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Chapter 15

Revision questions

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1. (a) qualitative
(b) qualitative
(c) quantitative
(d) qualitative if only the presence of MSG was tested for or quantitative if the amount of
MSG was determined
2. (a) It would be necessary to qualitatively establish the presence of a possible source of the
oil waste before carrying out a more involved and expensive quantitative analysis.
(b) The polluting oil would have to be analysed to determine what compounds were
present in the mixture and in what quantities. The results of this analysis could then be
compared with the analysis of any residual waste oil found on a ship.

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3. Electrical conductivity is a measure of water’s ability to pass electrical flow (to carry
electricity). This ability is related to the total concentration of ions present in solution and is
not designed to detect the concentration of any particular ion.

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4. The strict protocols allow the production of accurate reproducible analytical results.

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5. The second sample was diluted by a factor of 10 (10 mL diluted to a total volume of 100
mL). Using the calibration curve, an absorbance reading of 0.790 gives a concentration ≈ 11
ppm; i.e. the diluted sample has a concentration ≈ 11 mg L–1 (1 ppm = 1 mg L–1). Therefore,
the undiluted sample has a concentration ≈ 10 × 11 = 110 mg L–1.

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6. (a) n(Ag2S) = 2/4 × n(Ag) = 2/4 × 1 = 0.5 mol
(b) n(H2S) = 2/4 × n(Ag) = 2/4 × 1 = 0.5 mol
(c) n(Ag2S) = n(H2S) = 3.5 mol
7. (a) n(CH4) = 1/2 × n(O2) = 1/2 × 1 = 0.5 mol

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(b) n(O2) = 2 × n(CH4) = 2 × 0.1 = 0.2 mol
(c) n(CO2) = n(CH4) = 0.1 mol
(d) n(H2O) = 2 × n(CH4) = 2 × 0.1 = 0.2 mol
(e) n(CO2) = 1/2 × n(O2) = 1/2 × 0.1 = 0.05 mol
(f) n(O2) = 2 × n(CH4) = 2 × 0.25 = 0.50 mol
(g) n(H2O) = n(O2) = 8 mol

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8. CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
n(CH4) = m/M = 2.8/16.0 = 0.175 mol
Therefore, n(H2O) = 2 × n(CH4) = 2 × 0.175 = 0.35 mol
and m(H2O) = n × M = 0.35 × 18.0 = 6.3 g (to 2 significant figures)
9. (a) n(O2) = m/M = 6.5/32.0 = 0.203 mol
n(H2O) = 4/5 × n(O2) = 4/5 × 0.203 = 0.163 mol
m(H2O) = n × M = 0.163 × 18.0 = 2.9 g (to 2 significant figures)
(b) n(C3H8) = m/M = 1.7/44.0 = 0.0386 mol
n(O2) = 5 × n(C3H8) = 5 × 0.0386 = 0.193 mol
m(O2) = n × M = 0.193 × 32.0 = 6.2 g (to 2 significant figures)
(c) n(C3H8) = 0.50 mol
n(CO2) = 3 × n(C3H8) = 3 × 0.50 = 1.5 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 1.5 × 44.0 = 66 g (to 2 significant figures)
(d) n(CO2) = m/M = 5.92/44.0 = 0.135 mol
n(C3H8) = 1/3 × n(CO2) = 1/3 × 0.135 = 0.0448 mol
m(C3H8) = n × M = 0.0448 × 44.0 = 1.97 g
(e) n(C3H8) = m/M = 5.0 × 103/44.0 = 113.6 mol
n(CO2) = 3 × n(C3H8) = 3 × 113.6 = 340.9 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 340.9 × 44.0 = 1.5 × 103 g = 15 kg (to 2 significant figures)

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10. n(KI) = m/M = 2.864/166.0 = 0.017 25 mol
n(PbI2) = 1/2 × n(KI) = 0.008 627 mol
m(PbI2) = n × M = 0.008 627 × 461.0 = 3.977 g

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11. (a) The barium carbonate is a solid.
(b) n(BaCO3) = m/M = 4.582/197.3 = 0.023 22 mol
n(BaCl2) = n(BaCO3) = 0.023 22 mol
m(BaCl2) = n × M = 0.023 22 × 208.3 = 4.837 g

