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XSAS

(CONTACT # 0344 -78 46 394 )

TH

9 CLASS PHYSICS NOTES

1) PHYSICAL QUANTITIES &

MEASURMENTS

2) KINEMATICS

3) DYNAMICS

NOTES OF PHYSICS 9TH CLASS ENGLISH

MEDIUM COMPLETE FIRST THREE CHAPTER

PROBLEMS,SHORT AND LONG QUESTIONS

ASIF RASHEED BS HONS PHYSICS

Ideal Science Academy

Unit No 1

(2) Ans: The branch of science which deals with the study of matter and energy and their mutual relationship is called

Physics.

Ans: (1) Mechanics (2) Heat & Thermodynamics (3) Sound (4) Light

(5) Electromagnetism (6) Atomic and Molecular Physics (7) Nuclear Physics (8) Plasma Physics (9) Solid Physics

We study physics to under stand the laws of nature and how nature effects the human action.

Ans: The state of matter at a very high temperature comprising the ions and electrons is called plasma.

(4) Name the branches of physics overlapping the other branches of science?

BRANCHES OF PHYSICS:

Mechanics:

It is the study of motion of objects, the causes and effect.

Heat:

It deals with the nature of heat, modes of transfer and effects of heat.

Sound:

It deals with the physical aspects of sound waves, their production, properties and applications.

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Light (Optics):

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It is the study of physical aspects of light, its properties, working and use of optical instruments.

Electricity and magnetism:

It is the study of the changes at rest and in motion, their effects and their relationships with magnetism.

Atomic physics:

It is the study of the structure and properties of atom.

Nuclear physics:

It deals with the properties and behaviour of nuclei and the particles within the nuclei.

Plasma physics:

It is the study of production, properties of the ionic state of matter – The fourth state of matter.

Geophysics:

It is the study of the internal structure of the earth.

System international units:

A world-wide system of measurements is known as system international units (SI). In SI, the units of seven base

quantities are meter, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin, candela and mole.

vernier callipers:

An instrument used to measure small lengths such as internal and external diameter or length of a cylinder etc is called

vernier calipers.

Least count of vernier calliper is 1/10 cm or 0.1 cm which is also called vernier constant.

Screw gauge:

A screw gauge is used to measure small lengths such as diameter of a wire, thickness of a metal sheet etc.

The least count of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm.

Physical balance

Physical balance is a modified type of a beam balance used to measure small masses by comparison with greater

accuracy.

MEASUREMENTS

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Why a standard unit is need to measure a quantity correctly.

Ans:

Various units have been in use in different times in different parts of the world. The fast means of communication

systems have changed the world into a global village. Due to this reason an international system of units for mutual

business became essential.

The eleventh general conference of weights and measures recommended that all the countries of world should adopted a

system of same kind of standard units, consisting of seven base units known as international system of units (SI) and

derived units.

Q: What is meant by base and derived units? Give three examples of derived units and explain how they are

derived from base units.

Ans:

Base Units:

The units of base quantities are called base units.

Examples:

Kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), Ampere (A)

Derived Units:

The units of derived quantities which are derived from base units are called derived units.

Examples:

Unit of Area: m2 .

Unit of Volume: m3

Unit of Density: Kg m-3

Unit of speed: meter per second (ms-1),

Unit of weight: Newton

Unit of force: Newton,

Unit of Pressure: Pascal

These units are obtained by multiplication, division or both of base units.

Unit of Area: length x breadth

Unit of length x unit of breadth

Meter x meter

mxm

: m2

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Meter x meter x meter

mxmxm

: m3

Volume

Unit of mass

Unit of volume

Q: What is the number of base units in System International (SI)?

Ans.

There are seven base units which are given below

Number Physical Quantity Unit Symbol

1. Length Meter (m

2. Mass Kilogram(kg

3. Time Seconds (s

4. Electric current Ampere( A

5. Temperature Kelvin( K

6. Intensity of light Candela(cd

7. Amount of substance(Mole mol

Q: Where multiples and sub-multiples of units are used? Describe some standard prefaces which are

internationally used.

Ans. Multiples and sub-multiples of units are used to make very large and very small mathematical calculations easier. The

multiples and sub-multiples are obtained by multiplying or dividing with ten or power of tens.

The terms used internationally for the multiples and sub-multiples for different units are called prefixes.

Q1.7 What is meant by its vernier constant?

Ans.

A vernier calliper can be used to measure lengths accurately up to one tenth of a millimetre.

Least Count/Vernier Constant

The minimum length which can be measured accurately with the help of vernier scale or vernier calipers is called

least count.

Least count of vernier calliper is 1/10 mm or 0.1 cm which is also called vernier constant.

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Q: Explain the statement “A micrometer screw gauge measures more accurately than a vernier caliper”?

Ans.

Least Count: The minimum length which can be measured accurately is called least count of any measuring device.

The least count of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm and that of Vernier calliper is 0.1. cm. So a micrometer screw

gauge measures more accurately than a vernier calliper.

Significant figures:

All accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are called significant figures. It reflects the

precision of a measured value of a physical quantity.

RULES TO FIND THE SIGNIFICANT FIGURE IN A MEASUREMENT:

(i) Digits other than zero are always significant.

27 have 2 significant digits.

275 have 3 significant digits.

(ii) Zeroes between significant digits are also significant.

2705 have 4 significant digits.

(iii) Final zero or zero after decimal are significant.

275.00 have 5 significant digits.

(iv) Zero used for spacing the decimal points is not significant.

Here zero is place holders only.

0.03 has 1 significant digit.

0.027 has 2 significant digits.

(v) In whole numbers that end in 1 or more zero without a decimal point. These zeroes may or may not be significant. In

such cases, it is not clear which zero serve to locate the position value and which are actually parts of measurements. In

such a case, express the quantity using scientific notation to find the significant zero.

APPLICATION OF PHYSICS

Physics play an important role in our daily life. We hardly find a device where physics is not involved. Consider pulleys

make it easy to left heavy loads. Electricity is not used only to get light and heat but also mechanical energy that derives

fans electric motors ctc.Consider the means of transportation such as car and aeroplanes domestic appliances such as

air conditioners refrigerators vacuum cleaners washing machine and micro wave ovens etc.Similarly the means of

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communication such as radio T V telephone are the result of application of physics. These devices made our lives much

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Asif Rasheed BS (HONS) Physics # 0344 78 46 394

Ideal Science Academy

Q: 1.5

Estimate your age in seconds?

