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CONTENTS

Foreword ix
Acknowledgments xi

Introduction:Recycling Organics at the Community Scale 1


Community-Scale Composting, 2 • What is Compost?, 4 • Defining This Book’s Focus, 5
• Making Waste Management Compatible with Our Food System, 7 • How To Use
This Book, 8 • Whose Book Is This?, 10

Chapter One:Common Models in Community-Scale Composting 11


Model Components, 12 • 10 Common Models, 16

Chapter Two:Composting Methods and Technologies 35


Turned Windrows, 36 • Bin and Bay Systems, 37 • Aerated Static Pile Composting, 38
• Passively Aerated Static Pile, 39 • In-Vessel Composting, 39 • Vermicomposting, 41 •
Static Pile, 42 • Food Scraps as Animal Feed, and Composting with Animals, 42 •
Compost Heat Recovery, 44 • Anaerobic Digestion, 45 • Food Scrap Dehydrators, 45 •
Pulping and Flushing Equipment, 46 • Community-Scale Food Scrap Collection, 47
• System Compatibility and Comparison, 50

Chapter Three:The Composting Process 51


Managed versus Non-Managed Systems, 51 • Decomposers’ Basic Needs: Food, Air, Water,
and Warmth, 52 • Air, 53 • Temperature, 56 • The Phases of Composting, 58

Chapter Four:Compost Recipe and Feedstocks 65


Compost Recipe and Feedstock Characteristics, 65 • Moisture Content, 68 • Bulk Density,
73 • Porosity, 77 • Other Key Factors in Compost Recipes and Feedstocks, 79 • Compost
Recipe Development, 83 • Feedstocks, 90 • Avoiding and Managing Contamination, 103

Chapter Five:Processing Capacity and Site Assessment 113


Compost Site Processing Capacity and System Scale, 114 • Compost Site Budgeting and
Business Planning, 120 • Finding and Evaluating a Location, 126 • Choosing a Composting
Method, 127 • Regulatory Assessment and Compliance, 127

Chapter Six:Compost Site Infrastructure and Equipment 131


Compost Site Infrastructure Components, 131 • Food Scrap Receiving and Blending
Areas, and Equipment, 132 • Drop-Off Areas for Leaves and Yard Debris, 144 • Feedstock
Storage and Management, 144 • Active Composting Areas (Primary and Secondary), 149
• Finishing, Curing, and Storing Compost, 155 • Finalizing Site Scale, 159 • Additional
Infrastructure, 159 • Compost Site Equipment, 159 • Hacking Equipment, Infrastructure,
and Functionality, 164
Chapter Seven:Bin and Bay Composting Systems 165
Common Applications for Small Bin Composting Systems, 165 • Common Applications
for Larger Bay Composting Systems, 167 • Standard Bin and Bay System Design, 167

Chapter Eight:Turned Windrow Composting Systems 185


Common Applications for Turned Windrow Compost Systems, 185 • Meeting Temperature
Requirements, 187 • Pile Turning Methods and Equipment, 187 • Windrows in Space and
Time (Planning Your Turned Windrow Operation), 196

Chapter Nine:Aerated Static Pile Composting Systems 203


Common Applications for ASP, 204 • ASP Benefits and Drawbacks, 204 • ASP System
Strategy and Design, 209 • Designing Biofilters, 251 • Building the ASP and Biofilter
Manifold, 259 • Testing ASP Design Performance, 261 • ASP Compost Pile
Construction, 263 • Managing ASP Composting, 268

Chapter Ten:In-Vessel Composting Systems 273


Common Applications for In-Vessel Composters, 273 • Benefits, Challenges, and
Considerations with In-Vessel, 275 • Common Styles of In-Vessel Composters, 277
• Self-Made In-Vessel Systems, 281 • Commercially Available In-Vessel Systems, 286

Chapter Eleven:Composting with Animals 287


Common Applications for Composting with Animals, 288 • Safety and Regulation, 291 •
Animal Feed as Highest Use, 292 • Nutritional Value of Food Scraps as Animal Feed, 293
• Systems for Composting with Animals, 294 • Sizing a System for Composting with
Chickens, 308

Chapter Twelve:Food Scrap Generation and Collection 315


Vertical Integration: Collection and Composting, 315 • Collection Service Area and
Scale, 316 • Estimating Generation, Capture, Participation, and Diversion Rates, 318 •
The Act of Collection, 324 • Other Collection Fundamentals, 329 • Collection Equipment, 337
• Generator Training and Education, 347

Chapter Thirteen:Compost Site Management 349


Compost Operator Training, 349 • Institutionalizing Composting and Compost Best
Management Practices, 350 • Sourcing and Capturing Raw Materials, 351 • Compost
Recipe Development, 354 • Food Scrap Receiving and Blending, 354 • Pile Formation, 359 •
Compost Pile Monitoring and Management, 360 • Quality Control Standards, 374

Chapter Fourteen:Compost End Uses and Markets 381


Compost Applications and Benefits, 382 • Compost Marketing and Sales, 391

Appendix A: Compost Systems Overview, Capacity, and Requirement Tables 401


Appendix B: Compost Pile Monitoring Logs 414
Resources 417
Notes 419
Index 429