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10 things to put in your

personal statement
No two personal statements should be the same (the clue is in
the personal!). But there ARE certain additions that will grab the
attention of the admissions tutor reading it...
Remember that what you write could be used to decide between you and
another candidate for the final spot on that dream course.
Firstly, what is a personal statement?
A personal statement is an extended essay about yourself and a key part of
your Ucas application.

While many candidates may apply with the same grades as you, they
aren’t you as a person, with your passions, experiences and thoughts. You
need to stand out as a real person to an admissions tutor, as opposed to one
of the many applicant numbers that will pass before their eyes!

Your personal statement is where you can distinguish yourself from other
candidates; fill in the picture a tutor has of you in their head; and leave a real
impression that makes them want to meet you orOFFER you a place!
So what should go in a personal statement?
1. Explain your reasons for wanting to study the course
What motivates you to take this course further at a university level? Mention
how your interest developed, what you have done to pursue it or how you’ve
drawn inspiration from your current studies. Or, just demonstrate your
enthusiasm for it. If you want to get something specific out of it, provided it's
reasonable, say so.

Be specific from line one. English Admissions Tutor


 Must-read: Subject-specific personal statement advice
2. Explain how you're right for the course
Provide evidence that you fit the bill to show that not only do you meet the
selection criteria; but also that you’ve researched the course (or profession)
and understand what studying the subject at university levelwill involve. Also
show that you're prepared for this.
Keep on topic and show that you’ve really done your research
and know why you want to do the course. Sport Admissions Tutor
 Must-read: How to sell yourself in your personal statement
3. Say what you’ve done outside the classroom
If possible, outline how you’ve pursued your interest in your chosen subject
beyond your current syllabus.

For example, talk about any further reading you’ve done around the
subject and give your critical views or reflective opinions about it (don't just
write a list). This could be fromBOOKS , quality newspapers, websites,
periodicals or scientific journals or from films, documentaries, blogs, radio
programmes, podcasts, attending public lectures and so on.
Try to avoid mentioning the wider reading that everyone else is doing.
If I have to read about Freakonomics once more, I’ll
scream! Economics Admissions Tutor
 Must-read: Make your personal statement stand out
4. Why it’s relevant to your course...
Reflect on your experiences, explaining what you’ve learned from them or
how they’ve helped develop your interest in the subject – it could bework
experience, volunteering, a university taster session or outreach programme,
summer schools, museum, gallery or theatre visits, archaeological digs, visits
to the local courts, travel, competitions or a maths challenge.
It doesn’t have to be anything fancy! Archaeology Admissions Tutor

5. … And relevant to your chosen career


Reflecting on relevant experience or observations will be essential for some
professional courses where, in effect, you’re applying for the career as well as
the course:
Reflect on your experience, don’t just describe it. Talk about the
skills the profession needs, how you’ve noticed this and how
you’ve developed those skills yourself. Occupational Therapy Admissions
Tutor

Whatever environment you’ve been in, what did you spot or


learn from what happens there, or what have you observed about
how the qualities exhibited by professional staff helped them
engage effectively with patients or service-users? Medicine Admissions
Tutor

 Must-read: How to make work experience count in your statement


Alternatively, what shouldn’t go in your personal statement?

6. Can you demonstrate transferable skills?


Yes, you can – and admissions tutors will want to hear about them!

It could be your ability to work independently, teamwork, good time


management, problem-solving, leadership, listening or organisational skills.
7. Expand on the most relevant ones
But don’t simply list off the skills you think you have – think about which ones
relate most readily to the course you’re applying to. Then demonstrate how
you’ve developed, used and continued to strengthen these.

Again, admissions tutors want to hear about specific examples, like:

 projects and assignments (what role did you play, what went well?)

 positions of responsibility (what did you achieve, how has it improved your
self-confidence?)

 sport, music or drama (what did you learn from your role, how did you work
as a team?)

 Young Enterprise, Duke of Edinburgh's Award (what was the biggest


challenge, how did you overcome it?)

 volunteering or a part-time job (what have you observed, what extra


responsibilities have you taken on, what skills have you demonstrated
yourself?).
8. Show that you’re a critical thinker
University is all about being able to think independently and analytically so
being able to demonstrate that you’re working like this already is a big plus
point.
Briefly explaining how one of your A-level subjects, a BTEC assignment or
placement, or additional studies such as the Extended Project Qualification
(EPQ) has made you think more critically could be a way of doing this.
If you’re taking the EPQ, do talk about it, as it’s the kind of
studying you’ll be doing at uni. Modern Languages Admissions Tutor
9. What’s the long-term plan?
Mention what your longer term goals are if you can do it in an interesting way
and you’ve got a specific path in mind. If you do, then try and show a spark of
individuality or imagination.

Just saying you want to be a journalist isn’t exactly going to


stand you out from the crowd. History Admissions Tutor
If you’re not sure yet, just talk about what you’re looking forward to at uni and
what you want to gain from your course or from university life.

If you’re applying for deferred entry, do mention your gap year plans if you’ve
made a firm decision to take a year out. Most courses are happy for you to take
a gap year – but they will want to know how you plan to spend it.
10. Keep it positive
It can be difficult to get started with your personal statement, but don’t panic. Start
with your strengths, focus on your enthusiasm for the course and talk
positively about yourself.
THE CATCHER IN THE RYE
J. D. Salinger


Chapters 1–2


Summary: Chapter 1

Holden Caulfield writes his story from a rest home to which he has been sent for
therapy. He refuses to talk about his early life, mentioning only that his brother D.
B. is a Hollywood writer. He hints that he is bitter because D. B. has sold out to
Hollywood, forsaking a career in serious literature for the wealth and fame of the
movies. He then begins to tell the story of his breakdown, beginning with his
departure from Pencey Prep, a famous school he attended in Agerstown,
Pennsylvania.
Holden’s career at Pencey Prep has been marred by his refusal to apply himself,
and after failing four of his five subjects—he passed only English—he has been
forbidden to return to the school after the fall term. The Saturday before
Christmas vacation begins, Holden stands on Thomsen Hill overlooking the
football field, where Pencey plays its annual grudge match against Saxon Hall.
Holden has no interest in the game and hadn’t planned to watch it at all. He is the
manager of the school’s fencing team and is supposed to be in New York for a
meet, but he lost the team’s equipment on the subway, forcing everyone to return
early.

Holden is full of contempt for the prep school, but he looks for a way to “say
goodbye” to it. He fondly remembers throwing a football with friends even after it
grew dark outside. Holden walks away from the game to go say goodbye to Mr.
Spencer, a former history teacher who is very old and ill with the flu. He sprints to
Spencer’s house, but since he is a heavy smoker, he has to stop to catch his
breath at the main gate. At the door, Spencer’s wife greets Holden warmly, and
he goes in to see his teacher.

Summary: Chapter 2

“Life is a game, boy. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules.”

(See Important Quotations Explained)

Holden greets Mr. Spencer and his wife in a manner that suggests he is close to
them. He is put off by his teacher’s rather decrepit condition but seems otherwise
to respect him. In his sickroom, Spencer tries to lecture Holden about his
academic failures. He confirms Pencey’s headmaster’s assertion that “[l]ife is a
game” and tells Holden that he must learn to play by the rules. Although Spencer
clearly feels affection for Holden, he bluntly reminds the boy that he flunked him,
and even forces him to listen to the terrible essay he handed in about the ancient
Egyptians. Finally, Spencer tries to convince Holden to think about his future. Not
wanting to be lectured, Holden interrupts Spencer and leaves, returning to his
dorm room before dinner.

Analysis: Chapters 1–2

Holden Caulfield is the protagonist of The Catcher in the Rye, and the most
important function of these early chapters is to establish the basics of his
personality. From the beginning of the novel, Holden tells his story in a bitterly
cynical voice. He refuses to discuss his early life, he says, because he is bored
by “all that David Copperfield kind of crap.” He gives us a hint that something
catastrophic has happened in his life, acknowledging that he writes from a rest
home to tell about “this madman stuff” that happened to him around the previous
Christmas, but he doesn’t yet go into specifics. The particularities of his story are
in keeping with his cynicism and his boredom. He has failed out of school, and he
leaves Spencer’s house abruptly because he does not enjoy being confronted by
his actions.

Beneath the surface of Holden’s tone and behavior runs a more idealistic,
emotional current. He begins the story of his last day at Pencey Prep by telling
how he stood at the top of Thomsen Hill, preparing to leave the school and trying
to feel “some kind of a good-by.” He visits Spencer in Chapter 2 even though he
failed Spencer’s history class, and he seems to respond to Mrs. Spencer’s
kindness. What bothers him the most, in these chapters and throughout the
book, is the hypocrisy and ugliness around him, which diminish the innocence
and beauty of the external world—the unpleasantness of Spencer’s sickroom, for
instance, and his hairless legs sticking out of his pajamas. Salinger thus treats
his narrator as more than a mere portrait of a cynical postwar rich kid at an
impersonal and pressure-filled boarding school. Even in these early chapters,
Holden connects with life on a very idealistic level; he seems to feel its flaws so
deeply that he tries to shield himself with a veneer of cynicism. The Catcher in
the Rye is in many ways a book about the betrayal of innocence by the modern
world; despite his bitter tone, Holden is an innocent searching desperately for a
way to connect with the world around him that will not cause him pain. In these
early chapters, the reader already begins to sense that Holden is not an entirely
reliable narrator and that the reality of his situation is somehow different from the
way he describes it. In part this is simply because Holden is a first-person
narrator describing his own experiences from his own point of view. Any
individual’s point of view, in any novel or story, is necessarily limited. The reader
never forgets for a moment who is telling this story, because the tone, grammar,
and diction are consistently those of an adolescent—albeit a highly intelligent and
expressive one—and every event receives Holden’s distinctive commentary.
However, Holden’s narrative contains inconsistencies that make us question
what he says. For instance, Holden characterizes Spencer’s behavior throughout
as vindictive and mean-spirited, but Spencer’s actions clearly seem to be
motivated by concern for Holden’s well-being. Holden seems to be looking for
reasons not to listen to Spencer.

