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Results & Discussion

Figure 1. Local LD interpretation scale of study sites further divided into subclasses

The LDV of the sampling site in perimeter is estimated to be 8.6. Based on the Local LD
interpretation scale Figure 1., the classification is extremely low.

SUM OF FREQUENCIES OF ALL THE


SPECIES FOUND AT ONE CARDINAL
POINT OF TREE
16
14
12
10
8
SF

6
4
2
0
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
QUADRANTS

Figure 2. Frequency in each plots

Sum of Frequencies at one Cardinal Point


According to Figure 2, Quadrant 1 contained the highest frequency by 14 while at Quadrant 4
contained the lowest frequency by 7.
MEAN OF THE SUM OF FREQUENCIES
OF ALL TREES AT A GIVEN CARDINAL
POINT
5
4
3
MEAN

2
1
0
N S E W
CARDINAL POINTS

Figure 3. Frequency totals on each cardinal points.

Frequencies of Cardinal Points (North, South, East, West) on Trees


Based on Figure 3, it was computed that the highest frequency values were observed on the northern
side of the trees (MSF=4) while on the southern and western side were recorded to have a lowest frequencies
(MSF=1.4).
Discussion
Mostly, crustose lichens were found in the sampling area while foliose lichens were few. Few
foliose lichens is caused by higher rate of precipitation. This also means that it has a lower rate of
disturbance level and higher ecological progression which sustains the development of foliose lichens.The
moisture that prevails in the site is high because of the lower rate of disturbance. The crustose lichens are
granular or powdery in appearance (Mulligan, 2009).
Lichen diversity values can be measured as assessments of ecological quality and stress that occurs
in the territory, where high numbers means great quality with low disturbance and low values show low
quality and high disturbance.In the sampling site, the LD values indicated an extremely low class diversity.
This could be because of the inadequate source of lichen propagules or applicable substrata for colonization
for lichens.This presence of environmental stress is higher because of ecological disturbances like vehicular
emissions.Additionally, the low dispersal and gradual restoration of specialist lichen species and inadequate
functional habitats because of recurrent disturbance of ecological progression.Considering the above
certainties the most affecting parameters for epiphytic lichen advancement at the storage compartment level
in the examination destinations can be proposed as sort of tree species, bark roughness, bark pH, nutrient
accessibility, light, dampness, air quality, past forest administration practices and contemporary human
effects (Wolseley & Aguirre-Hudson, 1997).
References
Wolseley P. & Aguirre-Hudson B. (1997). Lichens of tropical forests in Thailand: A field key to
characteristic epiphytic species in northern Thailand. pp. 1-9. Department of Botany, National History
Museum, London.
Mulligan L. (2009). An assessment of epiphytic lichens, lichen diversity and environmental quality in the
semi-natural woodlands of Knocksink Wood Nature Reserve, Enniskerry, County Wicklow. PhD thesis,
Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland.