of an inch. Hence
5/8" OD = 1/2" ID. This does not mean that plumbing and refrigeration
pipe are interchangeable. Hard drawn copper refrigeration pipe is
supplied sealed up with with rubber plugs and a holding charge of dry
nitrogen. This keeps foreign debris and moisture laden air out during
storage and shipping. There is a need to know both systems as
refrigeration mechanics run into water piping all the time. There are
condensate lines and water supply and drain lines for water cooled
equipment. An inexpensive set of plastic callipers makes it easy to check
ID's and OD's.

Bull Headed Tees

Do not "bull head" a tee in a discharge line. As the name infers, when
oriented in this manner, the flow would ram into the back wall of the tee
fitting. The compressor pulsation's in a discharge line are severe enough
that the fitting will deteriorate and cause a leak. Even a 90 º Elbow
positioned too close to the compressor can fail from compressor
pulsation's. The discharge line is the only line where this restriction
applies. It is uncommon that you would ever need to split a discharge line
into 2 runs however you should remember not to bull head the layout
when that day arrives. Reducing tees are specified by inlet size, outlet
size and branch size. Eg: 5/8" x 5/8" x 7/8".

Vibration

Allowances must be made when attaching piping to a vibrating object


like a compressor. If a piping layout causes too rigid of a connection to a
vibrating object like a compressor it is only a matter of time until stress
fractures occur in the pipe or weld joints and leaks develop. With smaller
pipe sizes a vibration loop can be fashioned from soft copper. The
diagram shows small capacity walk in cooler equipment piped with soft
copper. A vibration loop has been fashioned. The image shows the side
view of a spiral loop. Note that once the refrigerant and any entrained oil
have travelled up the riser all points from then on have a slope back
towards the compressor.

Loops are not possible with rigid hard drawn copper. A vibration
absorber should be welded in parallel to the compressor shaft. One end of
the vibration absorber should be fixed to something stationary. The other
end is left to take up the movement of the compressor.

P-Trap and Riser

In the above sketch, the P-Trap provides oil in the evaporator a place to drain to. Suction vapours whipping around the smooth
curve of the P-Trap pick up the oil and move it up the vertical pipe. This arrangement is called a P-Trap and Riser. Multiple
traps and double risers are used for suction lines with large vertical rises. There are a great many procedures that should be
followed for proper piping practice. However piping techniques is a topic unto itself and is beyond the scope of this
introductory book. Refer to manufacturers literature and text books dedicated to piping techniques for further information.

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Piping

Piping Insulation

Insulation should be placed on all suction lines that are outside of the conditioned space. The above graphic demonstrates this.
The reason is to reduce the amount of heat that gets picked up by the cold suction line. Unwanted heat picked up by the
suction line is like trying to refrigerate outside of the intended conditioned space. This is a waste of energy and detracts from
system performance. The effect is even worse if a long uninsulated suction line travels through a particularly warm
environment like a hot mechanical room. Low temperature systems like freezers have colder suction lines so thicker walled
suction line insulation is a good idea. If condensation or frosting pipes are a problem, suction lines inside a conditioned space
can also be insulated. The only other pipe that should be insulated is the outdoor section of liquid line in a split system heat
pump. In that case you are trying to avoid losing heat to the cold outdoor air when the heat pump is in the heating mode.

Pipe Sizing Charts

Pipe Sizing Charts make selecting the proper piping size relatively easy. A different chart is required for each refrigerant and
for each line; suction, discharge, condensate and liquid lines. On the chart below determine what size pipe you should use for
a 30 foot suction line for a 3 Ton R22 system. For the answer click the "3 Ton" Button. You start with the length column on
the far left. From the 30 foot row, go to the right until you first reach a tonnage that meets or exceeds 3 Tons. Then go up to
the top row to see what size pipe is required. The charts are prepared with an allowance for an average amount of fittings, so
there is no need to calculate equivalent pressure drops for each fitting in the run. The Bold figures are not to be exceeded
otherwise a suction line temperature penalty occurs. The figures greater than the bold ones plus the figures in the shaded areas
are there for reference only and should not be used. Before you click on the 4 Ton Button, see if you can determine what size a
40 foot suction line should be for a 4 Ton R22 system.

Chart 3 Ton 4 Ton

Review Questions - Piping

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Review Questions - Piping

Review Questions - Piping

What are the 2 trade offs when selecting piping sizes for a refrigeration system?
What effect does undersized refrigeration piping have?
What effect does oversized refrigeration piping have?
When can you use a short radius elbow in a refrigeration piping system?
Which refrigerant line, when run horizontally, should have some slope? Which way should
it slope and why?
Why should there not be dips and sags in suction lines.
Why should pipe cuts always be reamed?
Is water piping specified by it's OD or by it's ID?
What is a vibration loop and where is it used?
What is a P-Trap & Riser, where is it used and how does it work?
How can you figure out what size pipe to use for any given refrigeration line?
If you were to run 30 feet of suction line for a 10 Ton R-22 system, what size should it be?
If you were to run 20 feet of suction line for a 1 Ton R-22 system, what size should it be?

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Refrigerants

Refrigerants

A few short years ago managing refrigerants was a fairly simple task. The typical service truck
might have carried a mere 3 types of CFC refrigerants:

● R-12
medium temperature refrigeration

● R-22
air conditioning

● R-502
low temperature refrigeration

There were of course other refrigerants but a large amount of equipment utilized one of the 3 listed
above. CFC stands for chlorinated fluorocarbon and indicates that the refrigerant molecules
contain Chlorine and Fluorine and Carbon atoms. These refrigerants had thermodynamic
characteristics very well suited for the jobs they were given. It could be boasted that they were
colourless, odourless, non-toxic, non-flammable and non-explosive. They were a readily accepted
improvement from noxious refrigerants like Sulphur Dioxide and Ammonia. If a Sulphur Dioxide
or Ammonia leak developed a building would have to be evacuated. If a CFC leak occurred
occupants might not even be aware of the fact. However there still are concerns with CFC
refrigerants. Although they are not flammable, they can be forced to burn. Anything can be forced
to burn. An oxy-acetylene torch that cuts steel is actually burning the steel. When a welding torch
is used on refrigeration piping that contains residual refrigerant vapours, those vapours are forced
to burn. When that happens to CFC or HCFC refrigerants they are chemically changed into a
poison known as Phosgene. This issue was of little concern to anyone but refrigeration mechanics
and firemen and was generally unknown by the public. There is another issue which should at
least be mentioned. If a very large amount of refrigerant is released into an enclosed space, it is
possible that air and oxygen can be displaced to the point where human safety would be in
jeopardy. That is however a possibility with any gas, not just refrigerants.

In recent years it was discovered that there was a major issue with the use of CFC refrigerants.
CFC's and some other substances were causing depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer which
shields the planet from damaging UV-B radiation. If the ozone layer was allowed to continue to
deteriorate it was argued that global warming and the incidence of human skin cancer could rise to
extremely undesireable levels. Plankton regeneration and the entire global food chain could also
be at risk. The Montreal Protocol was originally signed in 1987 and is an international agreement
designed to protect the ozone layer. A plan was established to phase out CFC based refrigerants
and other Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). Production of the most destructive refrigerants has
already ceased. R12 and R502 and many others are no longer being produced. Some refrigerants
with smaller quantities of the damaging components are being used but even they are scheduled
for oblivion (in 2020). Large chemical manufacturing companies jumped on the band wagon and
flooded the market with scores of "designer refrigerants" all hoping to come up with the next
widely accepted refrigerant substitutes. This has created havoc in the refrigeration industry. There

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Refrigerants

are so many alternative choices for replacement refrigerants, it is chaotic in comparison to the way
it used to be. It is necessary to take a look at the different categories of refrigerants in order to
understand which ones are ozone depleting and scheduled for control and which ones will be
allowed to stay in use. A Refrigeration mechanic must become familiar with the terms CFC,
HCFC, HFC and Blends.

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Refrigerants

The blue coloured text indicates how abbreviations like CFC were coined from the chemical
names of the substances. Note that red coloured text indicates Chlorine content and those
substances are the ones slated for control and obsolescence. The R-22 example refrigerant given
for the HCFC group has not been banned yet although it is slated for extinction in the year 2020.
R-22 has been used extensively as one of the components in the new blends of so called "ozone
friendlier" refrigerants. The following section, PT Chart Index is a large data base containing a
great number of refrigerants with their PT Charts and other data. There is much that can be learned
from noting the components of refrigerants and blends. The magic word is chlorine, if it contains
any, it is or will be banned. When you look through the data base you will see that there are a great
many more replacement options than are needed for each of the old refrigerants being phased out.
It is certainly impossible to stock one jug of each type of refrigerant in a service van.

Nomenclature

There is some technical reasoning behind the naming convention (or nomenclature) for
refrigerants. The graphic below demonstrates the procedure used by chemists to come up with the
seemingly strange names. A single C represents a Carbon atom, a CL stands for Chlorine, H is
Hydrogen and F is Fluorine.

Blends

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Refrigerants

Blends are a mixture of 2 or more refrigerants. The mixture is formulated to provide refrigerant
properties suitable for a specific temperature application. Blends come in 2 categories; Azeotropes
and Zeotropes.

Azeotropes (500 series)

Azeotropes are refrigerant blends which evaporate and condense exactly like a pure component at
some temperature and pressure. They may not behave in this fashion at all temperatures and
pressures but they will be close.
Example: R-502

Zeotropes (400 series)

Zeotropes are refrigerant blends which show some amount of temperature glide when evaporating
or condensing. In other words they may not always have a precise Temperature/Pressure
relationship like a pure refrigerant always has. Some may act like Azeotropes and glide may not
be noticeable. Zeotropes with glide greater than 3 ºF will have one end of the evaporator warmer
than the other which may affect system performance. If retrofitting to a Zeotrope it may be
necessary to change a pressure activated operating control to a temperature activated operating
control to avoid temperature swings in the refrigerated space. Other controls may have to be
adjusted as well.
Example: R-401A (MP39)

Toxicity & Flammability

Most refrigerants are generally non-flammable. However, anything will burn if you force it to. If
refrigerant vapours are floating about in the presence of an open flame (such as a welding torch or
even the pilot burners in commercial kitchen equipment) the vapours will indeed burn and some
types of refrigerants will form dangerous combustion products. If a refrigerant containing chlorine
is forced to burn, phosgene gas is created which is poisonous. Phosgene was used in WW1 as a
poisonous gas in trench warfare so it is nothing to be taken lightly. It's chemical formula is COCl2
and it goes under the following chemical names:

● carbonyl chloride
● chloroformyl chloride
● carbon oxychloride

Phosgene has a sweet, hay-like odour at lower levels, and is extremely pungent at higher levels. So
you will usually know immediately if phosgene is being created. Phosgene is severely irritating
and corrosive to all body tissues. Irritation of the throat occurs immediately at 3 PPM, while 4
PPM causes immediate eye irritation. Exposure to 20 to 30 PPM for as little as 1 minute may

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Refrigerants

cause severe irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, with symptoms including burning
throat, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, and headache. Brief exposure
to 50 PPM can be fatal within a few hours. Severe respiratory distress may not develop for 4 to 72
hours after exposure, at which point pulmonary edema progressing to pneumonia and cardiac
failure may occur. Phosgene vapour is irritating to the eyes, and the liquid can cause severe burns
to the eyes and skin. Phosgene is not regarded as a substance with adequate warning properties. In
short, do not weld pipes with residual refrigerant vapours and weld in well ventilated areas.

Some refrigerants do not have to be burned in order to be dangerous. Toxicity and flammability of
refrigerants has been classified by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Engineers)

Flammability Classifications

● 1: Group 1 refrigerants have no flammability identified.


● 2: Group 2 refrigerants have low flammability.
● 3: Group 3 refrigerants have high flammability.

Toxicity Classifications

● A: Group A Refrigerants have not been identified as having a toxicity level.


● B: Group B Refrigerants are toxic.

Some sample classifications are shown below.

Refrigerant Toxicity Flammability

R-11 A 1

R-12 A 1

R-22 A 1

R-123 B 1

R-406A A 2

R-717 B 2

Review Questions - Refrigerants

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Refrigerants

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Review Questions - Refrigerants

Review Questions - Refrigerants

What does CFC stand for?


If you force a CFC refrigerant to burn, what does the refrigerant turn into?
What does ODS mean?
What does HCFC mean?
What does HFC mean?
What are blends?
What are Azeotropes?
What are Zeotropes?
Are blends scheduled for control?
Are CFCs scheduled for control?
Are HCFCs scheduled for control?
What are 500 series refrigerants??
What are 400 series refrigerants?
Phosgene gas is created when HFC refrigerant vapours are burned. True or False?
Which is more flammable, a Group 1 or a Group 3 refrigerant?
Which is toxic, a Group A or a Group B refrigerant?

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PT Chart Index

PT Chart Index

All charts use ºF, "Hg Vac and PSIG


Colours show ARI GUIDELINE N-1995 refrigerant container colour assignment
ARI GUIDELINE N-1995 guidelines recommend using gray for unassigned refrigerants

Select by ASHRAE Name Select by Trade Name


R-11 Alaskan Cool R-176
R-12 Allied Signal AZ50
R-13 Ammonia
R-21 Arcton(R) TP5R
R-22 Arcton-115
R-23 Arcton-13
R-32 Arcton-503
R-113 ATG-405A
R-114 Atochem FX-10
R-115 Atochem FX-40
R-116 Atochem FX-56
R-123 Atochem FX-70
R-124 Atochem FX-220
R-125 Autofrost 406A
R-1270 Autofrost-X4
R-134 AZ-20
R-134A AZ-50
R-13B1 Carbon Dioxide
R-141B Chill-it
R-142B China Sun G2015 (Greencool)
R-143 China Sun G2018A (Greencool)
R-143A China Sun G2018B (Greencool)
R-152A China Sun G2018C (Greencool)
R-176 DFE
R-218 Dimethyl Ether
R-227EA DME

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PT Chart Index

R-236EA Dupont MP33


R-236FA Elf Atochem Forane(R) FX-10
R-245CA Elf Atochem Forane(R) FX-40
R-245CB Elf Atochem Forane(R) FX-56
R-290 Elf Atochem Forane(R) FX-70
R-400(50/50) Elf Atochem Forane(R) FX-220
R-400(60/40) Forane-114
R-401A Forane-123
R-401B Forane-125
R-401C Forane-134A
R-402A Forane-141B
R-402B Forane-142B
R-403A Forane-152A
R-403B Forane-32
R-404A FR-12
R-405A Freezone RB-276
R-406A Freon-11
R-407A Freon-12
R-407B Freon-13
R-407C Freon-13B1
R-407D Freon-22
R-408A Freon-113
R-409A Freon-114
R-410A Freon-115
R-410B Freon-116
R-411A Freon-134 (Not 134A)
R-411B Freon-152A
R-412A Freon-218
R-413A Freon-500
R-414A Freon-502
R-414B Freon-503
R-417A Frigc FR12 (Intermagnetics)
R-415A Frigen-13

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PT Chart Index

R-500 Frigen-503
R-501 FX-10
R-502 FX-40
R-503 FX-56
R-504 FX-70
R-507A FX-220
R-508B G2015 (Greencool)
R-509A G2018A (Greencool)
R-600 G2018B (Greencool)
R-600A G2018C (Greencool)
R-601 Genetron-11
R-601A Genetron-12
R-717 Genetron-13
R-744 Genetron-22
R-C270 Genetron-32
R-C318 Genetron-113
R-E134 Genetron-114
R-E170 Genetron-115
R-E245FA1 Genetron-123
Genetron-124
Genetron-125
Genetron-134A
Genetron-141B
Genetron-142B
Genetron-143A
Genetron-152A
Genetron-218
Genetron-500
Genetron-502
Genetron-503
Genetron-507A
GHG-406A
GHG-High Performance

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PT Chart Index

GHG-X3
GHG-X4
GHG-X5
Great Lakes FM-200
Greencool G2015
Greencool G2018A
Greencool G2018B
Greencool G2018C
Halon 25
Halon 37
Halon 112
Halon 241
Halon1301
HC-12A
HC-290
HFC-134 (Not 134A)
HFE-134
Hoechst Reclin(R) HX4
HP62
HP80
HP81
HX4
ICI Arcton TP5R
ICI Arcton(R) TP5R2
ICI Klea-407D
ICI Klea-60
ICI Klea-61
ICOR HOTSHOT
Isceon 49
Isceon 69-L
Isceon 60-S
Isceon-218
Isobutane

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PT Chart Index

Isopentane
Isotron-11
Isotron-12
Isotron-22
Isotron-141B
Isotron-142B
Isotron-500
Isotron-502
Klea-125
Klea-134A
Klea-66
McCool-406A
Meforex-124
Meforex-143A
Moncton Refrigerants NARM-12
Moncton Refrigerants NARM-22
Moncton Refrigerants NARM-502
MP33
MP39
MP52
MP66
NARM-12
NARM-22
NARM-502
N-Butane
N-Pentane
NU22
OZ Technology HC-12A
OZ Technology OZ-12
OZ-12
PFC-116
PFC-218
PFC-C318

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PT Chart Index

Propane
Propene
Propylene
Puron
RC270
R-E134
R-E170
Reclin HX3
Reclin 507A
RX1
Solkane-32
Solkane-123
Solkane-141B
Solkane-142B
Solkane-143A
Solkane-507A
Starton 69
Suva HP62
Suva HP80
Suva HP81
Suva 95
Suva MP39
Suva MP52
Suva MP66
Suva-123
Suva-124
Suva-125
Suva-134A
Suva-143A
Suva-236FA
Suva-9000
Suva-9100
TP5R

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PT Chart Index

TP5R2

Review Questions - PT Charts

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Review Questions - PT Charts

Review Questions - PT Charts

What is the ASHRAE name for refrigerant MP39?


Is R-410A a blend or a pure refrigerant?
Which has a higher pressure at 70 ºF, R-22 or Puron?
Is R-22 scheduled for control?
Is R-717 scheduled for control?
Which is more suitable for freezer application, MP39 or MP66?
R-405A is a replacement blend for R-12. Why is it scheduled for control in 2020?
R-408A is a replacement blend for R-502. Why is it scheduled for control in 2020?
R-411A is a replacement blend for R-22. Why is it scheduled for control in 2020?
Why has R-406A been given a classification of 2 (low flammability) rather than 1 (no
flammability)?

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Refrigerant Leaks

Refrigerant Leaks

Locating and repairing refrigerant leaks is one of the common duties of a refrigeration
mechanic. Leaks can be very annoying not just for the equipment owner but for the mechanic
trying to locate the leak as well. It is down right frustrating to know that you have a leak and
not be able to find it. Regulations pertaining to ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) make the
situation even more volatile. Many enforcement agencies mandate that leaking systems must
be made leak free. That blanket statement and hopeful goal does not precisely coincide with
reality. There is no perfect refrigeration system. All systems leak to some degree. There may
be a leak so microscopic that a system can run for decades without the small loss of
refrigerant affecting system performance nor make known it's presence. Leakage rates can be
in Lb. per second for large ruptures or smaller than ounce per thousand years, but there is no
such thing as leak free. There are many methods for finding leaks. There are pros and cons to
each method.

Sight, Sound and Touch

Your first line of defence is your own senses.


Refrigeration systems circulate refrigerant oil
with the refrigerant. So all systems have a
built in leak detector, the oil. When a leak
develops oil mists out along with the
refrigerant and leaves a residue at the leak
location. That residue is often large enough to
notice visually. If the leak is in a dusty
location, dust will adhere to the oil and make
it even more visible. If you see what appears
to be a leak you can touch it, then rub your
finger tips together to feel if it has the
slippery characteristic of oil. If a leak is large
enough you can often hear it and narrow in
on it's exact location. If you can't find it with
your own senses then you must use leak
locating equipment.

Halide Leak Detector

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Refrigerant Leaks

The Halide Leak Detector is one of the most


reliable and inexpensive tools for finding
leaks. However, it is only usable for locating
CFC and HCFC refrigerants (Chlorine is a
Halide) and those are under phase out. The
HCFC R22 is still widely used and at this
point in time has been allocated for use until
the year 2020. At that time plans are to
schedule it for control and ban it from
production. In the meanwhile the Halide
Leak Detector remains a viable and effective
tool. It works by burning propane and
sucking an air sample through the sniffer tube
which mixes with the flame. If the sample
contains chlorine, the colour of the flame
changes to an iridescent turquoise colour. It's
simple, effective and provides positive
identification. It's down sides are that it is
hard to see the flame colour if used in bright
sunlight and it works poorly in windy
conditions (because the traces of refrigerant
are immediately dissipated in the wind).

Liquid Leak Detector

A necessary leak location tool is liquid leak


detector. It is a liquid soap which has
properties specifically formulated for finding
leaks. It is expensive however it can be worth
it's weight in gold. Some guys are content to
use liquid dish washing soap and that will
work for many leaks, especially those of
large size. The proper liquid leak detector
soap however can be obtained with additives
which keep it from freezing on cold pipes,
and has the ability to "micro-cocoon". That
means it will form extremely small bubbles

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Refrigerant Leaks

from small leaks and those bubbles keep


forming and grow into a very visible cocoon
of micro bubbles. Dish washing soap will not
do that. Some liquid leak detecting fluids are
available with a coloured dye to make it easy
to keep track of which joints have been leak
tested. Liquid leak detecting fluids are also
great for pin pointing the exact location of a
leak once the approximate location has been
located by other methods.

Electronic Leak Detectors

Some people have great success with


Electronic Leak Detectors. Others do not. On
some units you have to set the sensitivity
manually. If set too sensitively, the unit will
siren non-stop. If not set sensitively enough,
you will pass over a leak and not even know
it. It can be frustrating separating false
indications from actual indications. Other
units offer a high or low sensitivity range.
Electronic Leak Detectors are available that
will sense CFCs as well as HFCs, which is a
big plus.

Ultra Violet Dyes

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Refrigerant Leaks

UV dyes are a very efficient method of


finding leaks. A small capsule of refrigerant
oil containing UV dye is injected into a
system. The dye is concentrated and mixes
with the rest of the oil and circulates
throughout the system. If a leak develops,
dyed oil mists out along with the refrigerant
and leaves a residue at the leak location. The
dye can not be seen with the naked eye but
when you shine a UV light at the leak area
the dye stain leaps out at you in iridescent
yellow. UV dyes are great for locating leaks
in hard to check areas like coil end bends.
Their biggest drawback is that they are
preventative in nature. The dye must be in a
system ahead of time in order to leave a stain
at a leak location. Extreme caution must be
used when using pressurized refrigerants to
inject the dyes from the capsules. An
inadvertent spill can quickly get over
everything in sight making a heck of a mess
which is hard to clean up. If using liquid leak
detecting soap in combination with UV dyes,
be sure not to use the type with a coloured
dye because under a UV light the dye in the
soap looks just like the UV dye. Also, UV
leak detection is obviously useless in non-
visible locations such as piping running
through a chase.

Pressure Testing

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Refrigerant Leaks

Pressure testing does not identify the location


of a leak but it does indicate whether a leak
exists. Refrigerants can no longer be used for
pressure testing like they were in the days of
pre-ODS regulations. Instead an inert gas like
dry Nitrogen is used.

NEVER USE OXYGEN FOR


PRESSURIZING A REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM.

Pressurized Oxygen in contact with the oil


inside the piping system will cause an
immediate explosion. Never put oil on
oxygen fittings. Pressurized Oxygen will
explode on contact with oil. Technicians have
been killed by making that mistake. If a
system is new or has lost all of it's charge it
can be pressurized with Dry Nitrogen so that
soaps can be used to test for leaks. If all other
methods have failed to locate a leak, then
portions of a system can be isolated and
pressurized individually to locate the leaking
portion. So in that sense pressure testing can
locate leaks. Do not exceed manufacturers
maximum pressure ratings on vessels like
hermetic compressor shells. If it is not
possible to isolate a component from a
pressure test then you must not exceed the
rated maximum test pressure of that
component. Also do not exceed the pressure
rating on pressure relief valves. Think ahead.

Ultra Sonic Leak Detectors

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Refrigerant Leaks

Ultrasonic leak detectors are electronic


instruments which detect the ultrasonic noise
created by any gas moving through a small
orifice. Ultrasonic refers to frequencies that
are higher than the human audible range. This
device converts the sounds to the human
hearing range. Ultrasonic leak detectors allow
detection and locating of leaks of any gas,
regardless of type; CFCs, HFCs, Nitrogen,
etc.. They are touted to have other uses as
well including locating leaks in ducts, and
detecting the ultrasonic noise caused by
arcing electrical switch gear. They are
unaffected by contaminants and windy
outdoor conditions.

Whatever methods you use to locate leaks, learn to get good at it. You will not make anyone happy
by spending many hours hunting for a leak and then reporting that you have been unable to find it. It
becomes easier with experience (as does everything) and you will find that there are common places
to check. The following lists some very common leak locations:

● TXV outlet flare nut


● TXV inlet flare nut
● LL Drier flare nut
● service valve: packing, access fitting, mounting
● cracked weld joint in piping
● rotted evaporator end bends
● pipes rubbing together
● cracked ferrous weld in accessory

Review Questions - Refrigerant Leaks

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Refrigerant Leaks

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Review Questions - Refrigerant Leaks

Review Questions - Refrigerant Leaks

What do systems have in common that makes it possible to sometimes locate leaks by
human senses?
What is the name of the leak locating device which burns propane?
Why is professional leak detecting soap any better than plain old liquid dish washing soap?
What advantage do some electronic leak detectors have over a Halide Torch?
What is the biggest drawback of the UV leak detection system?
If you run out of Nitrogen can you use Oxygen to finish pressure testing a system?
How do ultrasonic leak detectors work?
How many common leak locations can you list?

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Refrigerant Oils

Refrigerant Oils

Before the world became aware of the problems with ODS refrigerants, and before all the new designer refrigerants came on
the market, mineral oil was the predominant oil in use for compressor lubrication. There were different makes and a few
different viscosity’s for different temperature applications but by in large the same procedures could be used for handling
refrigerant oils in all applications. Threaded refrigeration fittings could be lubricated with the oil and moderate care was
taken when exposing refrigerant oil to the atmosphere. All that has changed.

The above chart is only a general guide. The proper way to determine which oil to use is to follow equipment manufacturers
recommendations. Before ODS regulations and the new flurry of designer refrigerants came along, new equipment was
always shipped containing oil. Now some equipment is shipped without any oil so that the appropriate oil can be selected for
the refrigerant being utilized. You must insure that the equipment is not started without oil in the compressor sump or the
new compressor will be destroyed in short order. Note that the oils in the above chart are arranged in order of increasing
hygroscopic characteristics. Hygroscopic means to readily absorb moisture, as from the atmosphere. So the moment you
remove the cap from a jug of hygroscopic oil it starts absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. Moisture is the enemy of a
refrigeration system. It can freeze up at the metering device and stop the flow of refrigerant. It is also an essential ingredient
in the formation of acids. So applying a hygroscopic refrigerant oil to a threaded fitting or an O-ring is not good practice. The
use of hygroscopic oils should be planned out thoroughly and great care used so that exposure to the air is minimized. When
a container of PAG oil is opened, some say that any left over oil should be appropriately disposed of rather than kept around
as stock. This is a difficult procedure to accept as PAG oil is very expensive. However, moisture related problems can be a
lot more expensive than some discarded oil.

Manual refrigerant oil pumps are used to pump oil from

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Refrigerant Oils

the oil jug to the oil sump. In this picture the oil sump is
open to atmosphere. A superior method would be to screw
an adapter into the oil plug fitting which the service hose
could then be screwed onto.

The pumps are capable of pumping against refrigerant


pressure and in this picture the oil is being pumped into the
SSV. The oil pump must overcome low side pressure
(which is lower when the system is operating). Note that
the oil has less exposure to atmosphere with this method.

It is also possible to use the compressor to create a


pressure lower than atmosphere and suck oil into the
crankcase. However there are issues with this method
regarding purging the lines and maintaining a liquid seal so
as not to suck in air and moisture with this method. There
is also a concern regarding the open top of the oil jug.

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Refrigerant Oils

Oil Breakdown

Things like high head pressure and undercharged conditions cause high discharge temperatures. The place of highest pressure
and highest temperature in the refrigeration loop is the point of discharge from the compressor. As the compressed discharge
gas and oil mist passes this point, the oil will suffer break down if the temperatures are too high. The oil will break down into
carbon, sludge's and if moisture is present it will form acids.

Review Questions - Refrigerant Oils

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Review Questions - Refrigerant Oils

Review Questions - Refrigerant Oils

What do these acronyms stand for; MO, AB, POE, PAG ?


What does hygroscopic mean?
Which is the most hygroscopic refrigerant oil?
Which is the least hygroscopic refrigerant oil?
Name a type of refrigerant oil that is not a synthetic oil?
What is the proper way of determining which oil to use in a system?
Why are some new condensing units shipped without any oil in the compressor?
Is it necessary to pump down a compressor in order to use a hand pump to inject oil?
What 2 unwanted things can occur if moisture gets into a system during an oil charging
procedure?

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Air Conditioning

Air Conditioning

Part1

Definition

Air Conditioning is a specialized area of


refrigeration. The refrigeration effect is used
to remove heat and moisture from air in order
to keep it within the comfort range of
humans. Air Conditioning includes heating
and other aspects of air treatment as well. Air
Conditioning really means to control the
"conditions of air".

The Human Comfort Zone

The human comfort zone is an area that has had great amounts of study. Besides the obvious
temperature and humidity, factors that affect whether a person feels comfortable or not
include age, sex, geographical location, clothing, psychological disposition, and activity level.
Entering a conditioned space from outdoors also has a great effect on ones perception of what
is comfortable. After being inside and getting accustomed to conditions perception can again
change. The human comfort zone as it applies to the conditions of air is one of those things
that can only be described by a bell curve. There is no one comfort zone that will satisfy all
people. Nonetheless guidelines have been established to accommodate the majority of people
under average conditions. The human comfort zone is typically in the 70 ºF to 85 ºF (Dry
Bulb) range and 30% to 70% relative humidity range. Air Conditioning systems are designed
to satisfy cooling loads inside buildings in order to achieve those conditions.

Cooling Loads

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Air Conditioning

Many factors contribute to the total cooling requirements for a building. There are building
loads, infiltration and fresh air requirement loads, solar gain, people loads, and equipment
loads. All these things added together total the Cooling Load. The first thing that designers do
in order to calculate a cooling load is to establish the indoor and outdoor design temperatures.
Design Temperature refers to the outdoor temperature accepted as a design standard for the
geographical region where a building is located. Meteorological data has been gathered,
researched and compiled into lists of design temperatures so it is a simple matter to look up
the official data for practically any location. Design temperatures are established by averaging
weather conditions over long time periods. It allows equipment capacities to be selected
which reasonably cover the typical range of conditions that can be expected to occur. This
does not mean that specified equipment will be capable of completely meeting the load
requirements on extremely hot days which are very untypical for the region.

The indoor Design Temperature on the other hand can be specified at will. Typically 70 ºF is
used which is the bottom of the so called human comfort zone. With these 2 temperatures
known everything else can be calculated. The difference between outdoor and indoor design
temperatures has a great effect on the total load. Consider the cooling requirements on a
southern latitude building compared to a northern latitude one. If the indoor temperature was
to be 70 ºF in each case yet the outdoor design temperatures were 100 ºF and 80 ºF
respectively, the TD's or Temperature Difference would be 10 ºF in one case and 30 ºF in the
other. The greater the TD, the greater the rate of heat transfer will be. So the same size
building can require quite different equipment capacities depending on the design
temperature. Also, when TD's are large the tendency is to raise the Indoor design temperature
so that there is less of a shock when entering and exiting the conditioned space.

Humidity

The study of moisture in air is called Psychometrics.


Humidity in the air has a large effect on human comfort.
When a human perspires the purpose is to cool the body.
That occurs because when the perspiration evaporates, the
latent heat of vapourization removes heat from the
surrounding area which in this case is the skin and the blood
vessels near the surface of the skin. The less humidity there
is in the air the easier it is for perspiration to evaporate. So
when it is humid that is when it is most difficult for the body to cool itself. An Air
Conditioning system does not just cool air, it de-humidifies it as well. When air is cooled
below the Dew Point moisture condenses out of the air. It's like wringing out a wet rag. When
it is humid the perspiration lingers and we get that clammy sticky uncomfortable feeling. An
air conditioning system which properly matches a cooling load will have a long run cycle. (It
can only de-humidify while it is running) If someone makes the mistake of over sizing an air
conditioning system it will satisfy the temperature requirements quickly and shut off. This
situation would create cool clammy uncomfortable conditions.

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Air Conditioning

Air Filtration

Air Filtration has two purposes. One is to protect the evaporator (and other components) from
clogging up with airborne particulate debris. The other is to lessen the amount of airborne
debris in the conditioned space. There are a wide range of filtration capabilities available from
various filtration systems.

Cardboard frame filters

A cardboard frame filter is the least


expensive type of air filter. It provides
evaporator protection so long as the
cardboard frame maintains it's integrity
and keeps the filter seated in the filter
rack properly. They are available with 1
or 2 inch nominal thickness. They are
widely used in residential as well as
small and medium sized commercial air
conditioning systems.

Pleated Filters

Pleated filters are folded because they


are made of a tighter knit of material to
catch smaller air borne particles. As
such this material causes more pressure
drop. This is compensated for by having
more surface area. This larger area is
folded up to take up less space. Pleated
filters are more efficient than standard
filter media.

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Air Conditioning

Replaceable Media

Replaceable media is available on rolls


in various widths and thicknesses as
well as pre-cut to standard or custom
sizes. They fit into metal frames which
have a screen mesh on the downstream
side to keep the filter media from being
sucked into the fan. They often have
metal cross wires on the upstream side
to further insure that the media stays in
place. Media is available in 1 or 2 inch
thickness and can be obtained with a
sticky coating on one side. Those are
called tackified and that helps to retain
particles. The filter must be placed in
the frame so that the non-tackified side
is facing the incoming air. That leaves
the full thickness of the media for
catching and loading up with larger
particles and the tackified portion to
catch smaller particles which make it
through the rest of the filter. If the
tackified portion is facing the incoming
air stream the sticky surface will load
up in no time and the filter will require
changing too frequently.

