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Egyptian Geophysical Society

EGS Journal, vol. 1, No.1, 17-29 (2003)

DELINEATION OF THE SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES AND TECTONICS OF QARUN


AREA USING POTENTIAL FIELD DATA

W. Abd El-Aziz* and H. Zahra**


* Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain
Shams University.
** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha, Zagazig University.

‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﺘﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻗﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﻓﺼل ﺸﺫﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻀﺤﻠﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼـﺔ‬
‫ ﻭﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺫﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬،‫ﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺠﺭﻴﻔﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﺸﺫﻭﺫ‬.‫ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬
.‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻤﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺫﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻰ‬

‫ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬،‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺎﻗﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺴﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻤﻕ ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬.‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻭﻫﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻭﺍﺽ ﺘﺭﺴﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺏ‬،‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ‬
‫ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﺒﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻌﻠﻭ ﺼﺨﻭﺭ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻟﺨﻁﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺯﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺴﻤﻜﻪ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻭﺴﺘﺔ ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬
.‫ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬

ABSTRACT: More attention has recently been given to the geology of the study area. It is expected as a potential
source for oil, gas and groundwater.
The utilized processing techniques include the isolation of potential anomalies into deep regional and shallower
residual components using Griffin’s method, filtering methods, downward continuation and second vertical derivative.
The regional and residual components of the Bouguer map were calculated using Griffin’s technique. The residual
anomaly map reflects the local elements of shallow sources and significant stratigraphic and structural manifestations
,while the regional anomaly map reveals the broad features of deep sources. Moreover, wave number filtering of
gravity anomalies is carried out utilizing three types of filters with different operators.
Application of these tools on the gravity data discriminated variable sources of different depth ranges for the residual
and regional anomalies, as well as those limited to a certain depth interval. Gravity modeling revealed that, the
sedimentary basins seem to be structurally controlled and affected by normal faults with dipping angle nearly vertical.
The constructed basement tectonic map shows that the area consists of simple and complex series of faults, uplifted and
down-faulted blocks delineating promising deep sedimentary basins.
Different methods were used in calculating the basement depth by which the basement relief map was constructed.
Three basement cross sections were generated using 21/2 -D forward modeling to support and refine the interpreted
structures. Also, two seismic lines were used to confirm the interpreted basement depth. Besides, the basement surface
map shows that the sedimentary cover ranges in thickness between 0.5 to 6 km.
INTRODUCTION
The study area is located in the eastern part of the of tensional relief (Said 1990). This area covers a part
North Western Desert of Egypt between latitudes 280 of the Nile Delta and extends through Wadi El-Natrun
45/ and 300 15/ N, and longitudes 290 50/ and 310 depression, which is mostly covered by plants and
20/ E, (Fig.1) within the tectonic framework of the shows no geologic exposures. Therefore, comparative
unstable shelf and has lateral variation in layer thickness structural analysis of gravity and magnetic was carried
and facies. It is characterized by major and minor out to identify subsurface structural features and to give
faulting originating by compressive forces along a satisfactory picture concerning tectonics. The most
period of movements followed by a short action period
18 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

Fig. (1) Location map of the study area.


important tectonic event affecting the Northern part of (171m) and lower depression, e.g. Wadi El-Tarfaya
the Western Desert occurred during the late Cretaceous depression are present.
and early Tertiary periods, and is believed to be related Geomorphologically, the region west of Nile
to the movement of the North African plate towards Delta, which includes the area of study, is distinguished
Europe. This compressional movement caused the by Shata and Fayoumy,(1967); Abdel Baki,(1983) and
elevation and folding of major portions of the Northern Gomaa(1995) into the following geomorphic units from
Western Desert along a northeast-southwest trend and north to south:
resulted in the development of numerous faults, the
The coastal plains.
majority of which exhibit considerable displacement
and long history of growth. Inversion features, i.e. low The northern table land.
areas at the time of deposition that were subsequently The alluvial plains.
uplifted are numerous and are associated with Jurassic The structural plain.
depocenters in the Western Desert. Thus, one of the key The southern table land
elements to exploration success is being able to look
The shifting sand.
below the inversion features in order to obtain a better
understanding of structural timing. In the Qarun area ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL FIELD DATA
both shallow and deep structures are present along 1- The Bouguer anomaly map:
faulted anticlines that are generally aligned in the
Bouguer anomaly map (Fig. 2) shows that the area
northeast – southwest direction. It is clear that the Qarun
is characterized by intense gravity minimum extended
area is located along a NE – SW trending intra-basinal
from the northeastern to the southeast one and dividing
paleo arch in a flank position with respect to both the
the area into two parts, the first extens to the east and
Kattaniya inverted basin to the northwest and Gindi
the southwest with high and moderate gravity anomalies
basin to the southeast. Prior to its discovery , the nearest
and the second extends to the northeast and northeastern
on trend production was located 18 km to the northeast
part with high gravity minimum trending NE-SW. Also,
at Ahram ( WD-19 ) field.
the study area is characterized by the existence of some
TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY large regional and local gravity maximum, mostly
Topographically, the area under study is relatively trending NE-SW and NW-SE.
of high relief. The ground elevation ranges between
116m and 175m above the sea level; however higher
ridges, e.g. Gebel Hadid (175m.) and Gebel El-Washika
Delineation of Subsurface Structures 19