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13. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)
n(H2SO4) = c × V = 0.250 × 0.400 = 0.100 mol
n(ZnSO4) = n(H2SO4) = 0.100 mol
m(ZnSO4) = n × M = 0.100 × 161.5 = 16.2 g (to 3 significant figures)
14. (a) n(Na2S) = c × V = 0.178 × 0.235 = 0.0418 mol
n(CdS) = n(Na2S) = 0.0418 mol
m(CdS) = n × M = 0.0418 × 144.5 = 6.04 g (to 3 significant figures)
(b) All of the Na2S will react.
15. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
(a) All the HCl had reacted — the reaction was complete.
(b) The mass of magnesium that reacted = 2.56 – 0.350 = 2.21 g.
n(Mg) that reacted = m/M = 2.21/24.3 = 0.0910 mol
n(HCl) that reacted = 2 × n(Mg) = 2 × 0.0910 = 0.182 mol
c(HCl) = n/V = 0.182/0.200 = 0.909 M
(c) Errors have a scientific basis as they relate to judgements made when measuring,
whereas mistakes relate to misjudgements, or human error, when measuring. Sources of error
in this experiment would be in weighing of the strip of magnesium and in measurement of the
volume of hydrochloric acid.
(d) Wear a safety coat, safety glasses and gloves, and work in a well-ventilated fume
cupboard or a well-ventilated laboratory.

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16.
8.81
n(CaO) =
56.1
= 0.157 mol

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m(CaCl2) = 0.157 × 111.1
= 17.5 g
17.5
Percentage purity =
18.0
= 96.9 %

Multiple choice questions


1. A 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. C 9. B 10. D 11. D 12. A 13. A
14. B 15. D

Review questions
1. (a) qualitative (b) qualitative (c) quantitative (d) quantitative
3. (a) A contaminant is an unwanted substance that makes water unsuitable for an intended
use.
(b) Water discharged from a sewage treatment plant would be unsuitable for use as
drinking water but it would be very good for irrigating market gardens where a variety of
fruit and vegetables are being grown.
(c) Not all contaminants cause problems. Sometimes creative thinking can find solutions to
perceived problems.
6. (a) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  2NaNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s)
The precipitate is BaSO4.
(b) n(Ba(NO3)2) = m/M = 5.10/261.3 = 0.0195
n(BaSO4) = n(Ba(NO3)2) = 0.0195
m(BaSO4) = n × M = 0.0195 × 233.4 = 4.55 g (to 3 significant figures)
7. (a) n(N2) = 1/2 × n(NO) = 1/2 × 1.52 = 0.760 mol
(b) n(O2) = n(N2) = 0.760 mol
m(O2) = n × M = 0.760 × 32.0 = 24.3 g
8. (a) 2C(s) + O2(g)  2CO(g) assuming charcoal briquettes to be pure carbon, C
n(C) = m/M = 3.5/12.0 = 0.29 mol
n(O2) = 1/2 × n(C) = 0.15 mol (to 2 significant figures)
(b) C(s) + O2(g)  CO2 (g)
n(C) = m/M = 3.5/12.0 = 0.29 mol

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n(O2) = n(C) = 0.29 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 0.29 × 44.0 = 13 g (to 2 significant figures)
9. (a) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g)  2NaCl(s)
(b) n(Na) = m/M = 10.0/23.0 = 0.435
n(NaCl) = n(Na) = 0.435
m(NaCl) = n × M = 0.435 × 58.5 = 25.4 g
10. (a) n(C6H12O6) = m/M = 8.90/180.0 = 0.0494 mol
n(O2) = 6 × n(C6H12O6) = 6 × 0.0494 = 0.296 mol
m(O2) = n × M = 0.296 × 32.0 = 9.49 g
(b) n(C6H12O6) = m/M = 8.90/180.0 = 0.0494 mol
n(CO2) = 6 × n(C6H12O6) = 6 × 0.0494 = 0.296 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 0.296 × 44.0 = 13.1 g
11. n(Ag) = m/M = 0.025/107.9 = 0.000 23 mol
n(Ag2S) = 1/2 × n(Ag) = 1/2 × 0.000 23 = 0.00012 mol
n(Ag2S) = n × M = 0.000 12 × 247.9 = 0.029 g (to 2 significant figures)
12. n(H2S2O7) = m/M = 5.00 × 103/178.2 = 28.1 mol
n(H2SO4) = 2 × n(H2S2O7) = 2 × 28.1 = 56.2 mol
m(H2SO4) = n × M = 56.2 × 98.1 = 5.51 × 103 g = 5.51 kg
13. (a) n(WO3) = m/M = 200/231.8 = 0.863 mol
n(W) = n(WO3) = 0.863 mol
m(W) = n × M = 0.863 × 183.8 = 159 g
(b) n(H2) = 3 × n(WO3) = 3 × 0.863 = 2.59
m(H2) = n × M = 2.59 × 2.0 = 5.2 g (to 2 significant figures)
14. (a) Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)  Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)
(b) m(Cu) = 4.36 – 2.21 = 2.15 g
n(Cu) = m/M = 2.15/63.5 = 0.0339 mol
n(Ag) = 2 × n(Cu) = 2 × 0.0339 = 0.0678 mol
m(Ag) = n × M = 0.0678 × 107.9 = 7.31 g (to 3 significant figures)
15. Pb2+(aq) + SO42–(aq)  PbSO4(s)
n(PbSO4) = m/M = 0.0806/303.3 = 0.000 266 mol
n(Pb2+) = n(PbSO4) = 0.000 266 mol