Bag Filters

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Air Conditioning

Bag filters are available with various


filtration efficiency ratings such as
45%, 65%, 85% and 95%. They are
available in standard frame sizes such
as 12" x 24" and 24" x 24". Various bag
depths such as 22", 29" and 36" are also
an option. The larger the bag the longer
the filter can be left in service before
requiring replacement. The 95%
efficient bag filters almost achieve
HEPA ratings. HEPA stands for High
Efficiency Particulate Arrestance and
suppliers of HEPA filters claim that
they are 99.97% efficient by particle
count down to 0.3 micron, which is
1/75,000 of an inch, or 1/300 the
diameter of a human hair.

High Efficiency Filters

High efficiency filters have folded


media like pleated filters but have even
greater efficiency ratings and therefore
have even more surface area to lessen
pressure drop. Some manufacturers sell
high efficiency filters with enclosures
that are suitable for upgrading to
electronic air filtration at a later time.

EAC - Electronic Air Cleaner

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Air Conditioning

EAC's provide very good air filtration.


They have high voltage ionization wires
that electrostatically charge airborne
particles which then adhere to
oppositely charged collector plates.
This process can remove extremely
small particles including pollen and
cigarette smoke. Allergy sufferers
benefit from their use. Large particles
are captured by metal mesh pre-filters.
No matter how efficient a filter is the air
stream is never purified 100%. The
conditioned air becomes cleaner with
time from repetitive passes through the
filter. EAC's are even more efficient
with slower air velocity so it is common
to use a 2 speed fan motor and allow it
to switch to slow speed during the off
cycle of heating and cooling equipment.

Air Movement

Refrigeration equipment
needs to be move air through
condenser coils and reject it
from the immediate area. In
the case of evaporators, air
only has to circulate about
the refrigerated box. Those
are not very demanding air
movement requirements and
typically propeller type fan
blades can move sufficient
air to satisfy those needs.
However with air
conditioning there is often a
duct distribution system
associated with the
equipment. Propeller fans
can not be used with duct
systems because propeller
fans can not push against the
static pressure inherent with
ducts. A blower wheel type

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Air Conditioning

of fan as shown on the right


(also called a Squirrel Cage
blower) is required to do that
and they are the norm for
moving air through duct
systems. Duct distribution
systems must be designed to
carry the required quantity of
airflow for the cooling/
heating equipment. If it
carries too little the
equipment can fail - too
much and noisy draughty
conditions occur.

Propeller Fan Rotation

Propeller fan blades must be installed so


that they rotate in the correct direction.
The intended leading edges of a fan
blade ("LE" in the diagram) are the ones
that cut the air like a knife. If you try to
make the trailing edge lead, they would
cut the air at angle or like a chisel cuts
into wood. Once you know which is the
leading edge you know which direction
the blade must be rotated and which
direction the air will be pushed by the tilt
of the blades.

There are push blades and suck blades.


One will push the air away from a motor
and the other will suck the air over the
motor. Nonetheless, the intended leading
edge must be the actual leading edge.

Squirrel Cage Fan Rotation

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Air Conditioning

All Squirrel Cage or blower fans suck air


in through the round opening on the side
and blow it out the discharge throat.
Hence they all have the same rotation as
shown in the diagram.

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Review Questions - Air Conditioning

Review Questions - Air Conditioning

Name the "conditions of air" that are controlled by an air conditioning system.
How many factors that affect the way a person perceives air conditioning comfort can you
list?
Name 4 factors that contribute to a building's cooling load.
How is outdoor design temperature determined?
How is indoor design temperature determined?
What does Psychometrics refer to?
What effect on humidity does an oversized air conditioning system have?
Name 2 purposes of an air filtration system.
Which type of filtration system can remove particles as small as cigarette smoke?
What type of fan is required to overcome the pressure drop in duct systems?
What are the effects of inadequate and excessive airflow through a duct system?
What is the difference between a packaged and a split AC system?
What are the 2 main components of a split system?
What is another name for an incremental unit?
What does an Absorption System use as it's energy source?
What 5 functions do computer room air conditioners provide?
What capability does a package AC system have that split systems do not?
What does the term "Minimum Fresh Air" refer to?
What is the combination of outdoor air and return air called?
What does the term Mechanical Cooling refer to?
What does the term Free Cooling refer to?
What mixed air temperature set point do the dampers of a free cooling system try to
maintain?
What is the name of the controls that choose between free and mechanical cooling?
Why must overly humid air not be used for free cooling?

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Heat Pumps

Heat Pumps

Part 1

A heat pump is an Air Conditioning system which can also provide very efficient heating. It takes less energy to relocate heat than it does to create it. Just as
a refrigeration system removes and relocates heat from a cooler or freezer, so too does a heat pump remove heat from cold outdoor air and relocate it to
within a building. A 4 way reversing valve is used to swap the functions of the evaporator and condenser in order to change from cooling to heating mode.
To avoid confusion it is common practice to call heat pump coils the "indoor" and "outdoor" coil. The diagram below shows a heat pump piping layout.
Click back and forth between Buttons 2 and 3 and note how the discharge from the compressor is diverted to different coils in each mode. You can also
view the 2 modes showing the refrigerant states with Buttons 4 and 5.

Piping
Layout

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Heat Pumps

Piping Cooling Heating Cooling Heating


Layout: Flow: Flow: Mode: Mode:

1 2 3 4 5

4 Way Reversing Valve

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Heat Pumps

Here is another view of how the 4 way valve diverts flow; the pipe on the single stub side of the valve
is always the discharge from the compressor. The discharge is diverted to the condenser, the middle
stub is always suction going to the compressor, and the left over stub is always from the evaporator.
The switching function is accomplished by the sliding back and forth of an internal barrel which has
diverting passages. The systems own high side pressure is used to ram the barrel to the desired end by a
pilot duty solenoid valve. On the diagram below, click back and forth between Buttons 3 and 4 to see
the barrel slide to opposite ends. Then try Buttons 5 and 6 to see the refrigerant flow being diverted.

4 Way Valve: Labels: Barrel Left: Barrel Right: Left Flow: Right Flow:
1 2 3 4 5 6

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Heat Pumps

Liquid Line Check Valves & Bi-Flo Driers

The Liquid line always carries liquid but the direction of flow reverses in each mode. Each coil has it's
own metering device with a check valve piped in parallel. When refrigerant flow meets a check valve in
the blocked direction it has no choice but to divert through the TXV. When refrigerant flow meets a
check valve in the allowed direction it will take the route of least resistance and go through the check
valve and ignore the TXV. There are TXVs that have this check valve function built right into the valve
itself. The Bi-Flow filter/drier works in a similar manner. Inside a bi-flo drier there are check valves
which ensure that refrigerant flow goes through the drier core in the same direction regardless of the
liquid line flow direction. The drier core must experience flow in one direction only. Otherwise, if
counter-flow was allowed debris that had been filtered out would unload and re-enter the system.

Accumulator

The accumulator attempts to protect the compressor from liquid refrigerant in the suction line. This is
accomplished by use of an inverted trap. However at the same time it can trap oil entrained in the
refrigerant. This could eventually hold back the entire oil charge which would cause compressor
failure. To overcome this problem a small orifice is located on the underside of the inverted trap. A
Venturi Effect occurs and any trapped oil is sucked through the orifice and carried away by the suction
vapours to be returned to the compressor sump where it belongs.

Defrost

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Heat Pumps

The outdoor coil of a heat pump can ice up just like a freezer evaporator. The tendency to ice up increases with humidity and low ambient temperatures.
There is fortunately a convenient method of defrosting the outdoor coil. That is to make the system run in the cooling mode. The outdoor coil becomes the
condenser and the ice can be melted away. To keep the heat where it is wanted the outdoor fan motor is temporarily shut off. All this happens automatically
and is controlled by a solid state defrost control board. Every so often it will check the temperatures of some thermisters (temperature sensitive resisters) and
if a defrost is needed it will activate the defrost mode. Otherwise it will wait for the next trial for defrost. As the system progresses in a defrost it will get to
the point where clouds of steam will billow out of the unit. New heat pump owners should be advised to expect this. Otherwise nuisance calls may be placed
by the unknowing customer. They have even been known to call the fire department thinking the unit is on fire.

In the piping diagram above, place the unit in the defrost mode (Button 2). Note that the outdoor coil has hot gas entering it which is going to condense into
a liquid as it melts the ice build up. There is no danger to the compressor because this liquid must travel through a TXV and evaporator before getting back
to the compressor. However simulate the end of a defrost by putting the system back into heating mode. (Button 3). Note that the compressor is now directly
sucking the contents from the outdoor coil (liquid) without the benefit of any TXV or evaporator to protect it. You have just seen the need for the
accumulator in all heat pump systems.

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Heat Pumps

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Review Questions - Heat Pumps

Review Questions - Heat Pumps

Why is a heat pump more efficient than other types of heating systems?
What component swaps the function of the indoor and outdoor coils in a heat pump
system?
How many metering devices does a heat pump have?
Which metering device is active during the heating mode?
Which coil is the condenser in the air conditioning mode?
Which coil is the evaporator in the heating mode?
What component do heat pumps have to help protect from liquid slugging?
What type of metering device can be used in lieu of a TXV and a check valve?
How does a heat pump get defrosted?
Why does a heat pump need an accumulator?
What makes the barrel in a 4 way reversing valve slide from one end of the valve to the
other?
Name 2 main types of split system heat pumps.
Which is a more efficient system, an all electric heat pump or an add on to a fossil fuel
furnace? Why?
What does COP stand for?
When are air source heat pumps most efficient?
Which is more efficient, an air source or a ground source heat pump?
How much condenser airflow is required by heat pumps?

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Psychrometrics

Psychrometrics

Psychrometrics is the study of the properties of air. Those include temperature, moisture content, enthalpy and volume.
These properties can be displayed in graphical form on what is called a Psychrometric Chart. To air condition a space,
the properties of air and mixtures of air must be brought to within acceptable conditions. The processes which must be
provided to bring about these changes are easily demonstrated when graphed on psychrometric charts. Given any two
properties of air, the remaining properties can be determined graphically.

Psychrometric Chart

Chart DB WB RH Enthalpy SH SHR Volume DP

DB - Dry Bulb Temperature

Click the DB button to highlight the dry bulb lines on the above psychrometric chart. As you can see, the units are in
degrees Fahrenheit and are along the horizontal axis. A dry bulb measurement is that which is taken with any standard
thermometer and is a reading of sensible heat.

WB - Wet Bulb Temperature

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Psychrometrics

Wet Bulb temperature is used to determine the amount


of moisture in the air. Just like the name indicates, a
wet bulb thermometer has it's bulb covered with a wet
wick. The name of such a device is a hygrometer or
psychrometer. A type used for field measurements in
service work is called a sling psychrometer and gets
it's name from the fact that it must be slung about or
whirled about to achieve adequate airflow across the
wetted sensing bulb. The reason a wet bulb
thermometer records a different reading than a dry
bulb thermometer is due to latent heat. As water
evaporates from the wet wick, heat is removed from
the bulb. A wet bulb therefore gets colder than a dry
bulb. Air contains moisture. The more moisture there
is in the air, the harder it is for additional moisture to
be absorbed into the air. So in relatively dry air a lot of
moisture will easily evaporate from a wet bulb
thermometer wick cooling the bulb more so than it
would be able to in moister air. Dry bulb and wet bulb
readings can be compared to determine the relative
humidity of the air. A sling psychrometer has a "slide
rule like" chart for converting the 2 readings into RH
(Relative Humidity) Electronic psychrometers are also
available which do the calculations automatically. A
psychrometric chart can also be used to determine the
RH from DB and WB temperature readings.

RH - Relative Humidity

Relative humidity represents the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air is capable of holding at a given
temperature. In other words, 50% RH means that the air contains exactly half of the moisture that it is capable of holding
at the given temperature. The warmer air is the more moisture it can contain. The colder it is, the less moisture it can
contain. That's why air passing through cold evaporator fins relinquishes some of it's moisture and droplets of
condensation form.

Enthaply

The Enthalpy of air is the total amount of heat that is contained in a pound of air. It includes both latent and sensible heat.
It is expressed in BTU/Lb.

SH - Specific Humidity

Specific Humidity also called Absolute Humidity is the amount of water vapour by weight in the air. It is usually referred
to by Grains of moisture per pound of dry air. One Grain = 1/7000th of a pound. Some charts have a humidity ratio scale
which represents the ratio of Lb. water to Lb. of air per cubic foot.

SHR - Sensible Heat Ratio

Total heat = sensible heat + latent heat. The Sensible heat ratio is that portion of the total heat that is sensible.

Volume

Volume refers to the number of cubic feet that one pound of air occupies. If the temperature is increased so too will the
volume increase.

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Psychrometrics

DP - Dew Point

If the air is saturated with as much humidity as it can hold, the RH will be 100% and the dew point will have been
reached. On a psychrometric chart the dew point line is therefore the 100% relative humidity line. Any cooling of the air
below the dew point will cause moisture to condense out of the air. So for a cooling coil to do any dehumidification, it
must operate at a temperature below the dew point of the air to be dehumidified.

Using the Psychrometric Chart

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Determining Humidity

Use the chart from button 1 to find the following: What is the relative humidity of air that has measurements of 75 ºF DB and
57 ºF WB? (Button 2 displays the solution)

Human Comfort Zone

Is the condition that was just plotted in the button 2 chart within the typical human comfort zone? (Button 3 shows the
comfort zone)

Heating & Humidifying

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Psychrometrics

Since cold air can hold less moisture than warm air, there typically needs to be humidification along with the heating process
in order to bring conditions within the comfort zone. Button 4 demonstrates these 2 processes.

Cooling & De-humidifying

Since hot air can hold more moisture than warm air, there typically needs to be de-humidification along with the cooling
process in order to bring conditions within the comfort zone. Button 5 demonstrates these 2 processes.

Dew Point

If air has a DB temperature of 90 ºF and a WB temperature of 77.5 ºF, what is it's dew point?

Solution:
First plot the given data on the psychrometric chart. Button 6 demonstrates this. When air is cooled without a change in
moisture content this is represented on the psychrometric chart by a horizontal line. Press button 7. The horizontal line
crosses the 100% relative humidity line (or dew point line) at about the 73 ºF WB point. The dew point is therefore 73 ºF
WB. If you drop a vertical line down to the DB temperature scale, press button 8, you can see that if the original 90 ºF air is
cooled to 73 ºF moisture will condense out of the air. This shows why dew starts forming when things cool down in the late
evening after a hot, humid day.

Mixing Air Streams

The mixing of air streams with different states can be shown on a psychrometric chart. The results of the mixture will depend
on the quantities as well as the conditions of the air streams. For example, an air conditioned commercial space must have
10% fresh air provided with the supply air (or some similar amount according to the prevailing jurisdictional codes). Click
button 9 to show a 10% mixture of hot humid fresh air mixed with the return air of an air conditioning system. Note how the
temperature and moisture content of the MA (Mixed Air) has increased from the RA (Return Air) conditions but the mixture
result is closer to the original RA conditions than to the OA (Outdoor Air) conditions due to the greater quantity of RA in the
mixture. Also note the increased requirements placed on the mechanical cooling system due to the extra load from the FA
(Fresh Air) Both the sensible and latent cooling loads are increased and these processes are represented by the blue arrows.
This increased cooling capacity requirement can be very significant and must not be ignored when performing load
calculations and specifying equipment capacity. System designers use psychrometric charts for many types of airflow
calculations.

Review Questions - Psychrometrics

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Psychrometrics

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Review Questions - Psychrometrics

Review Questions - Psychrometrics

What is the RH of the Dew Point line on a psychrometric chart?


Which will have a lower reading, a DB or a WB thermometer?
Does the enthalpy of air refer to sensible or latent heat?
How many Grains are in one Lb. of water?
What is another name for a psychrometer?
Which can hold more moisture, cold air or warm air?
How much moisture in grains/Lb. is required to maintain 60% RH with 70 º7F DB air?
Which of these conditions contains more grains of moisture:
55 ºF DB at 20% RH
100 ºF DB at 10% RH

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Water Cooled

Water Cooled Equipment

When an air cooled condenser rejects heat into an air stream, the air is called the Condensing Medium. Water can also be used as a condensing medium.
There are several types of water cooled condensers used in water cooled equipment:

Standard Tube In Tube

This type of water cooled condenser is made with one tube inside another tube. Water flows through
the inner tube and refrigerant flows in the space between the 2 tubes. The water side of this type of
condenser can be cleaned manually by removing the end plates and rodding out the water tubes with
special brushes.

Co-axial

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Water Cooled

A co-axial tube condenser also has a tube within a tube. It gets it's name from the fact that both the
tubes are coiled about the same theoretical axis. Usually, the water flows through the inner tube and the
refrigerant flows in the space between the 2 tubes. It is not feasible to mechanically clean a spiral tube
so if the water side of this type of condenser becomes fouled a chemical cleaning becomes the only
resort. This type is commonly used in small to medium sized water cooled condensing units.

Shell and Coil

Shell and Coil condensers have a coil of copper encased inside a steel shell. Water flows through the
coil and refrigerant is discharged into the shell where it condenses on the outside of the cold water
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Water Cooled

tubes. It is not feasible to mechanically clean a spiral tube so if the water side of this type of condenser
becomes fouled a chemical cleaning becomes the only resort. Shell and Coil condensers can also act as
receivers.

Shell and Tube

Shell and Tube condensers have many parallel lengths of straight tubing running inside a steel shell.
They are manifolded together at each end. Water flows through the tubes and refrigerant is discharged
into the shell where it condenses on the outside of the cold water tubes. This type of condenser can be
cleaned manually by removing the end plates and rodding out the water tubes with special brushes.
Shell and Tube condensers can also act as receivers.

Water Cooled System

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Water Cooled

The water lines on a water cooled condenser should be hooked up so that there is counterflow between the refrigerant and water. (The 2 fluids should be
moving in opposite directions) This optimizes heat transfer as the temperature difference (TD) between the refrigerant and the water along the length of
travel is greatest this way. If the 2 fluids ran in the same direction they would get closer in temperature as they travelled along and the heat flow would
decrease.

Air is free but water usually has a cost. Even so, there are times when water cooled equipment is a better choice than air cooled equipment. One example is a
commercial kitchen. A commercial kitchen can get very hot and greasy. Space is always at a premium and condensing units get shoved into awkward places
with inadequate ventilation. This apparently seems like a good idea until equipment starts failing in the not too distant future. Water cooled condensers are
immune to ambient air temperature. They are also immune to airborne grease which loves to clog up the fins of an air cooled condenser. So although water
cooled equipment is more expensive to purchase and operate it can be cheaper in the long run compared to the maintenance, repair costs and product loss
that can occur when air cooled equipment is placed in adverse conditions.

The graphic below shows a water cooled system. There is a water valve that regulates the quantity of water passing through the condenser. There is really no
difference with what happens to the refrigerant compared to an air cooled condenser. Heat is being rejected to a condensing medium and hot refrigerant gas
is condensing into a liquid. Water cooled systems should be equipped with a high pressure safety control to stop operation should the water supply be
interrupted.

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Water Cooled

Water Regulator Valve

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Water Cooled

The Water Regulator Valve (WRV) controls the flow of water through the condenser. When
refrigeration is off there should be no water flow. When refrigeration starts, the WRV modulates the
flow of water to maintain a pre-set head pressure. The sensing line is hooked up to high side refrigerant
pressure. If the head starts to rise above normal, the increase in pressure causes the valve to allow more
water flow. That lowers the head which in turn allows the water flow to be reduced. The valve reaches
an equilibrium and maintains a pre-set head pressure. The 2 operating forces are apparent in the sketch.
The spring is visible in the top half of the valve assembly and the diaphragm enclosure is visible in the
bottom half of the assembly. The 2 operating forces are spring pressure and high side refrigerant
pressure. By adjusting the stem on the very top of the valve the spring tension can be adjusted which in
turn sets the head pressure.

The WRV should be located on the water inlet side of the condenser. It is also uni-directional which
means flow should be in the direction indicated by the arrow on the valve body. The piping stubs are
usually marked so it is easy to ensure you are piping things to ensure counterflow as well.

A WRV can be set to maintain the head pressure to any setting that you want. An appropriate place to
start is the corresponding pressure for 105 ºF. All normal systems will operate perfectly fine with this
setting. If you lower the head it will consume more water. If you raise the head less water will be
consumed. High head causes high discharge pressures and increased amperage draw. High discharge
temperatures break down refrigerant oil and take the temper out of valves. So all things are a
compromise.

A WRV will sometimes mask refrigerant side problems because it will try to maintain a fixed head
pressure. A WRV is a form of head pressure control.

Review Questions - Water Cooled

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Water Cooled

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Review Questions - Water Cooled Equipment

Review Questions - Water Cooled Equipment

Name two types of manually cleanable water cooled condensers.


What is the name of the type of condenser that has a tube within a tube and then is wound
up to save space?
What is the name of the type of condenser that has a copper coil inside of a steel can?
Why must the water lines for a water cooled condenser be installed to create counter flow
with the refrigerant?
Give an example of where water cooled equipment would be a better choice than air
cooled equipment.
What safety control should be on all water cooled equipment and why?
What does WRV stand for?
Where does the sensing line from a WRV get installed?
Does a WRV get installed on the water inlet or the water outlet side of a water cooled
condenser?
Does it matter which way a WRV gets installed with respect to water flow direction?
A WRV is a form of head pressure control. True or False?
What are the operating forces of a WRV?
What pressure should a WRV be set to maintain?
What happens to the water flow rate if you lower the head pressure with a WRV?

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Cooling Towers

Cooling Towers

Refrigeration systems reject the heat they have picked up into a condensing medium
(usually air or water) When there is a very large amount of heat to reject the cost
effectiveness of a monstrous air cooled condenser (or a great number of smaller
condensers) and the large amount of refrigerant involved can become an issue.
Water cooled condensers can be built large enough and are a lot more compact than
air cooled condensers however the water consumption becomes an issue with very
large systems. Air is free, water costs money. A solution for rejecting large
quantities of heat is the cooling tower. In a cooling tower system heat is initially
rejected into a water cooled condenser but the water is not just piped to the drain.
Instead it is pumped to the cooling tower where it can be cooled and recirculated.
There are several variations of cooling towers but they all allow a small quantity of
the water to evaporate in order to cool the remaining water which is then returned to
the condenser to pick up more heat. The latent heat of vapourization of water is
utilized which is 970 BTU's per pound. The basic concepts for heat transfer are
utilized to optimize vapourization of the water. Some cooling tower designs (as shown in the diagram below) spray the water
through nozzles which greatly increases the surface area of the water. Air is blown or sucked through the tower to interact
with the droplets. Some designs use a "fill", or a large number of plates to act as more surface area for the water to spread out
on. The fill can be made of metal, plastic or even treated wood. A float valve automatically adds water to make up for the
evaporated water. A drain valve continuously bleeds off a small portion of the water to keep the water hardness from getting
excessive. Chemical treatment can be utilized to reduce algae and fungus growth. Notice that there is no WRV (Water
Regulator Valve) when units are tied into a tower. If need be, water temperature can be controlled in the tower by cycling
fans and other methods.

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Cooling Towers

Evaporative Condensers

Evaporative Condensers are similar to cooling towers. The refrigerant piping is tied into the condenser and water is
distributed over the pipes directly. Once again the evaporative process is used to cool and condense the refrigerant and only a
small portion of the water is evaporated away. Make up water, bleed off water and water treatment are also required as with
cooling towers.

Review Questions - Cooling Towers

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Review Questions - Cooling Towers

Review Questions - Cooling Towers

What is the Latent Heat of vapourization of water?


What is the purpose of the bleed off valve in a cooling tower?
Since equipment tied into a tower still requires a water cooled condenser
why not just pipe the water to a drain and save the cost of the cooling tower?
Why don't cooling towers eventually evaporate away all the water?
With a cooling tower system, is the water that flows through the condenser counter flow to
the refrigerant?
Why do cooling towers require water treatment?
What is the name of a unit that looks like a cooling tower but has refrigerant piping instead
of water piping tied into it?

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Burn Outs

Burn Outs

Mechanical Failures

There are two main categories of compressor failures; mechanical breakdowns and electrical burnout's. A mechanical failure can be caused by
several things including old age, metal fatigue, liquid slugging and lack of oil to lubricate moving parts. High discharge temperatures can take the
temper out of discharge valves and make them brittle causing them to crack and chip apart. You may find anything from pieces of valves and rings
to chunks of pistons and connecting rods lying in the sump of a compressor that has suffered mechanical failure. The broken pieces will be
reasonably clean, especially if all the oil was washed out of the compressor by liquid refrigerant. Examining the insides of a failed compressor can
provide the answer as to why it failed. That is invaluable information if you are going to be replacing the compressor with a brand new one as you
don't want it to immediately suffer the same fate. If you can determine the cause of the failure you may be able to rectify the situation and stop a
repeat failure. Any type of compressor can fail mechanically.

Electrical Burn outs

A hermetic compressor (or semi-hermetic) has the compressor driver built in. In other words the motor windings are inside the refrigeration system.
Those are the only types that can suffer an electrical burnout. There are 3 ways that the windings can fail:

● they can short-circuit (winding to winding short)


● open circuit (the windings can burn open)
● grounded (short to ground)

When windings fail an electrical flash can occur. The inside of the system contains high pressure, oil, refrigerant and sometimes traces of water.
When an electrical spark occurs those ingredients combine to form acids and oil sludge. If the failure occurs when the system is operating it is called
a "running burn out" and the contaminants are spread throughout the system by the moving refrigerant. If the failure occurs when the compressor is
trying to start, the refrigerant is not yet circulating so the contaminants don't spread out like they do with a running burn out.

The hottest point in the refrigeration loop is at the discharge valves. If a system operates with high head pressure (for any of a myriad of reasons)
then the temperature at the discharge valves gets even hotter. A refrigerant undercharge also causes high discharge temperatures. (There are less
molecules to share a given quantity of heat so the temperature increases) Oil starts breaking down above 250 ºF and forms carbon, sludge and if
moisture is present acids. Those acids attack the insulation on the windings and lead to burn outs. When you open up a system that has burned out
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Burn Outs

you will know it immediately by the pungent odour. New refrigerant oil is clear. As it starts to break down it darkens in colour and develops an
odour. The more severe the break down, the darker the colour and the more odiferous the oil becomes. Under the worst conditions it can become
totally black and create large quantities of sludge. Use protective gear like safety glasses and rubber gloves when working about acidic oil. Other
than with open internal overloads, any hermetic compressor that has an open ohm reading or grounded windings is a burnout. There are acid test kits
which will tell you the severity of the burnout. When you replace the compressor of a burned out system you put the new compressor at risk of
failure from the residual acids of the previous burnout. To avoid this unpleasant circumstance special procedures must be taken to protect the new
compressor. The LL Filter/Drier must of course be changed but you must also install a suction line filter immediately upstream of the compressor.
The suction filter must be replaced as many times as required until the oil is no longer acidic. Then the SL Filter should be removed as pressure drop
in the suction line greatly detracts from system capacity. You can easily measure the pressure drop across the SL Filter because they come equipped
with a Schraeder access valve on the upstream side. You can compare the reading there to that at the SSV. If the filter has clogged enough to cause a
2 PSI pressure drop it's time to replace it with a fresh filter. If the oil is no longer acidic you can remove the SL Filter.

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Burn Outs

Review Questions - Burn Outs

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Burn Outs

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Review Questions - Burn Outs

Review Questions - Burn Outs

What are the 2 main ways a compressor can fail?


What type of compressor has a built in driver?
What is a running burn out?
Where is the hottest point in a refrigeration system?
Which part of a system is the most sensitive to acid?
How many times must a suction filter be replaced after a burnout?
When can a suction line filter be removed?

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ODS Conversions

ODS Conversions

CFC refrigerants were thought to be harmless until it was discovered that chlorine attacks the
atmospheric ozone layer. The ozone layer acts as a protective filter and reduces the amount of UV
radiation from the sun that reaches our planets surface. As the ozone layer becomes thinner due to
the chemical attack of Ozone Depleting Substances , the amount of UV radiation getting through
the stratosphere increases. Reportedly, so too does the incidence of skin cancer in humans and the
risk of damage to crops, plankton and the rest of the global food chain.

ODS are now "under control". This does not mean that the ozone layer situation is necessarily
under control but rather that controls are in place to phase out ODS substances. Production of the
worst offenders, those with the highest ozone depleting factors, was banned in 1996 and tentative
cease production deadlines have been set for the lessor offenders. For example, R-22 is in wide
spread global use but it is an HCFC refrigerant and it's production will cease around 2020. (if that
date is not moved up, that is) As one can see from looking through the PT Charts section there are
a great many replacement refrigerants but most of them utilize some ODS component and are
therefore only temporary substitutes.

Refrigerants are not the only thing becoming obsolete. Procedures thought of as standard in the
past are now also banned and illegal as well. It was common practice to blow off refrigerant from
systems when it was expedient. It was common practice to triple evacuate systems breaking the
vacuum each time with refrigerant and then blowing that off. It was common practice to use trace
amounts of refrigerants mixed in with high pressure Nitrogen to pressurize systems for leak
locating and when done simply blow off that mixture. Those and similar procedures are all now
illegal. There must be no more venting of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Many countries and
regions have adopted refrigerant legislation and more are joining all the time. One used to need a
refrigeration licence to work on refrigeration equipment in most localities. Now one must also take
training courses and acquire ODS certification regarding the safe handling of refrigerants and
learn about the new procedures that must now be followed.

Recover Reuse Recycle Reclaim

The four "R's" are not just vague concepts or


generalities when applied to Refrigeration.
They refer to specific procedures. Some are
optional, some are mandatory and some
should not be done.

Recover

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ODS Conversions

Since venting of refrigerants is prohibited you MUST recover all refrigerants. That means you
must have a recovery machine. Recovery machines simply extract refrigerant and place it into a
recovery jug, usually along with all the other refrigerant (of the same type) that you have
recovered from elsewhere. You may return recovered refrigerants to your supplier who will send
them back to the manufacturers who are obligated to accept them.

Reuse

Re-using recovered refrigerants is discouraged. A recovery jug is new and clean only once. As you
recover refrigerant from various systems the mixture is bound to become more and more
contaminated. It can contain unknown quantities of acid, moisture, non-condensables, and
mixtures of oils as well as mixed refrigerants.

Recycle

A very expensive form of a recovery device is called a re-cycler. It recovers refrigerant but also
attempts to improve the quality to a useable status. However, all it can really do is a reasonable
amount of filtering and a reasonable amount of acid removal. There is no way of determining the
final status of the recycled refrigerant and how closely (or not) it conforms to factory
specifications.

Reclaim

Reclaiming is what the refrigerant manufacturers are capable of. They can recondition recovered
refrigerant and most importantly can do laboratory tests do determine if the results are pure
enough to place back on the market place. Reclaimed refrigerant is indistinguishable from pure
virgin refrigerant.

ODS Retrofitting

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ODS Conversions

In the past when a mechanic discovered a failed compressor in a refrigeration system it was his or
her's duty to inform the owner of the equipment of the available repair options and make
recommendations. Those options would be to:

● replace the compressor


● replace the condensing unit
● replace the entire system

There are pros and cons and varying costs and warranties to each of those options. Factors like the
equipment's age, reliability issues and budget concerns have to be considered to determine the
appropriate course of action. Now that some refrigerants are no longer available the equation gets
more complicated. Almost none of the new refrigerants are "drop in" replacements. That means
you can't just "drop in" the replacement refrigerant and walk away. Several things must be taken
into consideration. Usually, the old CFC refrigerant oil was a mineral oil (MO) and usually the
replacement refrigerant requires a synthetic oil such as AB, POE or PAG. The replacement
refrigerants are blends and have varying amounts of glide. In other words, the operating pressures
and temperatures may wander and not follow a precise temperature/pressure relationship like a
pure refrigerant would do. Sometimes this effect is insignificant, other times it can become an
issue. Controls and metering devices and accessories may have to be adjusted. A refrigerant that
claims to be a drop in replacement may have flammable components like propane. So there are a
great many issues to consider when considering retrofitting equipment that was operating on an
obsolete refrigerant. Now the choices look like this:

● replace the compressor and retrofit system with HCFC


● replace the condensing unit and retrofit system with HCFC
● replace the entire system with HCFC equipment
● replace the entire system with HFC equipment

Refrigerant Types Chart

Class 1 Conversion

Some of the new replacement refrigerants require 95% of the mineral oil to be removed from the
system before it is considered viable for conversion. Other refrigerants require only 80% of the
mineral oil to be removed. Remember, oil spreads out through the entire system. It's one thing to
swap out a compressor and replace the oil in an accumulator. It's another to address the problem of
the oil everywhere else. The only way to get the rest of the oil is to first change the oil in the
compressor with the new type while the compressor is still operational and the CFC refrigerant is
still in place. The system must be left operating for a substantial amount of time so that the CFC
refrigerant can entrain the residual mineral oil and return it to the compressor where it mixes in
with the new synthetic oil. Then you must change the oil again. This process must be repeated
further diluting the concentration of mineral oil until it has depleted to acceptable limits. A
refractometer can be used to determine the concentration of mineral to synthetic oil. A
refractometer is a precision optical instrument which can be used to determine the refractive index
of liquid solutions. Such a reading allows the determination of the percent of residual mineral oil

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ODS Conversions

remaining in the system. Once the oil problem has been overcome the old refrigerant can be
recovered and the new refrigerant can be introduced. Obviously this type of conversion can only
be done while the system is fully functional. It is perfectly fine to leave systems operational with
CFC refrigerants so long as the systems are not leaking. It is also possible to do a preparation for a
Class 1 conversion (oil change out) and still leave the system operating on a CFC refrigerant in
anticipation of a conversion being required in the future.

Class 2 Conversion

If an obsolete CFC refrigerant system loses it's gas through a leak then it is too late to consider a
Class 1 conversion. Any refrigerants that require Class 1 oil status are no longer possible to
consider as replacements. One oil change will typically only remove 50% to 80% of the mineral
oil. Manufacturers original recommendations for refrigerants that use AB oil were to not allow
more than 20% residual mineral oil, although they seem to be backing away from that
recommendation somewhat as time passes. When multiple oil changes are not possible the only
option is a Class 2 conversion with a single oil change. However field experience has shown that
refrigerants such as MP39, R-409A, MP66, and HP81 can work successfully with the existing
mineral oil in close coupled systems where the oil does not have to travel large distances.

