You are on page 1of 9

Food Safety Class

If you work with food, you are responsible for ensuring that you do not endanger the safety of the food.
This is a legal and moral responsibility. Here at the Pub, we expect you to uphold the following:
• Keeping yourself and your workplace clean.
• Protecting food from anything that could cause harm.
• Following good habits, such as washing your hands before handling food.
• Staying alert to food safety hazards.
• Following the rules for food safety in your workplace and working with care.
• Be proactive with correcting possible hazards that may occur in your work environment.

Food safety protects everyone. Poor food safety threatens health, reputations, profits and jobs.
Everyone who works with food has a responsibility to safeguard food so that it does not cause illness
or harm.

The following icons were published in 2005 by the international Association for food Protection
(IAFP). The purpose for the icons is to provide an easily recognizable symbol that conveys a specific
food safety message to food handlers of all nationalities.
Food makes people ill when it is contaminated. Food is contaminated when it contains or carries
something that is harmful to human health. There are three main types of food contamination:

Biological contamination is cause by very small life forms, such as bacteria, which is known as
microorganisms. Bacteria are responsible for most biological contamination and they cause more cases of
foodborne illnesses than any other contaminant. Out of the thousands of bacteria throughout the world,
most bacteria do not harm humans. But a few types, referred to as pathogenic bacteria, can cause disease.
They include Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureua, Listeria, and, Clostridium botulinum.

There are other biological contaminants apart from bacteria. They include:
 Viruses- microorganisms that multiply in living calls, causing illnesses such as colds, ‘flu
and the foodborne disease Hepatitis A
 Mold- some types can produce toxins(poisons) on foods such as nuts
 Parasites- microorganisms that live on and inn people, animals and other organisms; they
are a particular problem in hogs and can cause tichinosis in pork
 Naturally poisonous plants, fish and shellfish- these include some types of mushroom, as
well as some marine fish and shellfish (such as mackerel, snapper, mussels, and clams)
that cause ciguatera poisoning in humans because they have eaten poisonous plankton
(marine microorganisms).

Bacteria- microorganisms responsible for most foodborne illnesses.
Contaminated food- food that contains something (a contaminant) that is harmful to health.
Contamination- the presence in food of something harmful to health.
Foodborne illness- all the illnesses caused by eating contaminated food. Foodborne infection and
foodborne intoxication come under this heading.
Foodborne infection- an illness caused by pathogenic microorganisms that live and multiply in
your body after you have eaten contaminated food. (ex. Sammonella)
Foodborne intoxication- an illness caused by toxins in food. (ex. Staphylococcus aureus)
Microorganism or Microbe- a very small (micro) life form (organism), including bacteria,
viruses, molds, yeasts, fungi and some parasites.
Multiplying, multiplication- the way bacteria reproduce and increase their numbers. This is
sometimes referred to as bacterial growth in numbers.
Onset or incubation period- the time it takes for the systems of a foodborne illness to start after
contaminated food has been eaten.
Parasite- an organism that lives on another life form.
Pathogen- an organism that causes disease. Pathogenic bacteria cause disease.
Symptoms- the signs of an illness.
Toxin- a poison produced by some living organisms, such as bacteria and mold.


When your body detects that you have eaten something harmful, it usually tries to get rid of the food by the
quickest method. The most common symptoms of a foodborne illness are as follows:
• Abdominal pain
• Diarrhea
• Vomiting
• Nausea
• Other signs may be fever and headache
• Other severe symptoms include paralysis and kidney failure
Foodborne illnesses affect people whom are very young, very old, pregnant, ill or recovering
from an illness or who have a weak immune system.
It is important to know if your guests have any food allergies, so that we may be able to avoid
The Big 7 food Allergens are:
• Peanuts
• Soybeans
• Milk
• Eggs
• Fish (includes crustaceans)
• Tree nuts
• Wheat