Ans :

My age is sixteen years. Its value in seconds

16 x 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 504576000 seconds.

Ans : SI units are very easy to use because their addition, multiplication and division is very easy . These can be written in

terms of multiples of ten.

1.7 SEE ABOVE.

Q1.8: what do you under stand by zero error of measuring instruments?

Ans: When the zero of virnier scale is not coinciding with the zero of main scale,”then instrument has zero error”

Q1.9: why is the use of zero error in a measuring instrument?

Ans: By the use of zero error the observation taken can be correct, to get correct observations

Q1.10: What is stop watch? What is the least count of mechanical stop watch you have use in laboratory?

Ans: The stop watch is used to measure small intervals of time. Its least count is about 0.1 seconds.

Q1.11: We need to measure extremely small interval of times?

Ans: Small time interval are measured o calculate instantaneous time rate of change of variable.

Q1.12: What is meant by significant figures of a measurement?

Ans: All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are known as significant figures.

Q1.13: How is precision is related to the significant figures in a measured quantity?

Ans: More is the number of significant figures, when the measuring instrument used has small value of its least count. The

small value of least count the large is the value of precision. For example reading taken by screw gauge has more

precision than reading taken by meter rod or verneir scale.

CHAPTER: 1

Physical quantities and measurement (Problems)

Solution:

(a) 5000g

As 1000g = 1kg so 5000/1000

=5kg Ans

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(b)2000000w

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As 106 = mega

So 2000000 w

2 x 106

=2MW

(c) 52 x 10-10 x kg since 1kg =1000g or103g

=52 x 10-10 x 103g

= 52 x 10-10+3g

= 52 x 10-7g

= 5.2 x 101 x 10-7g

= 5.2 x 10-7+1g

= 5.2 x 10-6g =5.2ug Ans

-8

(d) 225 x 10 s

=2.25 x 102 x 10-8s

= 2.25 x 102-8s

=2.25 x 10-6s

= 2.25 us ANS

P1.2) How do prefixes micro, nano and pico related to each other.

As we know that,

Micro =10-6

Nano = 10-9

Pico = 10-12

1 p= 1/1000n

1 p= 1/1000000 µ

1 n= 1/1000 µ

1 n = 1000 p

1 µ = 1000n

1 µ = 1000000p

P1.3) Your hair grow at the rate of 1mm per day find their growth rate in nms -1.

As milli = 10-3

Nano = 10-9

1m = 10-6 n OR 1m = 1000000n

By multiplying ‘’m’’ on both sides

1mm = 106 nm OR 1mm = 1000000nm

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As we know that

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One day = 24 hours

One hour = 60 minutes

One minutes = 60s

So

One day = 24 x60 x6

= 86400 s

So the growth rate in nms-1 is

= 1000000nm/86400s

= 11.57nms-1 Ans

Solution:

(a) 1168 x 𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟕

Solution:

11.68 x 10−27

1.168 x 103 x 10−27

1.168 x 10 3-27

1.168 x 10−24 ANS

(b) 32 x 𝟏𝟎𝟓

Solution:

3.2 x 101 x 105

3.2 x 10 1+5

3.2 x 106

(c) 725 x 𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟓

7.25 x 10−5 x 103 g

7.25 x 102 x 102 x 10 -5+3

7.25 x 10 2-2g

7.25 x 100

7.25g ANS

(d) 0.02 x 𝟏𝟎−𝟖

Solution:

0.02 x 10-2 x 10-8

2 x 10-2-8 (as we know that powers are added up)

2 x 10-10 ANS

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Solution:

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(a) 6400km

6.4x103km ANS

(b) 380000km

3.8x105 ANS

(c) 300000000ms-1

3.108ms-1

(d) Seconds in a day:

24x60x60s=86400s

8.64x104s ANS

As the zero of Vernier scale is on right so zero error will be positive and if its 4th division is conceding with the

main scale then the zero error=0.01x4=0.04

Zero error= +0.04cm

And zero correction= -0.04cm

P1.7) A screw gauge has 50 divisions on its circular scale. The pitch of the screw gauge is 0.5mm. What is its

least count?

Solution:

Least count= pitch of screw gauge/no. of divisions in circular

0.5/50=0.01mm

0.01x10-3m

1x10-5m

1x10-5x100cm

1x10 -3cm

0.001cm ANS

Solution:

(a) 3.006m

(b) 5.05x10-21kg

(c) 0.00309kg

(d) 301.0s

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(b) 0.00450kg

Asif Rasheed BS (HONS) Physics # 0344 78 46 394

Ideal Science Academy

0.00450

It has 3 significant figures

(c) 1.66x10-27kg

1.66x10-27kg

It has 3 significant figures.

(d) 2001s

It has 4 significant figures.

P.10) A chocolate wrapper is 6.7cm long, 5.4cm wide. Calculate its area up to reasonable number of significant

figures.

Solution:

Area= length x width

=6.7cm x 5.4cm

= 36.18cm2

Area in significant figure= 36cm2

Unit # 2 Kinematics

Define Mechanics and its types.

The branch of physics, which deals with the study of motion of bodies, is called Mechanics. It has two types:

I) Kinematics

ii) Dynamics

Define Types of Mechanics.

Kinematics:

It is study of motion of bodies without reference of force and mass.

Dynamics:

It is study of motion of bodies with reference of force and mass.

Q2.3 (i) difference between rest and motion?

Define Rest

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If a body does not change its position with respect to some observers then it is said to be in the state of rest.

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Define Motion

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If a body is changing its position with respect of some observers then it is said to be in the state of motion.

Name the types of motion

a. Translatory Motion

b. Linear motion

c. Circular motion

d. Random motion

e. Rotatory Motion

f. Vibratory Motion

What is the motion butterfly? Executed by

Flight of butterfly is irregular motion. Therefore its motion is called random motion.

What is type of motion of free falling bodies?

Freely falling bodies move downward in straight direction under the force of gravity. Therefore their motion is called

linear motion.

What is the type of motion of a man moving in circular track?

His motion is circulatory motion.

Q2.3 (iii)What is the difference between distance and displacement?

Define Distance

The path between two points is called distance. It is scalar quantity.

Define Displacement

The shortest distance between two points is called displacement. It is a vector quantity.