General Guidelines

Where possible use OEM recommended oil type, quantity and viscosity. Many new replacement
compressors contain AB oil as shipped from the supplier. HFC refrigerants usually require POE
oil and a 95% reduction in MO oil content. There are far too many replacement choices for
obsolete refrigerants. This industry does not need 20 or 30 replacement choices for each of the
refrigerants being phased out. One or two for each would be fine. The chart below shows one
manufacturers replacement line up for some of the common refrigerants. If every possible
replacement was shown the list would be pages long. Look through the PT Chart section to see the
large number of possibilities.

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ODS Conversions

Refrigerant Types PT Charts Refrigerant Oils

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ODS Conversions

The year 2020 deadline is still far enough away that using a temporary replacement refrigerant
(HCFC) is not much of an issue. After all, equipment is only designed to have a 15 year life
expectancy. Although many keep equipment in repair for much longer than that. As we get closer
to the deadline refrigerant choices will certainly become more important. By that time new choices
will probably be available which may make decisions easier or harder, who knows.

In 1996 after production of CFC refrigerants was banned, there followed several years when CFC
and reclaimed CFC refrigerants could still be purchased from suppliers. Presumably the same
thing will occur in 2020 after HCFC production stops. Equipment operating on obsolete
refrigerants have (at least in North America) been allowed to continue in operation as long as leaks
do not develop. If a leak develops it must be repaired "immediately".* An equipment owner does
not have to authorize the repair of a leak but his only other legal choice is to have the refrigerant
recovered from the leaking system and shut it down. If he authorizes neither, then it is the onus of
the technician to report him to the appropriate authorities. The authorities will be happy to explain
that there is no choice in the matter other than who does the necessary work. They have the
jurisdiction to levee very large fines for non-compliance.
*some jurisdictions have differing regulations depending on system size, others have standard regulations for all
equipment.

What to Expect from a Retrofit

As you can see from the samples shown in the above chart Discharge Pressures are higher and
refrigeration capacity generally improves. All other parameters vary in seemingly random ways. If
you are going to be doing a Class 1 retrofit it is advisable to take a complete set of readings before
the retrofit so that you will have something to compare things to afterwards. You most certainly
want to discover any pre-existing problems before you start alterations so that they can be brought
to the appropriate persons' attention. You don't want assumptions made that you caused problems
by your conversion if you in fact did not.

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ODS Conversions

Review Questions - ODS Conversions

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Review Questions - ODS Conversions

Review Questions - ODS Conversions

What year were CFCs banned from production?


What year will HCFCs tentatively be banned from production?
Why are HCFCs going to be phased out?
Under what circumstances can refrigerants be vented to the atmosphere?
Which of the following are:
A. possible to do in the field
B. not possible to do in the field
C. discouraged
Recover, Reuse, Recycle, Reclaim
What is the name of the test instrument that can tell you the percentage of MO in an oil
mixture?
Why can some retrofit refrigerants get away with using MO in close coupled systems?
If an equipment owner does not wish to have a leak repaired what is his only other legal
option?
List 2 reasons why it is wise to take a complete set of readings before commencing a class
1 retrofit.

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Head Pressure Control

Head Pressure Control

A Water Regulator Valve controls the head pressure of a water cooled system by modulating the flow of water through the condenser. There is also a need
to have head pressure control with air cooled systems. If it gets very cold outside the high side pressure can get so low that there can be insufficient pressure
drop across the metering device to provide sufficient refrigerant flow. It is after all the pressure difference between the high side and the low side that causes
refrigerant to flow through the restriction of the metering device. One of the factors that affects the rate of heat transfer is the TD. (Temperature Difference)
between refrigerant and the condensing medium (air). When the air temperature is at 90 ºF and the refrigerant is at 105 ºF the TD would be 15 ºF. But when
outdoor temperatures drop to say 40 ºF the TD would be 65 ºF. That is a significant difference and you can see why head pressures would drop drastically
under those conditions. It falls back to the PT relationship that all refrigerants have; lower temperature = lower pressure. Several methods have been devised
to allow an air cooled system to operate properly during low ambient conditions.

Fan Cycling

Probably the simplest type of head pressure control is to cycle the condenser fan(s). A
pressure control (Fan Cycling Control) is installed to monitor high side pressure and if
pressure drops below the set point of the control the fan motor shuts off. While it is off
there will be much less heat being rejected so the head pressure will start to rise. When it
reaches the cut in point of the control the condenser fan motor will cycle on briefly to
keep the head pressure from rising above normal. The condenser does not stop rejecting
heat while the fan motor is off but thermal transfer is greatly reduced. When the fan
comes back on the rate of heat transfer is large due to the large temperature difference
between the hot refrigerant gas and the cold ambient air so the fan only needs to be on
briefly. This type of system by itself is better than nothing but causes large swings in
operating pressures. It is best used in combination with other forms of head pressure
control such as refrigerant side head pressure control.

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Head Pressure Control

Fan Speed Controller

A fan speed controller (also known as an infinite speed controller) provides much
smoother refrigerant operating pressures than fan cycling. It is an electronic device which
senses condenser pressure or temperature and varies the power output to the condenser fan
motor which causes the motor to slow down or speed up accordingly. This moves the
appropriate quantity of air to maintain normal condensing pressures during low ambient
conditions. The fan motor must be approved for use with a speed control device. Some
designs use a thermister (a temperature sensitive resister) to sense the temperature at an
end bend on the condenser rather than sensing the high side pressure directly.

Condenser Dampers

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Head Pressure Control

This ingenious device uses the systems own high side pressure to actuate a set of dampers.
When the pressure is high more airflow is needed and the increased pressure forces a
piston to move inside an actuator which causes the dampers to open wider. More air flow
is thereby allowed through the condenser which reduces the head pressure. When the
pressure is low, less air is needed and the damper actuator pressure is less able to meet the
opposing spring force in the actuator so the dampers modulate to a more closed position
and head pressure rises to a normal level. The down side of this type of system is that the
dampers can get clogged with ice or debris and if the seals in the actuator wear out you
can lose the refrigerant charge.

Refrigerant Side Head Pressure Control ORI-ORD

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Head Pressure Control

This is a widely used system and provides very smooth and reliable operation. It is often assisted with
fan cycling control. There are 3 components with this system. The main function is performed by the
ORI valve. This valve, which is located at the outlet of the condenser, will only allow flow when the
condenser pressure is high enough. During cold ambient conditions the head pressure would tend to be
lower than normal so the ORI valve stops the flow. With the flow stopped the condenser starts to fill up
with liquid refrigerant. That excess of liquid refrigerant takes away from the condenser area available
for condensing purposes. As more hot discharge gas enters the condenser it finds that there is not much useable condenser area available for rejecting heat.
Hence the pressure starts to rise. It's as though the condenser is temporarily undersized. The condenser pressure continues to rise until it reaches the normal
operating high side pressure and the ORI valve starts to throttle open and allow flow. This arrangement comes to an equilibrium and the system operates
with normal pressures as though it wasn't even cold outside. The ORI has a removable cap which exposes an adjustment screw for changing the set point.

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Head Pressure Control

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Head Pressure Control

The ORD valve is used to ensure that a full column of liquid is provided to the TXV. It opens if there is less than a 20 PSI difference between the true head
pressure and the head pressure on the downstream side of the ORI valve. When the ORD allows flow, pressure is applied to the top of the liquid/vapour
interface in the receiver as you can see from the piping layout. That in turn pressurizes the liquid line to maintain that full column. The ORD is pre-set and
not field adjustable.

The final component required for refrigerant side head pressure control is a larger receiver. When the condenser is flooded that extra refrigerant has to come
from somewhere and it would starve the rest of the system if it were not available from the oversized receiver. When not required that extra refrigerant
resides in the receiver. If you charge a system with refrigerant side head pressure control during summer conditions you will have given it the "Summer
Charge". Extra refrigerant is required to allow the head pressure control system to work properly. When it is fully charged it then has the "Winter Charge".

Refrigerant Side Head Pressure Control OROA

The OROA valve incorporates all functions of the ORI/ORD system into a single valve. It is not adjustable and also requires a larger receiver to
accommodate the winter charge.

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Head Pressure Control

Review Questions - Head Pressure Control

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Head Pressure Control

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Review Questions - Head Pressure Control

Review Questions - Head Pressure Control

When are head pressure control systems needed?


Why is a fan speed controller preferable to a fan cycling control?
Can a fan speed controller be used with any condenser fan motor?
What is the operating force of condenser dampers?
What can happen if the seal wears out in a condenser dampers actuator?
What do ORI and ORD stand for?
What is the function of an ORI valve?
What is the function of an ORD valve?
Is an ORD valve adjustable?
Is an ORI valve adjustable?
What is a "Winter Charge"?
What is the function of an OROA valve?
Why do refrigerant side head pressure control systems require larger receivers?

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Capacity Control

Capacity Control

There are situations when it is beneficial for a system to have some form of capacity control. A compressor that can unload some of it's cylinders and start
with less than full capacity will draw less amperage at start up. That's desirable with large compressors which have large LRA (locked rotor amperage).
Another use of capacity control occurs with air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are usually designed to match the design cooling load.
However, the actual load can vary significantly. Recall that it is important for an air conditioning system to have a long run cycle in order to have adequate
time to dehumidify the air. If for example a 6 Ton system was called upon when there was a mere 1 Ton load, it would be able to satisfy that load in short
order and would shut off and await the next call. The sensible load would be satisfied but the latent load, the removal of moisture would have been poor.
Those circumstances would result in cool yet clammy, moist, uncomfortable conditions. If however the AC equipment had 2 stages, it would be a different
matter all together. If there were instead 2 stages of 3 Tons each, the first stage would be called upon to try and satisfy the load by itself. Half the capacity
would have twice the run time before satisfying the temperature set point and would therefore have twice the humidity removal resulting in more comfortable
conditions. It is also possible to reduce energy consumption by matching equipment capacity to the actual load.

Benefits:

● unloaded starts
● extended run cycle for improved humidity removal & less wear from cycling
● reduce energy consumption by matching capacity to the load

Multiple Stages

Roof top package cooling units with multiple stages of cooling are an example of capacity
control. The design cooling load is met by the capacity of both stages but during times of
low load the 1st stage tries to satisfy the load by itself yielding a long run cycle and
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Capacity Control

increased humidity removal. This is accomplished by utilizing 2 separate refrigeration


systems in a single package. They share the same ductwork and indoor blower motor but
have separate refrigerant circuits and controls. Having multiple stages provides an added
benefit. If one of the stages was to become inoperative there could still be partial cooling
available from the unaffected stage. This can be a big blessing compared to having no
cooling at all until the unit is repaired.

Multiple Compressors

Load conditions don't just vary in air conditioning systems, they sometimes vary in
refrigeration systems vary as well. Although refrigeration systems have no humidity
considerations with respect to comfort conditions there are concerns regarding energy
consumption. It can make a large difference to utility bills sometimes operating one of 2
smaller compressors rather than short cycle a single large compressor during times of low
load. Short cycling a system also wears out the operating controls. Contactor and relay
contacts arc and pit, motors strain under LRA starting conditions.

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Capacity Control

When there is a call for cooling one compressor will operate by itself trying to satisfy the load. If it does, then there was a cycle with one compressor only
operating. A longer run cycle is easier on equipment. If a single compressor can not satisfy the load then the second unit will come on to increase the cooling
capacity and satisfy the load. Dual compressor refrigeration systems will usually have a lead-lag control system. This means one compressor will be the lead
compressor (will start first) during one cycle and the other compressor will lag behind waiting to see if it is called upon. The next cycle the roles will reverse.
That way one compressor does not wear out faster than the other.

Systems should be kept in balance. The components should match each other in capacity. Pumping capacity must match evaporating and condensing capacity.
When evaporator load decreases, the metering device reduces the feed rate to compensate. That's why one compressor can match the lower load. The
condenser should also have capacity control to help keep things in balance.

*note that the discharge tee in the diagram is not "bull headed"

Two Speed Compressors

Another method of achieving capacity control is through use of 2 speed compressors. The residential air conditioning market has many manufacturers and
energy efficiency is a driving competitive force. One manufacturer boasts that their 2-Speed Heat Pump operates on the lower of the two speeds 80% of the
time. This can dramatically lower operating costs and improve humidity control simultaneously. Microprocessor Control Board's are used to control when the
compressor's speed is changed and also to squeeze out any conceivable bit of energy savings. For example, the indoor blower fan can be left on for a few
minutes of extra run time at the end of each cycle so that additional dehumidification and sensible cooling can occur until the cold evaporator coil warms up.
There are several energy efficiency standards that allow consumer comparison shopping. This pushes the OEM's to find ways of making their equipment more
efficient than the next manufacturer's.

● AFUE:
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency: a percentage measurement of a furnace's heating efficiency.
● HSPF:
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor: (Heat Pump Heating Efficiency) The higher the HSPF rating, the more efficient the equipment is.
● EER:
Energy Efficiency Ratio: calculated by dividing the cooling capacity in Btu's per hour (BTUH) by the power input in watts at a given set of rating conditions, expressed in BTUH per
watt.
● SEER:
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio: a measure of cooling efficiency for air conditioning products. The higher the SEER rating number, the more energy efficient the unit.
● COP:
Coefficient of Performance: A ratio calculated by dividing the total heating capacity provided by the heat pump, including circulating fan heat but excluding supplementary
resistance heat (Btu's per hour), by the total electrical input (watts) x 3.412.

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Capacity Control

Variable Speed Compressors

Variable speed compressors can be used to precisely match the load at any given time. For example a chiller with a variable speed compressor drive has very
precise control on chilled water temperature and provides energy savings at the same time. The idea is to just meet the actual need and use no more than the
actual amount of energy required to accomplish the task. A reduction in noise level is an additional benefit. The OEMs of variable speed systems boast energy
savings up to 50% compared to traditional systems.

Cylinder Unloading

Internal Unloader

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Capacity Control

Labels Loaded Unloaded

There are several types of cylinder unloaders but they all set out to accomplish the same results. The purpose is to de-activate a cylinder so that it does not
perform any work. The internal unloader does this by holding the suction valve depressed with a small push rod. The piston is still oscillating up and down but
since it can not compress any gas with the suction valve held open, no work is performed. The push rod can be activated by oil pressure or even high side
refrigerant pressure. Press the buttons to see the external solenoid valve energize and allow high pressure oil to allow the cylinder to become loaded. Note that
the spring pressure causes the compressor to start unloaded. This makes it much easier to get the compressor started and up to speed. After the compressor
gets up to speed oil pressure develops and loading up the compressor becomes an available option.

Suction Cut-Off

Labels Loaded Unloaded

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Capacity Control

The Suction Cut-Off method disables a cylinder by isolating it (or cutting it off) from the suction vapours. After one or two strokes there is no longer enough
vapour inside the cylinder to form enough pressure to open the discharge valve so the piston simply oscillates without doing any work.

Whether an unloading mechanism be mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or refrigerant pressure activated, the basic premise is to de-activate certain
cylinders. Since compressors can have up to 12 cylinders there can be significant flexibility possible when choosing the number of cylinders to be equipped
with unloading devices. For example, a 4 cylinder compressor equipped with 3 staged unloaders can provide capacity stages of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%.
However, the piping system must be designed to be capable of carrying the full quantity of refrigerant at 100% load and yet still have sufficient velocities for
oil return during unloaded conditions. P-Trap/Double Riser piping is utilized for vertical suction lines on systems that unload.

Hot Gas Bypass

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Capacity Control

The minimum operating capacity possible with the cylinder unloading method is subject to the number of cylinders on the compressor. Hot gas bypass should
be given consideration where substantial operating time is anticipated below the minimum unloading step. During low load conditions Hot gas bypass valves
impose a false load on an evaporator by allowing some hot discharge gas to bypass it's normal route to the condenser and enter the low side of the system.
Although the diverted hot gas can be routed to the suction line after the evaporator, a far superior location is to tie in after the TXV. That way the evaporator
can serve as a mixing chamber for the bypassed hot gas and the liquid/vapour mixture from the expansion valve. The TXV will respond to the increased
superheat of the vapour leaving the evaporator and will provide the liquid required for desuperheating. Oil return from the evaporator is also improved since
the velocity in the evaporator is increased by the hot gas.

When used in combination with cylinder unloading it becomes possible to operate equipment at down to 10% of it's fully loaded capacity. Hot gas bypass
valves extend the run cycle of air conditioning equipment which improves humidity removal. They also limit the minimum evaporator pressure which
prevents coil icing. Longer run cycles means fewer starts and stops which decreases wear and tear on components.

If the hot gas line has a particularly long run an external equalized hot gas valve should be used. A solenoid valve should also be placed in the hot gas line to
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Capacity Control

prevent the possibility of liquid migration back to the compressor during the off cycle.

With multi-evaporator systems it may be necessary to bypass directly into the suction line. However that risks overheating the compressor and trapping oil in
the evaporator. Increased suction temperatures and therefore increased discharge temperatures cause breakdown of the refrigerant oil which leads to
compressor failures. On close-coupled systems, this can be eliminated by locating the main expansion valve bulb downstream of the bypass connection where
the hot gas enters the suction line. That way the TXV can sense that it can feed more liquid which will help to de-superheat the mixture and reduce risk to the
compressor.

Review Questions - Capacity Control

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Capacity Control

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Review Questions - Capacity Control

Review Questions - Capacity Control

List 3 reasons why capacity control can be desirable.


A 2 stage roof top package unit is selected to meet design load with the 1st stage of
cooling. True?
What components are shared by a multi-stage roof top unit??
What additional benefit does a multi-stage system sometimes provide?
What is the purpose of a lead/lag control system?
What device reduces the capacity of an evaporator?
What device reduces the capacity of a water cooled condenser?
Name 4 methods of controlling the capacity of air cooled equipment.
Does oil pressure load or unload an internal cylinder unloading system?
Which valve does the push rod of an internal unloader hold open?
How does the Suction Cut-Off method of capacity control disable a cylinder?
When would you use an externally equalized hot gas bypass valve?
Why would a solenoid valve be put in the hot gas line of a hot gas bypass valve?

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Hot Gas Defrost

Hot Gas Defrost

All freezer systems form ice on the evaporators and periodically require some form of defrost. Electric defrost systems with electric resistance heater
elements are very popular because of their relative simplicity. However, electric resistance heat uses a lot of energy. Some systems are designed to use hot
discharge gas from the compressor to defrost evaporators and accomplish the task much more efficiently than electric resistance heaters. Hot gas defrosting
uses less energy because it is takes less energy to relocate heat than it does to create heat. (A heater element uses electrical energy to create heat. The
refrigeration effect uses a lot less electrical energy to relocate heat rather than create it) The trade off with hot gas defrost is the increase in complexity and
increase in electro-mechanical parts that must be relied on. Nonetheless some systems are prime candidates for using hot gas rather than electric defrost. A
heat pump system already has all the switch over capability required to create a hot gas defrost system. Heat pumps merely required a control system to
initiate and terminate the defrost sequence. That type of defrost is called a reverse cycle defrost. Ice cubers are another prime candidate for hot gas defrost.
That's because they have a huge demand for defrosts as they produce ice then immediately require heat to free up the cubes from the evaporator. Since this
process repeats continuously, energy efficient defrosts are desirable. Very large systems also are candidates for hot gas defrost systems because defrosting
large evaporators takes a lot of heat and once again energy consumption becomes an issue.

Hot Gas Defrost without Re-Evaporation

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Hot Gas Defrost

Refrigeration
Defrost

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Hot Gas Defrost

The simple layout above uses 2 solenoid valves to change from refrigeration to defrost. During defrost hot gas is diverted to the evaporator to melt any ice
build up. This system relies on very little condensation taking place when the hot gas travels through the evaporator. After giving off some heat for
defrosting, the cooled gas re-enters the compressor where it warms up from the heat of compression and is sent back to the evaporator to reject more heat to
melt more ice. An accumulator is used to protect the compressor from small amounts of liquid refrigerant. This type of hot gas defrost system does work but
it is not applicable for all situations.

Hot Gas Defrost with Re-Evaporation

A much more powerful defrost can be achieved when the hot gas is allowed to condense and give off the Latent Heat of Condensation. But by doing that the
hot gas changes into a liquid which can not be allowed to return to the compressor or liquid slugging would occur. The liquid must be re-evaporated first. A
system with multiple evaporators allows for an eloquent solution. Through use of 4 solenoid valves the defrost gas can be allowed to condense in the
defrosting evaporator and then be routed through the other evaporator to be re-evaporated before returning to the compressor.

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Hot Gas Defrost

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Hot Gas Defrost

Refrigeration Defrost 1
Defrost 2

When a timer calls for a defrost of evaporator 1 (click the Defrost 1 button) it toggles the condition of 2 solenoid valves:

● SLSV 1 (Suction Line Solenoid Valve 1) closes stopping the normal flow of suction vapours from evaporator 1.
● HGSV 1 (Hot Gas Solenoid Valve 1) opens allowing hot discharge gas to flow to evaporator 1.

The hot gas flows backwards into evaporator 1 (it enters at what is normally the outlet) and exits around the TXV through a check valve. There is nothing
stopping the refrigerant from going through the TXV, it just takes the route of least resistance through the check valve which is favourably oriented and
allows unrestricted flow. The now condensed refrigerant finds itself in the liquid line enroute to evaporator 2. When it gets there it finds that there is another
check valve in parallel with TXV 2. However, this time the orientation of the valve is opposite to the direction of flow and it is forced to go through the
restriction of the TXV. The liquid is re-evaporated in evaporator 2 and then returns through the open SLSV 2 to the accumulator and compressor where it
restarts the loop. The precise opposite happens when it is time for evaporator 2 to be defrosted. There are many variations of hot gas defrost systems in the
field. Some systems use a water reservoir as a thermal mass instead of a second evaporator as a heat source. Some have a small evaporator that is only used
for re-evaporating. There are many combinations possible.

Review Questions - Hot Gas Defrost

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Hot Gas Defrost

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Review Questions - Hot Gas Defrost

Review Questions - Hot Gas Defrost

Why are electric defrost systems so widely used?


What is the benefit of using a hot gas defrost system?
Why don't all freezer systems use hot gas defrosting?
What is the name of the defrost method that a heat pump uses?
Why are ice cubers and large freezer systems good candidates for hot gas defrost
systems?
What heat source is used when there is no 2nd evaporator in a hot gas defrost system?
Do some hot gas defrost systems send the gas backwards through the evaporator?

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Electricity 1

Electricity

Part 1

The Nature of Matter

Matter has been described as everything


that has weight and occupies space.
Matter can be broken down into smaller
and smaller pieces for examination and
postulation. However there comes a
point where no further sub-division can
occur without destroying the identifiable
characteristics of the substance and that
is when you are at the level of the
molecule. A molecule is composed of
atoms of the elements bonded together in
a particular pattern. There are only so
many elements and they have been
organized by physicists and chemists
into a chart called the periodic table of
the elements. Examples of elements are
hydrogen, oxygen, helium, copper,
carbon and iron. Things like wood and
rock and refrigerants are not elements,
they are compounds or structures
composed of more than one type of atom.

Periodic Table of the Elements

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

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Electricity 1

Name Number Weight

Melts Boils

Colour Legend

A solid substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity.


Metals
Can be formed into many shapes.

"Middle elements" - conduct heat and electricity better than


Metalloid nonmetals, but not as well as metals. Easier to shape than
nonmetals, but not as easy as metals. Solid at room temperature.

A poor conductor of heat and electricity. Not easily formed into


Nonmetals
shapes.

Atoms

Mankind has not been satisfied stopping


at the molecular level and has dissected
matter further. It is known that atoms are
composed of positively charged protons,
negatively charged electrons, and
neutrons which have no charge. All
elements are composed of these basic
particles but in many different variations.
Atoms seek to be neutral in charge, and
therefore have an equal number of
protons and electrons. An atom of copper
has 29 protons in it's nucleus or inner
core, and therefore has 29 electrons
orbiting about the nucleus. In the grand
scheme of things, the design is such that
the electrons need not all be in the same
orbit level. A maximum of 2 electrons
can orbit about in the 1st orbit level. If
the atom has many electrons they may be
assigned to many different orbit layers
with a different maximum allowable
quantity of electrons in the various orbits

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Electricity 1

or rings. The outer layer or Valence Ring


is what we are most interested in. If a
given ring is shy of being full, it wants to
borrow an electron from somewhere else.
If an atom has one too many electrons, it
pushes the extra electron to the outer ring
so that it might be moved off to another
atom. If a chunk of matter has an excess
of electrons it will have a negative
charge. If there is a deficiency of
electrons it will be positively charged.
Allow 2 such materials to come in
contact and an electron flow will result.
Electron flow is what we know as
electricity.

Conductors & Insulators

The elements have various numbers of electrons in their valence ring and therefore have
varying abilities to allow electrical current to flow. Those elements which do not hold on
tightly to the electrons in their valance ring are called conductors as they conduct electron
flow readily. Conductors are said to have a large number of free electrons. Free electrons are
not bound to an atom and may move or be shared with other atoms within a substance.
Elements like Copper, Aluminium, Carbon and Silver are examples of good electrical
conductors. Elements that do not allow electrical current to flow easily are called insulators.
Insulators hold on tightly to the electrons in their valence ring and resist electron flow. Some
examples of good insulators are Quartz, Teflon and Polystyrene.

Voltage

A difference in charge between two objects means there is a difference of voltage potential
between them. A difference in electric potential between two charged bodies is the Electrical
equivalent of pressure. Voltage is also known as ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE or EMF.

Resistance

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Electricity 1

Just as water flows through a hose, so


too does electricity flow through a
conductor. If a hose becomes kinked that
creates a resistance and the flow of water
decreases. Electricity is subject to similar
laws. In order to compare the resistance
of various materials, we need to have
some standard unit of measurement. The
unit of measurement for resistance is
called the Ohm, and is indicated by the
Greek letter Omega . One Ohm is
defined as the amount of resistance that a
1000 foot piece of #10 copper wire has.
Ohm is the basic unit however KiloOhm
and MegOhm are also used.

● 1 KiloOhm = 1,000
● 1 MegOhm = 1,000,000

Amperage

Amperage is a measure of the amount of


flow of electricity. A flow of one ampere
is produced in a resistance of one ohm
by a potential difference of one volt.
Current is the dangerous aspect of
electricity. A flow of 1 Amp is sufficient
to kill a human being.

Ohms Law

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Electricity 1

It is difficult to consider Amperage (I)


without also considering Resistance (R)
and Voltage (E). The 3 are inter-
dependent. Resistance and Voltage
determine how much Current will flow.
If Resistance and Voltage are known,
Current can be calculated and this
relationship is represented by the
adjacent formula. Voltage is represented
by "E" which comes from the fact that
Voltage is also known as Electromotive
Force. As Ohms Law formula shows,
Current is directly proportional to
Voltage and indirectly proportional to
Resistance. So working around high
voltage is inherently more dangerous
because with higher Voltage there is a
greater potential for a higher amperage
flow. Conversely, with higher resistance
there is less potential for a high
amperage flow.

Note that the Ohms Law equation refers


to DC circuits. Although the same
general relationship exists with AC
circuits there are significant differences
in the mathematical results. Electrical
components such as motor windings,
solenoid coils, and capacitors act
differently with AC than they do with
DC. If you were to measure the DC
resistance of an AC motor winding and
plug the value into Ohms Law the results
would make you think that the current it
would draw when hooked to the AC line
would cause the motor to blow up. What
actually happens is that the windings
create alternating magnetic fields that
induce bucking currents into themselves.
The rotor winding induces even greater
bucking current into the windings.

Resistance to AC is different than what


we would measure as DC resistance.
Therefore AC resistance is called

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Electricity 1

Impedance to keep the concepts separate.


It is measured in Ohms, just like DC
resistance however it is called Z
(impedance) in place of R. So for DC
circuits I=E/R and in AC circuits I=E/Z.

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Review Questions - Electricity

Review Questions - Electricity

What is the name of the smallest subdivision of matter that still retains identifiable
characteristics?
What is it called when electrons flow from one atom to another?
Name 4 materials that conduct electricity well.
What does EMF stand for?
What is the standard unit of measurement of resistance?
What is one MegOhm?
Name 4 factors that affect the resistance of a material.
How much amperage does it take to be a risk to human life?
What 2 factors determine how much amperage will flow?
What does AC and DC stand for?
What is Hertz?
Do opposite magnetic poles repel or attract each other?
What creates lines of force?
Magnetic lines of force are always parallel to the electrical flow. True or False?
Are Magnetic lines of force additive?
Are Magnetic lines of force weakened or strengthened when near iron?

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Motor Types

Motors

IMAGE LABELS

Motor Types

*Motor types are shown in order of increasing starting torque (weakest first)

Shaded Pole

Shaded Pole Motors are


equipped with an additional
winding in each corner
called a shade winding. A
copper conductor isolates
the shaded portion of the
pole forming a complete
turn around it. These
windings have no electrical
connection for starting but

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Motor Types

use induced current to


make a rotating magnetic
field. The pole structure
causes formation of a
rotating magnetic field by
delaying the build up of
magnetic flux. Shaded pole
motors are used for low
torque applications and
usually rate less than 1/10
horsepower. They are often
used for very small
evaporator fan motors.

Split Phase

Split Phase Motors are used


for fractional horse power
duty with small starting
loads. They have a set of
start windings which have
smaller gauge wire than the
run windings but have a
greater number of turns or
winds. As a rotor gains
speed it acts like a
generator and creates a
"Back EMF" or "Back
Electromotive
Force" (Voltage). The
"Back EMF" that develops
in the greater number of
turns of the start winding
causes the current to build
up more slowly in the start
winding compared to the
run winding. The magnetic
effect will therefore be
several electrical degrees
behind that of the run

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Motor Types

winding. The net result is


an "off center torque"
which gets the rotor
moving from a stopped
position as well as rotating
in the correct direction.
Before the rotor gets up to
speed there is a much
higher amperage draw than
when it is at normal RPM.
This effect is called
"Locked Rotor
Amperage" (LRA), is
prevalent in all motor types
and can be several times the
normal "Running Load
Amps" or "Full Load
Amps" (RLA or FLA). This
is why motor circuits must
be protected with time
delay fuses. A time delay
fuse holds in for several
seconds even though a
motor is drawing more than
the amperage rating of the
fuse. This delay allows a
motor a chance to get up to
speed which is when the
Back EMF is at it's greatest
and the LRA has subsided.

When the motor gets up to


the required speed a
centrifugal switch mounted
on the shaft opens and
breaks the electrical
connection to the start
winding. The high inrush
amps decrease down to the
normal FLA as the motor
gets up to speed because of
the increasing Back EMF
which cancels out a portion

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of the power input. These 2


effects, LRA and Back
EMF are utilized in the
design of starting gear on
larger motors to drop out
start windings when the
rotor is up to sufficient
speed. (about 75% of
normal speed). Unless a
capacitor is utilized, the
start windings have to be
dropped out or they will
burn out. When up to speed
the motor operates solely
on the run winding.

PSC

Permanent Split Capacitor


Motors have a capacitor
placed in series with the
start winding which allows
it to remain functional
throughout start and
operation of the motor. The
start winding does not drop
out when the motor is up to
speed. Permanent split
capacitor motors cost less
than those with a switching
system. They provide
greater starting torque and
better running
characteristics than split
phase motors. They are
commonly used with fans
with low starting torque
requirements.

CSIR

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The Capacitor Start


Induction Run Motor starts
with the assistance of a
capacitor in the start
winding circuit. When that
circuit drops out, the motor
operates with the run
winding only. The
capacitor enables CSIR
motors to handle heavy
starting loads by
strengthening the magnetic
field of the start windings.
Refrigeration compressors
have high starting loads
because the pistons must
start pumping refrigerant
vapour as soon as the motor
starts. A common method
of dropping out the start
winding and capacitor is
through the use of a Current
Relay. It is easy to
recognise a current relay
because it has quite thick
windings in it's coil (to
carry a lot of current). It
carries a lot of current
because the coil is placed in
series with the run winding.
It therefore must carry the
LRA before the motor gets
up to speed. You know that
the start winding is
supposed to be in the circuit
during start up and since
the current relay is sensing
high inrush amps it makes
sense that it's contacts (CR)
are normally open. That's
because the high inrush
amps energize the current
relay coil when the motor is
first starting. The NO
contacts close at that time

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Motor Types

and bring the start winding


into the circuit. As the
motor gets up to higher
speeds the LRA decreases
and the current relay coil
"de-energizes" and the CR
contacts open dropping out
the start winding and start
cap.

CSCR

The Capacitor Start


Capacitor Run Motor has a
large starting torque. It
starts with the assistance of
a "Start Capacitor" and runs
with the assistance of a
"Run Capacitor". Both are
in series with the start
winding. The Start Cap
drops out when the motor is
up to speed and the Run
Cap as well as the start
winding stay in for the
operation of the motor. The
Start Cap optimizes starting
torque while the Run Cap
optimizes running
characteristics. Optimum
levels of both starting
torque and running
characteristics are achieved
with this design. CSCR
motors are used over a wide
range of single phase
applications primarily
starting hard loads.

Another type of relay that is


used is the Potential Relay
(as in Voltage Potential).
They use small wire in their
coil so that the resistance of

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Motor Types

the coil is high. This keeps


the coil from energizing
and opening it's NC
(Normally Closed) contacts
until the motor is spinning
fast enough to generate
sufficient Back EMF to
energize the coil. The coil
is wired in parallel with the
start winding and senses the
Back EMF as it develops.
When there is sufficient
Back EMF, the coil
energizes and switches it's
NC contact (PR) to the
open position dropping out
the start capacitor. The
motor continues to operate
with the start winding, run
cap and the run winding.

3 Phase

Three phase power is


comprised of three
independent voltages which
are carried on 3 separate
conductors. The 3 hot lines
are called Line1, Line 2 and
Line 3 or L1, L2 and L3.
Each phase is displaced 120
electrical degrees from the
others so no starting gear is
required with 3 phase
motors. Three phase power
is typically found in
commercial and industrial
buildings.