dimension of the shallow and deep gravity anomalies of


the study area.

Fig. (2) Bouguar anomaly map of the study area.

Bouguer anomaly map indicates that the area is Fig. (3) Residual anomaly map (Griffin’s method).
affected by two directions. The first one is the NE-SW
direction coincides with the regional trend of the Syrian
Arc and is represented by a large number of faults with
great length. The second one is NW-SE trend and
characterized by faults of large extent. These interpreted
trends show good matching with those deduced by
Shata, 1956; Said,1962; El-Shazly et al.,1974; Darwish
and Riad,1986.
2- Regional -Residual Separation:
There are many different methods concerned with
separation of the regional and residual components from
the magnetic map. In the present study, the Griffin’s
method (1949) was applied for isolating the Bouguer
anomaly map to the deep regional and shallow residual
components, Figs. ( 3, 4 ). The regional map reveals the
nearly central NE-SW gravity gradient that separates the
northern low and southern gravity high. The eastern
portion is occupied by two major gravity highs one of
them is trending NE-SW in the northern western part of
the regional anomaly map, while the second high
anomaly is located in the south western part trending in
NW-SE direction. The northern portion of the area is
characterized by two major gravity lows with the NW-
SE trend. The residual anomaly map reflects high
frequency content of high and low gravity anomalies of
Fig. (4) Regional anomaly map (Griffin’s method).
limited areal extent and considerable vertical relief. The
western portion is characterized by local anomalies of
NE-SW trends, while the eastern portion is FILTERING TECHNIQUE
characterized often by anomalies of NE-SW and E-W It is worth mentioning that, the interesting
trend. The selected depth of separation ( the radius of anomalies on the gravity map are frequently obtained by
the weighting circle ) between the regional and residuals the deep-seated features. Therefore, the removal of the
is carried out along intermediate depth, regardless of the regional anomalies from the total is the main aim of the
gravity separation. So, we can define better the anomaly
20 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

trends and configurations that are not easily detectable produced, (Figs. 5, 6 and 7). The gravity map with 8
on the original map. In working with the gravity map, unit regional filter (Fig.5) is similar to the regional
the usual situation is that, we have a basement of regular anomaly map separated by Griffin’s method (Fig.3), but
depth variation, consequently sedimentary section of with minor exception regarding the decrease of relief
regular thickness variation and that the anomalies on the and gradients magnitudes of the anomalies, while the
map all stem from sources at this basement surface and gravity maps of 16 and 21.3 units (Figs. 6 and 7) reveal
within the sedimentary section. Filtering the maps more smoothed anomalies. They show that the area is
serves to improve the understanding of the geological subdivided into three portions, the northern and
configuration of the basement and the covering
southern lows with negative anomalies and the central
sedimentary cover.
high positive one, separated by steep gravity gradient
oriented NE-SW and NW-SE directions. A tectonic map
was constructed for each regional filter map (Figs. 8,9
and 10).

Fig. (5) Regional filter map with 8-unit filter.