Ambient temperature- ordinary room temperature

Bacteria- more than one bacterium
Bacteriology- the study of bacteria
Bacterium- a simple life form with one cell
Binary fission- the process by which bacteria multiply by splitting in two
Contamination- the presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms or objective substances
Danger zone- the temperature range most suitable for bacterial growth
Dehydrate- to dry out
Dormant- a period of inactivity when bacteria do not multiply
Multiply- to reproduce
Pathogen- an organism that causes disease
Potentially hazardous foods- foods which are ideal for bacteria to live on
Spoilage- the process of causing damage. Spoilage bacteria makes food spoil.
Spore- a protective coating formed by some bacteria to help them survive adverse conditions such as
cooking or drying.
Source- where something comes from
Time/temperature control for safety food (TCS food) - a synonym for potentially hazardous food,
introduced in the 2005 FDA food code.

Where does pathogenic bacteria come from?

 Raw foods, especially meat, poultry, eggs, shellfish, and vegetables.
 Pests and pets
 Air and dust
 Dirt and food waste
Conclusion: just about everything can create or host bacteria!

Foodborne illnesses occur when food is:

 Eaten after it has been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria.
 conditions that allow the bacteria to multiply to levels that cause illness, or to produce toxins
 And the bacteria or toxins are not destroyed, for instance by adequate cooking. (Toxins are rarely
destroyed by cooking, which is why it is so important to prevent bacterial contamination in the
first place.)
When pathogenic bacteria spend enough time on the right types of food at ambient temperatures, they can
quickly multiply to levels which are harmful to health. The ideal conditions for bacteria involve 6 main

FOOD: like all living things, bacteria need nutrients to grow. Bacteria can grow on anything, but prefers
to grow on something that is high in protein and moist.
ACIDITY: Levels of acidity also effect bacteria. Lemon juice, vinegar, and other acidic products make it
difficult for most bacteria to multiply and therefore are useful for preserving food- for example: pickles
TEMPERATURE: Most pathogenic bacteria multiply rapidly at temperatures between 41 degrees and 135
degrees. This range of temperatures is therefore called the temperature danger zone. The ideal temperature
for bacteria to grow is about 98.6 degrees, which is the average human body temperature. Most bacteria can
survive cold temperatures and resume multiplication later when conditions are more suitable.
TIME: Bacteria do not need long to multiply to levels that cause foodborne illness. They reproduce by
dividing. One bacterium splits in two, then two become four and four become eight, and so on. In just a few
hours it is possible for one bacterium to multiply to millions of bacteria. Bacteria only needs 10-20 minutes
to multiply to harmful numbers.
OXYGEN: Some bacteria, referred to as ‘aerobes’ need oxygen to reproduce. Others referred to as
‘anaerobes’ thrive without.
MOISTURE: Pathogenic bacteria need moisture to stay alive. They cannot multiply in dried foods.
However, as soon as liquid is added to foods (ex. Dried eggs, dried milk) the reconstructed products
provide ideal conditions for bacterial growth. Salt is known to absorb moisture in foods such as crackers &
bacon. Sugar does the same for candy, jelly and jam.

41-135 Degrees
Foods that are in the temperature danger zone are most likely left on work surfaces, left in sunlight, heated
slowly, cooled slowly. Food is also likely to be in the danger zone when something hot and cold is
combined. (ex. Pouring hot gravy on top of cold food or hot soup added to cold soup.)

Ways to control food temperatures to keep out of the danger zone:

 Minimize the time that potentially hazardous foods are kept at temperature danger zones. (ex. Prep
 Keep cold foods COLD!
 Keep hot foods HOT!