Q2.3 (VI) what is the difference between Scalar and Vector? OR

What are Scalar and Vector Quantities?

Scalars are those quantities which are described by a number with suitable unit without direction.

Vectors are those quantities which can be described by a number with suitable unit and with direction.

Q2.3 (iv) What is the difference between Velocity and Speed?

Define Velocity (Part of 2.4

The distance covered by a body in a unit time in a particular direction is called velocity.”

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OR

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The rate of change of displacement is called velocity. It is denoted by v. It is a vector quantity.

1. Positive Acceleration

If the velocity continuously increases then the acceleration will be positive.

2. Negative acceleration

If the velocity continuously decreases then the acceleration will be negative.

Define Uniform Speed

If a body covers an equal distance in equal interval of time in a particular direction, the body is said to be uniform

Velocity.

Define variable velocity

If a body does not cover an equal distance in equal interval of time in a

particular direction, the body is said to be in variable velocity.

Define relative velocity

When two bodies are in motion then the velocity of one body relative to

other is called relative velocity.

Define Instantaneous velocity

The velocity of a body at any instance of time is called instantaneous

velocity.

Define Average velocity

Average velocity of a body can be obtained by dividing the total displacement with total time taken.

d

Vav = Displacement/Time =

𝑡

Can a body moving with certain velocity in the direction of East can have acceleration in the direction of West?

Ans:

Yes, if the velocity of the body decreases, then it will have acceleration in the opposite direction, that is, in the

direction of west.

Does speedometer of a car measures its velocity?

It measures only speed but not velocity.

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The rate of change of velocity is called acceleration. It is denoted by “a”. It is a vector quantity.

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Define Uniform Acceleration

If velocity of a body is changing equally in equal intervals of times then its acceleration will be uniform.

Define Variable Acceleration

If velocity of a body is not changing equally in equal intervals of times then its acceleration will be variable.

Define Average Acceleration

The average acceleration can be obtained by dividing total change in velocity with total time taken.

aav = Change in Velocity/Total Time

=(Vf – Vi)t

Define Gravitational Acceleration

The acceleration of freely falling bodies is called gravitational acceleration. It is denoted by g. Its value

is 10 meter per second per second (10 ms-2)

2. A body is thrown vertically upward. What is gravitational acceleration?

Ans :

It is 10 meter per second per second (-10 ms-2)

3. What is acceleration of a body moving with uniform velocity?

Ans :

The acceleration will be 0.

4. What consideration should be kept in mind while using equation of motion for free falling bodies?

• Initial velocity should be taken as zero.

• Acceleration will be taken as (g) instead of (a)

Part of 2.4 Define Speed

The distance covered in unit time is called speed.

Speed = Distance/Time

v = S/t

The unit of speed is meter per second (ms-1) or m/s

5. Q#2.7 /Can a body moving at a constant speed have acceleration?

Yes, if it is moving in circular path, it can have acceleration.

6. A body is moving with uniform velocity, what will be its acceleration?

Its acceleration will be zero.

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Yes, if it moves in straight line and does not change its direction.

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8. Can a body moving with a certain velocity in direction of East, have Acceleration in the direction

of West?

Yes, if its velocity will decrease, it has acceleration in the direction of west.

9. Does speedometer a car measure its velocity?

No, it only measures the speed.

10. Why a stone and a piece of paper when dropped from the same height, reach the ground at the same time.

Because both have same gravitational acceleration.

11. What type of change will occur in three equations of motion under the action of gravity?

Acceleration (a) will be replaced with gravitational acceleration (g) in all equations.

And distance (s) will be changed in to height (h)

Describe the different types of motion in detail?

Motions of bodies are of three types:

Q2.3 (v) What is the difference between linear and random Motion?

Q2.3 (ii) What is the difference between Circular and Translatory Motion?

i) Translatory Motion: -

A motion in which each particle of a body has exactly same motion is called Translatory

Motion. It may be of many kinds for examples: -

a. Linear Motion: If a body moves in straight line its motion is called linear motion. e.g.

motion of free falling bodies, a man walking on a straight path

b. Circular Motion: If a body moves in a circle its motion is called circular motion. e.g.

motion of stone attached to thread and whirled.

c. Random Motion: If a body moves in irregular manner its motion is called random motion.

e.g. motion of butterfly.

ii) Rotatory Motion: -

Motion is said to Rotatory, when the object rotates on its own axis.

Examples: Rotatory motion of a planets on its axis, wheels of a vehicles, spinning top, ceiling fan etc.

iii) Vibratory Motion: -

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When a body moves to and fro about a point and repeats its motion then its motion is called vibratory motion.

e.g. Motion of simple Pendulum, motion of tuning fork, A ruler. Place one inch of it on a desk, and the other 11 off the

desk. Flick the end off the desk and watch it vibrate.

Q2.10 How can a vector quantity be represented graphically?

Ans: When a vector is represented graphically, its magnitude is represented by the length of straight line and its direction

Q2.11 Why vectors quantities can not be added and subtracted like scalar quantities?

Ans ; In addition of vector quantities, not their magnitude but their direction also involved therefore vector can not be

added like the addition of scalar.

Q2.12: How are vectors quantities are important to us in our daily life?

Ans: in our daily life vectors quantities are completely explained only when their direction are also considered Q2.13

Derive equation of motion for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion?

Three equations of motion are three equations of motion under the action of gravity are

Vf = Vi + at Vf=Vi+gt

1 1

S = Vi t + at2 h=Vit+ gt2

2 2

2aS = Vf 2 – Vi 2 2gh = Vf 2 – Vi 2

Q2.14 : Sketch the velocity time graph for the motion of the body?

Motion Graphs

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For body moving at constant velocity:

The graph of straight line parallel to the X axis shows that the body is moving with constant velocity

a)

First Equation of Motion

Consider an object moving with a uniform velocity u in a straight line. Let it be, given a uniform acceleration at time, t = 0

when its initial velocity is Vi. As a result of the acceleration, its velocity increases to Vf (final velocity) in time t and s is the

distance covered by the object in time t. The figure shows the velocity-time graph of the motion of the object.

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Slope of the Vf - t graph gives the acceleration of the moving object.

