You are on page 1of 39

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STRATEGIC

INTERVENTION MATERIALS (SIM)

FOR GRADE ELEVEN EARTH AND LIFE SCIENCE IN QUEZON

NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

(Armeza, Reyzle P, Alaska, Jovil O., Echanes, Jenny Loren M.)

Introduction

A challenging statement to all science educators to improve the teaching

learning-process. Science and technology plays a vital role in building a strong

foundation for economic and social progress. Global competition on the vast

knowledge pertaining to acquisition of new and factual knowledge,

information, skills to feed the mind and defeat curiosity of today’s changing

world. With the fast changing needs of the 21st century learners, teachers must

meet even those whom are tagged “left behind learners”. This is the reason why

the use of intervention material put into consideration (Marimella 2016). She also

added that one of the identified problems on education is the low performance

of the National Achievement Test (NAT). In spite of different curricula

implemented and proposed by Department of Education, this has been the

battle point of teachers.

The Department of Education in its unending commitment in promoting

quality education for life is always geared towards constructive innovations in

the learning process. In all of these undertakings, assessment is at all times their
way of evaluating learning outcome in a given span of time. Variegated forms

of preparations are done to maximize the learning quality and quantity of

lessons by the learners. However, there are still lessons least learned due to lack

of textbook content and time constraints. The teacher then is tasks to respond to

the need to further increase the learners’ input of knowledge on the least

mastered concept.

In response with the identified problem, teachers can use variety of teaching

methodologies and instructional materials for effective learning. That is why, the

researchers decided to develop and validate the Strategic Intervention Material

to test its effectiveness designed for Grade Eleven Learners of Quezon National

High School.
Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the development and validity of Strategic

Intervention Material for Grade Eleven learners in Quezon National High School,

Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of mastery of science learning competencies of Grade

Eleven Learners of Quezon National High School?

2. How shall the strategic intervention material for Grade Eleven be

designed based on the least mastered competency?

3. How valid is the use of the strategic intervention material to improve the

least mastered competencies in Grade Eleven considering the level of the

following:

3.1 acceptability

3.2 Usefulness

4. Is there a significant difference on the improvement of least mastered

competencies of the learners who use and do not use the Strategic

Intervention Materials (SIM)?


Hypothesis of the Study

Ho- There no significant difference on the improvement of least mastered

competencies of the learners who use and do not use the Strategic

Intervention Materials (SIM).

Significance of the Study

To be able to meet the challenges in science instruction, it should clearly

understand the nature of the learner in order to be more effective in dealings

with them and with their problems. With these findings, it is hoped that a vivid

picture of their nature, needs and aspirations can be seen and therefore

become foundations for a good teacher-learner relationship. In particular, the

study is important to the following:

School Administration. The findings of the study may help them plan

appropriate interventions to fit learner’s needs, especially to students with

learning difficulty and provide necessary instructional aids, to uplift quality

education in public schools.

Curriculum Implementers. Through this study, curriculum implementers may

able to device the curriculum in strengthening the academic performance of

the learners to achieve quality education.


Science Supervisors. The result of the study may serve as the catalyst in

improving instructional methods and identify the needs that caused the

weakness in achieving good scientific skill. Implementing of the strategies and

other measures necessary to obtain quality education could be devised by

them.

Science Teachers. They may find the result of the study helpful in planning and

initiating appropriate strategic intervention materials in teaching Science at any

learning level inside the classroom and encourage other teachers to upgrade

their methods and techniques in the teaching-learning process.

Parents. The findings of the study may enhance parent’s active participation in

supporting the needs of their child and improve their relationship as a supporters

and partners of the school in achieving high academic performance of their

children.

Learners. This study may be great help to learners. It could give motivation on

how to cope with their difficulty and motivate them to study hard to overcome

their weakness in Science.

Future Researchers. This study may serve as valuable source of data while

conducting their studies.


Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study is limited to the development and validity of Strategic

Intervention Material for Grade Eleven learners of Quezon National High School.

The level of the least mastered competencies, design of strategic intervention

material and the acceptability and usability of the material will be the target of

this research. The respondents of this study will be the Grade Eleven Learners

and Teachers in Science of Senor High School of Quezon National High School

starting June 04- August 31, 2018.

Definition of Terms

Development- is a process of improving the strategic intervention material from

the existing material used in teaching instruction.

Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) - is an instructional material used for

remediation purposes and it will serve as a tool in this study to test the

effectiveness in improving the least mastered competencies in science for

Grade Eleven.

Grade Eleven Learners-are the respondents who have not met the 75% mastery

level in the competencies in science.

Learners-are respondents that are enrolled in Grade Eleven in Public Schools of

Palawan.
Public Schools-is a school funded by the government where any individual in

Palawan can enrol for free education.

Palawan-is a province in the Philippines that have public schools who cater the

Grade Eleven learners.

Learning Competency- is the learning objective prescribes by the Department

of Education found in the K to 12 Curriculum Guide in Science.

Least Mastered Competency- is the low percentage of mastery in science

learning competency classified as: <75%-below mastery level and >75%-above

mastery level. This is the criterion set by the Department of Education in terms of

achievement level and 75% is the national target (DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015)

Acceptability- is the ability of the strategic Intervention Material to be adapted

by the science teachers as remedial tool for Grade Eleven in Public Schools in

Palawan.