Are you ready for the test?

The Plague is a novel about a plague epidemic in the large Algerian city of Oran.
In April, thousands of rats stagger into the open and die. When a mild hysteria
grips the population, the newspapers begin clamoring for action. The authorities
finally arrange for the daily collection and cremation of the rats. Soon thereafter,
M. Michel, the concierge for the building where Dr. Rieux works, dies after falling
ill with a strange fever. When a cluster of similar cases appears, Dr. Rieux's
colleague, Castel, becomes certain that the illness is the bubonic plague. He and
Dr. Rieux are forced to confront the indifference and denial of the authorities and
other doctors in their attempts to urge quick, decisive action. Only after it
becomes impossible to deny that a serious epidemic is ravaging Oran, do the
authorities enact strict sanitation measures, placing the whole city under
quarantine.

The public reacts to their sudden imprisonment with intense longing for absent
loved ones. They indulge in selfish personal distress, convinced that their pain is
unique in comparison to common suffering. Father Paneloux delivers a stern
sermon, declaring that the plague is God's punishment for Oran's sins. Raymond
Rambert endeavors to escape Oran to rejoin his wife in Paris, but the city's
bureaucrats refuse to let him leave. He tries to escape by illegal means with the
help of Cottard's criminal associates. Meanwhile, Rieux, Tarrou, and Grand
doggedly battle the death and suffering wrought by the plague. Rambert finalizes
his escape plan, but, after Tarrou tells him that Rieux is likewise separated from
his wife, Rambert is ashamed to flee. He chooses to stay behind and help fight
the epidemic. Cottard committed a crime (which he does not name) in the past,
so he has lived in constant fear of arrest and punishment. He greets the plague
epidemic with open arms because he no longer feels alone in his fearful
suffering. He accumulates a greatDEAL of wealth as a smuggler during the
epidemic.

After the term of exile lasts several months, many of Oran's citizens lose their
selfish obsession with personal suffering. They come to recognize the plague as
a collective disaster that is everyone's concern. They confront their social
responsibility and join the anti-plague efforts. When M. Othon's small son suffers
a prolonged, excruciating death from the plague, Dr. Rieux shouts at Paneloux
that he was an innocent victim. Paneloux, deeply shaken by the boy's death,
delivers a second sermon that modifies the first. He declares that the inexplicable
deaths of innocents force the Christian to choose between believing everything
and believing nothing about God. When he falls ill, he refuses to consult a doctor,
leaving his fate entirely in the hands of divine Providence. He dies clutching his
crucifix, but the symptoms of his illness do not match those of the plague. Dr.
Rieux records him as a "doubtful case."
When the epidemic ends, Cottard cannot cope. He begins randomly firing his gun
into the street until he is captured by the police. Grand, having recovered from a
bout of plague, vows to make a fresh start in life. Tarrou dies just as the epidemic
is waning, but he battles with all his strength for his life, just as he helped Rieux
battle for the lives of others. Rambert's wife joins him in Oran after the city gates
are finally opened, but Dr. Rieux's own wife dies of a prolonged illness before she
and her husband can be reunited. The public quickly returns to its old routine, but
Rieux knows that the battle against the plague is never over because the bacillus
microbe can lie dormant for years. The Plague is his chronicle of the scene of
human suffering that all too many people are willing to forget

Syllabus
English, Grade 9

In English 9, students work to develop higher level critical thinking and analysis skills,
reading skills, appreciation literature of various genres, and develop writing skills using
the Six Traits of Effective Writing. English 9 studies literature set in various eras, with a
major emphasis on the novel, supplemented with non-fiction, short stories, poetry and
Drama. Writing assignments often evolve from the reading selections, both fiction and
non-fiction, and focus on different types of writing and the development of English
language skills with an emphasis on vocabulary, grammar, usage and mechanics.

Aims
The course will aim to build the following Core Standards in order to prepare students
for college and career.

Reading: a variety of genres and developing understanding of both key ideas and
details.

Writing: A variety of types such as reflection, analysis, journal, poetry, creative, stream
of consciousness, short story.
Speaking and Listening which includes comprehension, collaboration, and presentation
skills.
And most importantly

Language Development which includes grammar, language, usage, and vocabulary.

To give back to the community through service and community work.

Learning Standards

The Learning Standards will be in accordance to Common Core Standards.

“The Common Core asks students to read stories and literature, as well as more
complex texts that provide facts and background knowledge. Students will be
challenged and asked questions that push them to refer back to what they’ve read. This
stresses critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills that are required for
success in college, career, and life.”

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical
inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to
support conclusions drawn from the text.

2. Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact
over the course of a text.

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection, and
revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a
range of tasks, purposes,

2. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using


effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event
sequences.and audiences.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening

1. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating


command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and


formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and


usage when writing or speaking.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Zero Tolerance:

Cheating
Rudeness
Plagiarism
Copying homework
Dishonesty

Must do
Respect the Teacher and each other
Be prepared for class
Bring all your materials - text, notebook, homework journal, laptop charged, stationery.
Ask questions
Pay Attention and Follow Directions

Grading:
Rubrics will be given for Projects and Presentations

Category Weightage
Tests 25%
Classwork Assignments 15%
Quizzes 15%
Behavior/Participation/Discussion 15%
Homework 10%
Presentations/Projects 25%

Quality of Work:

Learning can be fun. It is a privilege an honor. Aspire towards high quality work and
expand your potential. Keep trying to improve your skills and transform weaknesses
into strengths.

Deadlines:
Zero will be given for late work.

Google Drive
In drive, go to the gear on the top right.
--Settings
--check the box in the middle of the page for offline docs
it will take a few hours to sync and then any docs that are owned by you, in your drive, you can edit while
offline.
When the computer goes online again, it will sync with the online drive.

Jeffrey Wrensen
Tech Director
Lahore American School

Makeup work in case of Absences:


The students will be responsible to check what work they have missed on Google
Classroom and be prepared to submit the work upon their return. If they have questions
while absent they should feel free to email the teacher. Tests and quizzes will be taken
on the day the student returns and the student can be in touch with the teacher if he or
she missed a test or quiz or class assignment.

Areas of Study:
The aspects that will be covered are:

 Plot and Conflict in Unit 1

 Character and Point of View in Unit 2


 Setting, Mood and Imagery in Unit 3

 Theme and Symbol in Unit 4

 Author’s Purpose in Unit 5

 Argument and Persuasion in Unit 6

 Language of Poetry in Unit 7

 Author’s Style and Voice in Unit 8

 History Culture and Author in Unit 9.


 Drama Romeo and Juliet in Unit 10
Not all the Units will be covered. Rather selections from each Unit will be
explored.

NOVELS:
We will read at least 2-3 novels and plays this year.
The library has many excellent novel sets and we will read some as a class, while
others will be read individually or as part of a Literary Circle.
Possibilities include:

The Outsiders by H. E. Hinton


To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
Animal Farm by George Orwell
The Tragedy Of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
Novels can be added as our course evolves and based on the interest of the class.
In each quarter we will also study:
Short stories - from the Fiction Genre,

Non-Fiction and Essays according to student interest and Unit requirement.


The 43 poems in the Poetry Genre will be divided up amongst the class and we will
make presentations on an analysis of them.
We will memorize them and participate in an in-class and an inter school poetry
recitation competition.
Student will read 25 poems and do an analytical presentation on 5 of his or her
favorites.
Reading, Writing and Study Routine:
The goal is to love reading and writing and to transform you into readers and writers.
Reading: We will read every day. You should read for at least 45 minutes every day.
 Reading will be assigned for homework. Often we may read in class as well.
Reading will be done both silently and out loud with clarity and expression.
Role playing will be done when reading plays. There will be class discussion
and questions can be asked by the teacher and students.
 After reading questions will mostly be done at home as well as in school and
will be discussed after they are due.

Writing: Will be done every day and in various styles and formats- Creative Writing,
Stream of consciousness writing, poetry writing, journal or reflective. We will write in the
laptop and in the notebook or on paper.

Assessment - Assignments and Evaluation

 Oral review games may be played to check memory and understanding.

 You will be expected to read stories and answer After Reading questions in

Notebook or Laptop in which you will have folder for English 11.

 There will be quizzes and tests based on the plays, stories or groups of stories

and poems. These may be nonfiction as well.

 For Novels you will be Reading Check quizzes that may not be announced

 You will always be expected to use correct Conventions - Spelling, Grammar

and Punctuation.

 You must learn the vocabulary for all the reading. Even if the vocabulary list is

not give to you make a Vocabulary Bank of unknown words in your notebook

or laptop.

 Novel or Unit Assignments can be in the form of a presentation, a writing

assignment or a group project.


Romeo
The son and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. A young man of about sixteen, Romeo is
handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. Though impulsive and immature, his idealism and passion
make him an extremely likable character. He lives in the middle of a violent feud between his family
and the Capulets, but he is not at all interested in violence. His only interest is love and he goes to
extremes to prove the seriousness of his feelings. He secretly marries Juliet, the daughter of his
father’s worst enemy; he happily takes abuse from Tybalt; and he would rather die than live without
his beloved. Romeo is also an affectionate and devoted friend to his relative Benvolio, Mercutio, and
Friar Lawrence.

Juliet
The daughter of Capulet and Lady Capulet. A beautiful thirteen-year-old girl, Juliet begins the play
as a naïve child who has thought little about love and marriage, but she grows up quickly upon
falling in love with Romeo, the son of her family’s great enemy. Because she is a girl in an
aristocratic family, she has none of the freedom Romeo has to roam around the city, climb over walls
in the middle of the night, or get into swordfights. Nevertheless, she shows amazing courage in
trusting her entire life and future to Romeo, even refusing to believe the worst reports about him after
he gets involved in a fight with her cousin. Juliet’s closest friend and confidant is her Nurse, though
she’s willing to shut the Nurse out of her life the moment the Nurse turns against Romeo.

Friar Lawrence
A Franciscan friar, friend to both Romeo and Juliet. Kind, civic-minded, a proponent of moderation,
and always ready with a plan, Friar Lawrence secretly marries the impassioned lovers in hopes that
the union might eventually bring peace to Verona. As well as being a Catholic holy man, Friar
Lawrence is also an expert in the use of seemingly mystical potions and herbs.

Mercutio
A kinsman to the Prince, and Romeo’s close friend. One of the most extraordinary characters in all
of Shakespeare’s plays, Mercutio overflows with imagination, wit, and, at times, a strange, biting
satire and brooding fervor. Mercutio loves wordplay, especially sexual double entendres. He can be
quite hotheaded, and hates people who are affected, pretentious, or obsessed with the latest
fashions. He finds Romeo’s romanticized ideas about love tiresome, and tries to convince Romeo to
view love as a simple matter of sexual appetite.
The Nurse
Juliet’s nurse, the woman who breast-fed Juliet when she was a baby and has cared for Juliet her
entire life. A vulgar, long-winded, and sentimental character, the Nurse provides comic relief with her
frequently inappropriate remarks and speeches. But, until a disagreement near the play’s end, the
Nurse is Juliet’s faithful confidante and loyal intermediary in Juliet’s affair with Romeo. She provides
a contrast with Juliet, given that her view of love is earthy and sexual, whereas Juliet is idealistic and
intense. The Nurse believes in love and wants Juliet to have a nice-looking husband, but the idea
that Juliet would want to sacrifice herself for love is incomprehensible to her.

Tybalt
A Capulet, Juliet’s cousin on her mother’s side. Vain, fashionable, supremely aware of courtesy and
the lack of it, he becomes aggressive, violent, and quick to draw his sword when he feels his pride
has been injured. Once drawn, his sword is something to be feared. He loathes Montagues.

Capulet
The patriarch of the Capulet family, father of Juliet, husband of Lady Capulet, and enemy, for
unexplained reasons, of Montague. He truly loves his daughter, though he is not well acquainted
with Juliet’s thoughts or feelings, and seems to think that what is best for her is a “good” match with
Paris. Often prudent, he commands respect and propriety, but he is liable to fly into a rage when
either is lacking.

Lady Capulet
Juliet’s mother, Capulet’s wife. A woman who herself married young (by her own estimation she
gave birth to Juliet at close to the age of fourteen), she is eager to see her daughter marry Paris.
She is an ineffectual mother, relying on the Nurse for moral and pragmatic support.

Montague
Romeo’s father, the patriarch of the Montague clan and bitter enemy of Capulet. At the beginning of
the play, he is chiefly concerned about Romeo’s melancholy.

Lady Montague
Romeo’s mother, Montague’s wife. She dies of grief after Romeo is exiled from Verona.

Paris
A kinsman of the Prince, and the suitor of Juliet most preferred by Capulet. Once Capulet has
promised him he can marry Juliet, he behaves very presumptuous toward, acting as if they are
already married.
Benvolio
Montague’s nephew, Romeo’s cousin and thoughtful friend, he makes a genuine effort to defuse
violent scenes in public places, though Mercutio accuses him of having a nasty temper in private. He
spends most of the play trying to help Romeo get his mind off Rosaline, even after Romeo has fallen
in love with Juliet.

Prince Escalus
The Prince of Verona. A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris. As the seat of political power in Verona, he
is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs.

Friar John
A Franciscan friar charged by Friar Lawrence with taking the news of Juliet’s false death to Romeo
in Mantua. Friar John is held up in a quarantined house, and the message never reaches Romeo.

Balthasar
Romeo’s dedicated servant, who brings Romeo the news of Juliet’s death, unaware that her death is
a ruse.

Sampson and Gregory


Two servants of the house of Capulet, who, like their master, hate the Montagues. At the outset of
the play, they successfully provoke some Montague men into a fight.

Abraham
Montague’s servant, who fights with Sampson and Gregory in the first scene of the play.

The Apothecary
An apothecary in Mantua. Had he been wealthier, he might have been able to afford to value his
morals more than money, and refused to sell poison to Romeo.

Peter
A Capulet servant who invites guests to Capulet’s feast and escorts the Nurse to meet with Romeo.
He is illiterate, and a bad singer.

Rosaline
The woman with whom Romeo is infatuated at the beginning of the play. Rosaline never appears
onstage, but it is said by other characters that she is very beautiful and has sworn to live a life of
chastity.
The Chorus
The Chorus is a single character who functions as a narrator offering commentary on the play’s plot
and themes.

In the streets of Verona another brawl breaks out between the servants of the
feuding noble families of Capulet and Montague. Benvolio, a Montague, tries to
stop the fighting, but is himself embroiled when the rash Capulet, Tybalt, arrives
on the scene. After citizens outraged by the constant violence beat back the
warring factions, Prince Escalus, the ruler of Verona, attempts to prevent any
further conflicts between the families by decreeing death for any individual who
disturbs the peace in the future.

Romeo, the son of Montague, runs into his cousin Benvolio, who had earlier seen
Romeo moping in a grove of sycamores. After some prodding by Benvolio,
Romeo confides that he is in love with Rosaline, a woman who does not return
his affections. Benvolio counsels him to forget this woman and find another, more
beautiful one, but Romeo remains despondent.

Meanwhile, Paris, a kinsman of the Prince, seeks Juliet’s hand in marriage. Her
father Capulet, though happy at the match, asks Paris to wait two years, since
Juliet is not yet even fourteen. Capulet dispatches a servant with a list of people
to invite to a masquerade and feast he traditionally holds. He invites Paris to the
feast, hoping that Paris will begin to win Juliet’s heart.

Romeo and Benvolio, still discussing Rosaline, encounter the Capulet servant
bearing the list of invitations. Benvolio suggests that they attend, since that will
allow Romeo to compare his beloved to other beautiful women of Verona.
Romeo agrees to go with Benvolio to the feast, but only because Rosaline,
whose name he reads on the list, will be there.

In Capulet’s household, young Juliet talks with her mother, Lady Capulet, and her
nurse about the possibility of marrying Paris. Juliet has not yet considered
marriage, but agrees to look at Paris during the feast to see if she thinks
she could fall in love with him.

The feast begins. A melancholy Romeo follows Benvolio and their witty friend
Mercutio to Capulet’s house. Once inside, Romeo sees Juliet from a distance
and instantly falls in love with her; he forgets about Rosaline completely. As
Romeo watches Juliet, entranced, a young Capulet, Tybalt, recognizes him, and
is enraged that a Montague would sneak into a Capulet feast. He prepares to
attack, but Capulet holds him back. Soon, Romeo speaks to Juliet, and the two
experience a profound attraction. They kiss, not even knowing each other’s
names. When he finds out from Juliet’s nurse that she is the daughter of
Capulet—his family’s enemy—he becomes distraught. When Juliet learns that
the young man she has just kissed is the son of Montague, she grows equally
upset.

As Mercutio and Benvolio leave the Capulet estate, Romeo leaps over the
orchard wall into the garden, unable to leave Juliet behind. From his hiding place,
he sees Juliet in a window above the orchard and hears her speak his name. He
calls out to her, and they exchange vows of love.

Romeo hurries to see his friend and confessor Friar Lawrence, who, though
shocked at the sudden turn of Romeo’s heart, agrees to marry the young lovers
in secret since he sees in their love the possibility of ending the age-old feud
between Capulet and Montague. The following day, Romeo and Juliet meet at
Friar Lawrence’s cell and are married. The Nurse, who is privy to the secret,
procures a ladder, which Romeo will use to climb into Juliet’s window for their
wedding night.

The next day, Benvolio and Mercutio encounter Tybalt—Juliet’s cousin—who,


still enraged that Romeo attended Capulet’s feast, has challenged Romeo to a
duel. Romeo appears. Now Tybalt’s kinsman by marriage, Romeo begs the
Capulet to hold off the duel until he understands why Romeo does not want to
fight. Disgusted with this plea for peace, Mercutio says that he will fight Tybalt
himself. The two begin to duel. Romeo tries to stop them by leaping between the
combatants. Tybalt stabs Mercutio under Romeo’s arm, and Mercutio dies.
Romeo, in a rage, kills Tybalt. Romeo flees from the scene. Soon after, the
Prince declares him forever banished from Verona for his crime. Friar Lawrence
arranges for Romeo to spend his wedding night with Juliet before he has to leave
for Mantua the following morning.

In her room, Juliet awaits the arrival of her new husband. The Nurse enters, and,
after some confusion, tells Juliet that Romeo has killed Tybalt. Distraught, Juliet
suddenly finds herself married to a man who has killed her kinsman. But she
resettles herself, and realizes that her duty belongs with her love: to Romeo.

Romeo sneaks into Juliet’s room that night, and at last they consummate their
marriage and their love. Morning comes, and the lovers bid farewell, unsure
when they will see each other again. Juliet learns that her father, affected by the
recent events, now intends for her to marry Paris in just three days. Unsure of
how to proceed—unable to reveal to her parents that she is married to Romeo,
but unwilling to marry Paris now that she is Romeo’s wife—Juliet asks her nurse
for advice. She counsels Juliet to proceed as if Romeo were dead and to marry
Paris, who is a better match anyway. Disgusted with the Nurse’s disloyalty, Juliet
disregards her advice and hurries to Friar Lawrence. He concocts a plan to
reunite Juliet with Romeo in Mantua. The night before her wedding to Paris,
Juliet must drink a potion that will make her appear to be dead. After she is laid
to rest in the family’s crypt, the Friar and Romeo will secretly retrieve her, and
she will be free to live with Romeo, away from their parents’ feuding.

