You are on page 1of 13

Chemical Cleaning Report

CAPE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

Chemical Cleaning
Report
Units 3 and 4 KNPS

Kevin Taylor

23 January 2013

A report covering the chemical cleaning of Units 3 and 4 in January 2013


Chemical Cleaning Report

Client: Sudanese Thermal Generating Company

Site: KNPS, Khartoum, Sudan

Project: 443118

Document: 443118 Unit 3 and 4 Report Jan 2013

Author: Kevin Taylor

Date: 23/01/2013

Revision: 0
Chemical Cleaning Report

Contents
1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................
2. Chemistry Analysis.........................................................................................................................
3. General conclusions ......................................................................................................................
4. Unit 3 Photos...................................................................................................................................
5. Unit 4 Photos...................................................................................................................................
6. Attachments: ...................................................................................................................................
1. Operational Log ..........................................................................................................................
2. Chemists Logs ............................................................................................................................
Chemical Cleaning Report

1. Introduction

1.1. History
U3 and U4 were cleaned using the same methods in 2000 and 2001 with the
exception that was Hydrogen peroxide was used in the passivation stage. Sodium
Nitrite was used this time as for U1 and U2 as a small amount of copper was
believed to exist.
U1 and U2 were cleaned in 2005.

1.2. Construction
1.2.1. Lower Side Wall Headers
The caps were removed from the 4 panels on the left and right side of the
boiler. The front wall of the boiler is where the burners are situated. 8 off 4”
flanges were attached to these.
1.2.2. Rear Walls
All 3 x 3” drain boots were cut and a 4” header was attached with Nitrogen
sparges to distribute nitrogen across the header. Compressed nitrogen was
supplied in 20 bottles.
1.2.3. Drum connections
2 off restrictor plates (with 1” drain hole) were placed across the downcomers.
A temporary door was fitted with overflow connections.
Both PRVs were removed.
One was blinded, the other used for venting and connection of sight glass
hose. The other end of the sight glass hose was attached to the redundant
level gauge. An overflow was connected to the mixing tank.
1.2.4. Riser header connections
8 off 3/8” hose connections were made to the highest risers on the first two
side panels on each side. These were connected to a 2” valved manifold
outside the dead space at drum level.
1.2.5. Economiser inlet
The NRV lid was removed and an adapter to 4” from previous cleans was
fitted.
1.2.6. Filling Pump
A spool on the boiler filling pump (8m level in turbine hall) was removed and
replaced with a valved 2” T piece which was connected to the superheater via
a fire hose.
1.2.7. Superheater connection
The inspection nipple on top of the superheater header was cut and a 2”
valve was fitted.
1.2.8. Blow down vessel
The line was cut after the boiler drains.
1.2.9. Drain to effluent
A 4” line in temporary hose was run to the manhole cover in front of the south
corner of U1-4 operations building.
Chemical Cleaning Report

1.3. Chemical Cleaning Process (based on 60m3 cleaning volume)


1.3.1. Stages
1.3.1.1. Stage 1: Alkaline Boilout
1% Sodium Carbonate (600kg)
Time: 8 hours
Temperature: ~ 95oC
1.3.1.2. Stage 2: Acid Clean
5-6% Hydrochloric acid (9300 litres @ 32%)
0.25% Armohib 28
0.5% Ammonium Bifluoride (300 kg)
Time: ~ 8 hours
Temperature: ~ 75oC
1.3.1.3. Stage 3: Citric Rinse
0.2% Citric Acid (125kg)
Ammonia solution to pH 3.5- 4.0 followed by further addition to pH 6-9
1.3.1.4. Stage 4: Flushing
Flushing to clear water and less than 20µS conductivity
1.3.1.5. Stage 5: Passivation
1% Citric Acid (600kg)
Ammonia solution to pH 3.5
Further Ammonia to pH 9 – 9.5
0.5% Sodium Nitrite (300kg)
Time: ~ 4-6 hours
Temperature: ~ 55oC

1.3.2. Firing
Firing was by the use of 1 burner only. Using atomised air rather than steam
results in a slower and more controlled increase in temperature. The
superheater needs regular back flushing as it tends to boil very quickly.

