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Research Methodology

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solutions to problems. It is apurposive investigation. It is an organized

inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplainedphenomenon to

clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts.

Features

1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon.2. It is

a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and

explaining aphenomenon.3. It adopts scientific method.4. It is objective

and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and

theconclusions reached.5. It is based upon observable experience or

empirical evidence.6. Research is directed towards finding answers to

pertinent questions and solutions to problems.7. It emphasizes the

development of generalization, principles or theories.8. The purpose of

research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test

of criticism.

Types of Research -

Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may

beclassified crudely according to its major intent or the methods.

According to the intent, research may beclassified as:

Pure Research -

It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to

apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein‘s theory of relativity, Newton‘s

contributions, Galileo‘s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or

fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or

inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at

extension of knowledge. It maylead to either discovery of a new theory

or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied

research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find

the critical factors ina practical problem. It develops many alternative

solutions and thus enables us to choose the bestsolution.B.

Applied Research -

It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action

or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It

seeks an immediate and practicalresult, e.g., marketing research

carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-

purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of

an applied research is tofind solutions to a practical problem, it may

incidentally contribute to the development of theoreticalknowledge by

leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o

conceptual clarity. Itcan put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual

clarification. It may integrate previously existingtheories.C.

Exploratory Research -

It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of

anunfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no

knowledge. It is ill-structured andmuch less focused on pre-determined

objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The urpose of this

research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher‘s

familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the

problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to

determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz

conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. ―At the first level is

the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the

second, the discovery of relationships between variables.

Descriptive Study

It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the

simplesttype of research. It is more specific than an exploratory

research. It aims at identifying the variouscharacteristics of a

community or institution or problem under study and also aims at

aclassification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter

of study. It contributes to thedevelopment of a young science and

useful in verifying focal concepts through empiricalobservation. It can

highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and

interpretation.The information obtained may be useful for prediction

about areas of social life outside theboundaries of the research. They

are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social

actionprogram.E.

Diagnostic Study

It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed

towardsdiscovering what is happening, why it is happening and what

can be done about. It aims atidentifying the causes of a problem and

the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned withdiscovering

and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of

research requiresprior knowledge of the problem, its thorough

formulation, clear-cut definition of the givenpopulation, adequate

methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of

variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.F.

Evaluation Studies

It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the

effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for

assessing the impact of developmentalprojects on the development of

the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the qualityand

quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes

and conditions requiredfor its success. It is concerned with causal

relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis.It is concerned

also with change over time.G.

Action Research

It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an

actionprogramme launched for solving a problem for improving an

exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of

diagnostic information, planning, developing change

programme,initiation of organizational change, implementation of

participation and communication process,and post experimental

evaluation

in his head. Even if he could, hewould have difficulty in understanding

how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisionson

paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a

symbolic construction may becalled the research design or model. A

research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing

a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the

methodology and techniques tobe adopted for achieving the

objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement

andanalysis of data. It is the plan, structure and strategy of

investigation conceived so as to obtain answersto research questions.

The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research

design is theprogram that guides the investigator in the process of

collecting, analyzing and interpretingobservations. It provides a

systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda

and Destsch and Cook describe, ―A research design is the

arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a

manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with

economy in procedure.

The different types of Research Designs are:-

There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers

advance different classificationschemes, some of which are:

1. Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing

Association).

2. Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch

and Cook).

3. Experimental, and expost fact (Kerlinger)

4. Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates)

5. Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and

laboratory experiments(Festinger and Katz)

6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and

Westfall)

7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull)

8. Experimental,quasi-experimental designs (Nachmias and Nachmias)

9. True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental

designs (Smith).

10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and

Survey Research (Kidder andJudd).

These different categorizations exist, because,research design is a

complex concept. In fact, thereare different perspectives from which

any given study can be viewed. They are:a. The degree of formulation

of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized)b. The

topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical

study)c. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey,

laboratory experiment)d. The time dimension(one-time or

longitudinal)e. The mode of data collection (observational or survey)f.

The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost

facto)g. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or

causal).

Q.3)Discuss the four types of measurement scales?

A)Nominal measurement

this level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to

different categories of avariable. The example of male and female

applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is anexample of

nominal measurement. The numerals or symbols are just labels and

have no quantitativevalue. The numbers of cases under each category

are counted. Nominal measurement is thereforethe simplest level of

measurement. It does not have characteristics such as order, distance

orarithmetic origin.