Juliet returns home to discover the wedding has been moved ahead one day,
and she is to be married tomorrow. That night, Juliet drinks the potion, and the
Nurse discovers her, apparently dead, the next morning. The Capulets grieve,
and Juliet is entombed according to plan. But Friar Lawrence’s message
explaining the plan to Romeo never reaches Mantua. Its bearer, Friar John, gets
confined to a quarantined house. Romeo hears only that Juliet is dead.

Romeo learns only of Juliet’s death and decides to kill himself rather than live
without her. He buys a vial of poison from a reluctant Apothecary, then speeds
back to Verona to take his own life at Juliet’s tomb. Outside the Capulet crypt,
Romeo comes upon Paris, who is scattering flowers on Juliet’s grave. They fight,
and Romeo kills Paris. He enters the tomb, sees Juliet’s inanimate body, drinks
the poison, and dies by her side. Just then, Friar Lawrence enters and realizes
that Romeo has killed Paris and himself. At the same time, Juliet awakes. Friar
Lawrence hears the coming of the watch. When Juliet refuses to leave with him,
he flees alone. Juliet sees her beloved Romeo and realizes he has killed himself
with poison. She kisses his poisoned lips, and when that does not kill her, buries
his dagger in her chest, falling dead upon his body.

The watch arrives, followed closely by the Prince, the Capulets, and Montague.
Montague declares that Lady Montague has died of grief over Romeo’s exile.
Seeing their children’s bodies, Capulet and Montague agree to end their long-
standing feud and to raise gold statues of their children side-by-side in a newly
peaceful Verona.

LAHORE AMERICAN SCHOOL


COURSE SYLLABUS, 2016-2017
GRADE 10 ENGLISH
RANDALL BALL

COURSE DESCRIPTION
English 10 uses a thematic approach. Students will read and analyze a selection of literary
works from the Renaissance to the present day. The course is designed to enable students to
correlate their reading to historical periods as they further develop their skills of literary
analysis and prepare themselves for the possibility of taking the Advanced Placement English
Language and Literature course in Grade 12. Reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing,
research, and critical thinking skills developed in English 9 will be further developed. The
composition component of the course emphasizes persuasive as well as research writing skills.
Poetry, short stories, and essays related to the major themes are integrated throughout the
course of study.

Quarter 1 – Individuality and identity: Students will read and analyze Antigone by Sophocles,
The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and a variety of short stories and poems related to this
theme. Students will write a research paper and a pastiche, and will also have the opportunity
to plan, write, and deliver a formal speech. In addition, students will have the opportunity to
practice the skill of annotation.

Common Core Standards Addressed:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.9
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or
to compare the approaches the authors take.
Reading Standards 7, 8, and 9 are grouped together into the sub-strand of the Integration of
Knowledge and Ideas, which supports students’ abilities to take information from more than one
source, and analyze, combine, and compare its content. By integrating the various sources, the
student is better able to build knowledge and make reasoned judgments. This sub-strand
supports students’ abilities to read, evaluate, and use content that is presented in diverse media
and formats, find and evaluate arguments and claims made in the text, and to be able to
analyze multiple texts addressing similar topics or themes. The combination of these reading
competencies provides the foundation for students to engage deeply, critically and thoughtfully
with multiple texts and formats.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information
clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and
information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis
of content.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important
connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.B
Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions,
concrete details,QUOTATIONS , or other information and examples appropriate to the
audience's knowledge of the topic.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.C
Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion,
and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.D
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.E
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and
conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.F
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or
explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

Quarter 2 – Poverty: Students will read and analyze Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck as
well as other works related to this theme. Students will write a prose commentary as well as an
essay related to the theme. Semester I culminates with the semester exam.

Common Core Standards Addressed:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.2
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key
supporting details and ideas.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid
reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Quarter 3 – Lessons of history: Students will read and analyze Julius Caesar by William
Shakespeare, among other works. Major assessments will consist of a personal narrative and a
researched commentary and presentation based on a poem.

Common Core Standards Addressed:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions,
demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.10
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

Quarter 4 – Appearance vs reality: Students will read and analyze various genres related to this
theme, including Anton Chekhov’s The Bear. Students will write a compare/contrast essay and
prepare for the final exam, amongst other assessments.

Common Core Standards Addressed:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are
appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.3
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a
text.

TEXTS AND OTHER MAJOR RESOURCES

Antigone

The Catcher in the Rye The Language of Literature: 10 – McDougal-Littell

Of Mice and Men MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6 Ed th

Julius Caesar The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary

Theory

REQUIRED MATERIALS
Laptop

Flash Drive

Textbook(s)

BREAKDOWN OF GRADES

Grades are calculated on a quarterly basis and are based on assessments in reading, writing,
literary response, research, class discussion, presentation-giving, public speaking, and other
skills. Full participation and effort in class are expected and are included in quarterly
assessment. Each quarter will count toward 40% of the final grade, with a semester exam
counting for 20%.

Students will engage in peer and self-evaluation throughout the course.