1.3.3. Draining
The boiler was drained to the effluent neutralisation pit where it was
neutralised and treated

1.4. Effluent treatment


The chemistry department were informed before draining occurred and the pit
lowered to accommodate the required solutions. The solutions were then pumped to
the river outlet.

1.4.1. Soda Ash Stage


This stage was kept and used to part neutralise the acid stage.
1.4.2. Acid Stage and flushes
These were neutralised with caustic.
1.4.3. Passivation Stage
This was kept separate in a smaller pit and the Ammonia reduced with air
sparging and the nitrites/ nitrates reduced with Sulphamic Acid.
Chemical Cleaning Report

2. Chemistry Analysis
Khartoum North Power Station, Sudan
Chemically Clean Boiler Unit 3 ppm Iron
Free Acid %
Hydrochloric Acid Stage - January 2013
5000 10

4500 9

4000 8

3500 7

3000 6
Dissolved Iron (ppm)

Free Acid (%)


2500 5

2000 4

1500 3

1000 2

500 1

0 0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Time (hours) after acid addition

HYDROCHLORIC ACID STAGE ANALYTICAL RESULTS (BOILER 3)

Date Time Temp pH Total Free ppm ppm Inhib. Condy.


°C Acid % Acid % Iron Copper test uS
9.30 4.93 1000
06/01/2013 10.30 6.63 6.39 1333 OK
11.30 5.92 5.66 1436 OK
12.30 5.92 5.66 1436 OK
13.30 5.92 5.66 1436 OK
14.30 5.15 4.93 1230 OK
15.30 63.0 5.38 5.15 1300 OK
16.30 5.39 5.15 1360 OK
17.30 62.0 5.39 5.15 1360 OK

SUMMARY

Calculated System Capacity 60.00 Tonnes

Iron (Fe) Iron Oxide Copper Copper


(Fe2O3) (Cu) Oxide
Total dissolved solids removed
from 1st Stage
(kg): 86.16 123.21
Total dissolved solids removed
from 2nd Stage (kg): - - - -
Chemical Cleaning Report

Khartoum North Power Station, Sudan


Chemically Clean Boiler Unit 4
ppm Iron
Free Acid %
Hydrochloric Acid Stage - January 2013
5000 10

4500 9

4000 8
Dissolved Iron (ppm)

3500 7

3000 6

Free Acid (%)


2500 5

2000 4

1500 3

1000 2

500 1

0 0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Time (hours) after acid addition

HYDROCHLORIC ACID STAGE ANALYTICAL RESULTS (BOILER 4)

Date Time Temp pH Total Free ppm ppm Inhib. Condy.


°C Acid % Acid % Iron Copper test uS
11.00 73.0 6.25 6.02 1282 OK
19/01/2013 12.00 71.0 5.66 5.40 1487 OK
13.00 5.54 5.29 1410 OK
14.00 68.0 5.55 5.25 1666 OK
15.00 5.30 5.00 1666 OK
16.00 67.0 5.30 5.00 1690 OK
17.00 66.0 5.31 5.00 1717 OK

SUMMARY

Calculated System Capacity 60.00 Tonnes

Iron Iron
(Fe) Oxide Copper Copper
(Fe2O3) (Cu) Oxide
Total dissolved solids removed
from 1st Stage (kg): 103.02 147.32
Total dissolved solids removed
from 2nd Stage
(kg): - - - -
Chemical Cleaning Report

3. General conclusions

On inspection of the boilers before cleaning it was noted that the internal appearance of the
surface of both units were of a reddish colour. This is usually indicative of Calcium
Phosphate deposits. The appearance and colour of scale in both boilers were nearly
identical.