2. Ordinal measurement

In this level of measurement, persons or objects are assigned numerals

which indicate ranks withrespect to one or more properties, either in

ascending or descending order

Example

Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio - economic class”,

which is measured by a combination of income, education, occupation

and wealth. The individual with the highest scoremight be assigned

rank1, the next highest rank 2, and so on, or vice versa.The numbers in

this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal

distance orabsolute quantities. This means that the distance between

ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal tothe distance between ranks 2

and 3.Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order, rating and

paired comparisons. Variables thatlend themselves to ordinal

measurement include preferences, ratings of organizations

andeconomic status. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to

analyze ordinal scale data are themedian and rank order correlation

coefficients.

3. Interval measurement

This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and

ordinal levels of measurement,since it has one additional characteristic

– equality of distance. However, it does not have an originor a true

zero. This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the

numbers on an intervalscale.

Example

The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the

interval level of measurement. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly

10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10degrees cooler than

60degrees.Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or

ordinalscales; they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical

techniques, such as standard deviation, product moment correlation

and “t” tests and "F” tests of significance.

4. Ratio measurement

This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when

measuring characteristics whichhave an absolute zero point. This level

of measurement has all the three characteristics – order,distance and

origin.Examples Height, weight, distance and area. Since there is a

natural zero, it ispossible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio

scale. Apart from being able to use all thestatistical techniques that are

used with the nominal, ordinal and interval scales, techniques like

thegeometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used.The

main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for

characteristics such as leadershipquality, happiness, satisfaction and

other properties which do not have natural zero points. The

differentlevels of measurement and their characteristics may be

summed up

A)Stratified Random Sampling:

This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. Inthis

method, the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or

strata, and from eachstratum, random sample is drawn. E.g., university

students may be divided on the basis of discipline, and each discipline

group may again be divided into juniors and seniors. Stratification is

necessary for increasing a sample‘s statistical efficiency, providing

adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying

different methods to different strata. Thestratified random sampling is

appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. Stratificationprocess

involves three major decisions. They are stratification base or bases,

number of strataand strata sample sizes.

Stratified random sampling may be classified into:

a) Proportionate stratified sampling:

This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in

proportion to the latter‘s share in the total population. It gives proper

representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally

higher. This method is therefore verypopular.

Advantages:

Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each

sample, giveshigher statistical efficiency, easy to carry out, and gives a

self-weighing sample. Disadvantages:

A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the

distribution of thepopulation, it is very expensive in time and money

and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors.b)

Disproportionate stratified random sampling:

This method does not give proportionaterepresentation to strata. It

necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata

andunder-representation to others. The desirability of disproportionate

sampling is usuallydetermined by three factors, viz, (a) the sizes of

strata, (b) internal variances among strata, and(c) sampling costs.

Suitability:

This method is used when the population contains some small but

important subgroups,when certain groups are quite heterogeneous,

while others are homogeneous and when it is expectedthat there will

be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in

the population.

Advantages:

The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates

giving appropriateweighing to particular groups which are small but

more important.

Disadvantages:

The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate

representation,requires prior knowledge of composition of the

population, is subject to classification errors and itspractical feasibility

is doubtful.

Systematic Sampling:

This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection.

Itconsists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with

an item form 1 to k. It is alsoknown as fixed interval method. E.g., 1st,

11th, 21st ……… Strictly speaking, this method of sampling is not a

probability sampling. It possesses characteristics of randomness and

some non-probabilitytraits.

Suitability:

Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as

students in a class,houses in a street, telephone directory etc.

Advantages:

The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling, easy to use,

easy to instruct, requires less time, it‘s cheaper, easier to check,

sample is spread evenly over the population, and it isstatistically more

efficient.

Disadvantages:

The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth

elements selected,each element does not have equal chance of being

selected, and this method sometimes gives abiased sample.

Cluster Sampling

It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population

elements.Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements.

Then from each selected sampling unit, asample of population

elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified

randomselection. Where the element is not readily available, the use of

simple or stratified random samplingmethod would be too expensive

and time-consuming. In such cases cluster sampling is usuallyadopted.

The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters, examine the

nature of clusters, anddetermine the number of stages.

Suitability:

The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management

surveys, socio-economic surveys, rural credit surveys, demographic

studies, ecological studies, public opinion polls,and large scale surveys

of political and social behavior, attitude surveys and so on.

Advantages:

The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient, cost

of this is muchless, promotes the convenience of field work as it could

be done in compact places, it does not requiremore time, units of study

can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible.

Disadvantages:

The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of

the resultingsample. The sampling error in this method of sampling is

greater and the adjacent units of study tend tohave more similar

characteristics than do units distantly apart.