Potentially Hazardous (time/temperature control for safety) foods- Foods that need temperature
control because they support the rapid growth of pathogenic microorganisms or the formation of
Ready-to-eat Foods- Foods which are edible without preparation or treatment, such as washing or
cooking, immediately before they are eaten.
Toxigenic- Toxin-producing
Contaminant- any substance or object in food that makes the food harmful or objectionable
Contamination- The presence in food of any harmful or objectionable substance
Cross Contamination- The transfer of pathogenic bacteria from one food to another. (ex. Raw food to
ready to eat food)
Food contact surface- Any surface that touches food and therefore creates a risk of contamination.
Hazard- Anything that could cause harm to the consumer.
Risk- the likelihood of harm.
Vehicle of contamination- hands, utensils, or tools that carry microorganisms onto food, causing

Prevention checklist:

 Keep food covered until use

 Use utensils to move food
 Avoid touching food with bare hands unless absolutely necessary. Wear disposable gloves and
change often and when switching to another product.
 Separate raw and cooked foods at all times, including storage, transportation, preparation, and
 Use separate equipment and utensils for preparation of raw meats and poultry and display
 Wash all raw veggies, fruit, and rice before use.
 Undo packaging in area away from food.
 Keep food areas clean. Clean and sanitize all equipment, utensils, and all other surfaces when
changing tasks
 Maintain all equipment. Report any signs of problems to your supervisor immediately
 Remove food waste and trash frequently throughout the day and dispose of it safely and
 Report any signs of pests to your supervisor immediately
 Keep cleaning chemicals in secure, clearly labeled containers in non-food storage areas.
 Follow manufactures’ instructions for cleaning chemicals- use the correct chemical for the job and
follow the methods and quantities specified
 Wear minimal jewelry –BOH- only a wedding band is allowed
 Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum in food areas.
 Follow strict personal hygiene habits, including:
• keeping yourself clean and wearing suitable clean clothing
• washing your hands frequently
• Keeping any cuts, boils, or similar skin problems properly covered.

Ambient Temperature- ordinary room temp.
Core Temperature- the temp. at the center or the thickest part of food.
Danger zone- the temp. range (41-135) most suitable for bacterial multiplication
Pasteurization- a form of rapid heat treatment that kills pathogenic bacteria but not all spoilage bacteria
Pathogen- an organism that causes disease.
Sanitizing- the process of reducing microorganisms and their spores to generally safe levels
Preventive- any action to reduce the risk of harm. Sometimes called preventative.
Temperature control- Keeping food at a safe temperature, or using heat to destroy pathogenic
Core temperature- the temperature at the center or the thickest part of food.

Methods for quickly cooling foods

1. Place food in shallow pans

2. Separate food into smaller or thinner portions
3. Use rapid cooling equipment
4. Stir food in a container placed in an ice water bath
5. Use containers that help heat transfer away from food
6. Add clean fresh ice as an ingredient

The right time and temperature

Food should be cooled as follows:

 From 135 Degrees Fahrenheit to 70 Degrees Fahrenheit within 2 hours
 Must be brought down to 41 degrees or lower by a total of 6 hours or less!

Words to know:

Code Date- a date on packaging indicating the period when the food is safe and in the best
condition to eat.
Dehydration- the removal of moisture, drying
Perishable- foods that spoil easily
Preservation- the safe treatment of food to delay spoilage
Shelf Life- the safe storage period
Spoilage- the process by which food becomes unacceptable. Also called decomposition, rotting,
perishing, deterioration and decaying
Stored product pests- insects, such as weevils, beetles, moths and their larvae, that contaminate
the foods and ingredients you would expect to find in dry goods storage including flour, cereals,
nuts, and other products
Dormant- a period when microorganisms are inactive and do not multiply
Freezer Burn- dehydration damage to food caused by ice crystals during freezing
Carrier- a person who carries pathogenic microorganisms without suffering symptoms

Recognizing spoiled food-

 Discoloration, including dark or pale patches
 Visible mold
 Changes in the usual smell, often unpleasant
 Changes in texture, including wrinkling, drying, softening becoming pulpy or slimy
 Alteration of usual flavor, including sourness
Food Rotation

Follow FIFO also known as First in First Out! Rotation is key to preventing food from
spoiling, and preventing foodborne illnesses.
Always check dates on food to make sure it is not past the “use by” date.