This deposit has been found to be insoluble in all the generally accepted treatment solutions.
A pre-treatment was used to induce some chemical conversion to produce a soluble form.
Examples of these compounds are calcium sulphate and calcium phosphate. If a scale
containing a substantial amount of these substances is treated with a hot alkaline solution for
eight to twelve hours then sufficient conversion may take place to aid the dissolution of the
scale in a subsequent acid treatment. The exact degree of conversion is difficult to predict
and appears to depend on the contact time and temperature of the process and on the
porosity and crystal form of the scale. However, even a small degree of conversion will lead
to some increased scale dissolution and a better break-down of the matrix, thereby ensuring
at least its removal in suspension.

Both units produced Iron figures in the same range of around 1500 ppm. For boilers that
have been operational for ten to twelve years after the previous clean this would be classed
as a low figure.
The Hydrochloric acid was strengthened by the addition of 0.5% Ammonium Bifluoride. This
also dissolves any scale containing Silica which may be present.

After the passivation a fine layer of insoluble matter was left on the horizontal surfaces of the
drums. This is to be expected because the passivation would have broken up any remaining
scale. The units drained well (1 – 1.5 hours) but the drainage rate was restricted by the
drains backing up. The boilers were also filled via the economiser to open drains until clean
water conditions were achieved. This is helpful step to flush out remaining debris.

Heating the boiler was via one burner being fired. Heating with atomised steam was fairly
fast but was slower and more controllable with atomising air. The superheater got hot during
heating and needed regular backflushing. To combat this, the burner was fired for
approximately 15 minutes before the boiler was allowed to rest for about 15 minutes before
heating recommenced (with atomising steam). With atomising air 30 minutes or more of
heating could be obtained.

Sodium Nitrite was used as the passivation agent as a small amount of copper was
expected.

Both cleans were successful and the finished surfaces were clean and passivated. A small
amount of insoluble debris was left on the horizontal surfaces. The majority of this scale can
be removed with a soft brush before boxing the boiler up. The remainder would easily be
removed on the permanent passivation step with phosphate, hydrazine and ammonia as
covered in the boiler manual.
Chemical Cleaning Report

Issues incurred

- On U3 clean, there was an issue with the burners as there was no atomising steam
available for firing. This resulted in a very lengthy delay. Eventually atomising air was used,
which resulted in more controlled heating. There were some delays also on U4 with burners
tripping.

- The temporary economiser connection for units 3 and 4 was leaking. The leak was
minimised but could not be stopped. At various points throughout the chemical cleans, the
process had to be stopped so that the connection could be tightened up. This caused a lot of
delays, especially at the start of the U3 clean.

- A lot of the valves are quite old now and had to be replaced at various points throughout
the cleans, thus holding up progress. The maintenance staff were very good at repairing
them but this held up progress on several occasions.

- Some of the hoses being used as the overflow from the steam drum to the mixing tank
were found to have been contaminated with oil. These hoses were cleaned before use, but a
lot of oil remained and kept coming back to the mixing tank, which had to be cleaned out on
several occasions.

- On U4 clean, the air sparges were installed incorrectly, resulting in a delay as the rearwall
had to be drained before repairing and reinstalling the air sparges.

- Effluent space caused a slight delay as the effluent had to be transferred from one sump to
another, thus slowing down the rate of draining.

- The boiler filling pump being used took 4 hours each time to fill the boiler, which resulted in
some delays as the boiler feed pump was faster and not used on all occasions.
Chemical Cleaning Report

4. Unit 3 Photos
Drum before cleaning

Drum after cleaning


Chemical Cleaning Report

Sidewall before cleaning

Sidewall after cleaning


Chemical Cleaning Report

5. Unit 4 Photos
Drum before cleaning

Drum after cleaning


Chemical Cleaning Report

6. Attachments:
1. Operational Log

2. Chemists Logs