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Motor Types

Single phase motors greater


than 5 Horse Power are
rare. Above that size
motors are typically
available in 3 phase only. A
rotating magnetic field is
produced because each of
the three phases is
connected to an electrically
independent winding. The
direction of motor rotation
is easily reversible by
swapping the leads on any
2 windings. So if you have
an apparently seized 3
phase motor, as long as the
windings all have
continuity it can be worth a
try reversing the rotation to
try and unseize it. If it
works be sure to put it back
into the proper rotation
should it be necessary.
Direction of rotation
doesn't make any difference
for a reciprocating
compressor but fan blades
and many compressor oil
pumps are uni-directional.

Three Phase Motors can be


wound in different
configurations. Generally
on large motors the
windings are separated into
smaller sections and

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electrical leads from each


end of the sections are
brought out to the
connection enclosure. That
makes it possible to re-
configure the motor for use
with different voltages and
devices such as part-wind
starters.

Motor Speeds

2 Pole Motors

Motor speed is determined by the number of


poles in the motor and the Hertz (cycles per
second) of the AC (Alternating Current)
electrical supply. In North America 60 Hertz
is the standard. When the AC begins a half
cycle the poles of the stator winding change
polarity which drives the rotor away from the
repelling pole and towards the attracting pole.
In the case of a 2 pole motor the rotor
completes 1/2 revolution by the time the AC
cycle has completed 1/2 of a cycle. It takes a
complete electrical cycle for the rotor to

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make a complete revolution. Therefore in 60


seconds the rotor will complete 60
revolutions. In one minute the rotor will
complete:

60 revolutions/second x 60 seconds/minute
= 3600 revolutions per minute.

Therefore 2 pole motors have a speed of 3600


RPM. However that is the theoretical motor
speed. In practice the rotor never quite
reaches that speed and that is reflected in
name plate ratings like 3450 RPM.

CYCLES:
1/2 1 RUN STOP

4 Pole Motors

With a 4 pole motor, once again a half cycle


is required to advance the rotor to the next
pole. However, when there are 4 poles this
only advances the rotor 1/4 of a revolution. A
complete electrical cycle will advance the
rotor only one half of a revolution. Therefore

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Motor Types

in 60 seconds the rotor will have completed


only 30 revolutions. In one minute the rotor
will complete:

30 revolutions/second x 60 seconds/minute
= 1800 revolutions per minute.

Therefore 4 pole motors have a speed of 1800


RPM. However that is the theoretical motor
speed. In practice the rotor never quite
reaches that speed and that is reflected in
name plate ratings like 1725 RPM.

CYCLES:
1/2 1 RUN STOP

Review Questions - Motors

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Review Questions - Motors

Review Questions - Motors

What type of motor is commonly used for very small evaporator fan motors?
Are start windings made of thinner or thicker wire than run windings?
What drops out the start winding in a split phase motor?
What drops out the start winding in a PSC motor?
Name 2 types of relays that are used to drop out start windings.
How many capacitors does a CSIR motor use?
How many capacitors does a CSCR motor use?
Which has thicker coil wires, a current relay or a pot relay?
Does a current relay have NO or NC contacts?
Does a potential relay have NO or NC contacts?
Which has more starting torque; a CSIR motor or a CSCR motor?
Why do some motor designs leave a capacitor in the start winding circuit?
What are the hot lines called in 3 phase power?
How many capacitors are used with a 3 phase motor?
How do you reverse the rotation of a 3 phase motor?
Which has a slower RPM, a 2 pole or a 4 pole motor?

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Starting Gear

Motor Starting Gear

Start gear, or starting gear refers to the apparatus required to get a single phase motor started.
(Three phase motors require no start gear) Keeping a rotor spinning is somewhat electrically
straightforward. Getting it moving from a stopped condition to a rotating condition is a little
more complicated. Capacitors, relays and other devices are used to accomplish this task.

Capacitance

Capacitance refers to the amount of


electrical charge that a capacitor can
hold. The symbol used for capacitors on
schematic diagrams (as shown on the
left) is representative of the fact that a
capacitor is really just 2 plates separated
by a dielectric material. A dielectric
material is a poor conductor of
electricity, but an efficient supporter of
electrostatic fields. The capacitance is
directly proportional to the surface areas
of the plates, and is inversely
proportional to the separation between
the plates. A large amount of surface
area is rolled up to save space and placed
inside an enclosure. Capacitors change
the sine wave of AC circuits and cause
the current to lead the voltage. This
effect is used to create a starting torque
as well as improve the efficiency of
many types of AC motors. If capacitors
are placed in parallel the total
capacitance is simply additive.

C = C + C ...
TOTAL 1 2

This means that in a pinch, 2 or more


smaller capacitors can be wired in
parallel to replace a single larger
capacitor as long as the total MFD rating
is equal. Be sure that the voltage rating

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Starting Gear

of each capacitor is equal or greater than


the original capacitors voltage rating.
Also be sure to secure the replacement
capacitors properly. You can use the
above technique to get equipment
operational but should consider it a
temporary measure and restore the
equipment to the original layout once the
proper replacement part is available.

Before handling typical capacitors in the


HVAC/R field discharge them with a 20
K resistor rated at 2 Watts.

Electrolytic Capacitors (Run Caps)

Electrolytic Capacitors are encased in


metal. They are used as run caps and are
therefore always in the circuit. They are
given 2 ratings. The capacitance rating is
in MFD (Micro Farads). Sometimes this
is represented by the Greek symbol as
shown in the picture. Or the rating may
just be stated like this: 35 MFD. The
capacitor might only be in a 115 or 230
VAC circuit but still may have a large
voltage rating like 440 VAC. Remember
that motor circuits have electromagnetic
effects that cause Back EMF and LRA
effects. Always replace a capacitor with
equal capacitance rating and equal or
greater voltage rating irrespective of the
circuit voltage.

Start Capacitors

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Starting Gear

Start Capacitors are easy to recognize


because they are encased in a black
ceramic shell. Starting capacitors are not
in the circuit permanently like run caps
so they do not need to have the heat
rejecting capability of electrolytic
capacitors.

Potential Relay

Potential Relays are usually sealed inside


an enclosure. So although you know they
have thinner coil windings than current
relays you don't get to see them. Since
they have NC contacts, there is no
opportunity for the contacts to arc at
every start up. The contacts are closed by
a weight at each off cycle. Some pot
relays must be positioned in a specific
direction so that the weight can operate
properly. When replacing a pot relay be
sure to check the installation instructions
and/or check the relay casing to see if it
has a directional requirement.

The terminal designations of a pot relay


are 5, 2, and 1. Any other terminals are
just "dummy" terminals which can be
used as junction points for other wires.
The adjacent diagram shows the
terminals wired into a CSCR motor
circuit. This diagram is electrically
identical to the CSCR diagram in the
motor section. The only difference is that
this diagram shows the relay components
enclosed in it's casing with the terminal
designations.

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Starting Gear

Current Relay

Current Relays are easy to recognize by


their thick coil windings. They mount
directly on the compressor terminals.
Since they have NO contacts, the
contacts can arc when power is first
applied.

The terminal designations on a current


relay are L, S and M which stand for
Line, Start and Main. The adjacent
diagram shows the terminals wired into a
CSCR motor circuit. The relay
components are shown enclosed in it's
casing with the terminal designations.

Solid State Electronic Relays

PTC Relays, also called PTCR are


electronic starting relays. The acronym
stands for Positive Temperature
Coefficient Resistor. The PTC has very
low resistance when the motor first starts
and electrical flow goes through the PTC
device. As the motor picks up speed and
creates back EMF the resistance of the
PTC greatly increases and flow no
longer goes through the PTC device.
They utilize various combinations of

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Starting Gear

SCR's, transistors, diodes, diacs and


triacs and can provide significantly
increased starting torque. They are
supplied with some new equipment and
are also sold as hard start kits for
compressors suffering from hard starting
conditions and low voltage conditions.
These units are available in many
different configurations. They are
available for various horse power ranges.
For example: 1/12 to 1/5 HP, 1/4 to 1/3
HP, and 1/2 to 10 HP. Some have several
hook up wires and can replace a relay,
overload and start cap with a single
component. Others have only 2 wires
and are designed for PSC motors. Be
cautious that you obtain the correct one
for your application.

Thermal Starting Relay

Thermal Starting Relays are another type of starting apparatus used on some domestic
refrigerators. There are a couple of types. One uses a resistance heater wire near some bi-
metal warp switches to make and break contacts. Another type known as a Hot Wire Relay
uses a wire in series with the motor windings which stretches or shrinks due to current flow
and actuates contacts that way.

Review Questions - Start Gear

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Starting Gear

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Review Questions - Starting Gear

Review Questions - Starting Gear

What is the unit of Capacitance?


What is Capacitance?
What 2 properties does a dielectric material have?
Are run capacitors encased in plastic or metal?
What does PTCR stand for?
What type of relay has very thick wires in it's coil?
What are the terminal designations on a potential relay?
What are the terminal designations on a current relay?
What 2 parameters must be considered when replacing a capacitor?

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Controls

Controls

Part 1

Refrigeration systems require operating controls so they can cycle on and off to maintain a certain
temperature. They also require safety controls to stop operation if unsafe conditions occur. There are
many varieties of controls. Different types respond to temperature, pressure, humidity, liquid levels,
other controls, manual intervention and other things.

Thermostatic Control

Lets add a basic control system to a refrigeration


system. First we need to know what loads there
are to be controlled. The image on the left shows
a small split system for a walk in cooler with 3
electrical devices; a compressor, condenser fan
motor and evaporator fan motor. Those 3
electrical devices are represented on the ladder
schematic shown below. This type of wiring
diagram has branch runs all shown as parallel
circuits going from the left line (L1) to the
neutral line (N). They look like the rungs in a
ladder hence the name ladder schematic. The
EFM (Evaporator Fan Motor) must run all the
time so that the box temperature stays uniform
and the thermostat senses the average box
temperature not some pocket of stratified air.
Press the Off Cycle Button to see the circuit
through the EFM. Now Press the On Cycle
Button to close the T-Stat and call for
refrigeration. The T-Stat "makes" on a rise of
temperature. Notice that the COMPR
(compressor) and the CFM (Condenser Fan
Motor) both come on. A T-Stat that "makes on a
rise" is a cooling T-Stat. A T-Stat that "makes on
a fall" is a heating T-Stat.

Diagram Off Cycle On Cycle

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Controls

Also note that just because the wiring on the left side of the T-Stat is not coloured red when the T-Stat
is open, that does not mean there is no electricity there. There is a full electrical potential on that line
and if you were to come along an stick your finger at that point you would be shocked. The red
coloured wiring indicates the logical flow routes. Non red wires are not necessarily without voltage
potential.

The graph below shows how an operating control cycles. The control is set to start refrigeration if the
box warms up to 40 ºF. That's called the Cut In point. The system keeps running until it reaches the
Cut Out point which is 37 ºF where it shuts off and awaits the next call for cooling. In this example
there is a 3 degree differential between the 2 points. The differential must be wide enough that the
equipment does not short cycle. Short cycling means to turn on and off too rapidly. Starting is hard on
the equipment, so you want to keep the number of starts per hour to a reasonable amount, not an
excessive amount. The 40 ºF point is a very special temperature. It is the standard cut in point for
most refrigeration systems. Above 40 ºF, bacteria growth rates in stored food increase dramatically.
Below 40 ºF, bacteria growth rate is subdued.

The cut out point is more of a compromise than anything else. Some products may store better at
colder temperatures but colder temperatures might adversely affect other products in the same box.
There is also a concern about keeping the evaporator from icing up. There is no active defrost system
in a standard refrigeration system. (defrost systems are only a standard item with freezers) If you
forced a refrigeration system to CI at 36 ºF and CO at 33 ºF, the evaporator would be operating about
10 ºF colder than each of those points and you would have forced the evaporator to operate in the

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Controls

temperature range of 26 ºF to 23 ºF. Since the freezing point of water is 32 ºF, you can see that
moisture in the air is going to sublimate onto the evaporator surface and grow into thicker and thicker
layers of ice. Not only does ice act like an insulator and reduce thermal transfer, it can totally block
airflow through the evaporator fins and virtually stop thermal transfer. Some people try to push this
wall a little and it is possible to squeak out a degree or 2 colder than a 40 ºF cut in point. However,
anything more than a couple of degrees will risk icing the evaporator.

A countering force is the "off cycle defrost" effect. Since a refrigerator is designed to have a
temperature of 40 ºF, the recirculating air will tend to melt ice build up on the evaporator during the
times it has it has cycled off. There are of course refrigeration systems that are designed to operate in
the 35 ºF (and colder) range. However these typically have some form of defrost system. Systems that
are designed to operate below 32 ºF are freezers and they typically operate in temperature ranges like
0 ºF, -10ºF, -15 ºF as well as much colder.

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Controls

The adjustment knob on a commercial T-Stat


sets the cut in point. The differential is
adjustable by setting a slider inside the
enclosure. Thermostatic controls are
manufactured with an wide range of variations.
They have fixed differentials, adjustable
differentials, different operating ranges and
various accuracy’s , various electrical load
ratings, different types of sensors, electro-
mechanical, electronic etc.

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Controls

The sensing bulb of the control should be mounted so that it senses the evaporator inlet air. During
the off cycle the constant fan recirculates the air in the box. The temperature of the air becomes an
average of the product temperature, the wall temperature, any infiltrated air and any other loads such
as caused by a person entering the box. When the air temperature reaches the cut in point of the
control it brings on refrigeration.

When refrigeration is operating, 40 ºF air passes through the evaporator and drops in temperature
several degrees. That's why the sensor can not be placed in or near the discharge air stream. If it was
placed there, the control would think that the whole box was cold and shut off the system as soon as it
started. It is the average box temperature that should be monitored, not the discharge air temperature.

Some thermostatic controls are designed with a capillary line temperature sensor which is intended to
be inserted between the evaporator fins on units that have a tendency to ice up. A commercial cooler
in a hot environment which is constantly being accessed would tend to ice up. A Constant Cut In
Control, also known as a beverage cooler control forces an off cycle defrost at the end of each run
cycle. The control will remain open until the evaporator has reached a temperature which indicates
that any frost accumulated during the previous run cycle has been melted. This type of control is used

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Controls

in appliances like beverage coolers. Adjusting the knob on this type of control changes only the Cut
Out setting, the Cut In setting remains fixed.

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Review Questions - Controls

Review Questions - Controls

List 2 reasons why refrigeration systems require controls?


What type of T-Stat makes on a fall of temperature?
Why would a cut in point of 45 ºF be unsatisfactory for a refrigeration system containing
food?
Why would a cut in point of 35 ºF be unsatisfactory for a refrigeration system?
What is the space between the CI and CO of a control called?
Would a CI of 40 ºF and a CO of 39 ºF be OK for a food refrigerator?
What feature does a Constant Cut Control have that a standard temperature control does
not?
Do LPC's being used as operating controls always have CI and Differential set point stems?
Are safety controls contacts NO or NC?
What does LLSV stand for?
List 2 uses for a pump down system.
Is the corresponding pressure for 40 ºF a good CO setting for a LPC on a pump down
system?
What causes a relay to activate?
When is a NO contact open?
When is a NC contact open?
Name 2 things that could make a pump down system short cycle during it's off cycle.
What is an off cycle defrost?
What can cause an evaporator in a 40 ºF refrigeration system to frost up?
Will an off cycle defrost work in a freezer system?
What are the NC and NO contacts in a defrost timer sometimes called?
Is the EFM on constantly in a freezer as it is in a cooler?
What is the purpose of a fan delay T-Stat?
Where is a fan delay T-Stat installed?
Why are Defrost Termination Stats used?
How do bi-metal controls work?

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Troubleshooting 1

Troubleshooting

Part 1

How do I learn to troubleshoot?

Troubleshooting an HVAC system can be simple or diabolically difficult. Usually it is a


reasonably logical progression of inspecting, measuring, elimination and narrowing down the
possibilities until the root of the problem is discovered. But where does one start? Problems
can be refrigerant side, air side, water side, electrical or just plain mechanical. There is no
single magical answer. A great deal of diagnostic ability comes with experience. An
indentured apprenticeship is the proper way to develop diagnostic skills. Working under the
supervision of a mechanic is the safest way to start developing troubleshooting skills. Safety
issues are of paramount concern. There are untold ways to injure yourself or others when
working around HVRAC equipment and exposing yourself slowly over time to all the pitfalls
and proper workmanship like techniques does indeed take time in a field as complex as
HVAC/R. All theory books and class room training in the world can only provide back
ground familiarization. Books, even electronic books can only give you suggestions about
troubleshooting. The methods you develop will be unique to the way you think, your
experience and abilities and the situation at hand. There is no substitute for supervised, tools
in hand experience. On the other hand, deciding what to measure and what the results mean
will be waste of time if you do not have a solid grasp of theory fundamentals. Theory and
practice are certainly not exclusive of each other.

General Troubleshooting Tips

Always pay attention to the complaint. Lot's of the time it may seem like useless
information when the customer or operator rambles on and perhaps mentions things like the
fact that they turned thermostat "way up". Even that however is informative. When a non
technical person says they turned up a cooling stat they probably do not mean they turned it
up to a higher setting, they probably mean that they turned it up to "full capacity". (In other
words they turned it down to a lower setting which insured it was calling) The point is that
you will have to remember to set the operating control back to it's proper setting after
remedying the problem. That however should be something that you always check each and
every time before leaving a job site. Sometimes you will learn something more helpful if you
listen carefully. What if someone was rambling on about how this is blowing the budget what
with the bill you will be providing and the plumbers bill from yesterday...That contained some
possibly informative information if the equipment you are about to work on is water cooled.
There is a possibility that the plumber had the water shut off and unknowingly tripped a high
pressure switch on the water cooled equipment. Always pay attention.

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Troubleshooting 1

Start with a wide focus. Is the operating control calling, is there main power? Look over a
piece of equipment as you are approaching it. If the equipment looks OK from an overall
perspective, start visually examining things that are quick and easy to tentatively eliminate.
Inspect coil surfaces. Are the evaporator and condenser coils free of ice and dirt? Are belts in
place and pulleys and motors turning? Are the things that are supposed to be in operation
actually operating? Is the compressor operating? It would be non-productive to bury your
head in a maze of controls and start measuring things when you could have noticed a
condenser fan blade broken off or a broken blower belt.

Follow the lead. Lets say that the first thing that was noticed to be out of the ordinary was an
inoperative compressor. There are many things that could be the cause. The compressor could
be faulty. Or perhaps it is OK but is being held off by some safety control. That's probably the
next main category to determine. Is the compressor off due to a power side or a control side
problem? Use your meter and measure if you have proper main power and control voltage as
per the nameplate or wiring diagram. If you have proper control voltage available at the
control voltage transformer and you have proper main power to the compressor contactor you
will have narrowed down the field of possibilities considerably. If control voltage is not
getting to the compressor contactor coil then your next task would be to find out where it is
being stopped. If for example you had an open LPC that would indicate where to look next.
An open HPC would steer you in another direction.

But what if the system has a leak and has lost enough gas to trip a low pressure safety switch?
Couldn't you have checked the refrigerant pressure right at the start and be that much further
ahead? You can jump about from pillar to post or you can continue on in a logical process of
elimination. Either one can win first. If you use the "hop scotch method" of electrical
diagnosis you start at the beginning of the control circuit and keep on hopping from one
control to the next until you find the open control or open circuit. If it turns out to be an open
low pressure control you would certainly want to verify things with pressure gauges.

As another example, the compressor could be locked out on an open high pressure control.
Using gauges at the outset would not have done you any good under those circumstances.
You would merely be looking at off cycle pressures. Finding an open high pressure control
would not be the end of your search. You must find what caused the trip. Did it trip for a
legitimate reason? Is the problem intermittent? Is the cut out setting correct? Operate the
system with gauges on, is the operating head pressures too high at the moment? If it is, the
next thing you would do is start mentally listing all the things you can think of that could
cause high head pressure; dirty condenser, high ambient, inadequate air or water flow, non-
condensables, deteriorated fin bond, recirculated air, mixed refrigerants, over charged. etc..
Out of that list you might try to eliminate the things that are easiest to eliminate first.

Remember it was suggested to visually inspect the overall system right from the outset? If a
dirty condenser had been noticed you could have gone straight from that to checking the high
pressure switch. As a matter of fact, one of the first things an experienced mechanic will do is
glance at reset buttons to see if they are tripped and possibly narrow the focus instantly. So it

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Troubleshooting 1

is up to you to develop troubleshooting techniques. Rigidly sticking to a step by step process


of elimination is not necessarily the most efficient way of pin pointing problems. Be flexible
enough to jump around a bit and if necessary return to a logical progression.

You may find that you skip past a


problem or symptom and end up going
around in circles until you end up back
where you started. For example, you
may have visually inspected an air
cooled condenser's surface as you
approached the unit. It may have
appeared to be clean and you may have
had to go through all the above
troubleshooting to find that it led you
right back to a dirty condenser. Some
manufacturers utilize a double layer of
condenser fins and dirt can collect in-
between the 2 layers, out of sight yet
restricting the airflow. A pressure
spraying is required to clean such a clog.

There is a trick though that can let you


know when there is a hidden clog within
an air cooled condenser. A peculiarity of
propeller type fans is that they will
discharge radially rather than
perpendicularly when they are starved
for inlet air. In other words, a clogged
condenser can be determined by feeling
the direction that a propeller fan is
discharging the air.

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Troubleshooting 1

You might not even notice an experienced mechanic feel the airflow as he approaches a unit.
It can be fun to proclaim a clogged condenser and watch the look on someone's face when
they get down on their knees to look underneath a horizontal type condenser to inspect the fin
surface and their mouth drops open in amazement.

A mechanic will feel other things as well. One of the first things he or she will do is grab on
to the suction line and get an idea of the temperature of the suction gas. This is a habit that
develops and is merely a way to possibly narrow the focus when troubleshooting. For
example, if the last 4 air conditioning systems suction lines you felt were all cold and the next
one is kind of warm you get a big hint that there could be some sort of refrigerant side
problem or compressor problem.

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Review Questions - Troubleshooting

Review Questions - Troubleshooting

What does a radially discharging condenser propeller fan indicate?


What is the safest way to learn troubleshooting skills?
What safety control do water cooled units always have?
Name several things that are quick and easy to check when first starting to troubleshoot a
unit?
What are the 3 fundamental properties of electricity that can be measured when
troubleshooting?
If a clamp on amp probe is placed around the line and common wires to a compressor
drawing
8 amperes, what will the meter display?
What voltage potential is there between the C and R compressor terminals on a 115 VAC
compressor?
What voltage potential is there between the C and R compressor terminals on a 115 VAC
compressor
that has open windings?
What are the 3 possible readings that can be obtained with an Ohm meter?
If a circuit has continuity, how many ohms resistance does it have?

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Electrical Symbols

Electrical Symbols

Manufacturers use variations of electrical symbols on their schematics and wiring diagrams. However
the symbols are usually fairly cryptic. Some of the more common symbols and variations used in the
HVAC field are shown below.

Switching Devices
Open Closed Description Abbreviation

Switch
Single Pole SPST
Single Throw

Switch
Single Pole SPST
Single Throw

Switch
Single Pole SPST
Single Throw

Momentary Switch
Single Pole SPST
Single Throw

Switch
Single Pole SPDT
Double Throw

Switch
Single Pole SP3T
Three Throw

Switch
Double Pole DPST
Single Throw

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Electrical Symbols

Switch
Double Pole DPDT
Double Throw

Disconnect Switch 3PDT

Fused Disconnect
3PDT
Switch

Liquid Level
Activated
Breaks on rise

Liquid Level
Activated
Breaks on fall

Flow Switch

Low Pressure
Control LPC
Breaks on fall

High Pressure
Control HPC
Breaks on rise

Thermostatic
Control
T-Stat
Makes on rise
Cooling control

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Electrical Symbols

Thermostatic
Control
T-Stat
Makes on fall
Heating control

Thermostatic
Control
T-Stat
Makes on fall
Heating control

Normally Open named like


contact controlling coil

Normally Closed named like


contact controlling coil

Normally Open named like


contact controlling coil

Normally Closed named like


contact controlling coil

Bi-metal Disk

Thermal Element

Circuit Breaker
CB-1, CB-2 etc.
2 pole

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Electrical Symbols

Circuit Breaker
3 pole with CB-1, CB-2 etc.
thermal overloads

Circuit Breaker
3 pole with CB-1, CB-2 etc.
magnetic overloads

Loads

Resistive Load
HTR
IE: heater

Resistive Load
HTR
IE: heater

Resistor

Variable Resistor

Resistor

Variable Resistor

Positive Temperature
Coefficient Resistor PTC or PTCR
(Electronic Start Relay)

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Electrical Symbols

Relay Coil CC, K1, K2, etc.

Relay Coil CC, K1, K2, etc.

Light Bulb

Motor

Motor

Miscellaneous

Transformer

Transformer with
multiple taps

Diode

Light Emitting
LED
Diode

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Electrical Symbols

Capacitor

Capacitor

Battery

Battery of cells

Fuse

Fuse

Supply Voltage
230 Volts
alternating current

Dashed lines enclose


control areas like T-Stats
Also used to indicate
mechanical connections
like between multiple
pole switches.

Junction of conductors

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Electrical Symbols

Junction of conductors
are sometimes shown
like this

Crossing of conductors
with no electrical
connection

Crossing of conductors
with no electrical
connection are also
shown like this

Electrically hot

Electrically neutral

Common

Ground

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Electrical Symbols

Line 1

Line 2

Line 3

Line

Single Phase

Three Phase

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Troubleshooting 4 Problem 1

Walk in cooler with pump down - Problem # 1.

Help Hint

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Troubleshooting 4 Problem 1

Submit your Diagnosis

CFM seized.

CFM windings open.

COMPR windings or O/L open.

COMPR seized.

EFM seized.

EFM windings open.

HPC tripped.

LPC open.

LLSV coil open.

No Faults.

No power.

Start Cap shorted.

Start relay coil open.

Start relay contacts stuck closed.

Unlisted problem.

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Causes-Effects

Refrigerant Overcharge Loose TXV bulb

Refrigerant Undercharge High Evaporator Airflow

Restriction (Liquid Drier) 400/500 series refrigerant vapour charged

Low Evaporator Airflow Cross oil contamination

Fouled or dirty condenser Non-condensables

Tight compressor (drag/seizing) R-12 system with 10% R-134A mixed in

Inefficient compressor Large leak 400/500 series refrigerant

TXV bulb charge lost Low condensing ambient

Electrical phase imbalance (3 phase)

HIGHER THAN NORMAL

LOWER THAN NORMAL

Help Grey Arrows Submit

Input
Access Submit
Code

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Advanced Troubleshooting Help

Advanced Troubleshooting Section

The advanced troubleshooting section allows you to diagnose equipment problems by measuring all major operating parameters. High and low
side refrigeration gauges display operating pressures. A digital temperature meter allows measurement of refrigerant and air temperatures in
several key locations. PT charts are provided for the refrigerant being utilized. Electrical measurements can be taken at any of the test points on
the electrical schematic. This is your opportunity to apply all of the theory and diagnostic techniques taught in this e-book and troubleshoot
problems with realistically portrayed equipment faults. Below is a screen shot of the advanced troubleshooting user interface. The key features
are indicated with circled red numbers. The features are explained in detail below the screen shot.

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Advanced Troubleshooting Help

The title informs you which equipment type and refrigerant you will be diagnosing. You must know whether the system is a high, medium or
low temperature application so that you can come to conclusions about operating pressures and temperatures.

The Help Button opens this help page in a new window.

The Hint Button sometimes provides clues such as might be given by the equipment owner.

The PT Chart Button opens a new window containing the PT Chart relevant to the equipment being diagnosed.

The Abbreviations Button opens a new window which lists the meanings of the abbreviations in the Notes section (13)

When you believe that you have correctly diagnosed the problem click the Submit Diagnosis button to open a new window where you may
submit your diagnosis and find out if you are correct.

The low side and high side pressure gauges can be activated by clicking the small Buttons labeled P1, P2 and P3. Each Button corresponds
to identically named test points on the refrigeration piping diagram (8). Note that when you click one of the buttons it turns green and the
corresponding test point on the piping diagram also turns green.

The piping layout also contains temperature test points which are labeled T1, T2, T3 etc. It also contains pressure test points which are
labeled P1, P2 and P3. Test points turn green when activated by the corresponding test instrument. (gauges or temperature meter)

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Advanced Troubleshooting Help

The electrical schematic operates exactly like the diagrams you have already experienced in the previous troubleshooting sections. The test
points turn green when activated by the Volt/Ohm/Amp meter.

The Volt/Ohm/Amp meter operates exactly as in the previous troubleshooting sections. The mode buttons turn green when clicked to indicate
the test mode.

The digital temperature meter has 9 buttons which correspond to the 9 temperature test points on the piping diagram. When you select a
button it changes to green and the corresponding test point on the piping diagram also changes to green providing a helpful visual reference.

The unit nameplate provides electrical ratings for the equipment components.

Click the Abbreviation Button (5) to see the meaning of the abbreviations listed in the Notes section. The Notes section allows you to record
pertinent information as you gather it. For example, when determining superheat, it is helpful to have a handy place to record data such as low
side pressure (LO), suction line temperature (SLT) and the corresponding PT Chart temperature (CORR). Each time you gather more data
about the operating parameters record it in the Notes section. You may not need to fill it in completely to make a diagnosis. On the other hand,
the more information you gather, the greater is the likelihood that your diagnosis will be correct.

Electrical Measurements

Amps When the meter is in amps mode and you click a test point, the amperage draw of all the loads in that electrical branch are displayed in the
meter. If there are "sub branches" those loads are included.

Volts When the meter is placed in the voltage mode one test point is automatically selected. This is typically either the Common leg or Line 2. You
must select the 2nd test point. The volt meter then displays the voltage potential between those 2 points. A volt meter reports a voltage
potential across an open circuit and across loads.

Ohms The power in an electrical circuit must be turned off before using an ohm meter. If you fail to do so you may damage the ohm meter or at
least blow the meter's fuse. Anytime you put the meter into ohms mode it is assumed that the power has been turned off. To measure the
resistance of a component select the 2 closest test points. It is assumed that any parallel loads have been taken out of the circuit. If you try
measuring a circuit with several loads in parallel or series you are likely to receive the following alert:

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Advanced Troubleshooting Help

In real life you will have an ohm reading representing the combination of all the series and/or parallel resistances between the 2 test points
you selected. However those types of readings are seldom useful when troubleshooting. That is why you must isolate components from the
rest of the circuitry to take a resistance measurement. You may still attempt any measurement you wish and are not restricted to adjacent
test points only. When it is somewhat obvious that a specific component or wiring circuit is being tested you are likely to be given a reading.
The further apart your test points are, the greater is the liklihood that you will receive the above alert instead of a meter reading.

When you take a reading that has direct continuity (zero resistance) between 2 test points and there also happens to be a measureable
resistance in parallel, the measureable resistance load is ignored. This is true in real life as well as in these troubleshooting boards. That is
because electricity will favour taking the route of least resistance.

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Advanced Troubleshooting Help

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Random Troubleshooting Boards

If you have completed the previous 100 troubleshooting boards, that doesn't mean the
diagnostic challenge is over. If you are ready for the biggest challenge yet, click the button
below to randomly select a troubleshooting board. Note that there will be no "Help" nor
"Hint" nor "Abbreviation" Buttons. You will not be able to recognize the fault board by the
file title; they are all renamed to "Random Board" If you try to determine the file name you
will discover that they have all been changed to unrecognizable binary numbers like 1001100.
There will be neither technical discussions nor explanations if you submit a correct diagnosis.
You will merely be informed whether your diagnosis is correct or incorrect. If you are wrong
you will be sent to a new randomly selected board. You will be locked into full screen mode
where there is no Back Button, so you will have no way to back track and make a second
guess. The random boards section is similar to real life troubleshooting. You don't get to
choose which machine breaks down next and you are expected to make correct diagnoses first
time, every time. So be methodical and thorough. Troubleshooting should be fun, not
exasperating. If you do poorly you need to retrace your steps and master the diagnostic skills
that are explained in this book. Do have fun and I hope that you enjoy the challenge.

New Random Board

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Safety

Safety

The Refrigeration Trade is considered by some to be the most dangerous trade. Surely a bomb
squad technician or perhaps law enforcement officials or high steel workers face greater
perils than a mere refrigeration mechanic. However the reasoning behind this assumption is
understandable. An HVAC/R mechanic must deal with high voltage electricity and work
from ladders and spend time on construction sites where all manner of dangerous situations
arise. He deals with high pressure gases, operating machinery with spinning pulleys and belts,
welding gases and hot pipes. He spends time on roofs and working with cranes and heavy
suspended objects. If all of this isn't enough, he also spends much time wearing out his knees
and back lifting heavy objects and kneeling in front of electrical control cabinets to
troubleshoot live components or replacing a compressor, fan motor or some awkwardly
placed component. Why do we do it? Why is a cop a cop? Why does a high steel worker
romp about on skinny beams hundreds of feet up? The short answer is that it can be a well
paying career. The real answer is that we find it extremely interesting. You have to be cut out
for the job. It is possible to do anything if you have enough interest but the vast majority of
technicians who end up staying in the trade find that they were born for the work. And that
does not mean that everything is a bed of roses for the "right type" of person. It means you
have to be capable of taking the good with the bad but believe that the interesting parts
outweigh the miserable parts.

If you are the type of person who finds he has an interest in mechanics and thermodynamics
then you should also be the type of person that is always thinking ahead about consequences
and choices while doing your job. Ninety-nine percent of staying safe in this trade or perhaps
any job is thinking ahead and creating safety as you go. For example, it is less likely that you
will set off a fire with your welding torch if you use a protective shield over nearby
flammable surfaces. If a fire does develop it will likely be much less of a problem if you were
following normal safety procedures and had a fire extinguisher standing by within immediate
grasp.