Usefulness - is the quality of the strategic intervention material to be used by

Grade Eleven learners in improving the least mastered competencies in science.

Experimental Phase- is a phase where the respondents of the study is

determined.
Conceptual Framework

The paradigm illustrates how the development of Strategic Intervention

Materials (SIM) used to improve the least mastered competencies and

validating of its acceptability and usefulness to learners in Grade Eleven.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Validation of
Strategic
Administration of
Intervention
Development of -Diagnostic Test Material as to:
Strategic
-Use of Strategic -Acceptability to
Intervention
Intervention Science Teacher
Material in
Material
Science -Usefulness to
-Test the validity Learners
by the Statistical
Improve Least
Treatments
Mastered
Competencies

Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM)

The Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) according to Togonon (2011) is

an instructional material prescribed by the Department of Educationin (DepEd

Order No. 9, s. 2005) to improve learners’ performance in Science and in other

learning areas, which is supported by Bunagan (2012) in which he defined

Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) as meant to reteach the concepts and

skills (least mastered), which it is cited by (DepEd Tambayan Ph.blogs Sat. Jan.7,

2017) in Philippine Education is meant toreteach concept or topics where are


considered least mastered by the students. The basic parts of which are guide

card, activity card, assessment card, enrichment card and reference.

The Strategic Intervention Materials was accepted due to the study and

citations of the forerunners of theories of learning such as: Piaget(1954) which he

describe children as active learners and constructing their own knowledge all

they need to have is clear and definite instructions and concrete examples, and

Vygotsky(1979) theory of Socio-cultural explained that knowledge came from

instructions of More Knowledgeable One (MKO), in relation to this a book of

Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1970) defined instructional materials as educational

resources that improve the pupils knowledge and this was supported by

Lawson’s (1985) statement that instructional materials and strategies to integrate

the learning help the learners to think.

Development of Strategic Intervention Material(SIM)

The basis for the Development of Strategic Material according to

Dacumos, Leo Peter Narciza (2016) in his book, “Perspective of Secondary

Teacher in the Utilization of Strategic Intervention Material in increasing Learning

Proficiency of students in Science Education” stated that SIM integration has

become an important part of teaching, especially in increasing the proficiency

level of students whose performance in Science Education is at lower levels, it

was supported by Pańa, Gerald U. (2016) he stated that the use of SIM will

improve the academic performance of our secondary school learners. Also, in


an article cited in International Journal of Learning (2014), revealed that the

Philippine Educational System is having shortage in terms of instructional

materials and innovations in strategies, on the other hand, Barredo, Kristine Joan

DA.(2016)cited that Science teachers should develop more SIM for the

remaining lessons and made to address the least mastered skills, is the low

percentage of mastery in science learning competency classified as: <75%-

below mastery level and >75%-above mastery level. This is the criterion set by

the Department of Education in terms of achievement level and 75% is the

national target (DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015), it was added by Garcia(2015), she

defined that Strategic Intervention Material(SIM) is a module that contains

puzzles, games, vivid illustrations, concept map used to motivate and stir up the

attention and interests of the students.

To determine what learning competencies should be developed

Saclao,Josefino G. (2016) states some reminders that when designing

intervention/learning materials, it is important for teachers to be aware of

concepts of deep and surface approaches to learning. In determination to

develop the SIM, the basis of the result of NAT which according to Angel de

Dios (2013) stated the result of the National Achievement Test (NAT) in the

Philippines, Schools where teachers present first the concept/theory followed by

a variety of examples and/or situational roles and then application concept

have an MPS of 52.3% in Science (to be compared with the national average of

40.5%), and based on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) results cited by Tan (1999) states that the Third International Mathematics

and Science Study (TIMSS) examination where the Philippines ranked 36th in the

Science test among the thirty-eight participating countries , and added by

Laviña (2000) emphasized that “the dismal result of the Third International

Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was a much-needed wake up call for

the country”.

Administration of Diagnostic Test

According to Dummit (2012) in his book, Diagnostic/Formative/Summative

Assessment that diagnostic test is one of the tools to gather data in assessing the

learners the certain standards to identify the strength and weaknesses in learners

performance, and to improve the quality of teaching and learning. Deped

Order number 8, s. 2015 Policy Guidelines on Classroom Assessment for K to 12

Basic Education Program states that public elementary and secondary schools

shall implement the Classroom Assessment such as diagnostic tests to keep tract

of the learners progress in relation to learning standards and the development of

the 21st century skills.

Use of Strategic Intervention Material (SIM)

Based on the study of Pleńos, Maria Josephine (2014) “Effectiveness of

Teacher-made Science Strategic Intervention Materials: tool to enhance the

performance level of students”, she concluded that there is a 100% increase in

passing rate of all students who used the Science SIM, further she
recommended that the SIM should be made and tested for other

competencies in the different grade levels in Science and teacher made SIM

should be reviewed and improved, supported by the study of Soberano (2011)

“Strategic Intervention Material in Chemistry: Development and Effectiveness”,

he mentioned that Strategic Intervention Material were effective in mastering

the competency based skills in chemistry, he found out that there was a positive

transfer of learning in both the groups.

The following teachers also used SIM in their teaching to master the least

mastered competency; Myra P. Valenova (2010) of Pedro Guevarra National

High School uses An Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) to mastered a least

mastered competency for General Science, in laws of motion, secondly; William

E. Felisilda(2014) of Dońa Rosario National High School uses an Strategic

Intervention Material (SIM) to mastered a least mastered competency in Optics,

and lastly, Rhonnel M. Alburo(2013) of Labugon National uses an Strategic

Intervention Material (SIM) to mastered a least mastered competency focuses

on Speed and Velocity and Ohm’s Law.

Use of Statistical Treatments

This study uses probability sampling according to Bermudo(2010) that the

sample is proportion (a certain percent) of a population and such sample is

selected from population by means of systematic way in which every element

of the population has a chance of being included in the sample. We use the
Grade Eleven Respondents enrolled in Quezon National High School, the

respondents will be drawn ten percent (10%) of the population as mentioned by

Bermudo(2016) following Gay Method. There are thirteen sections (13) in Grade

Eleven and (488) Grade Eleven learners enrolled in Quezon National High

School(http://www.deped.gov.ph/datasets) School Year 2018-2019, as reported

June 30, 2018. All of the sections will be experimental group. There will be

twenty-five learners in each class during pre-test. The basis in selecting as to who

should belong to the control or experimental class was through their average

grade (Dep.Ed. Order No. 8, 2015, stated that for Grades 4-10 learners, final

grade of at least 75 in all learning areas) in Science of Grade Ten, equated with

their age. Since Science in Grade Ten is one of the learning areas in spiral

progression in Junior High School Science, there will be considered in selecting

the learners who will be involved in the study. As explained by Corpuz (2015) in

his book entitled, The Spiral Progression in K to 12 that as early as Grade Ten,

learners will learn concepts in Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry and Physics and

these concepts are developed to the next grade level such as Grade Eleven in

increasing complexity and sophistication.

After the Grade Ten learners taken the post test, the data should be

analyzed and interpreted through descriptive and experimental methods of

research design according to Calderon, Jose F. Ed.D(2012) in his “Methods of

Research and Thesis Writing” because descriptive research is a purposive

process of gathering, analyzing, classifying and tabulating data prevailing


conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends and cause-effect relationships

and making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or

without statistical methods. This method will be used in determining the circular

validity of Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM), supported by Castillo, Fely S.

Ph.D (2012) also cited in her book, “Modern Concepts on Thesis and Dissertation

Writing”, descriptive and experimental method is a design to investigate possible

cause and effect relationship by expressing one or more experimental groups to

one or more controlled groups not receiving the treatment, random assignment

being essential, and cited by Bueno, David C. (2016) to his “Introduction to

Statistics and Concepts and application in Research”, that the experimental

method of research will be employed in this study using two groups of subjects

as the control and experimental groups, respectively. Experimental Method of

research is a method or procedure involving the control or manipulation of

conditions for the purpose of studying the relative effects of various treatments

applied to members of a sample or the same treatment applied to members of

different samples, it is a problem solving approach that embraces studies of an

experimental nature in which the systematic study of social life is carried out

under conditions of control and experiment.

This study used also the questionnaire according to Calixto(2014)

Research Methods and Techniques, explained in his book that questionnaire is a

tool or device while the use of questionnaire is a method of collecting data. It is


a set of questions arranged in sequence and intended to be self-administered. It

is used when the respondent can read and write.

Validation of the use of Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) for the acceptability
of Teachers

The used of SIM was acceptable according to Aireen S. Marimla & Dr.

Olivia G. Dimalanta(2015) suggest that the strategic intervention materials (SIM)

be adopted as instructional materials for teaching Science to facilitate and

improve performance. Furthermore, future researchers could work and prepare

the same materials on the learning area, and supported by Pinky de Garcia

(2015) stated the factors that are revealed in several researchers need

immediate action to change the views of the students regarding Science, one

helpful solutions is by creating Strategic Intervention Material (SIM), added by

Bernard Nino Q. Membrebe & Aiselle Jassen B. Anadia (2015) their study suggest

that the Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) developed can be adopted as

instructional material for the improvement in teaching Science, to facilitate and

carry out the three way process of learning, most importantly to improve

achievement of the students.

To consummate how evident the SIM according to JhoDy(2014) all the

components/criteria in evaluating the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM)

obtained an average weighted mean of 4.82 which is interpreted as very

evident, it goes to show that the Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) for the first

and second grading are curricular valid. It is perceived therefore that all criteria
or detailed guidelines were answered very evident and hence the SIM 1 to 12

are curricular valid and can now be used by the teachers and be given to the

students to improve their learning.

Improvement of least mastered competencies

To improved the least mastered competencies according to Pańa(2016)

cited that there is significant changes and improvement on the academic

progress of the students on the second grading quarter and third grading

quarter after all they were explored to SIM therefore the conduct of action

research would help the teacher on making improvement on the learning of the

student, supported by Lumogdang (2015) states that there was a significant

difference between the pre-test and post-test results in T.L.E. using the SIM and

results of MPS during pre-test is significant low with 50% while MPS during the post

test registered 91.03% MPS on post test had increased by 41.03 over the pre test.

Based from these findings, the SIM is an effective intervention to increase the

least learned competencies; hence, the SIM is recommended.


Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

1.What is the level of Science learning competencies of Grade 11 Learners of

Quezon National High School?

To determine what learning competencies should be developed

Saclao,Josefino G. (2016) states some reminders that when designing

intervention/learning materials, it is important for teachers to be aware of

concepts of deep and surface approaches to learning. In determination to

develop the SIM, the basis of the result of NAT which according to Angel de

Dios (2013) stated the result of the National Achievement Test (NAT) in the

Philippines, Schools where teachers present first the concept/theory followed by

a variety of examples and/or situational roles and then application concept

have an MPS of 52.3% in Science (to be compared with the national average of

40.5%), and based on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

(TIMSS) results cited by Tan (1999) states that the Third International Mathematics

and Science Study (TIMSS) examination where the Philippines ranked 36th in the

Science test among the thirty-eight participating countries , and added by

Laviña (2000) emphasized that “the dismal result of the Third International

Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was a much-needed wake up call for

the country”.
According to Dummit (2012) in his book, Diagnostic/Formative/Summative

Assessment that diagnostic test is one of the tools to gather data in assessing the

level of the learners on certain standards to identify the strength and

weaknesses in learners performance, and to improve the quality of teaching

and learning. Deped Order number 8, s. 2015 Policy Guidelines on Classroom

Assessment for K to 12 Basic Education Program states that public elementary

and secondary schools shall implement the Classroom Assessment such as

diagnostic tests to keep tract of the learners progress in relation to learning

standards and the development of the 21st century skills.

According to Barredo DA.(2016) in her study that Science teachers can use

the SIM made by the researcher to re- teach the concepts and skills and help

the students master the competency-based skill. Science teachers should

develop more SIM for the remaining lessons. SIM for other subjects should be

made to address the least mastered skills.

According to Valenova (2010) of Pedro Guevarra National High School uses

An Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) to focus on a least mastered

competency for General Science, such competencies were state the second

law of motion, Law of Acceleration and demonstrate and describe the

acceleration of an object in terms of its mass and force acting on it.

According to Felisilda(2014) of Dońa Rosario National High School uses an

Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) focus on a least mastered competency in

Refraction of Light, with the following learning competencies compare the


speed of light in different media, describe the direction of refracted ray in

different media, compare the angle of incident to the angle of refraction in

different media, use the concept of refraction to explain the apparent changes

of position of things.

According to Alburo(2013) of Labugon National uses an Strategic

Intervention Material (SIM) to mastered a least mastered competency focuses

on Speed and Velocity and Ohm’s Law.

2.How shall the startegic Intervention Material for Grade 8 be designed based

upon on the least mastered competencies?

According to Bunagan (2012) stated that Strategic Intervention Materials

(SIM) was meant to reteach concepts that are least mastered. He further added

that SIM includes fun activities focused on the skills not mastered on the regular

class.

According to Tandong (2000) in his study showed that the Filipino students

have difficulty for the following reasons: 1) they have not mastered the

concepts needed to answer the items; (2) they do not understand the problem;

and (3) the content related to some items is not formally taken up in the

curriculum. This implies that students do not master the concepts and lack

conceptual understanding regarding the topics already covered. Enough

content is covered but not much learning takes place. It is for this reason why
the teaching of science must be student-centered and equipped with a variety

of instructional learning strategies.

According to former DepEd Secretary, Hon. FLORENCIO ABAD that he

stressed the importance of TIME-ON-TASK Management. This was supported with

the Institution of Measures to Increase Engaged Time-On-Task otherwise known

as National Memorandum no. 9, series 2005. The objective is to meet the

required number of school days in every school year and the time allotted for

the different subjects in every school by lessening activities that the teachers

and/or students away from the classroom, maximizing the use of the time

allotment for every subject, and reducing the non-teaching duties of teachers.

Guided by this general objective and its implementing strategy, one of the

specific measures to be adopted is: Enrichment and remediation classes and

individual instruction shall be encouraged to support teaching and learning and

may be conducted during the period to be determined by the School Head.

According to Garcia(2015) she defined that Strategic Intervention

Material(SIM) is believed to be an effective strategic teaching aid for teachers

in carrying out objectives on least learned lessons. It is a module that contains

puzzles, games, vivid illustrations, concept map used to motivate and stir up the

attention and interests of the students.

According to International Journal of Learning (2014), revealed that he

Philippine Educational System is having shortage in terms of instructional

materials and innovations in strategies.


According to Saclao (2016) when designing intervention/learning materials,it

is important for teachers to be aware of concepts of deep and surface

approaches to learning.

According to Jody(2012) in his website article updated on March 31, 2012

about How to Develop a Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) that to stimulate

the activity of the learners and thereby increasing their level of understanding

the following parts should be present in the SIM. These are the following: Guide

Card, Activity Card, Assessment Card, Enrichment Card and Reference Card.

