You are on page 1of 9

DEVELOPMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE

USING STRATEGIC INTERVENTION MATERIAL


Kristine Joan DA. Barredo
Teacher II
Tunasan Elementary School
Muntinlupa City

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effectiveness on the academic performance in Science using Strategic
Intervention Material than traditional method of teaching. An experimental research was employed using
the comparison of the results during the pretest and posttest. The SIM focusing on the least mastered
skills were developed. The experimental group was given set of SIM while the control group was exposed
to traditional method of teaching. Performance from both group were closely monitored and showed that
there is no significant effect on the pretest before the intervention and had significant difference in the
posttest after the intervention. This suggested that the strategic intervention material significantly
contributed to the mastery of the lesson presented.
INTRODUCTION
Elementary school students are naturally curious, which makes science an ideal subject for them
to learn. Science allows students to explore their world and discover new things. It is also an active
subject, containing activities such as hands-on- labs and experiments. This makes science well-suited to
active younger children. Science is an important part of the foundation for education for all children.
(Jessica Cook, eHow)
Science teaches children necessary skills that they can use in other areas of their lives.
Kidsource.com reports, “Early experiences in science help children develop problem-solving skills and
motivate them toward a lifelong interest in the natural world.”
Consequently, science is included as a core element in elementary and secondary levels despite
conceptual complexity and high cost of implementation. (Batomalaque, 2009) Another justification for the
inclusion of science in school curricula is that all citizens need to achieve a degree of “scientific literacy”
to enable them to participate effectively as citizens in modern societies.
Studies indicate however, that many of our Filipino learners are not attaining functional literacy, without
which they find it too difficult to meet the challenges posed by our rapidly changing world.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Students’ performance in the National Achievement Test shows that Science continues to be the
most difficult field of study in basic education. The results are intended to guide the Department of
Education in its efforts towards the improvement of the quality of education in public schools and to
provide appropriate intervention for the students.
According to the Basic Education Curriculum Primer 2002, Science and Health aims to help the
Filipino child gain a functional understanding of science concepts and principles linked with real life
situations, acquire science skills as well as scientific attitudes and values needed in solving everyday
problems. These pertain to health and sanitation, nutrition, food production, and the environment and its
conservation. There is no Science and Health for Grades I and II but simple science and health concepts
which include the child’s interaction to his immediate environment are contents of English. These
concepts reinforce the sensory-perceptual activities introduced in the 8-week ECD Curriculum. Likewise,
process skills may be developed in Makabayan subject like Sibika at Kultura. Teaching Science and
Health will formally start in Grade III using English as medium of instruction. In Grades IV-VI, more
complex study of Science concepts will be taken up in preparation for High School work. The goal of
Science is to demonstrate understanding how science, technology and health relate to the
comprehension of the environment and application of skills, attitudes and values in solving varied life
situations.
But with the problems persisting today in Philippine education system, our stand for functional literacy to
empower learners is at stake. The scarcity of teachers, poor classrooms and dearth of instructional
materials, low student achievement and increasing number of out-of-school children hamper our learners
to be active makers of meaningful life. The Trends in Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) alone
which was conducted five years ago revealed unsatisfactory results, the Philippines ranked 41st in Math
and 42nd in Science out of 45 countries that were tested (Manila Times 2004). This proved that vast
majority of Filipino students have performed way below par in all national achievement tests, and below
the levels of most students from other countries in the international tests. Thus, education managers must
focus on reforming and delivering quality instruction so that the Basic Education Curriculum will not be
overwhelmed by the crisis. Students must be provided with maximum opportunities to become
functionally literate in science.
This reflects the high dropout rates of children before the start of Grade 4 (or by age 10). Department of
Education (DepEd) data show that for every 100 children who enter Grade 1, close to 15 do not make it
into Grade 2, and roughly one-quarter (24 percent) have dropped out before Grade 4.
It is for these reasons that the researcher embarks on developing strategic intervention materials in
Science for Grade 4 students that will enhance learning and remedy the least mastered skills of the
students, thus attain growth in their academic performance.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aimed to develop strategic intervention materials in Science that will enhance learning
and remedy the least mastered skills of the students, thus attain growth in their academic performance.
Specifically, it attempted to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of academic performance of the pupils based on the pre-test and post test results
using the two strategies in teaching Science:
1.1 Traditional Method
1.2 Strategic Intervention Material
1. What significant difference that exists between the pre-test and post-test results between:
1.1 Traditional Method
1.2 Strategic Intervention Material
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
People who work with the students should clearly understand the nature of the learner in order to
be more effective in their dealings with them and with their problems. With these findings, it is hoped that
a vivid picture of their nature, needs and aspirations can be seen and therefore become foundations for a
good teacher-student relationship. In particular, the study is important to the following:
School Administration. The findings of the study may help them plan appropriate interventions to fit
student’s needs, especially to students with learning difficulty. and provide necessary instructional aids, to
uplift quality education in public schools.
Curriculum Makers. Through this study, curriculum makers may able to devise the curriculum in
strengthening the academic performance of the students to achieve quality education.
Science Supervisors. The result of the study may serve as the catalyst in improving instructional
methods and identify the needs that caused the weakness in achieving good scientific skill. Implementing
of the strategies and other measures necessary to obtain quality education could be devised by them.
Science Teachers. They may find the result of the study helpful in planning and initiating appropriate
strategic intervention materials in teaching Science at any learning level inside the classroom and
encourage other teachers to upgrade their methods and techniques in the teaching-learning process.
Parents. The findings of the study may enhance parent’s active participation in supporting the needs of
their child and improve their relationship as supporters and partners of the school in achieving high
academic performance of their children.
Pupils. This study may be a great help to pupils. It could give them motivation on how to cope with their
difficulty and motivate them to study hard to overcome their weakness in Science.
Future Researchers. This study may serve as valuable source of data while conducting their studies.
POPULATION AND SAMPLING SIZE
The sample respondents of the study covered all 330 Grade Four pupils (165 males and 165 females)
currently enrolled in Tunasan Elementary School during the School Year 2011-2012. The grade four
pupils were tested which consists of eight sections. Four sections were taught using the traditional
method (155 pupils) while the remaining 4 sections were taught using the Strategic Intervention Materials
(175 pupils).
The following showed the distribution of the population:

Table 2
Distribution of Population

Gr. And Sec. No. of Male No. of Female Total Teaching Method Used
Gr IV-1 21 24 45 Using S.I.M
Gr IV-2 23 21 44 Traditional Method
Gr IV-3 16 28 44 Using S.I.M
Gr IV-4 21 20 41 Traditional Method
Gr IV-5 16 25 41 Using S.I.M
Gr IV-6 16 27 43 Traditional Method
Gr IV-7 32 13 45 Using S.I.M
Gr IV-8 20 7 27 Traditional Method
165 165 330

DESCRIPTION OF RESPONDENTS
This study was composed of respondents from pupils who are currently enrolled in Tunasan Elementary
School. In this manner, the respondents were grouped by grade level with eight sections. Each section
had diverse qualities in terms of intellect and scientific ability.
The sample respondents of this study covered the 330 randomly selected pupils (165 males and 165
females) of Tunasan Elementary School enrolled during the School Year 2010-2011.
INSTRUMENTATION
The following were the research instruments used in the study.
1. 1. Strategic Intervention Materials
They were intervention materials which designed to help teachers provide the students a needed support
to make progress. They tried to increase and deepen their skills, knowledge and understanding from
concrete science to what is more abstract. They gave the students the opportunity to explore their
understanding and make sense of these new scientific ideas. They helped the students what they know
and understand from the teacher to formalize their thinking. Furthermore, they were instructional materials
meant to reteach the concept (s) and skill (s) to help the learners master a competency-based skill which
they were not able to develop during classroom teaching.
Each intervention material has five parts such as the guide card, activity card, assessment card,
enrichment card and reference card. The guide card stimulated the students’ interest on the topic
discussed and gave a preview of what they would learn. It presented the skill focus that mentioned the
learning competency, the three subtasks or activities and the concrete outcome or product students are
expected to demonstrate or produce. This cited the activities and challenged the learner in performing the
tasks which were competency-oriented and can be done individually or per group. The activity card
followed the guide card where it translated the focus skills in at least three activities. It provided activities
that were organized based on the sequence of the focus skills written in the guide card and included
examples to concretize the concepts, particularly those drawn from real life experience. The activities
included in the activity allowed students to make discoveries and formulate ideas on their own, guide and
challenge their thinking and learning and use local data and situations like interacting with people in the
community. It also provided transition statements that reorganized students’ accomplishments. Likewise,
the intervention materials provided questions that guided students to develop concepts and focus skills,
elicited the message or meaning that a student can take away from an activity and established the
relationship between the topic/lesson and what students already know or are familiar to them. The
assessment card provided exercises, drills or activities that allowed students to assess their
understanding of what they have learned correct errors when appropriate and monitor their learning and
use feedback about their progress. This card was formulated standard test formats to give students
practice in test taking techniques. It therefore has a separate card that includes the answer key. The
enrichment card provided activities that reinforced the content of the lesson and provided opportunities for
students to apply what they have learned to other subject areas or in new contexts. It .also encouraged
students to work independently or in a group to explore answers to their own questions. The reference
card provided reading to students. It related the content with the students’ life experiences. It included a
carefully and well-researched list of resources that helped students reinforce concepts and skills that they
learned. It also included additional useful content not found in the books.
In a nutshell, the strategic intervention materials ensured alignment of activities with the tasks/objectives,
kept the activities short and simple, provided a variety of activities to cater to the diverse learning styles;
provided number of activities so that the learner can have enough practice in developing the skill and
lastly focus on the least mastered skills, simple, easy to understand and reproduce.
2. PRE-TEST/ POST-TEST
It was a 20-items teacher-made test which was designed to measure the mastery level of the
students on the lesson chosen by the researcher. The items in the test were analyzed and the
difficulty/discrimination indices were taken to discard or reject the item. Items which were not within the
range of 0.20 to 0.80 difficulty index and 0.30 to 0.80 discrimination index were discarded and items fall
within the prescribe limit were retained. Furthermore the validated test was finalized and a pilot pretest
was administered to two groups of respondents before the experiments. The experimental group was
exposed to the use of SIM while the control group used the traditional way of teaching. Likewise, a pretest
was given to both groups before the introduction of the lesson and a posttest after the end of the lesson.
Both pretests and posttests given to the experimental and control group were the same.

ACTION PLAN
COMPONENTS KEY STRATEGIES RESOURCES PERSONS TIME EXPECTED
IMPROVEMENTS REQUIRED INVOLVE FRAME OUTPUT
1. Pupil Identify and
Development target pupils
Targets set in
with minimum
MPS are met.
growth (slow
learners) Performance
Target
Set targets for
Monitoring
pupil
Chart, Reported
achievement
practice tests, pupil's
(by the end of
Least achievement
each grading MTs,
Mastered
period) Science
Increase MPS in Skills, Year-
Coordinator,
Science by 10% Round Pupils’ test
Conduct on- Science performances
the spot tests Teachers were
measured.
Pupil's profile,
strategic
Develop Pupils-at-risk
intervention
personalized and below
materials,
intervention minimum
monitoring
programs for performance
and
slow learners decreased.
evaluation
report
Activity Pupils
Allow pupils
sheets, participation
to do hands-
laboratory in science
on activities to
materials, programs
Engage pupils in learn more MTs,
others increased.
meaningful Science
Conduct scheduled Year-
activities that Coordinator,
educational field trips, Round An increased
stimulate Science
learning. field trips in consent form, Teachers in pupil's
museums, endorsement learning
observatories from Division outcomes is
or science Office and evident.
exhibits. School

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES


Had been permitted by the School Principal, Mr. Antonio C. Gagala and the School Science
Coordinator, the researcher conducted the study in Tunasan Elementary School. The researcher
informed the School Science Coordinator, grade chairman, and the teacher-advisers of each section.
The researcher together with other Science teachers of Tunasan Elementary School had
identified the least mastered skills in Grade Four Science and found out that mastery level was not
achieved by the students in the previous years and current year. Thus, the researcher chose the least
skill of all the least mastered in the competencies given by the Department of Education which was the
content of the strategic intervention material.
A pilot pretest was administered to two groups of respondents before the experiments. The experimental
group was exposed to the use of SIM while the control group used the traditional way of teaching.
Likewise, a pretest was given to both groups before the introduction of each lesson and a posttest after
the end of each lesson. Both pretests and posttests given to the experimental and control group were the
same.
The lesson in the intervention was read and studied by the students and the researcher directed the
students to learn in the context of their own personal experiences. Furthermore, the control group was
given the same lesson, same number of contact time and rules with the experimental group. They were
given the same pretests and posttest after the treatment. And their scores in every treatment were tallied
and interpreted by the researcher to determine whether there were significant differences on their mean
scores in the pretests and posttests.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


This chapter discusses the results of the study on the comparative analysis of academic performance of
pupils in Science using traditional method vs. the use of strategic intervention material. Statistically, the
problems of the study were answered by the following data gathered by the researcher.
1. Level of academic performance of the pupils based on the pre-test and post test results using the
two strategies in teaching Science in terms of:
1.1 Traditional Method
Table 3
Results of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results Using Traditional Method of Teaching

Grade & Section TRADITIONAL METHOD Learning


Difference
N PRE-TEST POST-TEST Level
Gr. IV-2 44 51.89 84.09 32.2 Mastery
Gr. IV-4 41 42.42 73.17 30.75 Nearing
Mastery
Gr.IV-6 43 36.82 62.02 25.2 Nearing
Mastery
Gr. IV-8 27 27.77 55.55 27.78 Nearing
Mastery
155 39.73 68.71 28.98

It could be seen from Table 3 that all of the sections in Grade Four has an MPS increase between the
pre-test and post-test results. However, only Grade IV-2 got the Mastery Level of 84.09 % MPS among
the other sections in Grade IV. Most of them got nearing mastery and beyond the DepED Target which is
75% passing scores.
1. Using Strategic Intervention Material
Table 4
Results of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results Using Strategic Intervention Material