Therefore, the filters used were grouped into three Fig. (6) Regional filter map with 16-unit filter.
categories, namely; regional (low-pass), residual (high-
pass) and band -pass filters. The low pass is defined as a
filter which passes long wavelengths and rejects all
wavelengths smaller than the cut-off wavelength. A
high-pass filter emphasizes short wavelengths and
eliminate wavelengths larger than the cut off
wavelength. The band pass filter passes wavelengths
within a certain range (Peter and John,1970). The basic
operation of filtering is the convolution of a matrix of
filter coefficients with a set of equi-spaced grid of two
dimensional data. In the present study the filtering
technique is carried out, using three sets of filtering
coefficients developed by Zurflueh, (1967). These sets
are coefficients of the 8,16 and 21.3 units of regional 2- High-pass Magnetic Filtering (HP):
filter. They are computed by numerical evaluation of the The local anomalies are isolated from the regional
inverse Fourier Transform of the frequency response of
the filter matrix row, low pass ( LP ), high pass ( HP )
and band pass filtering.
1- Low - Pass Magnetic Filtering ( LP)
The low pass filtering process is used to isolate the
regional features from the local ones. Three sets of
filtering coefficients are applied upon the gravity
anomaly map. Three regional gravity anomaly maps are Fig. (7) Regional filter map with 21.3-unit filter.
Delineation of Subsurface Structures 21

ones by high pass filtering. Three residual GRAVITY TECTONIC ELEMENTS


anomaly maps are produced (Figs. 11, 12 and 13 ). The
The critical analysis of the regional and residual
residual gravity map with 8 units (Fig. 11) is more or
gravity anomalies, as deduced from the griding and
less analogous to the residual gravity map separated by
Griffin’s method (Fig. 4), but with smaller number of
anomalies and more gentle gravity gradients. The
increase of the filter operator from 8-units, 16- units to
21.3 units pass the longer wavelengths of more uniform
nature as composed to the shorter wavelengths of the
more heterogeneous nature. Therefore, maps with 16
and 21.3 units residual filters Figs. 12 and 13 , reflect
more integrated and smoothed anomalies and more
steeper gravity gradients. Also, they are distinguished
by a central high positive anomalies and southern
low negative one. Three tectonic maps were constructed
for each residual filter map (Figs. 1, 15 and 16).

Fig. (9) Regional tectonic map with 16-unit filter.

Fig. (8) Regional tectonic map with 8-unit filter.

3- Band – Pass Magnetic Filtering (BP):


This process resulted in maps expressing the
anomaly pattern within a certain range of wavelengths. Fig. (10) Regional tectonic map with 21-unit filter.
Accordingly, three maps showing the band pass effects
(16-8, 21.3-16 and 21.3-8) of the gravity anomaly map
are illustrated in (Figs. 17, 18 and 19). The gravity map
with 16-8 units band pass filter (Fig. 17) characterizes
the upper section of the study area and exhibits high
frequency content of limited areal extension and
considerable vertical relief anomalies; while the 21.3-16
units band pass filter, (Fig. 18) characterizes the lower
part section and shows low frequency content of larger
lateral extension and smaller vertical relief anomalies.
On the other hand, gravity map with 21.3-8 units band
pass filter (Fig. 19) characterizes the summed effect of
the two fore-mentioned band pass and represents the
high frequency with the sharpest relief and steepest
gradient. Three tectonic maps were constructed for the
band pass maps (Figs.20 , 21 & 22).

Fig. (11) Residual Bouguar map with 8-unit filter.


22 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

anomalies, separated by Griffin’s method, a simple

Fig. (12) Regional tectonic map with 16-unit filter.


Fig. (14) Residual tectonic map with 8-unit filter.
filtering methods, reveals the implication of the studied
area with a number of structural belts of varying types
(folds and faults) trends and locations. They reflect well
the subsurface geologic conditions and are considered
as first approximation that the anomalies at different
depths might also represent the geotectonic behavior
affecting the earth’s crust in the manner that the
characteristic features of a given set anomalies are
related to certain functions of the total affecting stresses.
(Bayoumi and Bacili, 1976).

Fig. (15) Residual tectonic map with 16-unit filter.

Fig. (13) Regional tectonic map with 21-unit filter.

For illustrating the trend patterns of the gravity


anomalies displayed at shallow, intermediate and deep
depths, using three types of filters of high-path (HP),
band pass (BP) and low-pass (LP) of short, intermediate
and long wavelengths as well as regional and residual

Fig. (16) Residual tectonic map with 21-unit filter.