The most dangerous time for an HVAC mechanic is his or hers first years on the job. That's
because everything is new and exciting and it's hard not to be overwhelmed by the vast
assortment of amazing things to learn. A proper apprenticeship is the only way to learn how
to do things the safe way. How else can you learn about the hidden dangers and tricks unless
it is through the supervision of someone with experience. The first time you are standing on a
roof assisting with the placement of a heavy roof top unit onto it's curb you will be thinking
about the control system and where the T-Stat will be placed and anticipating all the wonders
you are about to be exposed to. You may not be thinking about the large amount of
momentum that a heavy unit has as it slowly moves while slung from the crane. If you
happen to be standing in-between the unit and the edge of the roof you may not realize that if
it swings in your direction it will sweep you off the roof like you weighed nothing at all. Any
stabilizing you were considering doing for the unit can just as easily be done without placing
your body in a position of danger. It's those types of things that turn out to be the most

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Safety

dangerous. The subtle things hiding in plain view in combination with a lack of experience.
Never stop thinking ahead about safety.

Attempting to manipulate a live electrical connection can sometimes save a lot of grief. This
is certainly not a perfect world and there are an infinite number of improperly labeled or
unlabeled circuits on electrical panels. Sometimes you can not shut down a whole panel and it
becomes very tempting to work on a live circuit rather than spend an unknown amount of
time tracing the disconnect switch or circuit breaker. Sooner or later you will face that
dilemma. Remember to try to measure the amount of grief your loved ones will have if you
are killed or injured compared to the amount of aggravation you would apparently be
avoiding. If that logic doesn't do it for you then try to look at it this way; you can legitimately
charge for the time it takes to trace a circuit and properly label it. It's the same pay for
marching as it is for fighting. So why not take the time to do things the right way. Work
safely and create a safer environment for the next guy at the same time. That is a far superior
attitude than jumping from pillar to post trying to get things done in a hurry to please your
boss or please yourself. It is up to you to make your own rules and decide what is safe, what
is not, and where you draw the line. It is smarter to do that before you are looking up from a
hospital bed or blankly staring out from a coffin. If you need no convincing and wish to do
things safely then you only need to keep that mind set and keep an eye out for the myriad of
little things that are all waiting to get you. Each time you learn of some danger file it away in
your head and never forget it. When learning the refrigeration trade there are lots of mistakes
that can be made and lots of mistakes one can get away with. Safety is not always that
forgiving. There are some mistakes that you just may not live through. You must learn right
from the outset to anticipate dangers and avoid them. There has probably never been a
refrigeration book written that does not mention that oil must never be placed on the threads
of an oxygen fitting nor must oxygen ever be used to pressure test a piping system that
contains oil. Still we read about the unknowing who do either of those things and blind or kill
themselves with their own unintentional bomb.

If it was possible to list ten thousand dangerous circumstances it would certainly not cover all
possibilities. However the short list below, in no particular order, may be helpful as it exposes
several dangers and also includes some recommendations.

Safety Tips

● Wear safety boots with steel shanks, steel toes and di-electric soles.
● Wear knee pads when kneeling on concrete for extended periods.
● Wear hard hats when appropriate.
● Wear safety harness and safety rope when working on heights.
● Carry safety equipment like fire extinguishers and maintain them.
● Keep ladders in good repair.
● Secure ladders on roof racks properly.
● Always tie off extension ladders.
● Do not wear jewellry when troubleshooting electrical equipment.
● Do not wear long ties or loose hanging clothing near pulleys and belts.
● Shut off power before working on electrical components when possible.

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Safety

● Lock off and tag electrical switches when working on line voltage wiring.
● Wear protective clothing when welding pipes because you will graze into hot pipes
sooner or later.
● Wear safety glasses when welding, drilling, grinding or any other time debris may
threaten your eyes.
● Wear safety glasses and gloves when working with refrigerants.
● Acquire a proper fuse puller. No other tool removes cartridge fuses as safely.
● Don't carry things up a ladder when you can haul them up with a rope.
● Keep proper slope on extension ladders.
● Don't stand between the roof edge and a suspended crane load.
● Don't place parts of your body in jeopardy when a tool can be used instead.
● Get in the habit of standing aside and looking away from electrical control panels
when throwing disconnect switches and breakers.
● When possible, don't have any part of your body other than your di-electric safety
boot soles touching electrical grounds when working on live electrical components.
● Don't troubleshoot electrical equipment in the rain.
● Don't pop out electrical knock outs with your finger, use a tool. If your finger slips it
can rip your finger nail clean off. .
● Find out what type of refrigerant is leaking before allowing any type of open flame in
the area. Some of the new refrigerants have flammable components.
● Use the proper tool for the job. A wrench is not a hammer, a knife is not a wire
stripper.
● Don't lay an acetylene tank on it's side while brazing.
● Don't lay down a torch that you just used until you test it for a smouldering flame by
cracking the fuel knob.
● You are responsible for the danger from hot pipes that you create while brazing. Wet
rag them before walking away. Don't subject other's to extreme burns by walking
away from hot pipes.
● Leave the area and make others do the same if you create phosgene while welding.
● Don't assume power is dead just because a switch is off.
● Discharge capacitors with a 20 KiloOhm 2 Watt resistor before handling them.
● When hooking up an electrical device tie in the ground first so that if electricity
suddenly appears it has somewhere to go other than through you. Tie in Neutral
second and Lines last.
● Don't assume a low voltage control circuit can only have low voltage present.
Mistakes are made, always check for actual voltage with a test meter.
● Never oil oxygen fittings.
● Never pressurize a refrigeration system with oxygen.
● Do not exceed manufacturers maximum pressure ratings on pressure vessels.
● Do not remove or leave safety controls bypassed. You must not put other's in
danger.
● Test a voltage meter on a live source before relying on it's read out of a supposed
dead circuit.
● Discharge capacitors with a resistor before handling them.
● Lock off and tag a remote disconnect switch that could put you in danger while
working downstream of it.
● Never allow a compressor to run with the DSV front seated.
● Close off your welding tank before walking away from it.

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Safety

● Close panels on live electrical control sections before walking away from them.

There is another ominous type of danger. That is the danger that comes with complacency. As
you get used to working under what can be dangerous circumstances it eventually becomes
common place and you may lower your guard a little bit. At the opposite end of the scale
from a novice apprentice is the seasoned veteran. He is set in his ways and knows many
things. He has lots of short cuts and over the years has learned to compromise safety in the
name of expediency. Sooner or later that will catch up with him. Don't let that happen to you.
Work safe, keep aware of the dangers around you, don't become complacent about safety.
Enjoy a long healthy life.

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Exam

Refrigeration Basics Exam

Here's your chance to see how much of the material in this book you have grasped. There is no time limit for this test but it is not an open book
test. (do not look at any reference material) When you complete all the answers click on the Submit Button at the end of the test and your score
will be displayed in percentage. Don't despair if you do poorly the first time through. You will have learned what sorts of things you should
know outright or be able to figure out with a little thought. You may find it interesting to do the test several times and watch your score
improve over time as you learn more of the concepts and material in this book. Have fun.

1. What is the definition of refrigeration?

The addition of cooling


The removal of heat
The replacement of heat
The removal and relocation of heat

2. Name 3 main processes by which objects can become colder

Radiation, Conduction, Convection


Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Absorption
Convection, Sublimation, Radiation
Evaporation, Condensation, Sublimation

3. How much superheat is preferable at the outlet of an evaporator?

5 ºF
10 ºF
15 ºF
25 ºF

4. What are the 4 main components in a refrigeration system?

TXV, Accumulator, Compressor, Condenser


Accumulator, Metering Device, TXV, Compressor
Condenser, Metering device, Evaporator, Compressor
Evaporator, Compressor, TXV, Metering Device

5. What is in the evaporator?

Low pressure vapour and liquid


Superheated liquid and subcooled gas
Liquid and gas
High pressure superheated vapour and liquid

6. Where is the sensing bulb of a TXV located?

Liquid Line, close to the evaporator inlet


Suction Line, close to the evaporator outlet
Suction Line, close to the evaporator inlet
Liquid Line, close to the evaporator outlet

7. Name 2 Metric temperature scales.

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Exam

Kelvin, Celsius
Celsius, Rankine
Kevin, Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit, Centigrade

8. Which Latent Heats are involved if water is frozen then thawed and then boiled?

condensation, vapourization, sublimation


sublimation
fusion, vapourization
fusion, sublimation

9. Which of the following are equal to 1 atmospheric pressure?

14.7 PSI
760 mm
29.92 "Hg
all of the above

10. Which of the following statements is false?

If the type and temperature of a refrigerant are known, then the pressure being exerted by the refrigerant can be calculated
Recovered refrigerant must not fill a jug more than 60% by weight
Dangerous hydrostatic conditions can occur if a jug is filled 100% full with refrigerant vapour.
New jugs of refrigerant are shipped from the manufacturer 80% full by weight

11. A low side refrigerant gauge open to atmosphere will register what pressure?

0 PSI
29.92 "Hg
14.7 PSIG
0 PSIG

12. One Micron is equivalent to:

1/1000th mm Hg
29.92 "Hg/1000
the 1st two are both correct
1/1000th x 760 mm Hg

13. A Micron gauge can be used to:

measure thousandths of a Micron


the last two choices are both correct
tell the difference between moisture contamination and a very small leak
determine if an adequate evacuation has been achieved

14. The operating forces in a TXV are:

(bulb pressure + spring pressure) versus (refrigerant pressure)


(bulb pressure + refrigerant pressure) versus (spring pressure)

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Exam

(spring pressure + superheat) versus (bulb pressure)


(spring pressure + refrigerant pressure) versus (bulb pressure)

15. Increased refrigerant flow through an evaporator tends to:

increase superheat
decrease superheat
increase bulb temperature
2nd & 3rd answers are both correct

16. Turning a TXV valve stem clockwise:

tightens the spring, reduces superheat


tightens the spring, increases superheat
loosens the spring, reduces superheat
loosens the spring, increases superheat

17. Which of the following lists of Metering Devices have fixed flow rates?

TXV, AEV, EEV


Cap Line, AEV
Cap Line, Accurator
Cap Line, Accurator, High Side float, Low Side Float

18. Which statement is false?

Fixed orifice pistons cannot be used on reverse cycle systems


Cap Lines should only be used on systems with relatively constant loads
Low Side Float Valves are used on flooded evaporator systems
TEV systems require receivers

19. Which statement is false?

Hermetic compressors are popular because they are inexpensive and the valves and valve plates can be changed should the need
arise
Open compressors are direct drive or belt driven
Scroll compressors are more tolerant to liquid content than are reciprocating compressors
Hermetic compressors are suction cooled

20. Which statement is false?

An oversized compressor causes low suction pressure


An undercharge will cause low suction and low head pressure
A bubbling sight glass always indicates an undercharge
An undercharge can cause high superheat

21. Which statement is true?

Vapour charging is appropriate if introducing refrigerant into the high side while the system is running
Front seating a King Valve causes the high side to pump down
Front seating the SSV causes the compressor to pump down
Mid seating a service valve causes the most restriction for evacuation

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Exam

22. To determine subcooling you need to measure the temperature of what pipe?

suction line
discharge line
capillary line
condensate line

23. To determine superheat you need to measure the temperature of what pipe?

discharge line
suction line
liquid line
condensate line

24. The study of moisture in air is called:

Humidity
Psychometrics
Air Conditioning
Enthalpy

25. Duct distribution systems:

Must use propeller type fans


Regularly use propeller type fans
Must use blower wheel type fans
Can use either type of fan

26. An overcharged system will likely have higher than normal:

Superheat
Superheat, Subcooling, amperage draw
Head Pressure, Discharge Temperature, amperage draw
Head Pressure, Suction Pressure, amperage draw

27. If you waft the flame of a lighter over a TXV bulb:

Refrigerant flow through the evaporator will decrease


Superheat will decrease
Superheat will increase
Superheat will remain constant

28. Turning a TXV valve stem clockwise:

Increases refrigerant flow


Decreases refrigerant flow
Decreases superheat
The 2nd and 3rd answers are both correct

29. Turning a TXV valve stem counter-clockwise:

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Exam

Increases refrigerant flow


Decreases refrigerant flow
Decreases superheat
The 1st and 3rd answers are both correct

30. Which of the following lists motor types in order of increasing starting torque?

3 Phase, PSC, Split Phase


CSCR, CSIR, PSC, Split Phase
Split Phase, CSIR, CSCR
Shaded Pole, PSC, CSCR, Split Phase

31. A potential start relay:

Has it's coil in parallel with the start winding


Has it's coil in series with the start winding
Has it's coil in series with the run winding
Has it's coil in parallel with the run winding

32. A current start relay:

Has it's coil in parallel with the run winding


Has it's coil in series with the start winding
Has it's coil in series with the run winding
Has it's coil in parallel with the start winding

33. Three phase motors:

Are reversible by switching any 2 leads


Have 2 start caps and a relay contact in series with the start winding
Have 1 start cap and a relay contact in series with the start winding
Can use either current or potential relays

34. Which statement is true?

The pole structure of a shaded pole motor causes formation of a rotating magnetic field by delaying the build up of magnetic flux
CSCR motors have a capacitor in series with the run winding and a capacitor in series with the start winding
Pot relays have thick wires in their coil to withstand the high voltage potential that they are subjected to
PSC motors can use current or pot relays

35. Which statement is true?

LRA is less than full load amps


Back EMF is highest when a motor is first starting
FLA is greater than RLA
RLA is less than LRA

36. If in good condition, the NC contacts on a relay should show the following resistance:

MR
open

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Exam

continuity
infinite resistance

37. If in good condition the coil on a potential relay should show the following resistance:

MR
open
zero Ohms
infinite resistance

38. If the electrical resistance of a circuit is increased:

Voltage increases
Current decreases
Unrestricted electron flow occurs
EMF and magnetic effect cease

39. Ohms Law states that:

I = R/E
I=ExR
I = Voltage divided by current
I = E/R

40. Ohms Law states that:

E = IR
R = E/I
All of the above
none of the above

41. How much airflow is typically required by air conditioning systems?

300 CFM/Ton
350 CFM/Ton
400 CFM/Ton
450 CFM/Ton

42. How much airflow is typically required by heat pump systems?

300 CFM/Ton
350 CFM/Ton
400 CFM/Ton
450 CFM/Ton

43. Dalton’s Law deals with:

partial pressures
volume & pressure
volume & temperature
pressure & temperature

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Exam

44. Boyle’s Law deals with:

partial pressures
volume & pressure
volume & temperature
pressure & temperature

45. Charles’s Law deals with:

partial pressures
volume & pressure
volume & temperature
pressure & temperature

46. It can be a good idea to lubricate O-rings and threaded refrigeration fittings with oil:

always
false
not true for PAG and POE
if using PAG

47. Which factors increase heat transfer:

small surface area, large TD, small specific heat values


large surface area, small TD, large specific heat values
large surface area, large TD, small specific heat values
large surface area, large TD, large specific heat values

48. What does turning the blue hand wheel clockwise on a gauge manifold set do?

closes the high side chamber port


opens the high side chamber port
opens the port between low side and the center chamber
closes the port between low side and the center chamber

49. Which of the following components utilize the Venturi effect?

receiver
accumulator
LLSV
Suction/Liquid Heat Exchanger

50. Which of the following pump down tests indicates a good compressor?

pumps down to 0 PSIG and pressure holds


pumps down to 5 "Hg and pressure bleeds back to 0 PSIG
pumps down to 17 "Hg and pressure holds
pumps down to 28 "Hg and pressure bleeds back to 3 "Hg

51. A volt meter is used to take a couple of readings. The first reading measures the voltage potential across a relay coil that has no
problems. The second reading is across a coil that is burnt open. The two readings will be:

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Exam

identical
opposite
measurable voltage and zero volts respectively
zero volts and a measurable voltage respectively

52. A cooling tower utilizes the:

Latent Heat of Fusion


Latent Heat of Evaporization
Latent Heat of Condensation
Latent Heat of Sublimation

53. High discharge temperatures:

break down oil


increase the rate of acid formation
prevent liquid slugging
the 1st 2 answers are both correct

54. Large diameter, short hoses:

make no difference in how long it takes to evacuate a system


make evacuation very much faster
make evacuation slightly faster
slow down an evacuation

55. Which of these pressures is an acceptable evacuation:

0 PSIG
28 "Hg VAC
250 microns
750 to 800 microns

56. When testing to see if an evacuation holds, the micron reading starts to rise but then levels off.

that’s perfectly normal


there is a leak
the system is wet
the system is free of moisture

57. What is the function of a CPRV?

limiting evaporator pressure


limiting the pressure entering the compressor
imposes a false load on the evaporator
maintaining liquid line pressure

58. A hot gas bypass valve

limits evaporator pressure


limits the pressure entering the compressor

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causes a false load on the evaporator


maintains liquid line pressure

59. Which of the following is not a type of oil separator?

coalescing
rotary
impingement
helical

60. A receiver should be sized to hold the entire charge and be:

no less than 60% full


no more than 80% full
100% full
60% full

61. A sight glass:

should be installed upstream of the LL filter


can’t indicate a wet system
is a required accessory
should be installed downstream of the LL filter

62. Suction filters:

protect the compressor from liquid slugging


usually have a built in access valve on the downstream side
usually have a built in access valve on the upstream side
are installed ahead of the metering device

63. Vibration Absorbers:

must be anchored at one end


must be piped in parallel with the compressor crankshaft
protect piping from severe compressor oscillations
all of the above

64. Crankcase heaters:

allow proper oil migration


drive liquid refrigerant out of the compressor
keep moisture from freezing in the crankcase
operate on induced voltage from the stator windings

65. What is the function of an EPRV?

limiting the pressure entering the compressor


maintaining evaporator pressure above a minimum set point
causes a false load on the evaporator
maintaining liquid line pressure entering the evaporator

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Exam

66. A Water Regulator Valve should be installed:

on the water inlet side of the condenser and with parallel flow
on the water outlet side of the condenser and with counter flow
on the water inlet side of the condenser and with counter flow
on the water outlet side of the condenser and with parallel flow

67. The hottest point in a refrigeration system is:

at the condenser outlet


at the condenser inlet
at the TXV inlet
at the discharge valves

68. Refrigeration oil breaks down and forms carbon, sludge and possibly acids at:

250 ºF
350 ºF
450 ºF
550 ºF

69. What component can be used so that multiple evaporators with different temperatures can be operated with one condensing unit?

CPRV
EPRV
AEV
Hot Gas Bypass Valve

70. What are the 2 main types of compressor failure?

DOA from the factory or old age failure


overcharge and liquid slugging
shattered valves or pistons
burnout or mechanical failure

71. High discharge temperatures:

can break down oil


can take the temper out of valves
can break down oil and cause liquid slugging
the 1st two answers are both correct

72. If a controls differential is too small:

the refrigerated product can get too cold


equipment can short cycle
the evaporator can ice up
the refrigerated product can get too warm

73. A walk in freezer electric defrost initiates by:

sensing evaporator temperature

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sensing suction line temperature


a time clock
a pressure control

74. Where should the sensing bulb of a walk in cooler T-Stat be positioned when being used as the operating control?

on the wall near the door so it can be adjusted easily


in-between the evaporator fins
sensing the evaporator discharge air
sensing the evaporator inlet air

75. Which statement is false?

some LPC's have Cut in and Differential adjustment screws


some LPC's have Cut in and Cut Out adjustment screws
The sensing line from an LPC ties into the King Valve
The sensing line from an LPC ties into the SSV

76. Which statement is false?

a pump down system has an LLSV in series with an T-Stat


a pump down system has an LPC in series with an LLSV
an non-recycling pump down disables false starts caused by bleed back
a parallel drop system uses a T-Stat and an LLSV

77. A NO holding circuit:

has a NO contact in series with the relay’s own coil


has a NC contact in series with the relay’s own coil
has a NO contact in parallel with the relay’s own coil
has a NC contact in parallel with the relay’s own coil

78. A pump down system:

stops slugging on start up


stops off-cycle liquid migration
all of the above
none of the above

79. On a schematic diagram, a relay labelled CR2 could have contacts labelled:

CR1, CR2. CR3, CR4


CR2-A, CR1-B, CR2-C, CR2-D
CR2-1, CR1-2, CR2-3, CR2-4
CR2-1, CR2-2, CR2-3, CR2-4

80. Bi-metal controls rely on what process?

electricity
thermal expansion and contraction
magnetism

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inductance

81. Which combination of capacitors, if wired in parallel, could safely replace a faulty 270 MFD 370VAC capacitor?

70 MFD 370 VAC + 100 MFD 370 VAC + 100 MFD 115 VAC
200 MFD 600 VAC + 35 MFD 440 VAC + 35 MFD 600 VAC
70 MFD 270 VAC + 200 MFD 270 VAC
none of the above

82. Which of the following is a close coupled system?

a roof top package system


an incremental unit
both of the above
split system

83. Which of the following refrigerant lists are not banned or scheduled to be banned from production?

PFC, HCFC, HFC


HFC, PFC, HCFC, hydrocarbon
HCFC, CFC
Hydrocarbon, HFC

84. Which of the following is the absolute minimum that must be done?

recycle
reuse
recover
reclaim

85. Which of the following is not possible to do in the field?

recycle
reuse
recover
reclaim

86. Which of the following should not be done?

recycle
reuse
recover
reclaim

87. Which of the following can tell you the percentage of MO in an oil mixture?

hygrometer
refractometer
odometer
acid test kit

88. Which statement is true?

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R-134A is an HFC refrigerant


R-12 is an HCFC refrigerant
HFC refrigerants usually require AB oil
If an equipment owner does not wish a leak to be repaired he must shut down the equipment and not use it

89. Which statement is true?

ODS retrofits generally cause a decrease in system capacity


ODS retrofits often cause an increase in discharge pressure
ODS retrofits always have suction pressures equal to the previous refrigerant because low side pressure is load dependent
ODS retrofits always cause increased superheat

90. Azeotropes and Zeotropes are types of:

blends
refrigeration oils
oil separators
filter cartridges

91. Glide occurs with:

Azeotropes (500 series)


Zeotropes (400 series)
CFC's
PFC's

92. Suction Cut-Off is a method of:

limiting suction pressure through a CPRV


limiting suction pressure through an EPRV
head pressure control
cylinder unloading

93. What capacity stages can a 4 cylinder compressor with 3 unloaders provide?

33%, 66%, 100%


17.5%, 33%, 52.5%, 70%, 87.5%, 100%
3 equal stages
25%, 50%, 75%, 100%

94. Where is the best place to tie in the discharge line from a hot gas bypass valve?

the suction line before the compressor


the discharge line
between the TXV and the Evaporator
the liquid line just before the TXV

95. Does oil pressure load or unload an internal cylinder unloading system?

load
unload

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neither
both

96. Which of the following symptom sets could be from an overcharged system?

high: discharge temperature, superheat


low: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling

high: head pressure, suction pressure


low: discharge temperature, superheat, subcooling

high: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling


low: discharge temperature, superheat

high: discharge temperature, suction pressure, superheat, subcooling, amperage draw


low: head pressure

97. Which of the following symptom sets could be from an undercharged system?

high: discharge temperature, superheat


low: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling

high: discharge temperature, suction pressure, superheat, subcooling, amperage draw


low: head pressure

high: head pressure, discharge temperature, suction pressure, superheat, amperage draw
low: subcooling

high: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling, amperage draw


low: discharge temperature, superheat

98. Which of the following symptom sets could be from an system contaminated with non-condensables?

high: discharge temperature, superheat


low: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling

high: head pressure, suction pressure, subcooling, amperage draw


low: discharge temperature, superheat

high: discharge temperature, suction pressure, superheat, subcooling, amperage draw


low: head pressure

high: head pressure, discharge temperature, suction pressure, superheat, amperage draw
low: subcooling

99. What could cause the following symptoms?


high: discharge temperature, superheat, subcooling
low: head pressure, suction pressure, amperage draw

refrigerant overcharge
high side restriction
high evaporator airflow
low condensing ambient

100. If an equipment nameplate said the equipment uses dichlorodifluoromethane:

The equipment uses R-22


The equipment uses an HFC refrigerant
The equipment uses R-12
The equipment uses a PFC refrigerant

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Exam

Warning: Refreshing Browser will clear all check boxes and score

Submit Answers

Your score: %

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Index

Index

3 Phase
4 way reversing valve
AB
Absolute Zero
AC
access valves
accessories
accumulator
Accurator
Add On Heat Pump
adiabatic
AEV
AFUE
AHU
air (components of)
air (conditions of)
air conditioning
air filtration
alkylbenzene oil
All Electric Heat Pump
Alternating Current
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
Automatic Expansion Valve
amperage, also
anti-short-cycling device
anticipation
ASHRAE
atom
Azeotropes
Back Seated
Balance Point
barometer
bi-metal disk
Bourdon

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Boyle's Law
British Thermal Unit
BTU
bull headed tee
burn outs
capacitor
Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Motor
Capacitor Start Induction Run Motor
capacity control
capillary line
Celsius
centrifugal compressor
ceramic capacitor
check valve
charging
Charle's Law
Class 1 Conversion
Class 2 Conversion
Close Coupled
coalescing oil separators
Class 1 conversion
Class 2 conversion
compressors
compressor driver
Compressor Efficiency Test
condensate line
condensate pan
Condenser Dampers
condensing medium
Condensing Unit
conduction (electrical)
conduction (thermal)
conductor (thermal)
controls
Constant Cut In Control
convection
cooling anticipator

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cooling load
cooling tower
COP also
Coulomb
CPRV
cracked
crankcase heater
CSIR
CSCR
current relay
cut in
cut out
Daulton's Law
DC
Defrost Termination Thermostat
design temperature
Dew Point
Defrost Termination Stat
dielectric
Direct Current
Discharge Service Valve
discharge temperature
distributor
drop in replacement
DSV
dual pressure control
EER
EEV
electric defrost
electrical symbols
electricity
Electro-Magnetism
electrolytic capacitor
Electromotive Force
Electronic Expansion Valve
EMF
energy

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Index

Energy Efficiency Ratio


enthalpy
enthalpy controls
entropy
EPRV
evacuation, also
Evaporative Condenser
Fahrenheit
fan cycling
Fan Delay Thermostat
fan rotation
fan speed controller
filters (air)
filters (refrigerant), also, also
Fixed orifice
flammability
flash gas
Free Cooling
Fresh Air
front seated
Gas Laws
gases
gauge
gauge manifold set
glide
gravity coil
Hand Operated Expansion Valve
hand valve
Head Pressure Control
heat
Heat of Compression, also
Heat Pumps
heating anticipator
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor
helical oil separators
HEPA
hermetic compressor

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Hertz
High Side Float
High Side Restriction
holding circuit
Hop Scotch Method (troubleshooting)
Hot Gas Bypass Regulator, also
hot gas defrost
Hot Wire Relay
HSPF
hydrostatic pressure
hygroscopic
human comfort zone
humidity
impedance
impingement oil separators
incremental unit
insulation (electrical)
insulation (thermal)
Kelvin
King Valve
ladder schematic
Latent Heat, also
lead-lag
Line Tap Valve
liquid/vapour interface
Liquid Line Filter/Drier
Liquid Line Solenoid Valve
liquid slugging
LLSV
lock out circuit
locked rotor amperage
Low Side Float
low voltage controls
LRA
magnetism
MAT
Mechanical Cooling

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MegOhm
Mercury
mercury bulb thermostats
Metering Device, also
MFD
micron
micron gauge
Mid Seated
migration
mineral oil
Minimum Fresh Air
Mixed Air
MO
molecule
Mollier Charts
motor theory
motor types
muffler
multiple compressors
multiple stages
Non-Recycling Pump Down
OAT
ODS
ODS Conversions
OEM
off cycle defrost, also
Ohm, also
Ohm's Law
oil failure controls
oil separator
oil slugging
open compressor
ORD
ORI
OROA
Ozone Depleting Substance
Packaged Systems

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Index

PAG
Parallel Drop
Permanent Split Capacitor Motor
phosgene
piping
POE
polyalkylglycol oil
polyolester oil
potential relay
pressure
pressure control
Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram
Pressure Temperature Relationship
PSC
PSIG
Psychometrics
P-Trap
PTC
PT Charts
PTCR
pump down, also
Radiation
Rankine
receiver
reciprocating compressor
reclaim
recover
recycle
refractometer
refrigerants
refrigerant leaks
refrigerant oils
Refrigerant Side Head Pressure Control
Refrigeration (definition of)
Refrigeration loop
relay
resistance

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retrofitting ODS
reuse
reverse cycle defrost
rotary compressor
rotor also
run capacitor
running burn out
safety
safety controls
Saturated Conditions
Schraeder Valve
screw compressor
scroll compressor
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
Secondary Refrigerant
SEER
semi-hermetic compressor
Sensible Heat
Service Valves
set back
Shaded Pole Motor
short cycling
sight glass
Specific Heat
Split Phase Motors
Split Systems
Squirrel Cage
Start Capacitor
Start Gear
stator also
Subcooling, also
suction filter
suction/liquid heat exchanger
Suction Service Valve, also
Superheat, also
SSV, also
suction cut-off

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tackified
Temperature
TD (Temperature Difference)
TEV, also
Thermal Starting Relays
Thermostatic Expansion Valve, also
thermostats - low voltage
three phase motors
time delay fuse
time delay relay
Ton
toxicity
transformer
troubleshooting
TXV, also
unloader
vacuum
vibration absorber
vibration loop
voltage, also
wall mounted t-stats
water cooled condensers
water cooled system
water regulator valve
Zeotropes

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Pg 2 Refrigeration Basics

Part 2

Main Components

There are 4 main components in a mechanical refrigeration system. Any components beyond these basic 4 are called
accessories. The compressor is a vapour compression pump which uses pistons or some other method to compress the
refrigerant gas and send it on it's way to the condenser. The condenser is a heat exchanger which removes heat from the hot
compressed gas and allows it to condense into a liquid. The liquid refrigerant is then routed to the metering device. This
device restricts the flow by forcing the refrigerant to go through a small hole which causes a pressure drop. And what did we
say happens to a liquid when the pressure drops? If you said it lowers the boiling point and makes it easier to evaporate, then
you are correct. And what happens when a liquid evaporates? Didn't we agree that the liquid will absorb heat from the
surrounding area? This is indeed the case and you now know how refrigeration works. This component where the
evaporation takes place is called the evaporator. The refrigerant is then routed back to the compressor to complete the cycle.
The refrigerant is used over and over again absorbing heat from one area and relocating it to another. Remember the
definition of refrigeration? (the removal and relocation of heat)

Heat Transfer Rates

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One thing that we would like to optimize in the refrigeration loop is the rate of heat transfer. Materials like copper and
aluminium are used because they have very good thermal conductivity. In other words heat can travel through them easily.
Increasing surface area is another way to improve heat transfer. Have you noticed that small engines have cooling fins
formed into the casting around the piston area? This is an example of increasing the surface area in order to increase the heat
transfer rate. The hot engine can more easily reject the unwanted heat through the large surface area of the fins exposed to the
passing air. Refrigeration heat transfer devices such as air cooled condensers and evaporators are often made out of copper
pipes with aluminium fins and further enhanced with fans to force air through the fins.

Metering Device

We will now take a closer look at the individual components of the system. We will start with the metering device. There are
several types but all perform the same general function which is to cause a pressure drop. There should be a full column of
high pressure liquid refrigerant (in the liquid line) supplying the inlet of the metering device. When it is forced to go through
a small orifice it loses a lot of the pressure it had on the upstream side of the device. The liquid refrigerant is sort of misted
into the evaporator. So not only is the pressure reduced, the surface area of the liquid is vastly increased. It is hard to try and
light a log with a match but chop the log into toothpick sized slivers and the pile will go up in smoke easily. The surface area
of zillions of liquid droplets is much greater than the surface area of the column of liquid in the pipe feeding the metering
device. The device has this name because it meters the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator. The next graphic shows a
capillary line metering device. This is a long small tube which has an inside diameter much smaller than a pencil lead. You
can imagine the large pressure drop when the liquid from a 1/4" or 3/8" or larger pipe is forced to go through such a small
opening. The capillary line has no moving parts and can not respond to changing conditions like a changing thermal load on
the evaporator. I have also added a few labels showing the names of some of the pipes.

The Evaporator

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The metering device has sprayed low pressure droplets of refrigerant into the evaporator. The evaporator could be the forced
air type and could be constructed of many copper tubes which conduct heat well. To further enhance heat transfer the pipes
could have aluminium fins pressed onto them. This vastly increases the surface area that is exposed to the air. And this type
of evaporator could have a fan motor sucking air through the fins. The evaporator would be capable of reducing the
temperature of air passing through the fins and this is a prime example of the refrigeration effect. If that evaporator was
located in a walk in cooler, the air would be blown out into the box and would pick up heat from the product; let's say it is a
room full of eggs. The flow of heat would be egg core/egg shell/circulating air/aluminium fins/copper evaporator pipe/liquid
droplet of refrigerant. The droplet of refrigerant has the capability of absorbing a large quantity of heat because it is under
conditions where it is just about ready to change state into a gas. We have lowered it's pressure, we have increased surface
areas and now we are adding heat to it. Just like water, refrigerants also have ratings for Latent Heats of vapourization in
BTU's per LB. When heat is picked up from the air stream, the air is by definition cooled and is blown back out into the box
to take another pass over the eggs and pick up more heat. This process continues until the eggs are cooled to the desired
temperature and then the refrigeration system shuts off and rests. But what about our droplet of refrigerant. By now it might
have picked up so much heat that it just couldn't stand it anymore and it has evaporated into a gas. It has served it's purpose
and is subjected to a suction coming from the outlet pipe of the evaporator. This pipe is conveniently called the suction line.
Our little quantity of gas joins lots of other former droplets and they all continue on their merry way to their next destination.

The Compressor

The compressor performs 2 functions. It compresses the gas


(which now contains heat from the eggs) and it moves the
refrigerant around the loop so it can perform it's function over and
over again. We want to compress it because that is the first step in
forcing the gas to go back into a liquid form. This compression
process unfortunately adds some more heat to the gas but at least
this process is also conveniently named; The Heat of Compression.
The graphic shows a reciprocating compressor which means that it
has piston(s) that go up and down. On the down stroke refrigerant
vapour is drawn into the cylinder. On the upstroke those vapours
are compressed. There are thin valves that act like check valves
and keep the vapours from going back where they came from.
They open and close in response to the refrigerant pressures being
exerted on them by the action of the piston. The hot compressed
gas is discharged out the...you guessed it; discharge line. It
continues towards the last main component.

The Condenser

The condenser is similar in appearance to the evaporator. It utilizes the same features to effect heat transfer as the evaporator
does. However, this time the purpose is to reject heat so that the refrigerant gas can condense back into a liquid in preparation
for a return trip to the evaporator. If the hot compressed gas was at 135 degrees and the air being sucked through the
condenser fins was at 90 degrees, heat will flow downhill like a ball wants to roll down an inclined plane and be rejected into
the air stream. Heat will have been removed from one place and relocated to another as the definition of refrigeration
describes. As long as the compressor is running it will impose a force on the refrigerant to continue circulating around the
loop and continue removing heat from one location and rejecting it into another area.

Superheat and Slugging

There is another very common type of metering device called a TX Valve. It's full name is Thermostatic Expansion Valve,
and you will be thankful to know that its' short form is TXV. (It can also be called TEV) This valve has the additional
capability of modulating the refrigerant flow. This is a nice feature because if the load on the evaporator changes the valve
can respond to the change and increase or decrease the flow accordingly. The next graphic shows this type of metering
device and you will note that another component has been added along with it.

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The TXV has a sensing bulb attached to the outlet of the evaporator. This bulb senses the suction line temperature and sends
a signal to the TXV allowing it to adjust the flow rate. This is important because if not all the refrigerant in the evaporator
changes state into a gas, there would be liquid refrigerant content returning down the suction line to the compressor. That
could be disastrous to the compressor. A liquid can not be compressed and if a compressor tries to compress a liquid
something is going to break and it's not going to be the liquid. The compressor can suffer catastrophic mechanical damage.
This unwanted situation is called liquid slugging. The flow rate through a TXV is set so that not only is all the liquid
hopefully changed to a gas, but there is an additional 10 degree safety margin to insure that all the liquid is changed to a gas.
This is called Superheat. At a given temperature any liquid and vapour combination will always be at a specific pressure.
There are charts of this relationship called PT Charts which stands for Pressure/Temperature Chart. Now if all the liquid
droplets in an evaporator have changed state into a gas, and they still have 1/4 of the evaporator to travel through, this gas
will pick up more heat from the load being imposed on the evaporator and even though it is at the same pressure, it will
become hotter than the PT Chart says it should be. This heat increase over and above the normal PT relationship is called
superheat. It can only take place when there is no liquid in the immediate area and this phenomena is used to create an
insurance policy of sorts. Usually TXV's are set to maintain 10 degrees of superheat and by definition that means that the gas
returning to the compressor is at least 10 degrees away from the risk of having any liquid content. A compressor is a vapour
compression pump and must not attempt to compress liquid liquid.

That extra component that got added in along with the TX Valve is called a receiver. When the TXV reduces the flow there
has to be somewhere for the unneeded refrigerant to go and the receiver is it. Note that there is a dip tube in the outlet side to
insure that liquid is what is fed into the liquid line. Liquid must be provided to the TXV not a mixture of liquid and gas. The
basic premise is to change a liquid to a gas so you don't want to waste any of the evaporator's capacity by injecting useless
vapour into it. The line that comes from the condenser and goes to the receiver is also given a name. It's called the condensate
line.

Accessories

Even though there are only 4 basic components to a refrigeration system there are numerous accessories that can be added.
The next graphic shows a liquid line filter and a sight glass. The filter catches unwanted particles such as welding slag,
copper chips and other unwanted debris and keeps it from clogging up important devices such as TX Valves. It has another
function as well. It contains a desiccant which absorbs minute quantities of water which hopefully wasn't in the system in the
first place.

The sight glass is a viewing window which allows a mechanic to see if a full column of liquid refrigerant is present in the
liquid line.

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Earlier we discussed heat transfer rates and mentioned surface area as one of the factors. Let's put some fins on our condenser
and evaporator. While we are at it lets also add a couple of fan motors to move air through those fins. They are conveniently
called the condenser fan motor and evaporator fan motor.

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Pg 3 Refrigeration Basics

Part 3

To make our cyber space refrigeration system a little more realistic lets separate the evaporator away from the compressor
section and put it inside an insulated box. The left over components can now be called a Condensing Unit. The insulated box
does not conduct heat well. If we lower the temperature of a refrigerated product inside the box we want to slow down the rate
of thermal gain from the rest of the world outside the box. There has been oil added to the compressor sump to keep the
moving parts inside the compressor lubricated. The suction line returning to the compressor has been sloped to aid in returning
oil to the compressor. The oil is slowly depleted from the sump by getting entrained in the refrigerant and proper piping
practices must be used to insure its' return. Also notice that the liquid line has been made smaller. The same quantity of
refrigerant can be contained in a much smaller pipe when it is in the liquid form. The suction line has been connected to its'
proper place on the evaporator; the bottom. Consider the direction of flow, the liquid refrigerant (which probably contains oil
stolen from the compressor) enters the top of the evaporator and now has gravity on its' side to return the oil where to it
belongs (just like the sloped suction line).

Consider the heat flow within the insulated box. The evaporator is constantly recirculating air in a forced convection loop
around the box. As the cold air passes over the product to be refrigerated, once again we see a thermal transfer taking place. If
there were a bunch of boxes of warm eggs placed in the cooler some of their heat content would be picked up by the cold air
and that air is sucked back into the evaporator. We know what happens then. The heat is transferred through the fins, through
the tubing, and into the refrigerant and carried away. That same air has been cooled and is once again discharged back over the
product. The next graphic shows this loop and the pink and blue colours represent air with more heat content and less heat
content respectively.

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Pg 3 Refrigeration Basics

The next graphic is a more pictorial representation of what an actual installation might look like.

Summary

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Pg 3 Refrigeration Basics

I hope you enjoyed the original Refrigeration Basics section. It covered a lot of material but this was done by just barely
skimming the surface of things. You should now have a general idea of what refrigeration is and how it is accomplished. There
are of course many issues that must be looked at in much greater depth. We will try to do this in the same easy to understand
fashion using pictures, animation's and interactive objects where possible. You may jump around all you want to different
areas of this book however it has been designed in a way where subsequent sections are often based on the previous sections
information. You will probably find things easier to comprehend by following the sections in the order they are presented.

Review Questions - Refrigeration Basics

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Definitions 2

Definitions

Part 2

Energy

Energy is the capacity of a system to do work where "system" refers to any physical system, not just a refrigeration system.

Enthalpy

Enthaply is the total amount of heat in one Lb. of a substance. It's units are therefore BTU/Lb. The metric counter part is kJ/
Kg. (kilo joules/kilogram)

Entropy

Entropy measures the energy dispersion in a system divided by temperature. This ratio represents the tendency of energy to
spread out, to diffuse, to become less concentrated in one physical location or one energetic state. That spreading out is often
done by molecules because molecules above absolute zero always have energy inside of them. That's why they are
incessantly speeding through space and hitting each other and rotating and vibrating in a gas or liquid. Entropy is measured
in BTU per Lb. per degree change for a substance.

Mollier Charts

Mollier charts are used in designing and analyzing performance of vapour compression refrigeration systems. Each
refrigerant has it's own chart which is a graph of the Enthalpy of a refrigerant during various pressures and physical states.
Mollier charts are also called Pressure-Enthalpy diagrams.

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Definitions 2

The above chart is for refrigerant MP39. Although this particular chart is in Metric units you can see that pressure and
enthalpy are the units on the verticle and horizontal axis. Several other parameters are also shown on the chart including
temperature, volume, saturation quality and entropy.

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Definitions 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

The series of graphics above shows how the refrigeration cycle is graphed onto the pressure-enthalpy chart and goes into
details about how certain parameters can be determined from the chart.

Review Questions - Definitions

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Gases 2

Gases

Part 2

Air

There are other gases that refrigeration mechanics deal with besides
refrigerants. A mechanic even interacts with ordinary air in many ways. Air is
composed of the elements listed in the image on the left. Air exerts a pressure
on everything around us. This pressure is due to the weight of all the air
molecules above us in the atmosphere which is over 60 miles thick. Although
air seems like it weighs almost nothing consider a column of air 1 inch x 1 inch,
going all the way from sea level right out through the stratosphere and beyond.
That rather significant column of air would have a weight of 14.7 pounds. That
is how the standard conditions of atmospheric air pressure are derived. One
Atmospheric Pressure is said to be 14.7 Pounds per Square Inch, or 14.7 PSI.

Barometer - measuring atmospheric pressure

Air pressure varies from the standard conditions just described. If you measure
atmospheric pressure at a higher altitude than sea level you are going to observe
less pressure. That's because there would be less atmosphere above you and
therefore less weighing down on you. Atmospheric pressure also varies with
temperature and weather conditions. These changes can be measured with an
instrument called a barometer. An inverted tube (open at the bottom and sealed
at the top) is placed in a pool of liquid. The Atmospheric pressure pushing
down on the surface of the liquid in the reservoir will support a column of
liquid rising up the tube. Water could be used in a barometer although 1
Atmospheric pressure would support a column of water over 30 feet in height.
That certainly wouldn't be a very handy nor portable test instrument. So instead
of water, mercury is used. Hg is the chemical nomenclature for Mercury.
Mercury is much heavier than water and 1 Atmospheric pressure (or 14.7 PSI)
will support a column of Mercury 29.92 inches in height. (or 760 mm if using
the Metric system.)

Gauges - measuring refrigerant pressures

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Gases 2

To make things easier, refrigeration gauges are calibrated to the zero point
when they are under atmospheric conditions. Notice that the gauge in the
picture is open to the atmosphere but is reading zero PSI, not 14.7 PSI. (refer to
the outer scale) Pressure readings taken on a gauge like this are given the term
PSIG which stands for Pounds per Square Inch Gauge. You can tell that this is
a Low Side gauge for reading the suction side of a system because it's scale
does not go very high. A High side gauge will go up to 450 PSI. Also, this
gauge shows vacuum pressures below 0 PSI. High side gauges never do that.
Pressures below 0 PSIG are inches of Mercury Vacuum. ("Hg vac) It makes
sense that the vacuum scale goes to -30 because 1 atmospheric pressure is
equivalent to 29.92 "Hg.

Bourdon Tube Gauge Schematic

A gauge design which is in common use to this day was invented in 1849 by
Eugene Bourdon. The Bourdon tube gauge functions as shown in the adjacent
demonstration. When pressure is applied to the tube spring, it will try to
straighten out just like those party whistles that unwind when you blow in them
and curl up when you stop blowing. As the spring tube moves in response to
pressure, the movement is transferred via a linkage to pivot arm which then
transfers the motion by gear teeth to the indicator needle.

Decrease Increase

Vacuum

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Gases 2

The atmosphere creates a pressure of 14.7 PSI at sea level. If you went to outer
space where there is no atmosphere there would obviously also be no pressure.
You have probably heard the expression "the vacuum of space". We can
simulate those conditions here on earth and are required to do so when
preparing a refrigeration system for charging with refrigerant. When you
introduce refrigerant into a new system it must be devoid of air and moisture.
You want nothing but liquid and vapourous refrigerant to be in the system, not
a mixture of refrigerant and air and moisture. This is done by hooking up a
vacuum pump to a system and evacuating it. The needle on the suction gauge
starts off at zero gauge pressure. As evacuation continues the gauge starts to
drop into the negative scale. The portion of the scale below zero is not in PSI
but rather is inches of Mercury ("Hg) just like a barometer. Although "Hg is a
finer scale than PSI, it is nowhere near a fine enough graduation to register the
amount of vacuum that we require. Recall that 29.92" Hg is equivalent to 760
mm Hg. If we obtain a vacuum of 1 mm Hg, that is still not precise enough to
measure the results we are after. The Metric system solves our problem nicely.
If you divide a mm into 1000 parts, each is called a micron. Those are the units
that we must evacuate down to in order to remove air as well as allow any water
moisture to evaporate at room temperature conditions and be drawn off by the
vacuum pump. Recall that a liquid will change to a gas if you remove enough of
the vapour pressure keeping it from doing so. A separate test instrument is
required to measure microns of pressure. A micron gauge will tell you whether
or not you have achieved an adequate evacuation. It can also be used to tell the
difference between a very small leak and the presence of moisture
contamination. The top graphic is a digital type of micron gauge and the lower
graphic is the read out scale from analog type.

Gas Laws

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Gases 2

Boyles and Charles Laws can be combined to provide the following gas law equation. This equation can be used to solve
mathematical gas pressure problems however the results only refer to ideal gases. Ideal gases are theoretical in that they undergo
Adiabatic expansion and contraction. This would occur if a gas was placed in a perfectly insulated cyclinder with a frictionless
piston. The work required to compress the gas would create heat which would increase the temperature of the gas and therefore the
pressure. No heat would escape nor enter the imaginary piston chamber. To use the equation, Temperature and Pressure must be in
absolute units.

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Gases 2

Review Questions - Gases

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Charging 2

Charging

Part 2

Let us assume that you have located and repaired the leak which caused the undercharged conditions. You now wish to top up the refrigerant charge and have
hooked up a jug of the appropriate refrigerant. Click the Charge button to open the low side hand wheel on the gauge set and start charging. Notice all the
things that change as you are charging. The yellow colour is used to indicate the route that the refrigerant takes when you allow flow from the jug. Gas will
flow because the pressure in the jug is greater than the pressure in the low side of the system. High pressure flows to low pressure just as high temperature
flows to low temperature. When you open the low side hand wheel you can see the suction pressure increasing on the low side gauge. You can also notice a
slight increase in high side pressure and you now know why.

Stop Charge

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Charging 2

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Charging 2

You can see that there is a liquid/vapour interface in the refrigerant jug and that you are drawing refrigerant from the vapour portion. This vapour is being
introduced into the suction of the compressor and there is nothing wrong with that. This method works well with small to medium sized systems but if you
need to charge a large system you might be there for very long time indeed. If you vapour charge for several minutes you will notice a decrease in available
pressure from the jug. You will also notice that the jug is getting colder and colder. That makes sense because we know low pressure goes hand in hand with
low temperature. We can't get away from the laws of physics. When you draw off some vapour from the jug the Pressure Temperature Relationship forces
some liquid to flash into a gas to make up for the vapour you just removed and keep the Pressure Temperature Relationship in balance. But by changing state
that liquid has created the refrigeration process and removed heat from the surrounding area which in this case is the rest of the liquid refrigerant in the drum.
If you continue vapour charging long enough the drum may get so cold that you lose all of your pressure differential and can no longer continue. One
solution is to warm up the contents of the jug. Don't even think of playing a torch on the jug. You must never do that. A safe method to warm up a jug is to
place it in a pail of warm water or if you prefer run warm water over the jug in a sink. Keep a gauge in place so you can monitor the pressure at all times.
Develop safe working habits, there are more than enough dangerous circumstances to go around without creating any of your own.

We are still in need of a method to charge a large system...

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Charging 2

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Charging 3

Charging

Part 3

A liquid charging valve is an access valve which is installed downstream of the King
Valve. This location allows for some fancy maneuvering. Note in the diagram below
that the high side hose has been removed from the DSV and that the DSV has been
back seated and capped off as it is no longer needed. The high side hose has been
relocated to the liquid charging valve and is sensing high side pressure from that
1 2 3 4 5 6
location instead. In this case the liquid charging valve is a Schraeder Valve but it could
also have been another service valve. The pressure is still the same other than
perhaps some tiny bit of pressure drop from frictional losses through the condenser.
When you measure high side pressure from the DSV it is called True Head Pressure. It
can still be called Head Pressure as measured from anywhere on the high side of the
system but the distinction of being called True Head Pressure is reserved for
measurements from the DSV location.

We are looking for a way to charge with liquid refrigerant rather than vapour and the
first problem to overcome is getting liquid out of the jug. Refer to the diagram below
and click Button 2 for the solution. So now we have access to liquid and we have our
hose hooked up to a place where it would be fine to introduce it but there is another
problem. The pressure in the high side of the system may be equal to or higher than
the pressure in the jug so we might not get any flow. But what if we pump down the low
side...click Button 3 to front seat the King Valve. The low side empties. Note that the
Liquid charging Valve is now part of the low side. The pressure reading on the high
side gauge is indicating the same low pressure as the low side gauge. We now have a
pressure differential between the liquid in the jug and the liquid line where it is safe to
introduce liquid. Press Button 4 to start charging liquid. Notice that the sight glass
starts to show liquid, the suction gauge pressure increases and the high side gauge
reflects the pressure from the jug, not from the high side of the system. Press 5 to
continue charging. Are you noticing that the amount of area being used for
superheating is decreasing? (An increasing amount of the evaporator is being used for
evaporation so there is less room left over for excessive superheating) We may
achieve a fuller Sight Glass but this is not a reflection of system operating conditions.
We do not have a loop, we have a front seated King Valve. All the refrigerant you are
adding is merely being relocated into the isolated high side. First it changes to a gas in
the evaporator, then it is in a form to be safely drawn into the compressor and finally it
is condensed in the condenser and ends up in the receiver which starts to fill up.
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Charging 3

We have gone over several techniques about manipulating a system through use of it's valves and charging refrigerant. There is of course a great deal more to
diagnosing and understanding the refrigerant side of systems than we have touched on so far. To do that we must start dealing with specific values and that is
what we shall do next.

Review Questions - Charging

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R-11

R-11

R-11

Temp Pressure
-40 -28.5 Hg
-35 -28.2 Hg
-30 -27.9 Hg
-25 -27.5 Hg
-20 -27.1 Hg
-15 -26.6 Hg
-10 -26.1 Hg
-5 -25.5 Hg
0 -24.8 Hg
5 -24.0 Hg
10 -23.2 Hg
15 -22.2 Hg
20 -21.1 Hg
Trade 25 Freon
-20.0 Genetron
Hg
Name 30 Isotron
-18.7 Hg
etc -11
35 -17.2 Hg
40 CCL-15.7 Hg
Formula 3F
45 -13.9 Hg
50 -12.0 Hg
Chemical 55 -10.0 Hg
trichloroflluoromethane
Name 60 -7.8 Hg
65 -5.3 Hg
Oil 70 MO-2.7 ABHg
75 0.1
80 1.6
ARI
85 3.2
GUIDELINE 90 5.0
N-1995 95 6.9
colour 100 8.9
assignment 105 11.1
orange 110 13.4
115 15.8
120 18.5
125 21.3
130 24.2
135 27.4
140 30.8
145 34.3
150 38.1
155 42.0
160 46.2
165 50.6
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R-176

R-176

R-176 Vapour R-176 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -19.4 Hg -40 -12.5 Hg
-35 -17.8 Hg -35 -10.1 Hg
-30 -16.0 Hg -30 -7.5 Hg
-25 -13.9 Hg -25 -4.6 Hg
-20 -11.6 Hg -20 -1.4 Hg
-15 -9.1 Hg -15 1.0
-10 -6.3 Hg -10 2.9
-5 -3.2 Hg -5 5.0
0 0.1 0 7.2
5 1.9 5 9.6
10 3.9 10 12.2
15 6.1 15 15.1
20 8.5 20 18.2
25 11.1 25 Cool
Alaskan 21.5R-
Trade 30Name 14.0 17630(non 25.0
35 17.0 35 28.8
ASHRAE #)
40 20.3 40 32.9
45 23.9 45 37.3
R-22/12/142b
50 27.7
Formula 25%5015% 42.0
55 31.9 60%55 47.0
60 36.3 60 52.3
Oil
65 41.1 65 57.9
MO AB
70 46.1 70 64.0
75 51.6 75 70.3
80 57.4
Replaces many80claimed
77.1
85 63.5 85 84.2
ARI 90 70.1 90 91.8
95 77.1
GUIDELINE N- 95 99.7
1995 100 84.5 100 108.2
105 92.3
colour 105 117.0
110 100.7
unassigned 110 126.3
115 109.5 115 136.1
120 118.7 120 146.4
125 128.6 125 157.2
130 138.9 130 168.5
135 149.8 135 180.4
140 161.3 140 192.8
145 173.3 145 205.8
150 186.0 150 219.3
155 199.4 155 233.5
160 213.4 160 248.2
165 228.0 165 263.6
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R-12

R-12

R-12

Temp Pressure
-50 15.4 Hg
-48 14.6 Hg
-46 13.8 Hg
-44 12.9 Hg
-42 11.9 Hg
-40 11.0 Hg
-38 10.0 Hg
-36 8.9 Hg
-34 7.8 Hg
-32 6.7 Hg
-30 5.5 Hg
-28 4.3 Hg
-26 3.0 Hg
Trade -24Freon
1.6 Genetron
Hg
Name -22Isotron
0.3 Hg
etc -12
-20 0.6
Formula -18
CCl2F1.3
2
-16 2.1
-14 2.8
Chemical -12 3.7
dichlorodifluoromethane
Name -10 4.5
-8 5.4
Oil -6
MO AB 6.3
-4 7.2
-2 8.2
ARI
0 9.2
GUIDELINE 2 10.2
N-1995 4 11.2
colour 6 12.3
assignment 8 13.5
white 10 14.6
12 15.8
14 17.1
16 18.4
18 19.7
20 21.0
22 22.4
24 23.9
26 25.4
28 26.9
30 28.5
32 30.1
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R507A

R507A

R-507A

Temp Pressure
-50 0.9
-48 1.7
-46 2.6
-44 3.5
-42 4.5
-40 5.5
-38 6.5
-36 7.6
-34 8.7
-32 9.9
-30 11.1
-28 12.4
-26 13.7
-24 15.0Genetron
-22 16.4Solkane Reclin
Trade Name -20 17.8 etc- 507A
-18 19.3Allied Signal
-16 20.9AZ50
-14 22.5
-12 24.1R-125/143a
Formula
-10 25.850% 50%
-8 27.6
Oil -6 29.4POE
-4 31.3
-2 33.2
Replaces 0 35.2R502
2 37.3
4 39.4AZ50 is used in
6 41.6new OEM
8 43.8equipment with
10 46.2POE oil. Retro-
12 48.5fitting R502 to
14 51.0R507A is difficult
because nearly
Note 16 53.5
all the mineral oil
18 56.1in the system
20 58.8must be
22 61.5removed.Liquid
24 64.3& Vapour
26 67.2pressures very
28 70.2
30 73.3
32 76.4
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R507A

similar.

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
blue-green
(teal)

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R-13

R-13

R-13

Temp Pressure
-40 73.4
-35 82.3
-30 91.7
-25 101.9
-20 112.7
-15 124.3
-10 136.6
-5 149.6
0 163.5
5 178.2
10 193.7
15 210.2
20 227.5
Trade 25Freon
245.8Genetron
Name 30Frigen
265.1Arcton etc-
3513 285.3
40 306.6
Formula 45CCLF329.0
3
50 377.1
55 408.0
Chemical 60chlorotrifluoromethane
436.9
Name 65 467.5
70 500.2
Oil MO AB

ARI
GUIDELINE
N-1995
colour
assignment
light blue
(sky)

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R717

R-717

R-717

Temp Pressure
-40 -8.8 Hg
-35 -5.4 Hg
-30 -1.6 Hg
-25 1.3
-20 3.6
-15 6.2
-10 9.0
-5 12.2
0 15.7
5 19.6
10 23.8
15 28.4
20 33.5
Trade Name 25 39.0 Ammonia
30 45.0
35 51.6NH3
Formula
40 58.6
45 66.3
Oil 50 74.5MO and others
55 83.4
ARI
60 92.9
GUIDELINE N-65 103.1
1995 70 114.1
colour 75 125.9
unassigned 80 138.4
85 151.8
90 166.0
95 181.1
100 197.2
105 214.3
110 232.4
115 251.5
120 271.8
125 293.2
130 315.7
135 339.5
140 364.5
145 390.8
150 418.5
155 447.5
160 478.0
165 510.0
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R-21

R-21

R-21

Temp Pressure
-40 -27.2 Hg
-35 -26.7 Hg
-30 -26.1 Hg
-25 -25.5 Hg
-20 -24.7 Hg
-15 -23.9 Hg
-10 -22.9 Hg
-5 -21.8 Hg
0 -20.6 Hg
5 -19.3 Hg
10 -17.8 Hg
15 -16.1 Hg
20 -14.2 Hg
Trade 25 -12.2 Hg
R-21 Halon 112
Name 30 -10.0 Hg
35 -7.5 Hg
40 CHCL-4.8 FHg
Formula 2
45 -1.9 Hg
50 0.7
Chemical 55 2.4
dichlorofluoromethane
Name 60 4.2
65 6.2
Oil 70MO 8.4AB
75 10.7
80 13.3
ARI
85 16.0
GUIDELINE
90 18.9
N-1995
colour 95 22.0
unassigned 100 25.3
105 28.9
110 32.7
115 36.7
120 41.0
125 45.6
130 50.4
135 55.5
140 60.9
145 66.6
150 72.7
155 79.0
160 85.7
165 92.8
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R-412A

R-412A

R-412A Vapour R-412A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -12.1 Hg -40 -1.7 Hg
-35 -9.4 Hg -35 1.0
-30 -6.5 Hg -30 3.0
-25 -3.2 Hg -25 5.2
-20 0.2 -20 7.6
-15 2.2 -15 10.2
-10 4.4 -10 13.1
-5 6.8 -5 16.2
0 9.4 0 19.6
5 12.2 5 23.2
10 15.4 10 27.2
15 18.8 15 31.4
20 22.4 20 36.0
25 26.4 25 40.9
ICI Arcton(R)
Trade Name
30 30.7 TP5R 30 46.2
35 35.4 35 51.8
40 40.4 40 57.9
R-22/218/142b
45 45.8
Formula
70%455%64.3 25%
50 51.6 50 71.2
55 57.8 55 78.5
Oil MO AB
60 64.4 60 86.3
65 71.5 65 94.5
70 79.1
Replaces R50070 103.2
75 87.2 75 112.5
ARI 80 95.7 80 122.3
85 104.9
GUIDELINE N- 85 132.6
199590 114.5 90 143.5
colour95 124.8 95 154.9
100 135.7
unassigned 100 167.0
105 147.2 105 179.7
110 159.4 110 193.0
115 172.2 115 207.0
120 185.8 120 221.7
125 200.1 125 237.0
130 215.1 130 253.1
135 231.0 135 269.9
140 247.6 140 287.5
145 265.2 145 305.8
150 283.6 150 324.9
155 302.9 155 344.8
160 323.2 160 365.5
165 344.4 165 387.1
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r412a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:14
R-22

R-22

R-22

Temp Pressure
-50 6.2 Hg
-48 4.8 Hg
-46 3.4 Hg
-44 2.0 Hg
-42 0.5 Hg
-40 0.5 Hg
-38 1.3
-36 2.2
-34 3.0
-32 4.0
-30 4.9
-28 5.9
-26 6.9
Trade -24Freon7.9Genetron
Name -22 9.0 etc -22
Isotron
-20 10.1
-18 11.3
CHCLF
Formula 2
-16 12.5
-14 13.8
Chemical -12 15.1
chlorodifluoromethane
Name -10 16.5
-8 17.9
Oil -6MO19.3AB
-4 20.8
-2 22.4
ARI
0 24.0
GUIDELINE 2 25.6
N-1995 4 27.3
colour 6 29.1
assignment 8 30.9
light green 10 32.8
12 34.7
14 36.7
16 38.7
18 40.9
20 43.0
22 45.3
24 47.7
26 49.9
28 52.4
30 54.9
32 57.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r22.htm4.3.2007 10:29:15
R-115

R-115

R-115

Temp Pressure
-40 -1.2 Hg
-35 1.3
-30 3.4
-25 5.6
-20 8.1
-15 10.8
-10 13.7
-5 16.9
0 20.3
5 24.1
10 28.1
15 32.4
20 37.0
25
Freon42.0
Genetron
Trade
Name 30 47.4
Arcton
35 53.1
etc- 115
40 59.1
Formula 45
CCLF65.6
2CF3
50 72.5
55 79.8
Chemical 60 87.6
chloropentafluoroethane
Name 65 95.8
70 104.5
Oil 75
MO 113.8
AB
80 123.5
85 133.8
blend component for R-
Note 90 144.6
502
95 156.0
100 168.0
ARI 105 180.7
GUIDELINE 110 193.9
N-1995 115 207.9
colour
120 222.5
unassigned
125 237.9
130 254.0
135 270.9
140 288.5
145 307.6
150 327.3
155 348.1
160 369.9
165 393.0
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r115.htm4.3.2007 10:29:16
R-23

R-23

R-23

Temp Pressure
-40 88.2
-35 99.2
-30 111.1
-25 124.0
-20 137.7
-15 152.5
-10 168.3
-5 185.2
0 203.2
5 222.4
10 242.8
15 264.5
20 287.6
25 312.0
Freon Suva
Trade Name 30 337.9
Genetron
35 365.3
Solkane
40 394.2
etc -23
45 424.8
Formula 50 457.1
CHF3
55 497.4
60 534.3
Chemical 65 573.4
trifluoromethane
Name 70 614.8

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
light blue-gray

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r23.htm4.3.2007 10:29:16
R-32

R-32

R-32

Temp Pressure
-40 11.0
-35 14.4
-30 18.2
-25 22.3
-20 26.8
-15 31.7
-10 37.1
-5 42.9
0 49.2
5 56.1
10 63.5
15 71.5
20 80.0
25 Genetron
89.2
Trade Name 30 Forane 99.1 Solkane
35 109.7
etc -32
40 121.0
Formula 45 133.1
CH2F2
50 145.9
55 159.6
Chemical 60 174.2
difluoromethane
Name 65 189.6
70 206.0
Oil 75 223.4
POE
80 241.8
85 261.2
ARI
90 281.7
GUIDELINE N-
1995 95 303.3
colour 100 326.1
unassigned 105 350.2
110 375.5
115 402.1
120 430.0
125 459.4
130 490.3
135 522.6
140 556.6
145 592.3
150 629.7
155 668.9
160 710.1
165 753.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r32.htm4.3.2007 10:29:16
R-503

R-503

R-503 Vapour R-503 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 103.8 -40 105.5
-35 115.5 -35 117.4
-30 128.0 -30 130.1
-25 141.4 -25 143.8
-20 155.7 -20 158.3
-15 171.0 -15 173.9
-10 187.2 -10 190.4
-5 204.5 -5 208.0
0 222.9 0 226.7
5 242.4 5 246.5
10 263.1 10 267.5
15 285.0 15 289.6
20 308.2 20 313.1
Freon
25 Name
Trade 332.7 25 337.8
Genetron
30 358.6 Frigen
30 363.9
35 385.9 Arcton
35 etc -503
391.3
40 414.8 40 420.1
45 445.2 45 450.4
R-23/13
Formula
50 477.2 50 59.9%
40.1% 482.2

Oil MO AB

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
blue-green
(aqua)

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r503.htm4.3.2007 10:29:17
R-113

R-113

R-113

Temp Pressure
-30 -29.4 Hg
-25 -29.2 Hg
-20 -29.1 Hg
-15 -28.9 Hg
-10 -28.7 Hg
-5 -28.5 Hg
0 -28.3 Hg
5 -28.0 Hg
10 -27.6 Hg
15 -27.2 Hg
20 -26.8 Hg
25 -26.3 Hg
30 -25.8 Hg
35 -25.2FreonHg
Trade Name40 -25.4 Hg
Genetron etc-
45 -23.8113Hg
50 -22.9 Hg
Formula 55 -22.0CCLHg 2FCCLF2
60 -21.0 Hg
65 -19.9 Hg
70 -18.6 Hg
1,1,2-trichloro-
Chemical Name 75 -17.3 Hg
1,2,2-
80 -15.8 Hg
trifluoroethane
85 -14.2 Hg
Oil 90 -12.5MOHgAB
95 -10.6 Hg
100 -8.6 Hg
ARI 105 -6.4 Hg
GUIDELINE110 N- -4.0 Hg
1995 115 -1.4 Hg
colour
120 0.7
assignment
dark purple
125 2.1
(violet) 130 3.7
135 5.3
140 7.1
145 9.0
150 11.0
155 13.2
160 15.5
165 17.9
170 20.5
175 23.2
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r113.htm4.3.2007 10:29:18
R-405A

R-405A

R-405A Vapour R-405A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -12.4 Hg -40 -5.9 Hg
-35 -9.7 Hg -35 -2.6 Hg
-30 -6.8 Hg -30 0.5
-25 -3.4 Hg -25 2.5
-20 0.1 -20 4.7
-15 2.1 -15 7.0
-10 4.3 -10 9.6
-5 6.7 -5 12.4
0 9.3 0 15.5
5 12.2 5 18.8
10 15.4 10 22.5
15 18.8 15 26.4
20 22.5 20 30.6
25 26.5 25 35.1
ATG-405A
30 30.8 China30Sun40.0
Trade 35Name 35.5 Group35 45.2
40 40.5 40 50.8
(Greencool)
45 45.9 G201545 56.8
50 51.7 50 63.1
55 57.9 55 69.9
R-22/152a/142b/
60 64.9 C31860 77.2
Formula
65 71.6 45%657% 84.9 5.5%
70 79.1 70 93.0
42.5%
75 87.2 75 101.7
Oil 80 95.7 AB 80 110.9
POE?
85 104.8 85 120.6
90 114.4 90 130.8
Replaces R-12
95 124.6 95 141.6
100 135.4 100 153.0
ARI105 146.8 105 165.0
110 158.8
GUIDELINE N- 110 177.7
1995115 171.5 115 190.9
colour
120 184.9 120 204.8
unassigned
125 199.0 125 219.4
130 213.9 130 234.7
135 229.5 135 250.8
140 246.0 140 267.5
145 263.2 145 285.0
150 281.3 150 303.3
155 300.3 155 322.4
160 320.2 160 342.3
165 341.1 165 363.1
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r405a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:18
R-114

R-114

R-114

Temp Pressure
-40 -26.1 Hg
-35 -25.5 Hg
-30 -24.7 Hg
-25 -23.9 Hg
-20 -22.9 Hg
-15 -21.9 Hg
-10 -20.7 Hg
-5 -19.3 Hg
0 -17.9 Hg
5 -16.2 Hg
10 -14.4 Hg
15 -12.4 Hg
20 -10.2 Hg
25 -7.9 Hg Genetron
Freon
Trade Name 30 -5.2 Hg
Forane
35 -2.4 etc-Hg
114
40 0.4
Formula 45 CCLF 2.0 2CCLF2
50 3.8
55 5.7
Chemical 60 1,2-dichloro-
7.8
Name 65 10.0
1,1,2,2-
70 tetrafluoroethane
12.4
75 15.0
Oil 80 MO 17.8 AB
85 20.8
90 23.9
ARI 95 27.3
GUIDELINE N- 100 30.9
1995 105 34.7
colour
110 38.7
assignment
dark blue
115 43.0
(navy) 120 47.6
125 52.4
130 57.5
135 62.8
140 68.5
145 74.4
150 80.7
155 87.3
160 94.2
165 101.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r114.htm4.3.2007 10:29:19
R-408A