Thus, acceleration = slope = AB = BC/AC

Where BD=Vf, CD=Vi, AC= OD=t BC=BD-CD

(Average,acceleration(aav)= ChangeinVelocity/time)

Slope=AB= Vf - Vi/ t

a = Vf - Vi/ t

Vf – Vi = at

Vf = Vi + at ........................................................(1)

Let Vi be the initial velocity of an object and 'a' the acceleration produced in

the body. The distance travelled s in time t is given by the area enclosed by

the velocity-time graph for the time interval 0 to t.

Distance travelled S = area of the trapezium ABDO

Total aera of OABD= area of rectangle ACDO + area of Î”ABC

𝟏

= OD x OA + (BC x AC)

𝟐

𝟏

= t x Vi + (Vf - Vi ) x t

𝟐

𝟏

= Vi t + (Vf - Vi ) x t

𝟐

𝟏

S = Vi t + at x t

𝟐

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𝟏

S = Vit + at2.

𝟐

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Third Equation of Motion

Let 'vi' be the initial velocity of an object and a be the acceleration produced in the body. The distance travelled’s’ in time’t’

is given by the area enclosed by the speed (v) - t graph.

S= area of the trapezium OABD.

1

= ( ) (OA + BD) x AC where OA=Vi, BD= Vf, AC=OD=t

2

1

= ( ) (Vi + Vf)t ....(1)

2

Or t = (Vf - Vi )a

Substituting the value of t in eq. (1) we get,

1 1

s = ( ) (Vi + Vf)( Vf − Vi)a = ( ) (Vf + Vi)( Vf − Vi)a

2 2

(Vf + Vi)( Vf - Vi) = 2as [using the identity a2 - b2 = (a + b) (a - b)]

v2 - Vi 2 = 2as........... Third Equation of Motion

“Galileo was the first scientist to observe that, neglecting the effect of air resistance, all bodies in free-fall close to the

Earth’s surface accelerate vertically downwards with the same acceleration: namely 9.8 m/s 2″

Example

If a ball is thrown vertically upward, it rises to a particular height and then falls back to the ground. However this is due to

the attraction of the earth which pulls the object towards the ground”

Characteristic Of Free Falling Bodies

1. When a body is thrown vertically upward, its velocity continuously decreases and become zero at a particular height

During this motion the value of acceleration is negative and Vf is equal to zero

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(a = -9.8m/s2 , Vf = 0).

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2. When a body falls back to the ground , its velocity continuously increases and become maximum at a particular height

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During this motion the value of acceleration is positive and Vi is equal to zero (a = 9.8m/s2 , Vi = 0).

3. Acceleration due to gravity is denoted by a and its value is 9.8m/s2 .

4. Equation of motion for the free-falling bodies be written as,

Vf = Vi + gt

1

h = Vi t + gt2

2

2gh = Vf 2 – Vi 2

CHAPTER: 2 KINEMATICS

P2.1) A train moves with a uniform Velocity of 36𝒌𝒎𝒉−𝟏 for 10S. Find the distance travelled by it. Solution:

(Velocity) V= 36 𝑘𝑚ℎ−1

= 36x1000/60x60= 36000/3600= 10𝑚𝑠 −1

(Time) t= 10𝑚𝑠 −1

(Distance) S= ?

Formula: S= Vavx t

= (10) x (10)

S= 100 m ANS

P2.2) A train starts from nest. It moves through 1km in 100S with uniform acceleration. What will be its speed at

the end of 100S?

Solution:

(Distance) S= 1km =1000 m

(Time) t= 100 S

(Velocity)Vi= 0 m/s

Vf=?

By using formula:

1

S= vit+ ( ) 𝑎𝑡 2

2

1

1000= 0(t)+ a (100)2

2

1

1000= a (10000)

2

2x1000/10000=a

20

A= 0.2 𝑚𝑠 −2 ANS

Now by using first equation of motion:

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Vf= v ;+at

Vf= 0=(0.2)(100)

Vf= 20 𝑚𝑠 −1 ANS

P2.3) A car has a Velocity of 10m/s. At accelerate at 0.2 m 𝒔𝟐 for half minute. Find the distance travelled during

this time and the final Velocity of the car.

Solution:

(Initial Velocity) Vi= 10m/s

(Acceleration) a= 0.2m/𝑠 2

1

(time) t= minutes= 30s

2

(final velocity) Vf= ?

S=?

st

By using 1 equation of motion:

Vf= Vi+at

Vf= (10)+(0.2)(30)

Vf= 10+6

Vf= 16m𝑠 −1

By using 3rd equation of motion to find s:

2aS= V𝑓 2 -V;2

2aS= V𝑓 2 -V;2

2(0.2)= (16)2 -(10)2

0.4 S= 256-100

156

S= ( )

0.4

S= 390m ANS

P2.4) A tennis ball is hit vertically upward with a Velocity of 30m/s. it takes 3s to reach the highest point.

Calculate the maximum highest reached by the ball. How long it will take to return to the ground?

Solution:

(Initial Velocity) Vi= 30m/s

(Time) t1= 3s

(Height) S=?

Time required returning to the ground t2=?

g = -10m/𝑠 2

The value of g will be negative because the ball will be decelerating.

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S= vit+ ( ) (10)(3)2

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= 90+(-5)(9)

= 90-45

Height S= 45m ANS

P 2.6) A train starts from the nest with an acceleration of 0.5m𝒔−𝟐 . Find its speed in 𝒌𝒎𝒉−𝟏 when it has

moved through 100m.

Solution:

Initial Velocity Vi= 0

Acceleration a= 0.5𝑚𝑠 −2

Distance s= 100m

Final Velocity Vf=?

To find the final Velocity we have to find the time. By using 2nd equation of motion:

S= vit+1/2𝑎𝑡 2

By putting the values:

100= (0)t+1/2(0.5)(𝑡 2 )

100= ½(0.5)𝑡 2

100= 0.25𝑡 2

100

𝑡 2= =400

0.25

𝑡 2 = 400

Taking square root on both sides:

√𝑡 2 =√400

T= 20s

Now for Vf, we have formula:

Vf= Vi+at

Vf= 0=(0.5)(20)

Vf= 10m𝑠 −1

Now to convert 10m/s into km/h, we will multiply it with 3600 nad divide it by 1000.

3600

So, Vf= 10 x

1000

Vf= 36 𝑘𝑚ℎ−1 ANS

P2.8) A cricket ball is hit vertically upward and returns to the ground 6s later. Calculate:

(i) Maximum height reached by the ball

(ii) Initial Velocity of the ball

Solution:

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Acceleration g = -10m/𝑠 2

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Time t= 6s

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Time for upward= t1= 6/2= 3s

Height= s =?