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m(Pb2+) = n × M = 0.000 266 × 207.2 = 0.0551 g
%Pb2+ in the pigment = (mass of Pb2+/mass of pigment) × 100
= (0.0551/1.50) × 100 = 3.67 %
16. n(Al) = m/M = 5.0/27.0 = 0.19 mol
n(Al2O3) = 2/4 × n(Al) = 2/4 × 0.19 = 0.095
m(Al2O3) = n × M = 0.095 × 102.0 = 9.7 g (to 2 significant figures)
Note that a different treatment of significant figures (where you keep all information
in your calculator until the final answer is achieved before rounding to the correct
number of significant figures) can produce a small variation in your answer. Both
answers are correct! For example:
n(Al) = m/M = 5.0/27.0 = 0.185 185 ... mol
n(Al2O3) = 1/2 × n(Al) = 1/2 × 0.185 185 = 0.092 592 5 mol
m(Al2O3) = n × M = 0.092 592 5 ... × 102.0 = 9.4 g (to 2 significant figures)
17. (a) n(LiOH) = m/M = 1.00 × 103/23.9 = 41.8 mol
n(CO2) = 1/2 × n(LiOH) = 1/2 × 41.8 = 20.9 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 20.9 × 44.0 = 921 g = 0.921 kg
(b) 2NaOH(s) + CO2(g)  Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)
(c) n(NaOH) = m/M = 1.00 × 103/40.0 = 25 mol
n(CO2) = 1/2 × n(NaOH) = 1/2 × 25 = 12.5 mol
m(CO2) = n × M = 12.5 × 44.0 = 550 g
(d) When planning space travel, there is a focus on minimising the mass of material that
needs to be lifted into space. Lithium hydroxide would be preferred because a lower mass of
lithium hydroxide would be needed to remove the same mass of carbon dioxide.
(e) 2OH–(s) + CO2(g)  CO32–(aq) + H2O(l) for both reactions mentioned
18. (a) 1 tonne = 106 g. 100 tonnes of limestone would contain 100 × 83.5/100 = 83.5 tonnes
= 83.5 × 106 g of CaCO3.
n(CaCO3) = m/M = 83.5 × 106/100.1 = 8.34 × 105 mol
n(CaO) = n(CaCO3) = 8.34 × 105 mol
m(CaO) = n × M = 8.34 × 105 × 56.1 = 4.68 × 107 g = 46.8 tonnes
(b) The term ‘burning’ usually means the combustion of a substance with the oxygen in air.
19. n(Ca(OH)2) = m/M = 2.5/74.1 = 0.034 mol
n(HCl) = 2 × n(Ca(OH)2) = 2 × 0.034 = 0.068 mol

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Since c = n/V, then V = n/c.
V(HCl) = n(HCl)/c(HCl) = 0.068/1.3 = 0.052 L = 52 mL
20. n(AgNO3) = c × V = 0.100 × 0.250 = 0.0250 mol
n(Cu) = 1/2 × n(AgNO3) = 1/2 × 0.0250 = 0.0125 mol
m(Cu) = n × M = 0.0125 × 63.5 = 0.794 g
22. (a) zero

(b)
(c) concentration ≈ 2.2 ppm

23. (a)

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(b) concentration of sample 1 ≈ 41 mg L–1
concentration of sample 2 ≈ 5 mg L–1

24. (a)
(b) The level of mercury is ≈ 7.2 mg L–1.
(c) AAS is used specifically for the analysis of metal ions in solution.
25. (a) 16 ppm
(b) Concentration in the 20.0 mL sample = 16 ppm ≡ 16 mg L–1.
This will be the same as the concentration in the original 1000 mL solution.
Therefore, the mass of phosphorus (P) in the 1000 mL of detergent = 16 mg, and the mass of
phosphorus, P, in the 1.000 g sample of detergent = 16 mg.
16 mg = 0.016 g
%P by mass = (mass of P/mass of detergent) × 100
= (0.016/1.000) × 100
= 1.6 %
26. (a) AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq)  AgCl(s)
(b) BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
Ba2+(aq) + SO42–(aq)  BaSO4(s)
(c) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2CrO4(aq)  PbCrO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
Pb2+(aq) + CrO42–(aq)  PbCrO4(s)