R-408A

R-408A Vapour R-408A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-84 20 Hg -85 20 Hg
-72 15 Hg -72 15 Hg
-62 10 Hg -62 10 Hg
-54 5 Hg -54 5 Hg
-47 0 -48 0
-42 2 -43 2
-37 4 -38 4
-33 6 -34 6
-29 8 -30 8
-26 10 -27 10
-23 12 -23 12
-19 14 -20 14
-16 16 -17 16
Trade -14Name 18 -14 FX-10
Atochem 18
-11 20 -12 20
-8 22 -9 22
R-125/143a/22
Formula -6 24 7% -6 46% 24 47%
-3 26 -4 26
-1 28 -2 28
Oil 1 30 MO AB 30
1 POE
3 32 3 32
Replaces 5 34 R-5025 34
7 36 7 36
9 38 9 38
ARI 11 40 11 40
13 42N-
GUIDELINE 13 42
199515 44 14 44
colour 17 46 16 46
19 48
assignment 18 48
medium 20 50purple 20 50
22 52 21 52
23 54 23 54
25 56 24 56
27 58 26 58
28 60 27 60
29 62 29 62
31 64 30 64
32 66 32 66
34 68 33 68
35 70 35 70
36 72 36 72
38 74 37 74
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r408a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:19
FX-40

FX-40

FX-40 Vapour FX-40 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 7.4 -40 8.1
-35 10.3 -35 11.0
-30 13.4 -30 14.2
-25 16.9 -25 17.8
-20 20.6 -20 21.6
-15 24.7 -15 25.8
-10 29.2 -10 30.4
-5 30.4 -5 35.3
0 39.3 0 40.7
5 44.9 5 46.4
10 51.0 10 52.7
15 57.6 15 59.4
20 64.6 20 66.6
25 72.2 25 74.3
Elf Atochem
Trade Name
30 80.3 30 82.5
Forane(R) FX-40
35 89.0 35 91.4
40 98.2 40 100.8
R-32/125/143a
45 108.1
Formula 10%45 45%
110.8
50 118.6 45%50 121.4
55 129.8 55 132.8
60 141.6 60 144.8
Oil POE
65 154.2 65 157.5
70 167.5 70 171.0
75 181.6
Replaces R50275 185.3
80 196.5 80 200.3
ARI 85 212.2 85 216.2
90 228.8
GUIDELINE N- 90 232.9
199595 246.3 95 250.6
100 264.7
colour 100 269.1
105 284.1
unassigned 105 288.6
110 304.5 110 309.1
115 325.9 115 330.5
120 348.4 120 353.1
125 372.0 125 376.6
130 396.8 130 401.3
135 422.8 135 427.1
140 450.0 140 454.1
145 478.5 145 482.2
150 508.3 150 511.5

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_fx40.htm4.3.2007 10:29:20
R-116

R-116

R-116

Temp Pressure
-40 65.2
-35 73.5
-30 82.5
-25 92.1
-20 102.4
-15 113.4
-10 125.1
-5 137.6
0 150.8
5 164.9
10 179.8
15 195.5
20 212.1
25 229.6
PFC-116 Freon-
Trade Name
30 248.1
116
35 267.4
40 287.8
CF3CF3
Formula
45 310.9
50 334.8
Chemical 55 360.2
hexafluoroethane
Name

Oil POE PAG

Note blend component

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
dark gray
(battleship)

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r116.htm4.3.2007 10:29:20
R-409A

R-409A

R-409A Vapour R-409A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-55 20 Hg -70 20 Hg
-41 15 Hg -56 15 Hg
-31 10 Hg -46 10 Hg
-22 5 Hg -37 5 Hg
-15 0 -30 0
-10 2 -25 2
-5 4 -20 4
-1 6 -16 6
3 8 -12 8
7 10 -8 10
10 12 -4 12
13 14 -1 14
17 16 2 16
20 18 5 18FX-
Suva 409A
Trade Name
22 20 8 20
56 (Atochem)
25 22 11 22
28 24 13 24
R-22/124/142b
Formula30 26 60% 16 25% 2615%
33 28 18 28
35 30 21 30
AB, POE, (MO if
Oil 37 32 23 32
close coupled)
39 34 25 34
41 36 27 36
43 38
Replaces R-12 30 38
45 40 32 40
47 42 33 42
ARI
49 44 35 44
GUIDELINE N-
199551 46 37 46
colour 53 48 39 48
55 50
assignment 41 50
medium 59 brown55 45 55
(tan) 63 60 49 60
66 65 53 65
70 70 57 70
73 75 60 75
77 80 64 80
80 85 66 85
83 90 70 90
86 95 73 95
89 100 76 100
92 105 79 105
94 110 81 110
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r409a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:21
R-123

R-123

R-123

Temp Pressure
-40 -28.9 Hg
-35 -28.7 Hg
-30 -28.5 Hg
-25 -28.2 Hg
-20 -27.9 Hg
-15 -27.5 Hg
-10 -27.1 Hg
-5 -26.6 Hg
0 -26.0 Hg
5 -25.4 Hg
10 -24.6 Hg
15 -23.8 Hg
20 -22.9 Hg
25 -21.9Suva HgGenetron
Trade Name30 -20.8 Hg Forane
Solkane
35 -19.6etc-Hg123
40 -18.2 Hg
Formula 45 -16.7CHCL Hg2CF3
50 -15.0 Hg
55 -13.2 Hg
60 -11.2 Hg
2,2-dichloro-
Chemical Name 65 -9.0 Hg
1,1,1-
70 -6.7 Hg
trifluoroethane
75 -4.1 Hg
Oil 80 -1.2 MOHgAB
85 0.9
90 2.5
Replaces R-11 R-113
95 4.2
100 6.1
105 8.1
ARI
110 10.3
GUIDELINE N-
115 12.6
1995
colour 120 15.1
assignment 125 17.7
light blue-gray130 20.6
135 23.6
140 26.8
145 30.2
150 33.8
155 37.6
160 41.7
165 45.9
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r123.htm4.3.2007 10:29:21
R-404A

R-404A

R-404A Vapour

Temp Pressure
-50 0
-48 1
-46 2
-43.5 3
-41 4
-39 5
-37 6
-35 7
-33 8
-31.5 9
-30 10
-28 11
-26 12
-24.5 Suva13 HP62
Trade Name
-23 Atochem
14 FX-70
-21.5 15
-20 R-125/143a/134a
16
Formula -19 44% 17 52% 4%
-18 18
-16.5 19
Oil POE
-15 20
-13.5 21
Replaces -12 R-50222
-11 23
-10 The 24average
-8.5 saturated
25 liquid
-7 temperature
26 is
-6 within
27 .5 degrees
-5 F28 (decimal five)
Note -4 of29 the saturated
-3 vapour
30
-2 temperature,
31
-1 therefore
32 liquid
temperatures are
0 33
not shown.
1 34
2 35
3 36
4 37
5 38
6 39
7 40
8 41
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r404a.htm (1 of 2)4.3.2007 10:29:22
R-404A

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
orange

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r404a.htm (2 of 2)4.3.2007 10:29:22


R-124

R-124

R-124

Temp Pressure
-40 -22.2 Hg
-35 -20.9 Hg
-30 -19.6 Hg
-25 -17.9 Hg
-20 -16.1 Hg
-15 -14.4 Hg
-10 -11.9 Hg
-5 -9.4 Hg
0 -6.7 Hg
5 -3.7 Hg
10 -0.4 Hg
15 1.6
20 3.5
25 Halon
5.7 241 Suva
Trade Name 30 8.0
Genetron
35 Meforex
10.5 etc- 124
40 13.2
Formula 45 CHCLFCF
16.1 3
50 19.2
55 22.6
Chemical 60 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-
26.3
Name 65 30.2
tetrafluoroethane
70 typ34.45% R124a
75 38.9
Oil 80 AB 43.7
85 48.8
90 54.2
Note blend component
95 60.0
100 66.1
ARI 105 72.6
GUIDELINE N- 110 79.5
1995 115 86.8
colour 120 94.5
assignment 125 102.7
deep green 130 111.2
(DOT green) 135 120.3
140 129.8
145 139.8
150 150.3
155 161.3
160 172.9
165 185.0
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r124.htm4.3.2007 10:29:22
FX-220

FX-220

FX-220 Vapour FX-220 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -8.5 -40 1.9
-35 -5.2 -35 4.1
-30 -1.6 -30 6.6
-25 1.2 -25 9.3
-20 3.4 -20 12.2
-15 5.8 -15 15.5
-10 8.5 -10 19.0
-5 11.4 -5 22.8
0 14.6 0 27.0
5 18.1 5 31.5
10 22.0 10 36.4
15 26.2 15 41.7
20 30.7 20 47.4
25 35.7 25 53.5
Elf Atochem
Trade 30Name 41.0 30 60.1
Forane(R) FX-
35 46.8 22035 67.1
40 53.1 40 74.6
45 59.8 45 82.6
R-23/32/134a
50 67.0
Formula 10% 50 45%91.2
55 74.8 45% 55 100.3
60 83.1 60 110.0
Oil
65 91.9 POE
65 120.3
70 101.4 70 131.2
75 111.5 75 142.7
80 122.3
Replaces R22 80 154.9
85 133.8 85 167.8
ARI90 146.0 90 181.4
95 159.0
GUIDELINE N- 95 195.7
1995100 172.7 100 210.8
105 187.3
colour 105 226.7
110 202.8
unassigned 110 243.4
115 219.1 115 260.9
120 236.3 120 279.2
125 254.6 125 298.4
130 273.8 130 318.5
135 294.1 135 339.5
140 315.5 140 361.4
145 338.0 145 384.3
150 361.7 150 408.1
155 386.7 155 432.9
160 413.1 160 458.7
165 440.8 165 485.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_fx220.htm4.3.2007 10:29:22
R-125

R-125

R-125

Temp Pressure
-40 6.9
-35 9.7
-30 12.8
-25 16.2
-20 20.0
-15 24.1
-10 28.5
-5 33.3
0 38.5
5 44.1
10 50.2
15 56.7
20 63.7
25 Suva
71.2 Genetron
Trade Name 30 Forane
79.3 Klea
35 etc-125
87.8 Halon 25
40 97.0
Formula 45 106.7
CHF2CF3
50 117.1
55 128.1
Chemical 60 139.8
pentafluoroethane
Name 65 152.2
70 165.3
Oil 75 179.2
POE
80 193.9
85 209.3
Note blend component
90 225.7
95 242.9
ARI 100 261.0
105 280.1
GUIDELINE N-
1995 110 300.2
colour 115 321.3
assignment 120 345.3
125 366.9
medium brown
(tan) 130 391.5
135 417.4
140 444.7
145 473.6

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r125.htm4.3.2007 10:29:23
R-406A

R-406A

R-406A Vapour R-406A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -16.7 Hg -40 -8.8 Hg
-35 -14.7 Hg -35 -5.9 Hg
-30 -12.4 Hg -30 -2.7 Hg
-25 -9.9 Hg -25 0.4
-20 -7.1 Hg -20 2.3
-15 -4.0 Hg -15 4.4
-10 -0.6 Hg -10 6.7
-5 1.5 -5 9.2
0 3.6 0 11.9
5 5.8 5 14.9
10 8.2 10 18.1
15 10.8 15 21.6
20 13.7 20 25.3
25 16.9 25 29.3
Autofrost
30 20.2 30 33.6
McCool
35 23.9 35 38.2
GHG-406A
Trade 40 27.9
Name 40 43.2
GHG-X3
45 32.0 GHG 45 48.5
Refrigerant-12
50 36.7 50 54.2
Substitute
55 41.6 55 60.2
60 46.9 60 66.6
65 52.5
Formula 65 73.4
R-22/142b/600a
70 58.6 55% 7041% 80.74%
75 65.0 75 88.3
Oil 80 71.9 MO 80 AB 96.4
85 79.2 85 105.0
90 86.9 90 114.1
Replaces R-12 R-500
95 95.2 95 123.6
100 103.9 100 133.7
ARI105 113.1 105 144.3
110 122.9
GUIDELINE N- 110 155.4
1995115 133.3 115 167.1
colour
120 144.2 120 179.3
unassigned
125 155.7 125 192.2
130 167.9 130 205.6
135 180.7 135 219.7
140 194.1 140 234.4
145 208.3 145 249.7
150 223.2 150 265.7
155 238.7 155 282.4
160 255.1 160 299.8
165 272.2 165 317.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r406a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:23
R-1270

R-1270

R-1270

Temp Pressure
-40 5.9
-35 8.4
-30 11.2
-25 14.2
-20 17.5
-15 21.0
-10 24.8
-5 29.0
0 33.5
5 38.2
10 43.4
15 48.9
20 54.8
25 61.1Propene,
Trade Name
30 67.8Propylene
35 74.9
40 82.5CH3CH=CH2
Formula
45 90.5
50 99.0
Oil 55 108.0
all
60 117.6
ARI 65 127.6
GUIDELINE N-70 138.2
1995 75 149.4
colour 80 161.1
unassigned 85 173.4
90 186.4
95 200.0
100 214.2
105 229.1
110 244.7
115 261.0
120 278.1
125 295.9
130 314.4
135 333.7
140 353.9
145 374.9
150 396.7
155 419.4
160 443.1
165 467.6
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r1270.htm4.3.2007 10:29:24
R-414A

R-414A

R-414A Vapour R-414A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -16.2 Hg -40 -8.5 Hg
-35 -14.0 Hg -35 -5.6 Hg
-30 -11.7 Hg -30 -2.3 Hg
-25 -9.1 Hg -25 0.6
-20 -6.1 Hg -20 2.6
-15 -2.9 Hg -15 4.7
-10 0.3 -10 7.0
-5 2.3 -5 9.6
0 4.4 0 12.4
5 6.7 5 15.4
10 9.2 10 18.6
15 12.0 15 22.1
20 15.0 20 25.9
25 18.3 GHG-X425 Chill-it
30.0
Trade Name
30 21.8 30 34.4
Autofrost-X4
35 25.6 35 39.1
40 29.8 R- 40 44.2
45 34.2 45 49.6
22/142b/124/600a
Formula
50 39.0 51% 50 55.3
16.5%
55 44.1 28.5% 55 4%61.5
60 49.6 60 68.0
Oil
65 55.5 MO AB
65 75.0
70 61.8 70 82.4
75 68.5 75 90.2
80 75.7
Replaces R-12 80R-500
98.4
85 83.3 85 107.2
ARI 90 91.3 90 116.4
95 99.9
GUIDELINE N- 95 126.2
1995100 109.0 100 136.4
105 118.6
colour 105 147.2
110 128.8
unassigned 110 158.6
115 139.5 115 170.5
120 150.8 120 183.0
125 162.8 125 196.1
130 175.4 130 209.8
135 188.6 135 224.1
140 202.6 140 239.1
145 217.2 145 254.8
150 232.5 150 271.1
155 248.7 155 288.1
160 256.5 160 305.8
165 283.2 165 324.3
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r414a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:24
R-134

R-134 (not R-134A)

R-134
(NOT R-134a)

Temp Pressure
-40 -17.6 Hg
-35 -15.8 Hg
-30 -13.8 Hg
-25 -11.6 Hg
-20 -9.2 Hg
-15 -6.4 Hg
-10 -3.4 Hg
-5 -0.1 Hg
0 1.7
5 3.7
10 5.9
15 8.2
20 Freon-134,
10.8 HFC-
Trade Name
25 13413.6
30 16.7
35 CHF20.0 CHF
Formula 2 2
40 23.6
45 27.5
Chemical 50 1,1,2,2-
31.7
Name 55 tetrafluoroethane
36.2
60 41.1
Oil 65 POE46.4 PAG
70 52.0
75 58.1
Note
80 (Not
64.5R-134A)
85 71.4
ARI 90 78.8
GUIDELINE N-95 86.7
1995 100 95.0
colour 105 103.9
unassigned 110 113.3
115 123.3
120 133.9
125 145.1
130 156.9
135 169.3
140 182.4
145 196.2
150 210.7
155 225.9
160 241.9
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r134.htm4.3.2007 10:29:25
R-410A

R-410A

R-410A Vapour R-410A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 11.1 -40 11.1
-35 14.5 -35 14.5
-30 18.2 -30 18.3
-25 22.3 -25 22.3
-20 26.7 -20 26.8
-15 31.6 -15 31.7
-10 36.9 -10 37.0
-5 42.6 -5 42.8
0 48.8 0 49.0
5 55.6 5 55.8
10 62.8 10 63.0
15 70.6 15 70.9
20 79.0 20 79.3
25 88.0 25 Suva-
Puron 88.4
Trade30Name
97.7 910030 98.1
(after May
35 108.0 96) 35
AZ-20108.5
40 119.1 40 119.6
45 130.9 45 131.4
R-32/125
Formula
50 143.4 50%5050% 144.0
55 156.7 55 157.4
60 170.9 60 171.6
Oil POE
65 185.9 65 186.7
70 201.9 70 202.7
75 218.7
Replaces
R-2275(higher
219.7
80 236.6 80 237.6
pressure)
85 255.4 85 256.5
90 275.3 90 276.4
ARI 95 296.2 95 297.4
100 318.3
GUIDELINE N- 100 319.6
1995105 341.6 105 342.9
colour
110 366.0 110 367.4
assignment
115 391.7 115 393.1
rose
120 418.6 120 420.1
125 446.9 125 448.4
130 476.5 130 478.0
135 507.6 135 509.1
140 540.2 140 541.6
145 574.2 145 575.6
150 609.9 150 611.1
155 647.2 155 648.1
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r410a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:25
R-134A

R-134A

R-134a

Temp Pressure
-50 -18.4 Hg
-48 -17.7 Hg
-46 -17.0 Hg
-44 -16.2 Hg
-42 -15.4 Hg
-40 -14.5 Hg
-38 -13.7 Hg
-36 -12.8 Hg
-34 -11.8 Hg
-32 -10.8 Hg
-30 -9.7 Hg
-28 -8.6 Hg
-26 -7.7 Hg
-24 -6.2SuvaHg Genetron
Trade Name-22 -4.9 Hg
Forane
-20 -3.6KleaHgetc -134a
-18 -2.3 Hg
Formula -16 -0.8CH2HgFCF3
-14 0.3
-12 1.1
Chemical -10 1,1,1,2-
1.9
Name -8 2.8
tetrafluoroethane
-6 3.6
Oil -4 POE4.5 PAG
-2 5.5
0 6.5
Replaces R-12
2 7.5
4 8.5
6 9.6
ARI 8 10.8
GUIDELINE N-
10 12.0
1995
12 13.1
colour
assignment 14 14.4
light blue (sky) 16 15.7
18 17.0
20 18.4
22 19.9
24 21.4
26 22.9
28 24.5
30 26.1
32 27.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r134a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:26
R-13B1

R-13B1

R-13B1

Temp Pressure
-40 17.8
-35 21.5
-30 25.4
-25 29.7
-20 34.3
-15 39.2
-10 44.6
-5 50.3
0 56.5
5 63.1
10 70.2
15 77.8
20 85.8
Trade 25 94.4
Freon-13B1 Halon
Name 301301
103.5
35 113.2
40CBrF
123.5
Formula 3
45 134.3
50 145.8
Chemical 55 157.9
bromotrifluoromethane
Name 60 170.7
65 184.1
Oil 70MO198.2
AB
75 213.1
80 228.6
Replaces
85R-12
245.0
90 262.0
ARI 95 279.9
GUIDELINE 100 298.6
N-1995 105 318.0
colour 110 338.3
assignment 115 359.5
pinkish-red 120 381.5
(coral) 125 407.8
130 432.9
135 459.2
140 487.0
145 516.2

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r13b1.htm4.3.2007 10:29:26
R-744

R-744

R-744

Temp Pressure
-40 131.0
-35 146.4
-30 163.0
-25 180.9
-20 200.0
-15 220.5
-10 242.4
-5 265.8
0 290.7
5 317.1
10 345.3
15 375.1
20 406.7
Trade Name 25 440.1
Carbon Dioxide
30 475.5
35 512.8
CO2
Formula
40 552.3
45 593.8
50
Chemical Name 637.6
Carbon Dioxide
55 683.7
ARI
60 732.2
65
GUIDELINE N- 783.3
1995 70 837.0
colour 75 893.7
unassigned 80 953.6

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r744.htm4.3.2007 10:29:27
R-141B

R-141B

R-141b

Temp Pressure
-40 -29.1 Hg
-35 -28.9 Hg
-30 -28.7 Hg
-25 -28.4 Hg
-20 -28.1 Hg
-15 -27.8 Hg
-10 -27.4 Hg
-5 -27.0 Hg
0 -26.5 Hg
5 -26.0 Hg
10 -25.4 Hg
15 -24.7 Hg
20 -23.9 Hg
25 -23.1 Hg
Genetron
30 -22.1 Hg
Solkane
Trade Name35 -21.0 Hg
Isotron
40 -19.9 Hg etc-
Forane
45 -18.6 141b
Hg
50 -17.1 Hg
Formula 55 -15.6 CHHg3CCL2F
60 -13.8 Hg
65 -12.0 Hg
Chemical Name 70 -9.9 Hg
1,1-dichloro-1-
fluoroethane
75 -7.7 Hg
80 -5.3 Hg
Oil 85 -2.7 MOHgAB
90 0.1
Note 95 1.6
solvents
100 3.2
105 4.9
ARI 110 6.8
GUIDELINE N- 115 10.2
1995
120 13.2
colour
unassigned
125 15.6
130 18.2
135 21.0
140 23.9
145 27.0
150 30.3
155 33.8
160 37.5
165 41.4
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r141b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:27
R-142B

R-142B

R-142b

Temp Pressure
-40 -22.2 Hg
-35 -21.0 Hg
-30 -19.7 Hg
-25 -18.3 Hg
-20 -16.7 Hg
-15 -14.9 Hg
-10 -12.9 Hg
-5 -10.7 Hg
0 -8.3 Hg
5 -5.7 Hg
10 -2.8 Hg
15 0.2
20 1.9
25 Genetron
3.7
Trade Name 30 5.7
Isotron Solkane
35 7.9 Forane etc-
40 10.2142b
45 12.8
Formula 50 15.6CH3CCLF2
55 18.5
60 21.7
Chemical Name 65 25.11-chloro-1,1-
70 28.8difluoroethane
75 32.8
Oil 80 37.0AB
85 41.5
90 46.3
Note blend component
95 51.4
100 56.8
ARI 105 62.6
GUIDELINE N- 110 68.7
1995 115 75.2
colour
120 82.1
unassigned
125 89.4
130 97.0
135 105.2
140 113.7
145 122.7
150 132.1
155 142.1
160 152.5
165 163.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r142b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:28
R-143

R-143

R-143

Temp Pressure
-40 -26.7 Hg
-35 -26.1 Hg
-30 -25.4 Hg
-25 -24.6 Hg
-20 -23.7 Hg
-15 -22.7 Hg
-10 -21.6 Hg
-5 -20.3 Hg
0 -18.8 Hg
5 -17.2 Hg
10 -15.4 Hg
15 -13.4 Hg
20 -11.1 Hg
Trade Name 25 -8.6 Hg
R-143
30 -5.9 Hg
35 -2.8 CHHg
Formula 2FCHF2
40 0.3
45 2.1
50 1,1,2-
4.1
Chemical Name
55 trifluoroethane
6.2
60 8.6
Oil 65 11.2
POE PAG
70 14.0
75 17.0
ARI 80 20.3
GUIDELINE N-
85 23.8
1995
90 27.6
colour
unassigned 95 31.7
100 36.2
105 40.9
110 46.0
115 51.4
120 57.1
125 63.3
130 69.8
135 76.8
140 84.1
145 91.9
150 100.1
155 108.8
160 117.9
165 127.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r143.htm4.3.2007 10:29:28
R-411A

R-411A

R-411A Vapour R-411A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -3.9 Hg -40 0.0
-35 -0.3 Hg -35 2.0
-30 1.9 -30 4.2
-25 4.0 -25 6.5
-20 6.5 -20 9.1
-15 9.1 -15 12.0
-10 12.0 -10 15.1
-5 15.2 -5 18.5
0 18.6 0 22.2
5 22.4 5 26.1
10 26.5 10 30.4
15 30.9 15 35.1
20 35.7 20 40.1
25 40.8 25Sun45.5
China
Trade 30Name 46.4 30G2018A
Group 51.3
35 52.3 35 57.5
(Greencool)
40 58.7 40 64.1
45 65.5 45 71.2
R-1270/22/152a
50 72.8
Formula 1.5%50 87.5%
78.8
55 80.6 11%55 86.8
60 88.9 60 95.4
Oil
65 97.8 65 104.5
MO AB
70 107.2 70 114.1
75 117.2 75 124.3
80 127.8
Replaces R-2280 135.2
85 139.0 85 146.6
ARI 90 150.8 90 158.7
95 163.3
GUIDELINE N- 95 171.4
1995100 176.6 100 184.9
105 190.5
colour 105 199.0
110 205.2
assignment 110 213.9
dark purple
115 220.7 115 229.5
(violet) with
120 236.9 red 120 245.9
band
125 254.0 125 263.1
130 271.9 130 281.2
135 290.7 135 300.1
140 310.5 140 319.8
145 331.1 145 340.5
150 352.7 150 362.1
155 375.3 155 384.7
160 399.0 160 408.2
165 423.7 165 432.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r411a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:29
R-143A

R-143A

R-143A

Temp Pressure
-40 5.8
-35 8.4
-30 11.3
-25 14.4
-20 17.9
-15 21.6
-10 25.7
-5 30.1
0 34.9
5 40.1
10 45.6
15 51.6
20 58.0
25 64.8
Solkane Suva
Trade Name 30 72.1
Genetron
35 80.0
Meforex etc-
40 88.3
143a
45 97.2
Formula 50 106.6
CF3CH3
55 116.6
60 127.3
65 138.5
Chemical Name
1,1,1-
70 150.4
trifluoroethane
75 163.0
Oil 80 176.3
POE PAG
85 190.4
90 205.1
Note blend component
95 220.7
100 237.1
ARI 105 254.4
110 272.5
GUIDELINE N-
1995 115 297.6
colour
120 311.6
unassigned
125 332.6
130 354.7
135 377.9
140 402.2
145 427.7
150 454.6
155 482.9
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r143a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:29
R-411B

R-411B

R-411B Vapour R-411B Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 0.2 -40 1.6
-35 2.3 -35 3.8
-30 4.5 -30 6.1
-25 7.0 -25 8.7
-20 9.7 -20 11.5
-15 12.7 -15 14.6
-10 15.9 -10 18.0
-5 19.4 -5 21.6
0 23.3 0 25.6
5 27.4 5 29.9
10 31.9 10 34.5
15 36.8 15 39.5
20 42.1 20 44.9
25 47.7 25Sun50.7
China
Trade 30Name 53.8 30G2018B
Group 56.9
35 60.3 35 63.5
(Greencool)
40 67.2 40 70.6
45 82.6 45 78.2
R-1270/22/152a
Formula
50 91.1 3% 50 94%86.2
3%
55 100.1 55 94.8
60 109.6 60 103.9
Oil MO AB
65 119.8 65 113.6
70 130.5 70 123.9
75 141.9
Replaces 75 134.7
80 154.0 80 146.2
ARI 85 166.7 85 158.3
90 180.1
GUIDELINE N- 90 171.2
199595 184.7 95 184.7
100 194.3
colour 100 198.9
105 209.2
assignment 105 213.9
110 224.8
blue-green 110 229.6
(teal) with
115 241.3 red 115 246.1
band120 258.6 120 263.5
125 276.8 125 281.6
130 295.8 130 300.7
135 315.8 135 320.6
140 336.7 140 341.5
145 358.5 145 363.3
150 381.4 150 386.1
155 405.2 155 409.9
160 430.1 160 434.7
165 456.2 165 460.6
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r411b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:30
R-152A

R-152A

R-152a

Temp Pressure
-40 -16.0 Hg
-35 -13.9 Hg
-30 -11.5 Hg
-25 -8.9 Hg
-20 -5.9 Hg
-15 -2.7 Hg
-10 0.5
-5 2.4
0 4.5
5 6.9
10 9.4
15 12.2
20 15.2
25 18.5Freon
Trade Name 30 22.1
Genetron
35 25.9Forane etc-
40 30.1152a DFE
45 34.6
Formula 50 39.4CH3CHF2
55 44.5
60 50.1
Chemical Name 65 56.01,1-
70 62.3difluoroethane
75 69.0
Oil 80 76.2POE PAG
85 83.8
90 91.9
Replaces R-12
95 100.4
100 109.5
Note 105 119.1
blend component
110 129.3
ARI 115 140.0
GUIDELINE N- 120 151.4
1995 125 163.3
colour 130 175.9
unassigned 135 189.1
140 203.0
145 217.5
150 232.9
155 248.9
160 265.7
165 283.3
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r152a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:30
R-G2018C

R-G2018C

G2018C Vapour G2018C Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 0.7 -40 1.8
-35 2.8 -35 4.0
-30 5.1 -30 6.3
-25 7.6 -25 8.9
-20 10.4 -20 11.8
-15 13.4 -15 14.9
-10 16.7 -10 18.3
-5 20.3 -5 22.0
0 24.2 0 26.0
5 28.5 5 30.3
10 33.0 10 35.0
15 38.0 15 40.1
20 43.3 20 45.5
25 49.1 China25 Sun 51.3
Group
Trade 30Name 55.2 G2018C 30 57.6
35 61.8 35 64.3
(Greencool)
40 68.9 40 71.4
45 76.5 45 79.1
R-1270/22/152a
50 84.5
Formula 50 87.2
3% 95.5%
55 93.1 1.5%55 95.9
60 102.2 60 105.1
65 111.9 2-
65 114.8
70 122.2 70 125.2
(difluoromethoxy)-
75 133.1 1,1,1-75 136.1
Chemical
80 144.6 80 147.7
trifluoroethane
Name
85 156.8 (CHF85 160.0
2-0-CH 2-
90 169.6 CF3) 90 172.9
95 183.2 95 186.5
100 197.5 100 200.9
Oil 105 212.6 MO 105 AB 216.0
110 228.4 110 231.9
115 245.1 115 248.5
R-12 R-22
120 262.6
Replaces
R500 120R502266.0
125 280.9 125 284.4
130 300.1 130 303.6
135 320.3 135 323.7
140 341.3 140 344.8
145 363.4 145 366.8
150 386.4 150 389.8
155 410.5 155 413.8
160 435.6 160 438.8
165 461.9 165 464.9
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_rg2018c.htm (1 of 2)4.3.2007 10:29:31
R-G2018C

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
unassigned

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_rg2018c.htm (2 of 2)4.3.2007 10:29:31


R-218

R-218

R-218

Temp Pressure
-40 -4.2 Hg
-35 -0.7 Hg
-30 1.6
-25 3.7
-20 6.0
-15 8.5
-10 11.2
-5 14.2
0 17.5
5 21.0
10 24.9
15 29.0
20 33.5
25 Freon
38.3 Genetron
Trade Name 30 43.5Isceon PFC
35 etc-
49.0218
40 55.0
Formula 45 CF
61.3
3CF2CF3
50 68.1
55 75.4
Chemical 60 octafluoropropane
83.1
Name 65 91.2
70 99.9
Oil 75 109.1
POE PAG
80 118.9
85 129.2
Note blend component
90 140.1
95 151.5
ARI 100 163.6
GUIDELINE N-105 176.4
1995 110 189.8
colour 115 203.8
unassigned
120 218.6
125 234.1
130 250.3
135 265.3
140 283.5
145 302.7
150 323.2

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r218.htm4.3.2007 10:29:31
R-E170

R-E170

R-E170

Temp Pressure
-40 -15.3 Hg
-35 -13.1 Hg
-30 -10.7 Hg
-25 -8.0 Hg
-20 -5.0 Hg
-15 -1.7 Hg
-10 1.0
-5 2.9
0 5.1
5 7.4
10 10.0
15 12.7
20 15.8
25 19.0Dimethyl Ether
Trade Name
30 22.6DME
35 26.4
40 30.5CH3-O-CH3
Formula
45 34.9
50 39.6
Oil 55 44.6MO AB
60 50.0
Replaces 65 55.8R-11 R123?
70 61.9
75 68.5
ARI 80 75.4
GUIDELINE N-
85 82.8
1995
90 90.6
colour
unassigned 95 98.8
100 107.5
105 116.7
110 126.5
115 136.7
120 147.4
125 158.8
130 170.7
135 183.1
140 196.2
145 209.9
150 224.2
155 239.2
160 254.9
165 271.3
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_re170.htm4.3.2007 10:29:31
R-227EA

R-227EA

R-227ea

Temp Pressure
-40 -20.5 Hg
-35 -19.0 Hg
-30 -17.2 Hg
-25 -15.3 Hg
-20 -13.1 Hg
-15 -10.7 Hg
-10 -8.0 Hg
-5 -5.1 Hg
0 -1.8 Hg
5 0.9
10 2.8
15 5.0
20 7.3
25 R-227ea
9.8 Halon
Trade Name 30 12.6
37
35 Great
15.5Lakes FM-
40 20018.8
45 22.3
Formula 50 CF 26.0
3CHFCF3
55 30.1
60 34.4
Chemical 65 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-
39.1
Name 70 44.1
heptafluoropropane
75 49.4
Oil 80 POE55.1 PAG
85 61.2
90 67.6
Note blend component
95 74.5
100 81.8
ARI 105 89.5
GUIDELINE 110 97.6
N-1995 115 106.3
colour
120 115.4
unassigned
125 125.0
130 135.2
135 145.9
140 157.2
145 169.0
150 181.4
155 194.5
160 208.2
165 222.6
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r227ea.htm4.3.2007 10:29:32
R-236EA