Initial Velocity= Vi?

Final Velocity= Vf= 0

By using 1st equation of motion:

Vf= vi+gt

O= vi+(-10)(3)

O= vi-30

30=vi

Vi=30m𝑠 −1

By using 3rd equation of motion:

2aS= 𝑉𝑓 2 -𝑣𝑖 2

2x(-10) x s= 0 – (30)

-20s= -900

20s= 900

S= 900/20

S= 45m ANS

P2.9) When brakes are applied the speed of train decreases from the 96km/h to 48km/h. In 800m how much

distance will it cover before coming to rest? (Assume the retardation is constant)

Solution:

The situation can be divided into two parts. The parts 1 data is as follows:

Initial Velocity Vi= 96 km/h

= 96x1000/3600= 26.66m/s

Final Velocity Vf= 48km/h

= 48x1000/3600= 13.33m/s

Distance s= 800m

Acceleration a=?

By using 3rd equation of motion:

2aS= V𝑓 2 - V;2

2a(800)= (13.33)2 -(26.66)2

1600s= -533.35

a= -533.35/1600

a= -0.33m/𝑠1

vi= 48km/h= 13.33m/s

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vf= 0 m/s

s=?

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Again by using 3rd equation of motion:

2aS= v𝑓 2 – v𝑖 2

2(-0.3)s= (0)2 - (13.33)2

-0.6s= -177.688

S= -177.688/-0.6

S= 266.53m

P2.10) In problem 2.9 find the time taken by the train to stop after the application of brakes.

Solution:

Initial Velocity Vi= 96km/h= 26.667m/s

Final Velocity Vf= 0m/s

Acceleration a= -0.33m/𝑠 2

Time t=?

Formula Vf= vi+at

O= 26.677+(-0.33)t

-26.66= -033t

T= -26.667/-0.33

T= 80.80

Vf-vi=at

0-26.677/-0.3344=t

T=80s ANS

P2.11) A car moves with uniform Velocity of 5s it comes to rest in the next 10s/ Find deceleration and total

distance covered by the car?

Solution:

Initial Velocity Vi= 40m𝑠 −1

Time t = 10s

Final Velocity Vf= 0

Retardation a=?

Total distance S=?

As we know that:

vf − vi

a= ( )

𝑡

a= 0-40/40

a= -4 m𝑠 −2 ANS

Distance travelled in 1st five seconds.

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𝑆1= vxt

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= 40x5

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S1= 200m

Average Velocity for next 10 seconds.

Vav= 40+0/2= 20m𝑠 −1

S2= Vav*t

= 20x10

𝑠 2 = 200m

Total distance S= S1 + S2

= 200+200 = 400m ANS

Chapter # 3 Dynamics

1. FORCE

The Force is an agent which produces or tends to produce a motion in a body or it stops or tends to stop the motion of a

body. In simple words we can also say that force is an agent which changes or tends to change the state of an object.

UNIT

The unit of a Force in M.K.S System is Newton

2. MASS

The quantity of matter contained in a body is called mass. It is a scalar quantity.

FORMULA

F = ma

m = F/a

UNIT

The unit of mass in M.K.S System is Kilogram (kg).

3. WEIGHT

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The force with which earth attracts other bodies towards its centre is called weight. It is a vector quantity.

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FORMULA; W = mg

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UNIT

The unit of weight in M.K.S System is Newton (N).

INERTIA

Definition

“Inertia is the tendency of a body to resist a change in its state.”

Examples

Cover a glass with a post card and place a coin on it. Now strike the post card swiftly with the nail of your finger. If the

stroke has been made correctly, the postcard will be thrown away and the coin will drop in the glass.

If a moving bus stops suddenly, the passenger standing in it feels a jerk in the forward direction. As a result he may fall. It

is due to the fact that the lower part of the standing passengers comes to rest as the bus stops. But the upper portion

remains in motion due to inertia.

Difference between Mass and Weight

Mass

1. The quantity of matter present in a body is called mass.

2. The mass of a body remains constant everywhere and does not change by change in altitude.

3. It is a scalar quantity.

4. Mass can be determined by a physical balance.

Weight

1. The force with which the earth attracts a body towards its centre is called the weight of the body.

2. The weight of a body is not constant. It is changed by altitude.

3. Weight is always directed towards the center of the earth. So it is a vector quantity.

4. Weight can be determined by only a spring balance.

MOMENTUM

“The quantity or quality of motion is called momentum and it is denoted by P”

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MATHEMATICAL DEFINITION

“It is the product of mass and velocity.”

MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION

P = mV

where:

p is the momentum

m is the mass

v the velocity

LAW OF MOTIONS

Newton formulated three laws of motion in his book.

NEWTON FIRST LAW OF MOTIONS

Newton’s first law of motion is also known as the Law of Inertia.

STATEMENT

“Every body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line until it is acted upon by an external or

unbalance force to change its state of rest or uniform motion”.

EXPLANATION

This law consists of a two parts

(a) When body is at rest

(b) When body is moving with uniform velocity

(a). When a body is at rest

Newton’s Law states that when a body is at rest, it continues its rest unless we apply a force on it. When we apply a force,

it changes its state of rest and starts moving along a straight line.

(b) When body is moving with a uniform velocity

Newton’s Law states that when a body is moving, it moves in a straight line with uniform velocity, but when we apply an

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Examples

If a bus suddenly starts moving, the passengers standing in the bus will fall in the backward direction. It is due to the

reason that the lower part of the passengers which is in contract with the floor of the bus is carried forward by the

motion of the bus, but the upper part of the body remains at rest due to inertia and so the passengers fall in backward

direction.

If a bus suddenly stops moving, the passengers standing in the bus will fall in the forward direction. It is due to the reason

that the lower part of the passengers which is in contract with the floor of the bus is stopped with the bus, but the upper

part of the body remains moving due to inertia and so the passengers fall in forward direction.

SECOND LAW OF MOTION

STATEMENT

“When a force acts on an object it produces an acceleration which is directly proportion to the amount of the force and

inversely proportional to the product of mass”

EXPLANATION

When we push a body with greater force then its velocity increases and change of velocity takes place in the direction of

the force. If we apply a certain force F on a mass m, then it moves with certain velocity in the direction of the force. If the

force becomes twice then its velocity will also increase two times. In this way if we go on increasing the fore there will be

increase in velocity, which will increase the acceleration.