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(d) Na3PO4(aq) + 3AgNO3(aq)  Ag3PO4(s) + 3NaNO3(aq)
PO43–(aq) + 3Ag+(aq)  Ag3PO4(s)
(e) 2HCl(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)  PbCl2(s) + 2HNO3(aq)
2Cl–(aq) + Pb2+(aq)  PbCl2(s)
27. (a) soluble (b) insoluble (c) insoluble (d) insoluble (e) soluble (f) soluble
28. (a) mass of water = 124.829 – 107.214 = 17.615 g
% water in the soil = (17.615/124.829) × 100 = 14.11%
(b) to ensure that all of the water has been removed
(c) There would be no way of ensuring that all of the water has been removed.
29. n(As2S3) = m/M = 0.353/246.1 = 0.00143 mol
As2S3(aq)  2As3+(aq) + 3S2–(aq)
n(As) = n(As3+) = 2 × As2S3 = 2 × 0.001 43 = 0.002 86 mol
and m(As) = n × M = 0.002 86 × 74.9 = 0.214 g
%As in the pesticide = (mass of As/mass of pesticide) × 100
= (0.214/2.15) × 100
= 9.95%
Note that a different treatment of significant figures (where you keep all information
in your calculator until the final answer is achieved before rounding to the correct
number of significant figures) can produce a small variation in your answer. Both
answers are correct! For example:
n(As2S3) = m/M = 0.353/246.1 = 0.001 434 37 ... mol
As2S3(aq)  2As3+(aq) + 3S2–(aq)
n(As) = n(As3+) = 2 × As2S3 = 2 × 0.001 434 37 ... = 0.002 868 75 … mol
and m(As) = n × M = 0.028 687 5 ... × 74.9 = 0.214 869 … g
%As in the pesticide = (mass of As/mass of pesticide) × 100
= (0.214 869 .../2.15) × 100
= 9.99%
30. (a) silver chloride
(b) n(AgCl) = m/M = 2.359/143.4 = 0.01645 mol
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

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Note that an equation does not have to be written to establish the relationship in mole
between AgCl and NaCl. The fact that there is one Cl in both the AgCl and Nal formulas
clearly establishes a 1 : 1 mole ratio.
n(NaCl) = n(AgCl) = m/M = 0.01645 mol
m(NaCl) = n × M = 0.016 45 × 58.5 = 0.962 g
%NaCl = (mass of NaCl/mass of rock salt) × 100
= (0.962/0.997) × 100 = 96.5%
31. (a) n(BaSO4) = m/M = 0.564/233.4 = 0.002 42 mol
n(S) = n(BaSO4) = 0.002 42 mol
m(S) = n × M = 0.002 42 × 32.1 = 0.0777 g
%S = (mass of S/mass of fertiliser) × 100
= (0.0777/2.322) × 100
= 3.35%
(b) The final result would be greater.
32. (a) None of the ions would form an insoluble precipitate.
(b) silver
(c) None of the ions would form a precipitate.
(d) barium
(e) hydroxide
33. to ensure that all of the water has been removed
34. Precipitates are chosen so that their solubilities are very low. Keeping the volume of
water used during the experiment, including that used to wash the precipitate, to a minimum,
is one way of reducing the chance that some of the precipitate may dissolve. It is possible,
however, that some of the precipitate may dissolve and hence the percentage determined in
any experiment may be a little lower than it should be. This would be a systematic error.
36. C, E, H, A, F, D (Steps B and G are not required.)
37. (a) greater
(b) greater
(c) smaller
(d) smaller

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Exam practice questions
1. (a) carbon dioxide, CO2
(b) CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)
(c) m(CaO) = 11.64 g
n(CaO) = m/M = 11.64/56.1 = 0.208 mol
n(CaCO3) = n(CaO) = 0.208 mol
m(CaCO3) = n × M = 0.208 × 100.1 = 20.8 g
%CaCO3 = (20.8/25.00) × 100 = 83.2%
(d) The only solid remaining after the sample has been heated to a constant mass is calcium
oxide.
2. (a) n(Mg2P2O7) = m/M = 4.107/222.6 = 0.018 45 mol
n(P) = 2 × n(Mg2P2O7) = 2 × 0.018 45 = 0.036 90 mol
m(P) = n × M = 0.036 90 × 31.0 = 1.14 g
(b) %P = (1.14/14.298) × 100
= 79.7%
(c) No element other than P also forms a precipitate.
3. (a) n(AgCl) = m/M = 4.463/143.4 = 0.031 12 mol
n(NaCl) = n(AgCl) = 0.031 12 mol
m(NaCl) = n × M = 0.031 12 × 58.5 = 1.82 g
(b) concentration = 1.82/10.0 = 0.182 g L–1
(c) Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq)  AgCl(s)
(d) It is far less likely that any of the AgCl precipitate will dissolve; i.e. it is far more likely
that an accurate result will be obtained.
(e) Chloride ions are the only ions present in the water that form a precipitate with the
silver ions that are added.

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