Delineation of Subsurface Structures 23

standard method (Miller and Khan, 1962) is used to


construct azimuth-frequency diagrams showing the
number and length of elements (Fig. 23). They indicate
that the area is affected by a number of structural belts
of varying types (folds and faults), trends and locations;
(Fig. 23). Each of these zones is affected by specific,
dominant feature trends. The shallow section is
characterized by the E-W, N35oE, N550W, N-S and
N25oE trends. The deep section is characterized by the
N45oE, N35oW, N-S, E-W, and N250W, while the
intermediate section is characterized by N-S, N45oE, E-
W, N250Wand N45oW trends. The major tectonic trends
deduced from band-pass filtered maps were compared
with the other maps. It was found that the 21.3-16 units
band pass is more conformed with that deduced from
the gravity anomaly and 8-units residual filter maps.
Fig. (19) Bouguer anomaly map with band
pass 21-8 unit filter.

Fig. (17) Bouguer anomaly map with band pas


16-8 unit filter. Fig. (20) Bouguer tectonic map with 16-8 band
pass filter.

Fig. (21) Bouguer tectonic map with 21-16


Fig. (18) Bouguer anomaly map with band pas 21- band pass filter.
16 unit filter.
24 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

Fig. (22) Bouguer tectonic map with 21-8


band pass filter.

Fig. (24) Basalt relief map.

On the other hand , the lower part of the studied


section in the eastern and western parts is characterized
by E-W and NE-SW trends of major normal faults
forming a number of alternating horst and graben blocks
implicated by anticlinal and synclinal trends, while the
central part is characterized by a number of shear zones
trending NE-SW and E-W.
In the upper part of the sedimentary section, it is
clear that the eastern side of the area is affected by faults
of NE direction. Rejuvenation along some of the
southeastern old faults occurred, followed by uplifting
of some downfaulted blocks and subsidence of the
others. Studying, the regional, residual and second
vertical derivative maps relative to the geology of the
area, the following can be deduced:
1- The broad anomalies of the Bouguer map are
still found on the regional map and not indicated on
both the residual and second vertical derivative. It
implies that its origin of the anomalies associated
with basement and not with the shallower rocks.
2- The scattered basalt shown on the geological
map is only well defined on the shallow origin of
the basaltic rocks map (Fig. 24).
3- The similarity of both maps gives a good
support for the presence of very shallow to near
surface causative bodies.
DOWNWARD CONTINUATION
The downward continuation process of the
potential field indicates that, when the continuation
level is 3.75km (Fig.25) both major and small anomalies
appear with higher resolution than at the previous level
Fig.23 Azimuth frequency diagram of the study area.
(Re: regional Rs: residual b: band pass)
Delineation of Subsurface Structures 25

SECOND VERTICAL DERIVATIVE METHOD


This technique was also applied on the gravity
data using Henderson and Zeitz (1949) formula in order
to reveal the shallow anomalies occurring within the
sedimentary succession or at the top of the basement
complex. The SVD technique was applied on the
Bouguer map with radii (r = 3, 4 and 5 km.). The SVD
map with radius (r = 4 km) (Fig. 26) shows suitable
anomalies more clearly and emphasizes the minor
features on the expense of the major ones. These maps
show alternative positive and negative anomalies and
some high amplitude with great gradients, indicating
major faults and another small amplitudes and gentle
gradients reflecting smaller displacement faults.