DERIVATION

According to the Newton`s Second law of motion when a force acts on an object it produces an acceleration which is

directly proportion to the amount of the force.

a∝F

and inversely proportional to the product of mass

1

a∝

𝑚

Combining both.

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F

a∝

𝑚

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A = constant F/m

F

a=k

𝑚

so,

F

a=

𝑚

or

F = ma

THIRD LAW OF MOTION

Statement:

“To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction ”

EXPLANATION

According to Newton’s Law of Motion, we have:

F(action) = – F(reaction)

The negative (-) sign indicates that the two forces are parallel but in the opposite direction. If we consider one of the

interacting objects as A and the other as B, then according to the third law of motion:

F(AB) = – F(BA)

F(AB) represents the force exerted on A and F(BA) is the force exerted on B.

Examples

We walk on the ground, we push the ground backward and as a reaction the ground pushes us forward. Due to this

reason we are able to move on the ground.

If a book is placed on the table, it exerts some force on the table, which is equal to the weight of the book. The table as a

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reaction pushes the book upward. This is the reason that the book is stationary on the table and it does not fall down.

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FRICTION

Definition

The force, which resists the motion of one surface on another

surface, is known as

friction.

Explanation

Suppose a wooden block is placed on a table and a spring balance is attached on it. If we apply a very small force of

magnitude F by pulling the spring gradually and increase it, we observe that the block does not move until the applied

force has reached a critical value. If F is less then critical value, the block does not move. According to Newton’s Third

Law of motion an opposite force balance the force. This opposing force is known as the force of friction or friction.

CausesofFriction

If we see the surface of material bodies through microscope, we observe that they are not smooth. Even the most

polished surfaces are uneven. When one surface is placed over another, the elevations of one get interlocked with the

depression of the other. Thus they oppose relative motion. The opposition is known as friction.

The force of friction depends upon the following factors:

1. Normal Reaction (R)

Force of friction is directly proportional to normal reaction (R), which act upon the body in upward direction against the

weight of the body sliding on the surface.

2. Nature of Surfaces

Force of friction also depends upon the nature of the two surfaces. It is denoted as u and has constant values for every

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Coefficient Of Friction

The coefficient of friction is a number which represents the friction between two surfaces. Between two equal surfaces,

the coefficient of friction will be the same. The symbol usually used for the coefficient of friction is Greek letter µ, where 0

≤µ≤1. The

maximum frictional force (when a body is sliding) is equal to the coefficient of friction × the

normal reaction force. F=µ

R

Where µ is the coefficient of friction and R is the normal reaction force.

This frictional force, F, will act parallel to the surfaces in contact and in a direction to oppose the motion that is taking/

trying to take place.

Advantages of Friction

1. We could not walk without the friction between our shoes and the ground. As we try to step forward, we push our foot

backward. Friction holds our shoe to the ground, allowing you to walk.

2. Writing with a pencil requires friction. We could not hold a pencil in our hand without friction.

3. A nail stays in wood due to friction

4. Nut and bold hold due to friction

DISADVANTAGES OF FRICTION

1. In any type of vehicle–such as a car, boat or airplane–excess friction means that extra fuel must be used to power the

vehicle. In other words, fuel or energy is wasted because of the friction.

2. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that the amount of energy remains constant. Thus, the energy that is “lost” to

friction in trying to move an object is really turned to heat energy. The friction of parts rubbing together creates heat.

3. Due to the friction a machine has less efficiency less than 100%.

4. Due to friction machine catch fire.

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Laws of Friction

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Statement

The value of limiting friction increases proportionally with the increase in normal reaction. Hence, liming friction F(s) is

directly proportional to the normal reaction.

F(s) < R (Here < represents the sign of proportionality don’t’ write it in the examination paper.)

=> Fs = µ R ……….. (i)

u = F(s)/R

u is the constant of proportionality, which depends upon the nature of the surfaces of the two surfaces in contact. It is

known as the coefficient of friction. It is only a number without any unit. We know that the normal reaction is directly

proportional to the weight of the block, therefore,

R = W = mg

Substituting the value of R in equation (i)

=> Fs = µ mg

Rolling Friction

When a body rolls over a surface, the force of friction is called rolling friction. Rolling friction is much less than the sliding

friction. This is because the surfaces in contact are very much less.

LONG QUESTIONS

Question: Explain the Law of Conservation of Momentum?

This law states that

“When two or more bodies collide with one another the total momentum of the

system remains the same, provided no external force acts upon them.”

Explanation: -

The law of conservation of momentum is a fundamental law of nature, and it states that the total momentum of an isolated

system of objects (which has no interactions with external agents) is constant. One of the consequences of this is that the

of any centre of mass system of objects will always continue with the same velocity unless acted on by a force outside the

system.

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Consider two balls of masses m 1 and m2 . They are initially moving with velocities u1and u2 in same direction on a straight

line. If u1 > u2 , then the balls will collide. Let their velocities becomes v1 and v2 after collision.

Total momentum of balls before collision = m1u1 + m2u2

Total momentum of balls after collision = m1v1 + m2 v2

According to Law of conservation of momentum

Total Momentum before collision = Total Momentum after collision

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2 v2

Rockets and jet engines also work on the same principle. In these machines, hot gases produced by burning of fuel rush out

with large momentum. The machines gain an equal and opposite momentum. This enables them to move with very high

velocities.

Question: What is force of friction? How friction can be reduced?

Friction: -

The force, which resists the motion of one surface on another surface, is known as

friction.

Methods to reduce friction: -

i) Sliding parts should be highly polished to reduce friction.

ii) Friction of liquids is less than solids. Therefore oil or grease is applied between the parts of machinery.

iii) Rolling friction is less then sliding friction. Therefore sliding friction should be converted to rolling friction by using ball

bearings.

iv) Front side of vehicles, aeroplanes and ships are shaped wedge like and pointed so that minimum friction is offered by

air.

Centripetal Force

Definition

“The force that causes an object to move along a curve (or a curved path) is called centripetal force.”