Your hands are the #1 cause of foodborne illnesses, because your hands touch so many things
throughout the day. ex. People, equipment, food, plates and glassware.
Wash your hands frequently throughout the day! Always wash you hands when the following

 starting work
 touching raw food or potentially hazardous foods
 touching ready to eat foods

 handling raw and cooked food
 handling raw and ready to eat foods
 changing from one task to the next

 handling raw food
 visiting the bathroom
 handling raw eggs in their shells
 coughing or sneezing, or blowing your nose
 touching your hair or face, or any other part of your body or clothing
 cleaning or sanitizing, or touching containers of cleaning chemicals
 dealing with trash and containers
 taking a break
 eating, drinking, or smoking
 wearing protective gloves
 handling money
Never test food with your fingers or lick your finger tip to make it easier to pick up something
(ex. Counting money)


The whole process should take approximately twenty seconds.
1. Wet your hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand
(@ Least 100 degrees F)
2. Apply soap
3. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for 10 to fifteen seconds. Clean under
fingernails and between fingers.
4. Rinse thoroughly under running water
5. Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer. Use a
paper towel to turn off faucet. When in a restroom, use a paper towel to open the
Reporting Illness

You must tell the person in charge at work if you have, or recently had, a foodborne illness or one with
similar symptoms. You must report you have one of the following:
 Salmonella Typhi
 Shigella species
 Enterphemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
 Hepatitis A virus
Or if you have one of the following symptoms:
 Sore throat with fever
 Open lesions
Employees must also report:
 Certain previous illness
 Exposure to a suspected source of a confirmed foodborne illness outbreak
 If he/she is suspected as the source of such an outbreak
 Exposure to others involved in a confirmed outbreak

Words to Know
Clean- free from dirt and soil; to wash and rinse
Clean as you go- cleaning procedures carried out as you work
Contact time- the period that a sanitizer must be left so that it will work properly
Detergent- a chemical that helps dissolve grease and remove dirt
Food contact surface- any surface that is touched by food
Hand contact surface- any surface that is touched by hands
Risk- the likelihood of harm
Sanitizing- the process of reducing pathogenic microorganisms, reducing them to safe levels
Sanitizer- a chemical that destroys many pathogenic microorganisms, reducing them to safe levels
Scheduled cleaning- cleaning carried out by specified people at specified intervals and times. A
cleaning schedule sets out the details.
Sterilization- the process of killing all microorganisms
Infestation- the presence of pests
Integrated pest management- a comprehensive system of pest prevention and control
Pest- an animal or insect that contaminates or damages food
Pet- tamed, domestic animal
Harbor- provide a shelter or hiding place
Impervious- does not let water through
Workflow- the route through food premises for food, employees and equipment during all the stages
from delivery of raw food and ingredients to dispatch, sale or service of finished product
Control or Control measure- an action designed to eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable
Food hazard- anything that could make food unsafe to eat
HACCP- Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, a formal system of Hazard Analysis
Hazard Analysis- a method for assessing the food hazards in any food activity
Legislation- Laws and regulations
REHS and RS- Registered Environmental Health Specialist and Registered Sanitarian, professional
who usually enforce food safety legislation in the United States. They also offer advice and education
to food establishments to help them prevent food safety problems.

HACCP follows the principles of:

 Assessing the potential food safety hazards in the work activities
 Identifying the points where hazards occur and deciding which are the critical points for
food safety- these are the ‘critical control points’
 Implementing appropriate controls for each critical control point to eliminate or reduce
hazards to an acceptable level
 Establishing a monitoring system to ensure that the controls are effective- what should
happen does happen
 Setting up procedures to correct any problems
 Reviewing the system from time to time and whenever operations change
 Documenting the hazard analysis

Whatever your work involves, you will play an important part in food safety control by:
 Following the rules at your workplace
 Protecting food from contamination
 Following the basic rules of time and temperature control
 Watching out for any food hazards
 Reporting a breakdown, problems or possible food hazards to your manager