Grade & Section USING S.I.M. Learning


Difference
N PRE-TEST POST-TEST Level
39.01 Mastery
Gr. IV-1 45 57.40 96.41 Level
52.15 Mastery
Gr. IV-3 44 40.65 92.80 Level
50.40 Mastery
Gr.IV-5 41 38.75 89.15 Level
56.11 Mastery
Gr.IV-7 45 31.29 87.40 Level
175 42.02 91.44 49.42

Table 4 showed evident results after Strategic Intervention Material was implemented in teaching
Science. Post-tests results got a remarkable improvement. (49.42%) Grade IV-7 got the highest increase
(56.11%). Posttests indicated that students who were taught with material employing the causal style of
discourse had significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were superior in applying this
knowledge in problem-solving exercises. They gained mastery level of the lesson presented.
1. Significant difference that exists between the pre-test and post-test results between:
2.1Traditional Method
2.2 Strategic Intervention Material

Table 5
T-Test on the Significant Difference between the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results Between
Traditional Method against Strategic Intervention Material

T-Value P-Value Decision Interpretation


Variable

Traditional Method VS Strategic Intervention Material

Pre-Test 0.476 0.00855 Accept Ho NS


Post-Test 8.93 0.0046 Reject Ho S
0.05 Level of Significance S= significant
NS= not significant
It could be gleaned in Table 5 that there is no significant difference in the pre-test results between the two
teaching method. This means that pupils from both groups had the same understanding of the lesson
before it was taught. But during the Post-test periods of the two teaching method after the lesson was
taught, it showed significant difference. This means that the experimental group which used the Strategic
Intervention Material significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were superior in applying this
knowledge in problem-solving exercises.
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The researcher’s findings agreed with the findings of Hogan (2000) and Woodward (2004), who found out
that intervention materials contributed to better learning of the concepts among students. Posttests and
maintenance tests indicated that students who were taught with material employing the causal style of
discourse had significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were superior in applying this
knowledge in problem-solving exercises. Furthermore, students learn best when they can build on past
experience, relate what they are learning to things that are relevant to them, have direct "Hands-on"
experience, construct their own knowledge in collaboration with other students and faculty, and
communicate their results effectively.
Findings
The study came up with the following findings:
1. There was no significant difference on the performance of the experimental group and control group in
the pretests. They were of the same level of intelligence and mastery before they were exposed to
experiment. Although there was slight difference on their mean score, it was not that significant based on
the computed t-value of 0.476 at 0.05 significance level. This attested that both groups of respondents
had the same level of mastery before an intervention was introduced to the experimental group and
conventional method to the control group.
3. There was significant difference on the performance of the experimental group in the pretest and
posttest. The difference in the mean scores of posttest and pretest of 8.93 was indeed significant. There
was a positive transfer of learning in the two groups. However, higher mean was observed from the
experimental group after the presentation of the intervention materials.
4. The strategic intervention materials were effective in mastering the competency based –skills in
science based on the mean gain scores in the posttests of the experimental and control groups.

Conclusions
In the light of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The experimental and control groups performed at the same level before the experiment.
3. The experimental group performed better in the posttest than the control group.
4. The strategic Intervention materials were effective in teaching competency-based skills. There was
significant difference between the mean scores in the posttests of the experimental and control groups.

Recommendations
Based on the outcomes and implications of the study, the following are recommended:
1. Science teachers can use the strategic intervention materials made by the researcher to re-teach the
concepts and skills and help the students master the competency-based skill
2. Seminars and in-service training should be conducted in the division level regarding development and
implementation of the strategic intervention materials in the classroom.
3. Science teachers should develop more strategic intervention materials for the remaining lessons which
were not included in researcher’s SIMS.
4. Strategic intervention materials for other subjects should be made to address the least mastered skills.
5. A similar study may be conducted covering a bigger number of respondents in another venue.

References
Bureau of Elementary Education 2004 Annual Report. http://bee-deped.tripod.com/bee2004annualreport

Das, R C.( 2004) Science Teaching in Schools. Sterling Publishers Private Limited
De La Cruz, Eduardo. (1990, March). Development of the Work-Text in Algebra, PCU March 1990
Ediger, Marlow.(2005) Teaching Science Successfully, Discovery Publishing House
Garcia, Maan V.( 2003, September). Educator, Magazine for Teachers, Manila Philippines
Llewellyn, D. (2005) “Teaching High School Science Through Inquiry: A Case Study Approach” Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Manila Times, Tuesday, July 6, 2004. The Sorry State of RP Public Education
Manila Bulletin. (2003, September). Educators Speak. Manila Philippines
Panorama. (2004, May). Giving Quality Education to our children, Manila Philippines