Mathematical Expression

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We know that the magnitude of centripetal acceleration of a body in a uniform circular motions is directly proportional to

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the square of velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of the path Therefore,

a(c) ∝v2

a(c) ∝ 1/r

Combining both the equations:

a(c) ∝ v2/r

From Newton’s Second Law of Motion:

F = ma

=> F(c) = mv2/r

Where,

Fc = Centripetal Force m = Mass of object

v = Velocity of object r = Radius of the curved path

Fc depends upon the following factors:

Increase in the mass will increases Fc.

It increases with the square of velocity.

It decreases with the increase in radius of the curved path.

When a car takes

Examples

The centripetal force required by natural planets to move constantly round a circle is provided by the gravitational force

of the sun.

If a stone tied to a string is whirled in a circle, the required centripetal force is supplied to it by our hand. As a reaction

the stone exerts an equal force which is felt by our hand.

The pilot while turning his aero plane tilts one wing in the upward direction so that the air pressure may provide the

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Centrifugal Force

Definition

“A force supposed to act outward on a body moving in a curve is known as centrifugal force.”

Explanation

Centrifugal force is actually a reaction to the centripetal force. It is a well-known fact that Fc is directed towards the

centre of the circle, so the centrifugal force, which is a force of reaction, is directed away from the centre of the circle or

the curved path.

According to Newton’s third law of motion action and reaction do not act on the same body, so the centrifugal

force does not act on the body moving round a circle, but it acts on the body that provides Fc.

Examples

If a stone is tied to one end of a string and it is moved round a circle, then the force exerted on the string on outward

direction is called centrifugal force.

The aeroplane moving in a circle exerts force in a direction opposite to the pressure of air.

When a train rounds a curve, the centrifugal force is also exerted on the track.

Vertical motion of two bodies attached to the ends of a string that passes over a frictionless pulley

Consider two bodies A and B of masses m1 and m2 respectively, let m1 is greater than m2 . the bodies are attached to the

opposite ends of an inextensible string. The string passes over a frictionless pulley. the body A being heavier must be

moving downward with some acceleration. Let this acceleration be a. At the same time, the body B attached to the other

end of the string moves up with the same acceleration a. As the pulley is frictionless, hence tension will be the same

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Since the body A moves downwards, hence its weight m1g is greater than the tension T in the string.

Net force acting on body A=m1g-T

According to the Newton’s law of motion:

m1g-T = m1a ..... ...... 1)

As body B moves upwards, hence its weight m2g is less than the tension T in the string.

Net force acting on body B = T – m2g

According to Newton law

T- m2g = m2a ...... ..... 2)

Adding Eq.1and Eq 2 , we get acceleration a.

m1 − m2

a= ( )g

𝑚1 +𝑚2

2m1m2

T= ( )g ..... ..... 3)

𝑚1+𝑚2

The above arrangement is also known as Atwood machine. It can be used to find the acceleration g due to gravity using ,

m1+ m2

g= ( )a

𝑚1−𝑚2

OR

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Motion of two bodies attached to the ends of a string that passes over a frictionless pulley such that one body

moves vertically and the other moves on A smooth horizontal surface

Consider two bodies A and B masses m1 and m2 respectively attached to the ends of an inextensible string as shown in the

figure above.Let the body A moves downwards with an acceleration a. Since the string is inextensible, therefore, body B

also moves over the horizontal surface with the same acceleration a. As the pulley is frictionless hence tension T will be

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Since body A moves downwards, therefore, its weight m1g is greater than the tension in T in the string.

Net force acting on the body A = m1g – T

According to the Newton’s second law of motion:

m1g – T = m1a ... ... ... (1)

The forces acting on the body are:

I. Weight m2g of the body B acting downwards.

II. Reaction R of the horizontal surface acting on the body B in the upward direction.

III. Tension in the string pulling the body B horizontally on the smooth surface.

As body B has no vertical motion, hence resultant of vertical forces (m2g and R) must be zero.

Thus the net force acting on the body B is T.

According to the Newton’s second law of motion:

T = m2a ... ... ... (2)

Adding eqs. 1 and 2, we get acceleration a as:

𝑚 1g –T + T =m1a+ m2a

𝑚 1g = a(m1+m2)

𝑚1

a= g ... (3)

𝑚1+𝑚2

𝑚1 𝑚2

T= g ... ... ... (4)

𝑚1+𝑚2

Consider a body of mass m moving with initial velocity Vi. Let a force F acts on the body which produces an acceleration a

in it. This changes the velocity of the body. Let its final velocity after time t becomes Vf. if Pi and Pf be the initial momentum

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and the final momentum related to the body related to the initial and the final velocity respectively then:

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Changes in momentum = Final momentum – initial momentum

Or Pf – Pi = mvf - mvi

Thus the rate of change in momentum given by:

p − p mv − mv

=

𝑡 𝑡

vf − vi

=m

𝑡

vf − vi

Since is the rate of change of velocity equal to the acceleration a produced by the force F.

𝑡

pf − pi

=ma

𝑡

According to Newton’s second law of motion:

F = ma

pf − pi

Or =F

𝑡

Equation also defines the force and states Newton’s second aw of motion as:

“When a force acts on a body, it produces acceleration in the body and will be equal to the rate of change of

momentum of the body.”

SI unit of momentum defined by equation is Newton-second (Ns) which is the same as kmgs-1.

Ans:

(Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an

object to resist any change in its motion including a change in direction).

3.5. Why is it dangerous the roof of a bus to travel on?

Ans : The friction or drag force due to air acting on the upper part of the body of a person standing on the roof of running

bus tries to turn over which is dangerous while the lower part of body remains at rest w.r.t roof of the bus

3.6. Why does a passenger move outward when a bus takes turn?

Ans: When does bus take a turn the passenger sitting inside experienced centrifugal force and moves out wards

3.7. How can you relate a force with the change of momentum of a body?

vf − vi

Ans : By using 2nd of motion we can write F = ma here a= by putting this value we can get

𝑡

vf − vi

F =m

𝑡

mvf − mvi final momentum − initial momentum

F= but F =

𝑡 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒

Force = time rate of change of momentum

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3.8. What will be the tension in the rope that is pulled from the end by two opposite forces 100N each?

Ans: When two forces of 100 N each applied on a string then resultant tension is equal to 100.

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3.9. Action and reaction are always equal and opposite. Then how does a body move?

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Ans: Action and reaction force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. These do not act upon the same body. Action

force is applied on one body, which give reactional force acting on other body. Both of these do not neutralized this is the

result of motion.