R-236EA

R-236ea

Temp Pressure
-40 -27.1 Hg
-35 -26.6 Hg
-30 -26.0 Hg
-25 -25.2 Hg
-20 -24.4 Hg
-15 -23.5 Hg
-10 -22.4 Hg
-5 -21.2 Hg
0 -19.9 Hg
5 -18.4 Hg
10 -16.7 Hg
15 -14.9 Hg
20 -12.8 Hg
Trade Name 25 -10.5 Hg
R-236EA
30 -7.9 Hg
35 -5.1
CHFHg
Formula 2CHFCF3
40 -2.1 Hg
45 0.6
Chemical 50 1,1,1,2,3,3-
2.4
Name 55 hexafluoropropane
4.4
60 6.5
Oil 65 POE 8.8 PAG
70 11.3
75 14.0
Replaces 80 R-114
17.0
85 20.1
ARI 90 23.5
GUIDELINE 95 27.1
N-1995 100 31.0
colour 105 35.1
unassigned 110 39.5
115 44.3
120 49.3
125 54.7
130 60.3
135 66.4
140 72.7
145 79.5
150 86.6
155 94.2
160 102.1
165 110.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r236ea.htm4.3.2007 10:29:32
MP33

MP33

MP-33 Vapour MP-33 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -14.9 Hg -40 -9.2 Hg
-35 -12.6 Hg -35 -6.3 Hg
-30 -10.0 Hg -30 -3.1 Hg
-25 -7.2 Hg -25 0.2
-20 -4.0 Hg -20 2.1
-15 -0.5 Hg -15 4.2
-10 1.7 -10 6.5
-5 3.7 -5 9.0
0 6.0 0 11.7
5 8.6 5 14.7
10 11.3 10 17.9
15 14.3 15 21.4
20 17.5 20 25.2
25 21.1 25 MP33
Dupont 29.3
Trade 30Name 24.9 30 33.6
(developmental
35 29.0 35 38.3
blend)
40 33.5 40 43.4
45 38.2 45 48.8
R-22/152a/124
Formula
50 43.4 40% 5017%54.4 43%
55 48.9 55 60.7
60 54.8 60 67.3
Oil AB
65 61.2 65 74.3
70 67.9 70 81.7
75 75.1
Replaces R-12 75R50089.6
80 82.8 80 97.9
ARI 85 91.0 85 106.8
90 99.7
GUIDELINE N- 90 116.2
199595 108.9 95 126.0
100 118.6
colour 100 136.5
105 128.9
unassigned 105 147.5
110 139.9 110 159.1
115 151.4 115 171.3
120 163.6 120 184.1
125 176.4 125 197.6
130 190.0 130 211.7
135 204.2 135 226.5
140 219.2 140 242.0
145 234.9 145 258.2
150 251.5 150 275.1
155 268.8 155 292.8
160 287.0 160 311.3
165 306.1 165 330.6
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_mp33.htm4.3.2007 10:29:33
R-236FA

R-236FA

R-236fa

Temp Pressure
-40 -25.7 Hg
-35 -24.9 Hg
-30 -24.0 Hg
-25 -23.0 Hg
-20 -21.9 Hg
-15 -20.6 Hg
-10 -19.1 Hg
-5 -17.5 Hg
0 -15.6 Hg
5 -13.6 Hg
10 -11.3 Hg
15 -8.8 Hg
20 -6.0 Hg
Trade Name 25 -3.0 Hg
Suva-236FA
30 0.2
35 CF2.0
Formula 3CH2CF3
40 4.0
45 6.1
Chemical 50 1,1,1,3,3,3-
8.5
Name 55 hexafluoropropane
11.0
60 13.8
Oil 65 POE16.7 PAG
70 19.9
75 23.4
Replaces 80 R-114
27.1
85 31.0
ARI 90 35.3
GUIDELINE 95 39.8
N-1995 100 44.7
colour 105 49.9
unassigned 110 55.4
115 61.2
120 67.4
125 74.0
130 81.0
135 88.4
140 96.2
145 104.5
150 113.2
155 122.4
160 132.0
165 142.2
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r236fa.htm4.3.2007 10:29:33
R-245CA

R-245CA

R-245ca

Temp Pressure
-40 -29.0 Hg
-35 -28.8 Hg
-30 -28.5 Hg
-25 -28.2 Hg
-20 -27.9 Hg
-15 -27.5 Hg
-10 -27.0 Hg
-5 -26.5 Hg
0 -25.9 Hg
5 -25.2 Hg
10 -24.5 Hg
15 -23.6 Hg
20 -22.6 Hg
Trade Name25 -21.5 Hg
R-245CA
30 -20.3 Hg
35 -19.0
CH2FCFHg CHF
Formula 2 2
40 -17.4 Hg
45 -15.8 Hg
Chemical 50 -13.9 Hg
1,1,2,2,3-
Name 55 -11.9 Hg
pentafluoropropane
60 -9.6 Hg
Oil 65 POE-7.2 Hg PAG
70 -4.5 Hg
75 -1.5 Hg
Replaces 80 R-11 0.8 R-123?
85 2.5
ARI 90 4.4
GUIDELINE 95 6.4
N-1995 100 8.6
colour 105 10.9
unassigned 110 13.4
115 16.1
120 19.1
125 22.2
130 25.5
135 29.1
140 32.9
145 36.9
150 41.2
155 45.8
160 50.6
165 55.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r245ca.htm4.3.2007 10:29:34
R-245CB

R-245CB

R-245cb

Temp Pressure
-40 -19.7 Hg
-35 -18.1 Hg
-30 -16.3 Hg
-25 -14.2 Hg
-20 -11.9 Hg
-15 -9.4 Hg
-10 -6.7 Hg
-5 -3.6 Hg
0 -0.2 Hg
5 1.7
10 3.7
15 5.9
20 8.3
Trade Name 25 R-245CB 10.8
30 13.6
35 CH 16.6
Formula 3CF2CF3
40 19.9
45 23.4
Chemical 50 1,1,1,2,2-
27.1
Name 55 pentafluoropropane
31.2
60 35.5
Oil 65 POE40.1 PAG
70 45.1
75 50.3
ARI 80 55.9
GUIDELINE
85 61.9
N-1995
90 68.2
colour
unassigned 95 74.9
100 82.0
105 89.5
110 97.4
115 105.8
120 114.6
125 123.9
130 133.7
135 144.0
140 154.8
145 166.1
150 178.0
155 190.5
160 203.6
165 217.3
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r245cb.htm4.3.2007 10:29:34
R-290

R-290

R-290

Temp Pressure
-40 1.4
-35 3.4
-30 5.6
-25 8.1
-20 10.7
-15 13.6
-10 16.7
-5 20.0
0 23.7
5 27.6
10 31.8
15 36.3
20 41.1
Trade Name 25 46.3 HC-290
30 51.8
35 57.7CH3CH2CH3
Formula
40 63.9
45 70.6
Chemical Name 50 77.6Propane
55 85.1
Oil
60 93.0all
65 101.4
70 110.2
ARI 75 119.5
GUIDELINE N-80 129.3
1995
85 139.6
colour
90 150.5
unassigned
95 161.9
100 173.9
105 186.4
110 199.6
115 213.4
120 227.8
125 242.9
130 258.6
135 275.1
140 292.3
145 310.2
150 328.9
155 348.3
160 368.7
165 389.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r290.htm4.3.2007 10:29:34
R-400(50/50)

R-400(50/50)

R-400(50/50) R-400(50/50)
Vapour Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -22.4 Hg -40 -16.8 Hg
-35 -21.2 Hg -35 -14.9 Hg
-30 -19.9 Hg -30 -12.9 Hg
-25 -18.3 Hg -25 -10.7 Hg
-20 -16.6 Hg -20 -8.2 Hg
-15 -14.7 Hg -15 -5.5 Hg
-10 -12.6 Hg -10 -2.6 Hg
-5 -10.3 Hg -5 0.3
-5 -7.7 Hg 0 2.1
5 -4.9 Hg 5 3.9
10 -1.8 Hg 10 6.0
15 0.8 15 8.2
Trade 20Name 2.6 20 10.6
R-400(50/50)
25 4.6 25 13.1
30 6.8 30 15.9
R-12/114
Formula35 9.1 50% 35 50%18.9
40 11.7 40 22.1
45 14.4 45 25.5
50 17.4 2- 50 29.1
(difluoromethoxy)-
55 20.6 55 33.0
1,1,1-
60 24.0
Chemical 60 37.2
trifluoroethane
Name 65 27.7 (CHF65 41.6
2-0-CH2-
70 31.6 70 46.3
CF3)
75 35.9 75 51.3
80 40.4 80 56.6
Oil 85 45.2 MO 85 AB 62.2
90 50.3 90 68.1
95 55.7 95 74.4
100 61.5 R-12 - high81.0
100
Replaces condensing
105 67.7 105 87.9
temperature
110 74.2 110 95.3
115 81.0 115 103.0
ARI120 88.3 120 111.1
125 96.0
GUIDELINE N- 125 119.6
1995130 104.1 130 128.5
colour
135 112.7 135 137.8
unassigned
140 121.4 140 147.6
145 131.2 145 157.8
150 141.2 150 168.5
155 151.7 155 179.7
160 162.7 160 191.4
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R-400(50/50)

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R-400(60/40)

R-400(60/40)

R-400(60/40) R-400(60/40)
Vapour Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -21.1 Hg -40 -15.4 Hg
-35 -19.8 Hg -35 -13.4 Hg
-30 -18.2 Hg -30 -11.2 Hg
-25 -16.4 Hg -25 -8.7 Hg
-20 -14.5 Hg -20 -6.0 Hg
-15 -12.3 Hg -15 -3.1 Hg
-10 -9.9 Hg -10 0.1
-5 -7.3 Hg -5 1.8
0 -4.4 Hg 0 3.7
5 -1.2 Hg 5 5.7
10 1.2 10 8.0
15 3.0 15 10.3
Trade 20Name 5.1 20 12.9
R-400(60/40)
25 7.3 25 15.7
30 9.7 30 18.7
R-12/114
35 12.4
Formula
60% 35 40%22.0
40 15.2 40 25.4
45 18.3 45 29.1
50 21.6 2- 50 33.1
(difluoromethoxy)-
55 25.1 55 37.3
1,1,1-
60 28.9
Chemical 60 41.8
trifluoroethane
Name 65 33.0 (CHF65 46.6
2-0-CH2-
70 37.4 70 51.6
CF3)
75 42.0 75 57.0
80 47.0 80 62.7
Oil 85 52.3 MO 85 AB 68.8
90 57.9 90 75.2
95 63.9 95 81.9
100 70.3 R-12 - high89.0
100
Replaces condensing
105 77.0 105 96.5
temperature
110 84.1 110 104.4
115 91.6 115 112.7
ARI120 99.6 120 121.4
125 108.0
GUIDELINE N- 125 130.5
1995130 116.9 130 140.1
colour
135 126.2 135 150.1
unassigned
140 136.0 140 160.6
145 146.3 145 171.6
150 157.2 150 183.1
155 168.6 155 195.1
160 180.5 160 207.6
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R-400(60/40)

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R-401A

R-401A

R-401A Vapour R-401A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-55 20 Hg -67 20 Hg
-42 15 Hg -53 15 Hg
-32 10 Hg -43 10 Hg
-23 5 Hg -35 5 Hg
-16 0 -27 0
-11 2 -22 2
-6 4 -17 4
-2 6 -13 6
2 8 -9 8
6 10 -5 10
9 12 -2 12
13 14 2 14
16 16 5 16
19 18 Suva 8 18
Genetron
Trade Name
21 20 MP3911 20
24 22 14 22
27 24 16 24
R-22/152a/124
Formula29 26 53% 19 13% 26 34%
32 28 21 28
34 30 24 30
2-
36 32 26 32
(difluoromethoxy)-
38 34 1,1,1-
28 34
40 36
Chemical 30 36
trifluoroethane
Name42 38 (CHF232 -0-CH38
2-
44 40 34 40
CF3)
46 42 36 42
48 44 38 44
50 46 40 (MO
AB, POE, 46 if
Oil 52 48 close 42 48
coupled)
54 50 44 50
58 55 48 55
R-12 (medium
62 60
Replaces 52 60
temperature)
66 65 56 65
69 70 59 70
73 75 63 75
76 80 66 80
79 85 69 85
82 90 73 90
85 95 76 95
88 100 78 100
90 105 81 105
93 110 84 110
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R-401A

ARI
GUIDELINE N-
1995
colour
assignment
pinkish-red
(coral)

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R-401B

R-401B

R-401b Vapour R-401b Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-59 20 Hg -70 20 Hg
-45 15 Hg -56 15 Hg
-35 10 Hg -46 10 Hg
-27 5 Hg -37 5 Hg
-20 0 -30 0
-14 2 -25 2
-10 4 -20 4
-6 6 -16 6
-2 8 -12 8
2 10 -8 10
6 12 -5 12
9 14 -1 14
12 16 2 16
15 18 Suva 5 MP6618
Trade Name
18 20 8 MP66
Genetron 20
20 22 10 22
23 24 13
R-22/152a/12424
Formula25 26 61%1511% 26 28%
28 28 18 28
30 30 20 30
AB, POE, (MO if
Oil 32 32 22 32
close coupled)
34 34 25 34
37 36 27 36
39
Replaces 38 R-12 29(low 38
temp
41 40 < -1031ºF) 40
42 42 33 42
44 44 35 44
ARI
46
GUIDELINE 46
N- 37 46
199548 48 38 48
colour 50 50 40 50
54
assignment 55 44 55
58
yellow-brown 60 48 60
61
(mustard) 65 52 65
65 70 56 70
68 75 59 75
72 80 63 80
75 85 66 85
78 90 69 90
81 95 72 95
83 100 75 100
86 105 77 105
89 110 80 110
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r401b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:36
R-401C

R-401C

R-401C Vapour R-401C Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -16.3 Hg -40 -10.4 Hg
-35 -14.2 Hg -35 -7.7 Hg
-30 -11.8 Hg -30 -4.6 Hg
-25 -9.2 Hg -25 -1.3 Hg
-20 -6.2 Hg -20 1.2
-15 -3.0 Hg -15 3.2
-10 0.3 -10 5.3
-5 2.2 -5 7.7
0 4.3 0 10.3
5 6.7 5 13.1
10 9.2 10 16.1
15 12.0 15 19.4
20 15.0 20 23.0
Trade 25Name 18.3 Suva25MP5226.9
30 21.9 30 31.0
35 25.7 35 35.5
R-22/152a/124
40 29.9
Formula
33%4015% 40.352%
45 34.3 45 45.4
50 39.2 50 50.9
Oil 55 44.3 AB 55 56.7
60 49.9 60 63.0
65 55.8 R-1265 69.6
Replaces
70 62.2 70 76.7
(automotive)
75 68.9 75 84.2
80 76.2 80 92.1in
not marketed
Note85 83.8 85 100.6
the USA
90 92.0 90 109.5
95 100.7 95 118.9
ARI100 109.9 100 128.8
105 119.6
GUIDELINE N- 105 139.3
1995110 129.9 110 150.4
colour
115 140.8 115 162.0
assignment
120 152.3 120 174.2
blue-green
125 164.5
(aqua)
125 187.0
130 177.3 130 200.4
135 190.7 135 214.5
140 204.9 140 229.3
145 219.9 145 244.8
150 235.5 150 260.9
155 252.0 155 277.8
160 269.3 160 295.4
165 287.4 165 313.8
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r401c.htm4.3.2007 10:29:37
R-402A

R-402A

R-402A Vapour R-402A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-89 -20 Hg -94 -20 Hg
-84 -18 Hg -88 -18 Hg
-79 -16 Hg -83 -16 Hg
-75 -14 Hg -79 -14 Hg
-71 -12 Hg -75 -12 Hg
-67 -10 Hg -71 -10 Hg
-64 -8 Hg -68 -8 Hg
-61 -6 Hg -65 -6 Hg
-58 -4 Hg -62 -4 Hg
-55 -2 Hg -59 -2 Hg
-53 0 -57 0
-48 2 -52 2
-44 4 -47 4
Trade-40 Name6 Suva-43HP806
-36 8 -39 8
-33 10 -36 10
R-125/290/22
Formula-29 12 60%-332% 12 38%
-26 14 -29 14
-23 16 -26 16
Oil -21 18 AB -24POE 18
-18 20 -21 20
-15 22
Replaces R-502-18 22
-13 24 -16 24
-11 26 -14 26
ARI -8 28 -11 28
GUIDELINE N-
-6 30 -7 32
1995
-4 32 -5 34
colour
-2 34
assignment -3 36
0 36
light brown -1 38
(sand)2 38 1 40
4 40 3 42
6 42 5 44
7 44 6 46
9 46 8 48
11 48 10 50
12 50 11 52
14 52 13 54
15 54 14 56
17 56 16 58
18 58 17 60
20 60 19 62
21 62 20 64
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r402a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:37
R-402B

R-402B

R-402B Vapour R-402B Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 3.3 -40 4.1
-35 5.6 -35 6.6
-30 8.3 -30 9.3
-25 11.1 -25 12.3
-20 14.3 -20 15.5
-15 17.7 -15 19.3
-10 21.5 -10 22.9
-5 25.5 -5 27.0
0 0.0 0 31.6
5 34.7 5 36.5
10 39.9 10 41.7
15 45.5 15 47.4
20 51.5 20 53.5
Trade 25Name 57.9 Suva25HP8160.1
30 64.8 30 67.1
35 72.2 35 74.6
R-125/290/22
40 80.1
Formula
38%402%82.6 60%
45 88.5 45 91.2
50 97.5 50 100.3
AB, POE,109.9
(MO if
Oil 55 107.0 55
close coupled)
60 117.2 60 120.2
65 127.9 65 131.1
70 139.4
Replaces 70 142.7
R-502
75 151.4 75 154.9
80 164.2 80 167.8
ARI
85 177.7 85 181.4
GUIDELINE N-
90 192.0 90 195.8
1995
colour95 207.0 95 211.0
100 222.9
assignment 100 226.9
105 239.5
green-brown 105 243.7
110 257.1
(olive) 110 261.3
115 275.5 115 279.8
120 294.8 120 299.2
125 315.1 125 319.6
130 336.3 130 340.9
135 358.6 135 363.2
140 381.9 140 386.5
145 406.3 145 410.8
150 431.8 150 436.2
155 458.5 155 462.8
160 486.3 160 490.4
165 515.4 165 519.2
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r402b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:38
R-403A

R-403A

R-403A Vapour R-403A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 2.8 -40 4.2
-35 5.1 -35 6.6
-30 7.7 -30 9.2
-25 10.5 -25 12.1
-20 13.5 -20 15.3
-15 16.9 -15 18.7
-10 20.5 -10 22.4
-5 24.4 -5 26.4
0 28.7 0 30.8
5 33.3 5 35.5
10 38.3 10 40.6
15 43.7 15 46.1
20 49.5 20 52.0
25 55.7 25 60-S
Isceon 58.2
Trade Name
30 62.3 30 69
Starton 65.0
35 69.4 35 72.2
40 77.0 40 79.8
R-290/22/218
45 85.1
Formula
5% 45 75%88.020%
50 93.7 50 96.7
55 102.9 55 106.0
Oil MO AB
60 112.6 60 115.8
65 123.0 65 126.1
70 133.9
Replaces 70 137.1
R-502
75 145.5 75 148.8
ARI 80 157.7 80 161.1
85 170.6
GUIDELINE N- 85 174.0
199590 184.2 90 187.7
colour95 198.6 95 202.0
100 213.7
unassigned 100 217.2
105 229.5 105 233.1
110 246.2 110 249.8
115 263.7 115 267.3
120 282.1 120 285.7
125 301.4 125 304.9
130 321.5 130 325.0
135 342.6 135 346.1
140 364.7 140 368.1
145 387.8 145 391.1
150 411.9 150 415.1
155 437.0 155 440.2
160 463.3 160 466.3
165 490.6 165 493.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r403a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:38
R-403B

R-403B

R-403B Vapour R-403B Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 4.5 -40 4.9
-35 6.9 -35 7.4
-30 9.7 -30 10.1
-25 12.6 -25 13.1
-20 15.9 -20 16.4
-15 19.4 -15 19.9
-10 23.3 -10 23.8
-5 27.4 -5 28.0
0 31.9 0 32.5
5 36.8 5 37.4
10 42.0 10 42.6
15 47.6 15 48.2
20 53.3 20 54.3
Trade25Name
60.2 2569-L
Iceon 60.8RX1
30 67.1 30 67.7
35 74.5 35 75.1
R-290/22/218
40 82.4
Formula
5% 40 56%83.139%
45 90.8 45 91.5
50 99.7 50 100.4
Oil 55 109.2 MO55AB109.9
60 119.3 60 120.0
65 129.9
Replaces 65 130.7
R-502
70 141.2 70 142.0
ARI 75 153.1 75 153.9
80 165.7
GUIDELINE N- 80 166.5
199585 179.0 85 179.8
90 193.0
colour 90 193.8
95 207.7
unassigned 95 208.6
100 223.2 100 224.1
105 239.5 105 240.4
110 256.6 110 257.5
115 274.6 115 275.5
120 293.4 120 294.3
125 313.1 125 314.0
130 333.7 130 334.6
135 355.3 135 356.2
140 377.9 140 378.8
145 401.4 145 402.3
150 426.0 150 426.9
155 451.7 155 452.5
160 478.5 160 479.3
165 507.1
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r403b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:39
FR-12

FR-12

FR-12 Vapour FR-12 Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -16.2 Hg -40 -16.2 Hg
-35 -14.1 Hg -35 -14.1 Hg
-30 -11.7 Hg -30 -11.7 Hg
-25 -9.1 Hg -25 -9.1 Hg
-20 -6.2 Hg -20 -6.2 Hg
-15 -3.0 Hg -15 -3.0 Hg
-10 -1.4 Hg -10 0.3
-5 1.1 -5 2.2
0 3.1 0 4.3
5 5.3 5 6.6
10 7.7 10 9.2
15 10.3 15 11.9
20 13.2 20 14.9
25 16.3 25FR12
Frigc 18.2
Trade Name
30 19.6 30 21.7
(Intermagnetics)
35 23.2 35 25.5
40 27.2 40 29.7
R-134a/124/600
45 31.4
Formula
59% 45 39%34.12%
50 35.9 50 38.9
55 40.8 55 44.0
Oil MO POE AB
60 46.1 60 49.5
65 51.7 65 55.3
70 57.7
Replaces R1270 61.6
75 64.1 75 68.3
80 71.0 80 75.4
85 78.3 85 83.0
90 86.0 90 91.0
colour95 94.3 95 99.5
100 103.0 100 108.6
105 112.3 105 118.1
110 122.1 110 128.2
115 132.4 115 138.9
120 143.4 120 150.2
125 154.9 125 162.1
130 167.1 130 174.6
135 180.0 135 187.7
140 193.5 140 201.5
145 207.7 145 216.0
150 222.6 150 231.3
155 283.3 155 247.2
160 254.8 160 263.9
165 272.1 165 281.4
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_fr12.htm4.3.2007 10:29:39
Freezone

Freezone

Freezone Freezone Liquid


Vapour
Temp Pressure
Temp Pressure -40 -16.3 Hg
-40 -17.3 Hg -35 -14.2 Hg
-35 -15.3 Hg -30 -11.8 Hg
-30 -13.1 Hg -25 -9.2 Hg
-25 -10.7 Hg -20 -6.2 Hg
-20 -8.0 Hg -15 -3.0 Hg
-15 -4.9 Hg -10 0.3
-10 -1.6 Hg -5 2.3
-5 1.1 0 4.4
0 3.1 5 6.7
5 5.3 10 9.3
10 7.7 15 12.1
15 10.3 20 15.1
20 13.2 25 18.4
Freezone RB-
Trade 25Name 16.3 27630 22.2
30 19.7 35 25.9
(Refrigerant
35 23.4 40 30.1
Gasses)
40 27.3 45 34.6
45 31.6 50 39.5
R-134a/142b/
50 36.2
Formula 55 44.7
lubricant
55 41.2 79% 60 19%50.32%
60 46.5 65 56.3
65 52.2 70 62.7
Oil MO AB
70 58.3 75 69.5
75 64.8 80 76.8
80 71.8
Replaces R1285 84.5
85 79.2 90 92.8
ARI 90 87.1 95 101.5
95 95.5
GUIDELINE N- 100 110.7
1995100 104.4 105 120.5
105 113.8
colour 110 130.9
110 123.8
unassigned 115 141.9
115 134.4 120 153.4
120 145.6 125 165.6
125 157.4 130 178.4
130 169.8 135 191.9
135 183.0 140 206.1
140 196.8 145 221.1
145 211.4 150 236.7
150 226.7 155 253.1
155 242.8 160 270.3
160 259.7 165 288.3
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_freezone.htm4.3.2007 10:29:40
R-407A

R-407A

R-407A Vapour R-407A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -1.6 Hg -40 4.4
-35 1.3 -35 6.9
-30 3.5 -30 9.7
-25 6.0 -25 12.8
-20 8.8 -20 16.1
-15 11.8 -15 19.8
-10 15.2 -10 23.8
-5 18.8 -5 28.1
0 22.8 0 32.9
5 27.2 5 38.0
10 31.9 10 43.5
15 37.1 15 49.4
20 42.6 20 55.8
Trade 25Name 48.7 25 62.7
ICI Klea-60
30 55.2 30 70.1
35 62.2 35 78.0
R-32/125/134a
40 69.7
Formula
20%4040% 86.440%
45 77.8 45 95.4
50 86.5 50 105.0
Oil 55 95.8 POE55 115.2
60 105.7 60 126.1
Note65 116.3 (new65equipment)
137.6
70 127.6 70 149.8
75 139.6 75 162.7
ARI 80 152.3 80 176.3
85 165.9
GUIDELINE N- 85 190.7
199590 180.2 90 205.9
colour95 195.5 95 221.9
100 211.6
assignment 100 238.8
lime105 228.6
green 105 256.5
110 246.6 110 275.1
115 265.6 115 294.7
120 285.7 120 315.1
125 306.8 125 336.6
130 329.1 130 359.0
135 352.6 135 382.5
140 377.3 140 406.9
145 403.4 145 432.5
150 430.7 150 459.0
155 459.6 155 486.7
160 490.0 160 515.3
165 522.0 165 545.0
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r407a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:40
R-407b

R-407B

R-407B Vapour R-407B Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 2.3 -40 5.9
-35 4.7 -35 8.6
-30 7.3 -30 11.5
-25 10.2 -25 14.8
-20 13.4 -20 18.4
-15 16.9 -15 22.2
-10 20.7 -10 26.5
-5 24.9 -5 31.1
0 29.5 0 36.1
5 34.4 5 41.5
10 39.8 10 47.3
15 45.6 15 53.6
20 51.8 20 60.3
Trade25Name
58.6 25 67.6
ICI Klea-61
30 65.9 30 75.3
35 73.7 35 83.6
R-32/125/134a
40 82.0
Formula
10%4070% 92.5
20%
45 91.0 45 101.9
50 100.5 50 112.0
Oil 55 110.7 POE55 122.7
60 121.6 60 134.1
65 133.2
Replaces 65 146.2
R-502
70 145.5 70 158.9
75 158.5 75 172.5
ARI 80 172.4 80 186.8
85 187.1
GUIDELINE N- 85 201.9
199590 202.6 90 217.8
95 219.0
colour 95 234.5
100 236.4
assignment 100 252.2
105 254.7
cream 105 270.8
110 274.0 110 290.2
115 294.4 115 310.7
120 315.8 120 332.1
125 338.4 125 354.6
130 362.1 130 378.1
135 387.1 135 402.7
140 413.3 140 428.3
145 440.9 145 455.1
150 470.0 150 482.9
155 500.6 155 511.8
160 533.0 160 541.5
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r407b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:40
R-407C

R-407C

R-407C Vapour R-407C Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -4.4 Hg -40 3.0
-35 -0.7 Hg -35 5.4
-30 1.7 -30 8.0
-25 4.0 -25 10.9
-20 6.5 -20 14.1
-15 9.3 -15 17.5
-10 12.4 -10 21.3
-5 15.8 -5 25.4
0 19.4 0 29.9
5 23.5 5 34.7
10 27.9 10 39.9
15 32.6 15 45.6
20 37.8 20 51.7
25 43.4 25 58.2
Suva-9000
Trade 30Name 49.5 30HX3
Reclin 65.2
35 56.0 35 72.7
KLea-66
40 63.0 40 80.7
45 70.6 45 89.3
R-32/125/134a
Formula
50 78.7 23%5025% 98.453%
55 87.3 55 108.2
60 96.6 60 118.5
Oil POE
65 106.6 65 129.5
70 117.1 70 141.1
75 128.4
Replaces R-2275 153.5
80 140.4 80 166.5
85 153.2 85 180.3
ARI 90 166.7 90 194.8
95 181.0
GUIDELINE N- 95 210.1
1995100 196.2 100 226.3
105 212.3
colour 105 243.2
assignment
110 229.4 110 261.1
medium brown
115 247.3 115 279.8
120 266.3 120 299.4
125 286.4 125 320.0
130 307.5 130 341.5
135 329.7 135 364.0
140 353.2 140 387.5
145 377.8 145 412.0
150 403.8 150 437.6
155 431.1 155 464.1
160 459.9 160 491.8
165 490.3 165 520.4
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r407c.htm4.3.2007 10:29:41
R-407D

R-407D

R-407D Vapour R-407D Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -9.1 Hg -40 -0.7 Hg
-35 -6.0 Hg -35 1.6
-30 -2.4 Hg -30 3.8
-25 0.7 -25 6.2
-20 2.8 -20 8.9
-15 5.2 -15 11.8
-10 7.8 -10 14.9
-5 10.6 -5 18.4
0 13.7 0 22.1
5 17.1 5 26.2
10 20.7 10 30.6
15 24.9 15 35.4
20 29.3 20 40.6
Trade 25Name 34.1 25 46.1
ICI Klea-407D
30 39.3 30 52.1
35 44.9 35 58.5
R-32/125/134a
40 50.9
Formula
15%4015% 65.470%
45 57.4 45 72.7
50 64.4 50 80.6
Oil 55 71.8 POE55 88.9
60 79.8 60 97.8
65 88.4
Replaces 65 107.3
R-500
70 97.5 70 117.4
75 107.3 75 128.0
ARI 80 117.7 80 139.3
GUIDELINE N-
85 128.7 85 151.3
1995
90 140.4 90 163.9
colour
95 152.9
assignment 95 177.3
dark100 brown166.1 100 191.3
105 180.1
(chocolate) 105 206.1
110 194.9 110 221.7
115 210.5 115 238.1
120 227.0 120 255.3
125 244.5 125 273.4
130 262.8 130 292.3
135 282.2 135 312.1
140 302.6 140 332.8
145 324.1 145 354.4
150 346.7 150 377.0
155 370.5 155 400.6
160 395.4 160 425.2
165 421.7 165 450.7
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r407d.htm4.3.2007 10:29:41
R-410B

R-410B

R-410B Vapour R-410B Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 11.0 -40 11.1
-35 14.3 -35 14.4
-30 18.0 -30 18.1
-25 22.1 -25 22.2
-20 26.5 -20 26.6
-15 31.3 -15 31.5
-10 36.6 -10 36.8
-5 42.2 -5 42.5
0 48.4 0 48.7
5 55.1 5 55.4
10 62.3 10 62.6
15 70.0 15 70.4
20 78.4 20 78.8
25 87.3 25 87.8
Suva-9100
Trade Name
30 96.9 30 May
(before 97.4
96)
35 107.1 35 107.8
40 118.1 40 118.8
R-32/125
45 129.8
Formula
45%4555% 130.5
50 142.2 50 143.0
55 155.4 55 156.3
Oil POE
60 169.5 60 170.4
65 184.4 65 185.4
70 200.2
Replaces
R-2270(higher
201.3
75 216.9 75 218.1
pressure)
80 234.6 80 235.8
85 253.2 85 254.6
ARI 90 272.9 90 274.4
95 293.7
GUIDELINE N- 95 295.2
1995100 315.6 100 317.2
105 338.6
colour 105 340.3
assignment
110 362.8 110 364.6
maroon
115 388.3 115 390.0
120 415.0 120 416.8
125 443.0 125 444.9
130 472.4 130 474.2
135 503.2 135 505.0
140 535.5 140 537.2
145 569.2 145 570.9
150 604.6 150 606.0
155 641.6 155 642.7
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r410b.htm4.3.2007 10:29:42
R-413A

R-413A

R-413A Vapour R-413A Liquid

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure


-40 -13.2 Hg -40 -7.9 Hg
-35 -10.7 Hg -35 -4.9 Hg
-30 -7.8 Hg -30 -1.6 Hg
-25 -4.6 Hg -25 1.0
-20 -1.1 Hg -20 3.0
-15 1.4 -15 5.1
-10 3.5 -10 7.5
-5 5.9 -5 10.0
0 8.4 0 12.8
5 11.2 5 15.9
10 14.3 10 19.2
15 17.7 15 22.8
20 21.3 20 26.7
25 25.3 25 Isceon
R-413A 30.9
Trade Name
30 29.6 49 30 35.4
35 34.2 35 40.3
40 39.2 40 45.5
R-218/134a/600a
45 44.6
Formula
9% 45 88% 51.1
3%
50 50.4 50 57.1
55 56.6 55 63.5
Oil POE
60 63.2 60 70.4
65 70.3 65 77.7
70 77.9
Replaces R-1270 85.5
75 86.0 75 93.7
ARI 80 94.6 80 102.5
85 113.5
GUIDELINE N- 85 111.8
199590 123.8 90 121.7
colour95 134.8 95 132.2
100 146.4
unassigned 100 143.2
105 158.6 105 154.9
110 167.2 110 167.2
115 171.5 115 180.2
120 185.2 120 193.9
125 199.5 125 208.3
130 214.7 130 223.4
135 230.6 135 239.3
140 247.4 140 256.0
145 265.0 145 273.5
150 283.4 150 291.9
155 302.8 155 311.1
160 323.1 160 331.2
165 344.4 165 352.2
file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Branko/Desktop/FREON%20SA%20INTERNETA/1024x768/pt_r413a.htm4.3.2007 10:29:42
R-500

R-500

R-500

Temp Pressure
-90 -24.9 Hg
-80 -22.9 Hg
-70 -20.3 Hg
-60 -17.0 Hg
-50 -12.8 Hg
-40 -7.6 Hg
-35 -4.6 Hg
-30 -1.2 Hg
-25 1.2
-20 3.2
-15 5.4
-10 7.8
-5 10.4
0 13.3