Fig. (25) Downward continuation map of the


study area.
and the extension of major and minor axes of the
original anomalies did not change. Hence, it can be
concluded that levels 3.75 km revealed out that most of
the observed anomalies in the area reflect the effect of
deep seated structures lying mostly within the basement
rocks rather than the effect of shallow structures.
FAULT REPRESNTATION
Potential anomalies are aligned along defined axes
to indicate gravity trends. The purpose of this trend
analysis is to define statistically the major tectonic
trends which affected the sedimentary section as well as
the basement rocks of the studied area. Trends of the
different types of potential anomalies and the
prominently steep gravity gradients on the previously
studied maps were traced out , statistically calculated
Fig. (26) Second vertical derivative map.
and represented on frequency diagrams; (Fig.23); in
percentage of the total number and length. The different
peaks on the diagrams are considered to represent the
major trends of different trend but the faults having GRAVITY MODELING
E-W trend are of relatively large number and of limited Two and half-dimensional (2.5 D) gravity
areal extension, which may be explained as due to a modeling was carried out along selected profiles to
continuously acting force of long duration. The NW-SE confirm and adjust the proposed basement structures.
trend (Suez and Najd) represents a minor trend on the This technique was applied on the Bouguer map
anomaly maps statistical analysis of the continuation map along four selected profiles using 2.5 D algorithm
anomalies confirmed the presence of NE, E-W and NW (Talwani et al., 1959. Talwani and Hentzler, 1964) to
folded and faulted structures. It was also found that the confirm dip of the tilted fault blocks, depth of the
intensity of the NE and NW continuation anomalies is basement surface and to delineate accurately basement
higher at the continuation level 5 km which is the tectonic framework in the study area. Four regional
maximum depth to basement in the area. The E-W geologic cross sections for the buried crystalline
anomalies were found to have the higher intensities for basement rocks were constructed along the selected
the shallower continuation levels 2.5 km which were gravity profiles (Fig.27) using surface geologic
found to be the average depth to basement within the information.
study area.
26 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

Fig. (27a) Modeled Profile A-A’.

Fig. (27b) Modeled Profile B-B’.


Delineation of Subsurface Structures 27

Fig. (27c) Modeled Profile C-C’.

Fig. (27d) Modeled Profile D-D’.


28 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

The modeling is carried out until reasonable fit is unit is the best for delineating the smaller elements of
obtained between the observed and calculated curves. shallow depths than the others, the 21.3 regional filter is
The values of gravity for the different polygons are the best for defining the larger elements of deep depths
changed and readjusted during modeling along these than others, while the 21.3-8 band pass filter is the best
profiles. (Figures 27 (a,b,c,d) are examples of these for delineating the intermediate depth range .
modeled profiles.
All the above mentioned analyses of gravity data
were integrated with the different geologic information
to construct the basement structure contour map of the
area (Fig. 28). Finally, a tectonic map for the area was
constructed (Fig. 29).

Fig. (29) Tectonic map of the study area.

Close examination of the different anomalies


through the different maps reveals that the study area
can be subdivided into northern low portion and
southern high by the nearly NE-SW major fault trend.
The northern low part composed of two major gravity
anomalies of nearly NW-SE trend, while the southern
low is subdivided into two major gravity low of NE-SW
Fig. (28) Basement Relief Map. trend and separated by intermediate gravity nose of
NNW-SSE trend. Each one of these gravity anomalies
reflects the distribution of the causative mass, depth,
density and configuration. The gravity anomalies on the
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION different maps were statistically analyzed to identify the
The available Bouguer maps of the northeastern correlation between these anomalies and the tectonic
part of the Western desert were resolved into their trends affecting the study area. These trends comprise as
regional, residual, second vertical derivative and E - W, N 350 E,N 550 W, N - S, and N 250 E trends
downward continuation maps through a classical griding affecting the shallow section, while the N450E, N350W,
methods. Then a filtering technique was carried out to N-S, E-W, and N250W trends affecting the deep section,
isolate the regional (deep-seated structures), the and the intermediate section is affected by N-S, N450E,
intermediate (intermediate-local structures) and local E-W, N250Wand N450W trends. Also, it was found that
(near-surface structures) in order to define better the 21.3-16 unit band pass is more conformed with that
anomaly configuration, trends and other features that are deduced from Bouguer anomaly and 8-unit residual
difficult to be detected from the original maps. filter map .
Therefore, the residual filtered (HP) anomalies of short In addition, the basement relief map of the study
wavelength, high frequencies and shallow depths ; the area was constructed. It shows that the NE-SW trend is
regional filtered (LP) anomalies of long wavelength, the most important trend in the area and NE-SW trend is
low frequencies and deep depths; and the band pass the most predominant in the southern part of the area.
filtered (BP) anomalies of intermediate wavelengths, The basement depth ranges from 0.5 to more than 7.0
frequencies and depth range were separated from the km in the area. Finally, the tectonic map was
gravity map, which reveal that the residual filter of 8- constructed; it shows a northern downfaulted block
Delineation of Subsurface Structures 29