3.10. A horse pulls the cart. If the action and reaction are equal and opposite then the how does the cart move?

Ans: The horse applies action force by feet on the road the reaction is given by road on horse due to which the cart tied to

the horse also move.

3.11. What is the law of conservation of momentum?

Ans : “When two or more bodies collide with one another the total momentum of the

system remains the same, provided no external force acts upon them.”

According to Law of conservation of momentum

Total Momentum before collision = Total Momentum after collision

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2 v2

Ans : by using law of conservation of momentum it is possible to calculate, force , velocity, acceleration of a body. Most of

elementary particles were discovered by this law.

3.13. When a gun is fired, it recoils. Why?

Ans : according law of conservation of momentum the momentum gained by fired bullet is neutralized by equal and

opposite momentum given to the gun recoils back.

3.14. Describe two situations in which force of friction is needed.

Ans: The friction between walking person and surface of earth is necessary for walking.

To stop a moving vehicle force of friction between tyre and road is required if this is reduced by putting oil on the road

then it would be impossible to stop a vehicles.

3.15. How does oiling the moving parts of a machine lower the friction?

Ans : by oiling the various parts of a matching of friction is reduced which increase its efficiency

3.16. Describe ways to reduce friction.

Ans: Methods to reduce friction: -

i) Sliding parts should be highly polished to reduce friction.

ii) Friction of liquids is less than solids. Therefore oil or grease is applied between the parts of machinery.

iii) Rolling friction is less then sliding friction. Therefore sliding friction should be converted to rolling friction by using ball

bearings.

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iv) Front side of vehicles, aeroplanes and ships are shaped wedge like and pointed so that minimum friction is offered by

air.

Ans: the interlocking between ups and down of two surface need not be ruptured in case of rolling while in case of sliding

these are to be ruptured and result to increase in friction .

3.18. What do you know about the following?

(i) Tension in a string

Ans: Tension in string is to neutralize applied force on the string this prevents it from moving.

(iii) Limiting force of friction

Ans: The force of friction on the body at rest lying in a rough surface is called force of static friction its value increases

with the increase of applied force .The maximum possible value of static friction if applied force made grater then it body

starts moving is called limiting force of static friction

(iv) Braking force

Ans: the bracking force is the force between brake pushing and wheel of vehicle. It is help to stop the wheels.

(v) Skidding of vehicles

Ans: when a force of friction between tyre and road is small then applying brakes tyre slide over the road .it is called

skidding of vehicles

(vi) Seatbelts

Ans: The seat belts provide opposition against falling ahead when vehicle is stopped suddenly

(vii) Banking of roads

Ans: the outer edge of road is made higher to provide reactional force on tyre which prevents it from slopping. It is called

banking of road.

(viii) Cream separator

Ans: in a cream separator milk is rotated and lighter particles of cream come at the axis of rotation and are separated

from milk and collected through the pipe.

3.19. What would happen if all friction suddenly disappears?

Ans: when the frictional force suddenly disappears the motion of the object would never be stopped.

3.20. Why the spinner of a washing machine is made to spin at a high speed?

Ans: at very high spinning speed the water and dirt particles are separate from cloths to clean them inside washing

machine.

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Chapter No 3

Dynamics

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P 3.1) A force of 20 N moves a body with an acceleration of 20ms -2 what is its mass?

Solution:

Force F= 20 N Acceleration a= 20ms-2 Mass m=?

Formula F= ma

F

m=

𝑎

20/2 = 10 kg Ans

Solution:

Weight w=147 N

Acceleration g = 10ms-2

Mass m=?

W

Formula W = mg m=

𝑔

P3.3) How much force is needed to prevent a body of mass 10kg from falling?

Solution:

Mass m=10kg

Force F=a

The force needed to prevent the body from falling is equal to the weight of the body

F=W

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W=mg

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F=mg

F= 10 x 10= 100 N Ans

Solution:

Acceleration a =?

Force F = 100 N

Mass m = 50kg

Formula:

F

F= ma a=

𝑚

a=100/50 = 2ms-2

P3.5) A body has weight 20N how much force is required to move it vertically upward with an acceleration of

20ms-2?

Solution:

Weight W = 20N

Acceleration a = 20ms-2

Force F=?

To find out force we have to first calculate the Mass of the body

To find out the mass to use W= mg m = w/g m= 20/10 m = 2kg

So he net force will take the body upward will be

Net force F = W

F= ma

W = mg

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W = -mg

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Net force F = F-W

ma – m(-g )

ma + mg

m(a +g)

2 (2+10)

Force F= 24N Ans

P3.6) Two masses 52kg and 48kg are attached to the end of the string that passes over a frictionless pulley. Find

the tension in the string and acceleration in the body? When the masses are moving vertically.

Solution:

m1 = 52kg

m2 = 58kg

T =?

a =?

First we find tension in the string

Formula:

2m1m2

T=( )g

𝑚1+𝑚2

T = 499.2N

T = 500N approximately Ans

Now we will find the acceleration

Formula:

m1 − m2

a= ( )g

𝑚1 +𝑚2

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a= 4x10/100

a= 40/100

a= 0.4ms-2 Ans

P3.7) Two masses 26kg and 24kg are attached to the end of a string which passes over a frictionless pulley. 26kg

is lying over a smooth horigalal table .24kg mass is moving vertically downward. Find the tension in string and

acceleration in bodies.

Solution:

m1 = 24kg m2 = 26kg T =? a =?

Formula:

2m1m2

T=( )g

𝑚1+𝑚2

T = 124.8N

T = 125N

m1 − m2

Formula: a = ( )g

𝑚1 +𝑚2

= 24x10 / 24+ 26

a = 408ms-2 Ans

Solution:

(Initial momentum) Pi = 22Ns

Pf = 0Ns F = 20N t =?

Formula:

45

Pf − Pi

=F

Page

Ideal Science Academy

Pf − Pi

F=

𝑡

= 0-22/ 20

t = -1.1s

As time cannot be negative to

t = 1.1s ANS

P3.9) How much is the force of friction between a wooden block of mass 5 kg and the horizontal marble floor?

The coefficient of friction between the wood and marble is 0.6

Solution:

Fr =? m= 5 kg u= 0.6 Formula Fr = UF

F = mg

5 x 10 = 50 N

Fr =UF

Fr = 0.6 x 50 = 30 N ANS

46

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