Area sampling

This is an important form of cluster sampling. In larger field surveys

cluster consisting of specificgeographical areas like districts, talluks,

villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. As thegeographical

areas are selected as sampling units in such cases, their sampling is

called areasampling. It is not a separate method of sampling, but forms

part of cluster sampling.

Multi-stage and sub-sampling

In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more

stages. The population isregarded as being composed of a number of

second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, asampling unit

is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a

sample of the firststage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the

selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of thesecond stage

sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final

sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling

method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriatewhere the population

survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The

major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error

and cost advantage is complicated.Sub-sampling is a part of multi-

stage sampling process. In a multi-stage sampling, the sampling

insecond and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. Sub-

sampling balances the twoconflicting effects of clustering i.e., cost and

sampling errors.

Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size

The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size

(PPS) is widely used. If oneprimary cluster has twice as large a

population as another, it is give twice the chance of being selected.If

the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected

clusters, the overallprobability of any person will be the same. Thus

PPS is a better method for securing a representativesample of

population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling.

Advantages:

The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate

representation, PPS leadsto greater precision than would a simple

random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction atthe

second stage, equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster

are convenient for fieldwork.

Disadvantages:

PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are

not known.

Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling

Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a

pre-selected larger sample thatprovided information for improving the

final selection. When the procedure is extended to more thantwo

phases of selection, it is then, called multi-phase sampling. This is also

known as sequentialsampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main

sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a

compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes.

―The statistics basedon the sample of ‗n‘ can be improved by using

ancillary information from a wide base: but this is toocostly to obtain

from the entire population of N elements. Instead, information is

obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final

sample n.

Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling

It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than

one full sample from a population. All the sub-samples should be drawn

using the same sampling technique and each is a self-containedand

adequate sample of the population. Replicated sampling can be used

with any basic samplingtechnique: simple or stratified, single or multi-

stage or single or multiphase sampling. It provides asimple means of

calculating the sampling error. It is practical. The replicated samples

can throw light on ariable non-sampling errors. But disadvantage is

that it limits the amount of stratification that can beemployed.

Non-probability or Non Random Sampling

Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the

theory of probability. Thissampling does not provide a chance of

selection to each population element.

Advantages:

The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity, convenience

and low cost.

Disadvantages:

The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each

population unit. Theselection probability sample may not be a

representative one. The selection probability is unknown. Itsuffers from

sampling bias which will distort results.The reasons for usage of this

sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-

availability of a list of population, when the study does not aim at

generalizing the findings to thepopulation, when the costs required for

probability sampling may be too large, when probability sampling

required more time, but the time constraints and the time limit for

completing the study do notpermit it

A)Open Ended:

in on's one word.They are also referred as unstructured questions of

free response or free answer.Some illustrations are as belo:

Closed ended:

In closed ended questions both the questions and response formats are

structured and defined.Thare are three kinds of formats we observed

earlier,dichotomous,multiple choice and those with scaled response.

the respondents only with two answers.These could be yes or no ,like

or dislike or similar or different.These questions are the easiest type of

questions to code and analyse.

might be asked to choose the one which is applicable.Sometimes these

questions do not have verbal but numerical answers.Most questions

are based on interval or ordinal level.There could also beinstances

when options are given to the respondent and he can select and apply.

earlier unit.These questions require simple answers of agreement or

disagreementon the part of respondent.

to others. A research report is aformal statement of the research

process and it results. It narrates the problem studied, methods

usedfor studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study.

Contents of the Research Report

The outline of a research report is given below:

·0 Prefatory Items

·1 Title page

·2 Declaration

·3 Certificates

·4 Preface/acknowledgements

·5 Table of contents

·6 List of tables

·7 List of graphs/figures/charts

·8 Abstract or synopsisII.

·9 Body of the Report

Introduction

·10 Theoretical background of the topic

·11 Statement of the problem

·12 Review of literature

·13 The scope of the study

·14 The objectives of the study

·15 Hypothesis to be tested

·16 Definition of the concepts

·17 Models if any

·18 Design of the study

·19 Methodology

·20 Method of data collection

·21 Sources of data

·22 Sampling plan

·23 Data collection instruments

·24 Field work

·25 Data processing and analysis plan

·26 Overview of the report

·27 Limitation of the study

·28 Results: findings and discussions

·29 Summary, conclusions and recommendations

III. Reference Material

·30 Bibliography

·31 Appendix

·32 Copies of data collection instruments

·33 Technical details on sampling plan

·34 Complex tables

·35 Glossary of new terms used

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