extended NE-SW through Khatatba Basin and Kattaniya Gomaa, M.A.A. (1995): Comparative hydro-geological
Basin followed from south by alternating E-W high and hydrogeochemical studies on some aquifers,
ridge and downfault block. The southern part of the west of Nile Delta, Egypt; Ph.D. Thesis , Fac.
study area is complicated by a number of high and low Sci., Ain Shams Univ., Egypt. 224p.
blocks of NE and NW trends and number of wrench Griffin,W,R.;1949: Residual gravity in theory and
faults. practice; Geophys., vol.14, No.1, p. 39-56.
Four major basins have been interpreted from the Henderson,R.G. and Zeitz, I., (1949): The
Bouguer anomaly map, considering lateral density computation of the second vertical derivatives
variation). Four theoretical models have been of magnetic fields, Geophysics, Vol. 14, No. 4, P.
constructed. The maximum depths of the probable 517- 534.
suitable shape of the basins along the four profiles were
determined. Miller, R.L. and Khahm, J.S., (1962); Statistical
analysis in the geological science, John Wiley
On the basis of these analyses, the following may Pub., N.P.469.
be concluded :
Peter, M.L and John, F.D., (1970): Direct design of
Tectonic movements are not uniform allover two-dimensional digital wave number filters;
the area. Geophys., vol. 35, No. 6, P. 1073- 1078.
2-The comparative study or the subsurface
Said, R.; (1962): The Geology of Egypt; El-Sevier
geologic conditions described from the
Publ., Co., Amsterdam, New York.
different maps and the methods of calculating
the basement depth indicates that most of the Said, R.; (1990): Geology of Egypt. Balkema,
structural features of the basement Rotterdam. pp. 734.
configuration are represented mainly by the Shata, A. (1956): Structural Development of Sinai
anomalies of the 21.3 regional filter. peninsula. Egypt, Bull. Inst. Desert, Egypt, v. 62,
The main structural features within the area are P. 117 – 157.
in the form of high and low structures as well Shata, A.A. and El–Fayoumy, I.F. (1967):
as faulting. Geomorphological and aspects of the region west
It is evident that the basement surface is to the Nile Delta with special reference of the
characterized by several arching and sagging in Wadi El-Natrun area. Inst. Desert d’Egypte,
the form of ridges, uplifts and structural lows T.XVIII, No. 1., P. 1 – 28.
as well as zones of dislocations having
different areal extensions, relief, and are Talwani,M., Worzel, J.L. and Landisman, M. (1959):
Rapid gravity computation for two-dimensional
oriented either in NE or NW directions.
bodies with application to the Mendocina
The detected tectonic trends show that two submarine fracture zone. Journal of Geophysical
stress fields may have been acting. The first is Research, vol. 64, PP. 49 – 59.
the meridional (N—S) stress field acting since
early geological times (Pre-cambrian). The Talwani, M. and Heirtzler, J.R., (1964): Computation
second is modified equatorial stress field. Both of magnetic anomalies caused by two -
stresses of these fields have been acting with dimensional structures of arbitrary shape,
different intensities through the different levels computers in the mineral industries, part 1,
of the study area. Standard Univ., publications, Geological Science,
vol. 9, P. 464 – 480.
REFERENCES
Zurflueh,E.G.; (1967): Application of two dimensional
Abdel Baki, A.M.A. (1983): Hydrogeological and linear wavelength filtering; Geophys., vol.32, p.
hydrogeochemical studies on the area west of 1015 – 1035.
Rosetta Branch and south of El-Nasr Canal;
Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Sci., Cairo Univ., Egypt, 156p.
Bayoumi,A.I., and Bacili, M. (1976): Implication of
gravity anomalies to tectonic parameters,
Geological Soc. of Africa.
Darwish,Y.A.M. and Riad, S. (1986): Main tectonic
trends of Sinai Peninsula from gravity Anomalies
and ERTS-1 images. (under publication).
El-Shazly,E.M.; Abd El-Hady, M.A.; El-Ghawaby,
M.A. and El-Kassas,J.A. (1974): Geology of
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30 Abd El-Aziz and Zahra

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