Thus, the preparation of SIM will be based on the given objectives and parts.

According to Policarpio (2012) he described the parts of the strategic

Intervention Material, Guide Card, Activity Card, Enrichment Card and

Reference Card, The Guide Card presents the big picture and overview of the

lesson, Activity Card defines the task that the learner should undertake in order

to develop a skill based on competencies. The Assessment Card helps the

learner measure his/her level of mastery of the skill upon completion of the tasks.

The Reference Card provides additional content to the coverage in the

textbooks. And the Enrichment Card extends learning by providing additional

exercises for further application of knowledge or skill.


3. How valid is the use of Stategic Intevention Material to improve the least

mastered competencies in Grade 11 considering the level of the following:

1. Acceptability?

2. Usefulness?

According to Bernard Nino Q. Membrebe & Aiselle Jassen B. Anadia (2015)

their study suggest that the Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) developed can

be adopted as instructional material for the improvement in teaching Science,

to facilitate and carry out the three way process of learning, most importantly to

improve achievement of the students.

According to JhoDy(2014) all the components/criteria in evaluating the

Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) obtained an average weighted mean of

4.82 which is interpreted as very evident, it goes to show that the Strategic

Intervention Material (SIM) for the first and second grading are curricular valid. It

is perceived therefore that all criteria or detailed guidelines were answered very

evident and hence the SIM 1 to 12 are curricular valid and can now be used by

the teachers and be given to the students to improve their learning

According to Soberano (2011) mentioned that Strategic Intervention Materia

were effective in mastering the competency based skills in chemistry based on

the mean gain scores in the posttest of the experimental and control groups. He

found out that there was a positive transfer of learning in both the groups.
According to Policarpio(2012) in his article about Guide in Reviewing

Intervention Materials metioned that he used the standard criteria issued by the

Department of Education in 2012 and DepEd Memorandum No. 225,s.

2009,Enclosure 2. He also based his criteria on the philosophical principles that

create learning from “How Children Learn” by Stella Vosniado.This will be the

basis in validating the strategic intervention material use in this study.

4. Is there a significant difference on the improvement of the least

mastered competencies who use and do not use the strategic Intervention

Material?

According to Pana(2016) in her study that he tested the signicant

difference of the academic performaance of the students on the second

grading quarter and third grading quarter after all they were exposed to SIM.

According to Lumogdang (2015) that the significant difference in using

post test and pre-test results in TLE were the bases of her study. Based on the

MPS during the pre-test is significant low with 50% while in the post test

registered 91.03% MPS in post test had increased by 41.03 over the pre-test.

According to The statistical tools used in using the book of Dr. David Cababaro

Bueno (2016) entitled Introduction to Statistics(Concepts and Applications In

Research) the following tools are described in this study:Mean. This will be used

to determine where most of the scores of the students clustered. Since the

number of students in each group was less than 30, then the ungrouped data
was used. This was done by adding all the scores of the learners and the sum will

be divided by their number.Weighted Mean will be used to determine the

curricular validation of the SIM.Standard Deviation This will be used to determine

the variability of the learners’ abilities or scores. The mean will be subtracted

from the learners’ scores. The difference will be squared after which the

summation was obtained.t-test. This will be used to find out whether the learners

who used the Strategic Intervention Materials perform well and achieve better

than those who do not.The data for the t-test will be arrived at after determining

the mean standard deviations of the two groups for the first grading period.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents a description of the method of research used,

procedures followed, respondents of the study, treatment of data and

procedures utilized in the study.

Research Design

Calderon (2012) explained in his book entitled Methods of Research and

Thesis Writing that the descriptive and experimental methods of research will be

employed in this study. Descriptive research is a purposive process of gathering,

analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data prevailing conditions, practices,

beliefs, processes, trends, and cause-effect relationships and then making

adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid

of statistical methods. This method will be used in determining the curricular

validity of the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM).

According to Bueno (2016) that in his book entitled Introduction to

Statistics the experimental method of research will be employed in this study

using two groups of subjects as the control and experimental group,

respectively. Experimental method of research is a method or procedure

involving the control or manipulation of conditions for the purpose of studying

the relative effects of various treatments applied to members of a sample, or of

the same treatment applied to members of different samples. It is a problem


solving approach that embraces studies of an experimental nature in which the

systematic study of social life is carried out under conditions of control and

experiment.

As cited by Castillo (2012), this is a design to investigate possible cause-

and-effect relationship by exposing one or more experimental groups to one or

more treatment conditions and comparing the results to one or more control

groups not receiving the treatment, random assignment being essential.

The Respondents

Grade Eleven Learners

The learners in Grade Eleven enrolled in Senior High School of Quezon

National High Schoool will be the respondents in this study. The respondents will

be drawn ten percent (10%) of the population as mentioned by Bermudo (2016)

following Gay method. There are thirteen (13) Grade Eleven Sections and six

hundred eighty eight (688) Grade Eleven Learners enrolled in Grade Eleven,

school year 2018-2019, as reported in the datasets of the Department of

Education as of June 29, 2018. Thirteen (13) sections is the experimental group

as drawn from 10% respondents by Gay Method. According to the school

population reported by the Division of Palawan in Division Memorandum no. 20

s. 2015 that these lists of schools have greater number but they are

academically challenged based on the result of the National Achievement Test

last March 2018.


DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS

Total number of Enrolled


Sections in Grade Eleven Grade Eleven- No. of Respondents
(First Semester) School Year 2017-2018
HUMMS-11 Block 1 57 6
(Magnesium)
HUMMS-11 Block 2 62 6
(Lithium)
GAS Block 1 (Silver) 45 5

GAS Block 2 (Bronze) 43 4

GAS Block 3 (Argon) 43 4

Agri-Crop (Mercury) 42 4

H.E. Block 1 77 8
(Housekeeping)Helium
H.E. Block 2 (BPP)Oxygen 70 7

ICT-CSS & Animation 59 6


(Lead)
SMAW Block 1 (Iron) 40 4

SMAW Block 2 (Nickel) 41 4

EIM Block 1 (Copper) 49 5

EIM Block 2 (Hydrogen) 48 5

Total Respondents in Grade 11: 688 70


Bermudo (2010) also cited Gay in his book that for experimental studies, 30

learners make already a good sample. In this study, 50 learners will be drawn

from each school because according to DepEd Order # 21 s. 2006 that Class

sizes should be in the maximum of 60 in public secondary schools. Thus, there will

be a total of two hundred (200) Grade Eleven learners in each sections and this

makes it a good sample for this research.

Grade Eleven Science Teachers

The Grade Eleven Science Teachers of every school who will handle the

experimental group will be the respondents for the acceptability of Science

Intervention Material. The researchers will introduce and orient the teacher

respondents on how to use strategic intervention materials by the learners.

1. Determine the Level of Mastery in Science Learning Competencies

Construction of the test items

According to Steven(2010) in his book Constructing Test Items that in

constructing test items for standardized tests of achievement, ability, and

aptitude is a task of enormous importance. The interpretability of a test's scores

flows directly from the quality of its items and exercises. Concomitant with score

interpretability is the notion that including only carefully crafted items on a test is

the primary method by which the skilled test developer reduces unwanted error

variance, or errors of measurement, and thereby increases a test score's


reliability. Thus, The researchers construct two sets of 50-item test used in the pre

and post tests, to measure achievement or performance of both groups in first

grading period, based from the Table of Specifications . Rivera (2016) presented

in the slideshare.com about the use of Table of Specification that it is a two-way

chart that relates the learning outcomes to the learning content . It enable a

teacher to prepare a test containing representative sample of the learners

knowledge in each of the areas tested. The pre-test will be tried out in another

section in the Grade Eight. The try-out test results will be subjected to item

analysis to cast out or improve poor questions. This was done so that the Pre-test

would contain good questions. This is supported by Arnold (2015) in his article

entitled Why You Should do A dry Run Everytime you Test Remotely that the

UserTesting Research Team has learned that one of the key ingredients of a

great test is performing a dry run of the test script. The method will be U-L index

method. This method of item analysis reveals the difficulty and discrimination

indicesas cited by Pandit (2015) in his presentation in slideshare.com. This is used

to determine which items are significant or not significant to use in the test

construction.

Administration of Diagnostic Test(Pre-Test)

According to Dummit (2012) in his book, Diagnostic/Formative/Summative

Assessment that diagnostic test is one of the tools to gather data in assessing the

learners the certain standards to identify the strength and weaknesses in learners
performance, and to improve the quality of teaching and learning. Deped

Order number 8, s. 2015 Policy Guidelines on Classroom Assessment for K to 12

Basic Education Program states that public elementary and secondary schools

shall implement that Classroom Assessment such as diagnostic tests to keep

tract of the learners progress in relation to learning standards and the

development of the 21st century skills. Thus, the use of pre-test is useful in

determining the experimental group. There will be 25 learners in each class

during the pre-test. The basis in selecting as to who should belong to the control

or experimental class was through their average grade in Science in the Grade

Seven equated with their age. As explained by Corpuz (2015) in his book

entitled, The Spiral Progression in K to 12 that as early as Grade Seven, learners

will learn concepts in Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry and Physics and these

concepts are developed to the next grade level such as Grade Eight in

increasing complexity and sophistication. Thus, Grade 7 grades in Science could

be the basis for selecting the learners who will be involved in the study.

2. Designing The Strategic Intervention Material

There will be two classes used by the researchers as mentioned by Bueno

(2016). Both classes will be composed of 25 learners, a total of 50 learners

involve in the study. The control class will be composed of 25 learners, too. The

control class will not use the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM). The

researchers, therefore, use the traditional approach or expository teaching in


the control class while the strategies and activities included in the Strategic

Intervention Materials (SIM) will be used in the experimental class.

Steps in the Preparation of the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM)

Strategic Intervention Material (DepEd Tambayan Ph.blogs Sat. Jan.7,

2017) popularly known as SIM in Philippine Education is an instructional materials

meant to reteach concept or topics where are considered least mastered by

the learners.This was supported by Rodrigo (2015) in his published website journal

on October 12, 2015 that the strategic intervention materials guarantee

alignment of activities with the tasks/objectives, keep the activities short and

simple, provide a variety of activities to cater to the diverse learners; provide

number of activities so that the learner can have enough practice in

developing the skill and focus on the least mastered skills.In addition, the

designs of the strategic intervention materials are attractive and eye-catching

that is why a lot of teachers are encouraged to use them in the teaching-

learning process.The benefit of the strategic intervention materials is not only for

the teacher’s convenience and system in teacher but also for the easy grasp of

the learners.

According to Jody(2012) in his website article updated on March 31, 2012

about How to Develop a Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) that to stimulate

the activity of the learners and thereby increasing their level of understanding

the following parts should be present in the SIM. These are the following: Guide
Card, Activity Card, Assessment Card, Enrichment Card and Reference Card.

Thus, the preparation of SIM will be based on the given objectives and parts.

This study started with the development of the Strategic Intervention

Materials (SIM) in Grade Eleven Science. The procedure will follow in gathering

materials and information and in organizing these materials include the

following:

Preliminary Phase

The first part in the preparation of the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM)

will be the preliminary phase. It covers the reading, surfing the internet and

selection of books and other reference materials in Grade Eleven Science and

the review of topics found in the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Grade11.

The contents include in the first semester are:

1. Origin and Structure of the Earth: The Universe and the Solar System
2. Origin and Structure of the Earth: Earth and Earth System
3. Earth Materials and Processes: Minerals and Rocks
4. Earth Materials and Processes: Exogenic Processes
5. Earth Materials and Processes: Endogenic Processes
6. Earth Materials and Processes: Deformation of Crust
7. Earth Materials and Processes: History of the Earth
8. Natural Hazards, Mitigation and Adaptation: Geologic Processes and Hazards
9. Natural Hazards, Mitigation and Adaptation: Hydrometeorological
Phenomenon and Hazards
10. Natural Hazards, Mitigation and Adaptation: Marine and Coastal Processes
and Their Effects
Developmental/Preparation Phase

The second phase in the SIM preparation will be the organization of each

topic in the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) and preparation of activities.

Each topic prepared with Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) contains the five

(5) components such as the guide card, activity card, assessment card,

enrichment card, reference card and lastly the answer key card.

3. Validation of Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM)

The last phase in the preparation of the Strategic Intervention Materials

(SIM) will be the evaluation phase both curricular and statistical to determine its

acceptability and usefulness. The curricular evaluation of the Strategic

Intervention Materials (SIM) by the researchers will be done to determine its

curricular validity and the testing of the developed instructional materials to the

experimental class for its statistical validation.

Policarpio(2012) in his article about Guide in Reviewing Intervention

Materials metioned that he used the standard criteria issued by the Department

of Education in 2012 and DepEd Memorandum No. 225,s. 2009,Enclosure 2. He

also based his criteria on the philosophical principles that create learning from

“How Children Learn” by Stella Vosniado.This will be the basis in validating the

strategic intervention material use in this study.


3.1 Acceptability of the SIM

To evaluate the Strategic Intervention Materials, the 3 science teacher

respondents will be given questionnaire using a 5-point scale. The components

evaluated will be on objectives under the Guide cards, activities under the

activity card, evaluation under the assessment card, additional and follow-up

activities under the enrichment card, list of concepts and reading materials

under the reference card and the answers for the activities and assessment

given under the answer key card. The qualitative interpretations of the 5-point

scale are given as follows:

4.20-5.00 points for Very Evident (VE)

3.41-4.19 points for Evident (E)

2.61-3.40 points for Moderately Evident (ME)

1.81-2.60 points for Less Evident (LE)

1.00-1.80 points for Least Evident (LE)

These will be based from the Standardized criteria prepared and issued by

the Department of Education (DepED).

3.2 Usefulness of the SIM

The statistical evaluation will be necessary to determine the effectiveness

of the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) as cited by Bueno (2016). A pre-test


and post-test will be given to the respondents for the first grading period. It must

be made clear that the test given to the experimental class will also be given in

the control class. Further, the questions given in the pre-test will be the same

questions given in the post-test.

The pre-test and post-test results of each group for first grading period will

be treated separately. However, to determine whether the achievement of the

experimental class will be better than the control class, the post-test results of

both groups will be computed using the t-test.

4. Level of Significance

To interpret the significant difference of the achievement of the learners

who use and do not use the Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM), the

computed t-value will be compared with the tabular t-value at .05 level of

significance at 48 degrees of freedom. This will be used also as the basis as to

whether the null hypothesis would be rejected or accepted (Bueno 2016).

Statistical Tools

The statistical tools used in the study are the following using the book of Dr.

David Cababaro Bueno (2016) entitled Introduction to Statistics (Concepts and

Applications In Research)

Mean. This will be used to determine where most of the scores of the students

clustered. Since the number of students in each group was less than 30, then the
ungrouped data was used. This was done by adding all the scores of the

learners and the sum will be divided by their number.

Weighted Mean will be used to determine the curricular validation of the

Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM).

Standard Deviation. This will be used to determine the variability of the learners’

abilities or scores. The mean will be subtracted from the learners’ scores. The

difference will be squared after which the summation was obtained.

t-test. This will be used to find out whether the learners who used the Strategic

Intervention Materials perform well and achieve better than those who do not.

The data for the t-test will be arrived at after determining the mean standard

deviations of the two groups for the first grading period.


REFERENCES
Barredo, Kristine Joan DA.(2016) Development on Academic Performance in Science
using Strategic Intervention in Science using Strategic Intervention Material , April
23, 2014

Bermudo, Pedrito Jose et.al. (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. Copyright 2010.
Publisher. Mindshapers Co. Inc. pp. 70-72

Bunagan, F. (2012).Science intervention material. Retrieved from


http://www.slideshare.net/felixbunagan/strategic-intervention-material

Bueno, David C. (2016). Introduction to Statistics & Concepts and Application in


Research, Great Books Trading

Calderon, Jose F. EdD.(2012). Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Philippine


Copyright, 1993 National Bookstore, Inc. Reprint 2012

Calixtro, AB. (2014), Research Methods and Techniques. Copyright Great Books
Publishing 2014, pp. 62-63

Castillo, Fely S.PhD. (2102). Modern Concepts on Thesis and Dissertation Writing. Revised
Edition 2012. Bookstore Publishing Corp.

Dacumos, Leo Peter Narciza (2016) Perspective of Secondary Teacher in the Utilization
of Strategic Intervention Material in increasing Learning Proficiency of students in
Science Education.Vol.1 Issue 2 Asten Journal of Teacher education. Retrieved
from po.pnuresearchportal.org/ejournal/
Index.ph/asten/article/download

De Garcia, Pinky (2015)Strategic Intervention Material(SIM) Retrieved from


hubpages.com>Education and Science.

Dy, Jocelyn O. (2014) SIM in teaching Physics: Its effectiveness SIM in Teaching Science
IV.112.cgpublisher.com/publisher.com /proposals /149/index-html

Dy, L. (2011). Teaching Physics through strategic intervention materials. Retrieved from
http://jhody.hubpages.com/hub/teaching-physicsthrough-strategic-
intervention-materials-sim

Gultiano, A. (2012). Effects of strategic intervention material (SIM) on the academic


achievement in Chemistry of public high school students. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/neoyen/strategic-intervention-material.

Lumogdang, Emma D.(2015)The effects of SIM in Commercial Cooking to students’


academic performance in TLE an action Research.slideplayer.com/ slide
/4894337
Marimla,Aireen S. &Dimalanta, Olivia G. (2015)Development and Evaluation of
Strategic Intervention material in Science V. American-Eurasian Network for
Scientific Information Publisher.www.aensiweb.net / AENSIWEB/rjss_Special / IPN
Nov_2015.html

Memebrebe. Nino Q. &AnadiaAiselle (2015)Improving Student Achievement for


Science in Grade 7 using Strategic Intervention Material.Retrieved from
www.iamsed.org/wp-content/uploads/2015 /06//Science Education and Teaching.

Pańa, Gerald U. (2016) SIM Improves the Academic Performance of Grade 9 students
of Nongnongan NHS in APN.geraldpana21.blogspotcom

Plenos, Josephine (2015) Teaccher-Made Science Strategic Intervention Material: Tool


to Enhance the Performance Level of.slideplayer.com /slide/ 4406181

Policarpio, J. (2012) Guide in Revising Intervention Materials. August 27, 2012.posted


@tsoktok.blpgspot.com/SIM_101_guide_in_reviewing_intervention.html

Saclao,Josefino G. (2016) Development and Impact of SIM-MOD ( Strategic


Intervention Material and Module Combined) on Student’s Academic
Achievement in Mathematics at the 8th Grade Level. Oct.3-4,2016.

Soberano, Andy (2012) Strategic Intervention Materials in Chemistry: Development and


Effectiveness.ww.scribd.com / doc /49021505/STRATEGIC_INTERVENTION

Yan, S. (2012).Teachers’ role in autonomous learning.Retrieved from


http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jsr/article/view-File/2860/2371

Wallace, J. & Louden, W. (2005). Dilemmas of science teaching: Perspectives on


problemsnof practice. Retrieved from https://b o o k s .g o o g l e . c o m . p h / b
o o k s ? i d = f -N 6 A A g A A Q B A J & p g = PA 1 9 6 & l p -
g=PA196&dq=why+the+need+to+simplify+
science+concepts&source=bl&ots=OLgIGts6OG& sig=rO8nnQE2oHw-
Vizz3bihxQpArsI&
hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMueKziP_MAhXIq5QKHdtfAMsQ6AEIOTAE#v=onepa
ge&q=why%20the%20need%20to%20simplify%20science%20concepts&f=

Wiles, R., Crow, G., Heath, S., & Charles, V. (2006)Researchmethods:Anonymity and
confidentiality.Retrieved from
http://eprints.ncrm.ac.uk/423/1/0206_anonymity%2520and%2520confidentiality.p
df

DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015

2011-12 National achievement test: Year four institutional performance profile.


Retrieved from http://depedpines.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/SEC.NAT-
2012.pdf
Public schools enrolment S.Y.2014-2015. Total Enrolment in Public Elementary and
Secondary Schools of March 25, 2015. http://www.deped.gov.ph/datasets