ASSESSMENT

The types of assessment will vary, offering students the opportunity to improve and excel in a
full range of skill areas. Some of the activities and assignments to be assessed include:

Research papers Letter writing Class discussions

Argumentative essays Reflective papers Group discussions

Written commentaries Blogs …and more…

Essays – literary elements Debates

Essays of comparison Speeches

Annotation Vocabulary Quizzes

Creative writing Quizzes

Presentations Tests

EXPECTATIONS

Students are expected to attend all classes on time and to always be prepared. Part of being
prepared includes having your laptop with you at all times, fully charged, and ready for use.
The course encourages an open and sharing environment, and students are expected to
participate in a positive manner.

Students with any concerns or needs for extra help are expected to seek out the teacher before
school, during break, after school, or at another mutually convenient time. Alternatively, I can
be contacted via email at rball@las.edu.pk.

All course materials are available online on the course Google site. Students who are absent for
any reason are expected to check in to our class Google site and to keep up with all
assignments.

Students are expected to produce original work. Major assessments will be submitted to
http://www.turnitin.com/ for authentication.

Antigone

Antigone is the play's tragic heroine. In the first moments of the play, Antigone is
opposed to her radiant sister Ismene. Unlike her beautiful and docile sister,
Antigone is scrawny, sallow, withdrawn, and recalcitrant brat. Like Anouilh's
Eurydice, the heroine of his playEurydice, and Joan of Arc, Antigone has a
boyish physique and curses her girlhood. She is the antithesis of the
melodramatic heroine, the archetypal blond ingénue as embodied in Ismene.
Antigone has always been difficult, terrorizing Ismene as a child, always insisting
on the gratification of her desires, refusing to "understand" the limits placed on
her. Her envy of Ismene is clear. Ismene is entirely of this world, the object of all
men's desires. Thus she will at one point rob Ismene of her feminine
accoutrements to seduce her fiancé Haemon. She fails, however, as such human
pleasures are not meant for her.

Generally audiences have received Anouilh's Antigone as a figure for French


Resistance, Antigone appearing as the young girl who rises up alone against
state power. Anouilh's adaptation strips Antigone's act of its moral, political,
religious, and filial trappings, allowing it to emerge in all its gratuitousness. In the
end, Antigone's tragedy rests in her refusal to cede on her desire. Against all
prohibitions and without any just cause, she will bury her brother to the point of
her own death. As we learn in her confrontation with Creon, this insistence on her
desire locates her in a line of tragic heroes, specifically that of Oedipus. Like
Oedipus, her insistence on her desire beyond the limits of reason render her
ugly, abject, tabooed. In refusing to cede it, she moves outside the human
community. As with Oedipus, it is precisely her moment of abjection, when she
has lost all hope, when her tragic beauty emerges. Her beauty exerts a chilling
fascination. As Ismene notes, Antigone is not beautiful like the rest, but beautiful
in a way that stops children in the street, beautiful in a way that unsettles,
frightens, and awes.
Creon

Antigone's uncle, the powerfully built King Creon is a weary, wrinkled man
suffering the burdens of rule. Before the deaths of Oedipus and his sons, he
dedicated himself to art patronage but has now surrendered himself entirely to
the throne. A practical man, he firmly distances himself from the tragic
aspirations of Oedipus and his line. As he tells Antigone, his only interest is in
political and social order. Creon is bound to ideas of good sense, simplicity, and
the banal happiness of everyday life. To Creon, life is but the happiness one
makes, the happiness that inheres in a grasped tool, a garden bench, a child
playing at one's feet. Uninterested in playing the villain in his niece's tragedy,
Creon has no desire to sentence Antigone to death. Antigone is far more useful
to Thebes as mother to its heir than as its martyr, and he orders her crime
covered-up. Though fond of Antigone, Creon will have no choice but to but to
execute her. As the recalcitrant Antigone makes clear, by saying "yes" to state
power, Creon has committed himself to acts he finds loathsome if the order of the
state demands it. Antigone's insistence on her desire in face of state power
brings ruin into Thebes and to Creon specifically. With the death of his family,
Creon is left utterly alone in the palace. His throne even robs him of his
mourning, the king and his pace sadly shuttling off to a cabinet meeting after the
announcement of the family's deaths.
The Chorus

In Greek tragedy, the Chorus consisted of a group of approximately ten people,


playing the role of death messenger, dancing, singing, and commenting
throughout from the margins of the action. Anouilh reduces the Chorus to a
single figure who retains his collective function nevertheless. The Chorus
represents an indeterminate group, be it the inhabitants of Thebes or the moved
spectators. It also appears as narrator. The Chorus frames the play with a
prologue and epilogue, introducing the action and characters under the sign of
fatality. We see this fatalism most clearly perhaps its characteristic gesture of
demonstration, prefacing many of its remarks with "Et voilà" in the original script.
In presenting the tragedy, the Chorus would instruct the audience on proper
spectatorship, reappearing at the tragedy's pivotal moments to comment on the
action or the nature of tragedy itself. Along with playing narrator, the Chorus also
attempts to intercede throughout the play, whether on the behalf of the Theban
people or the horrified spectators.
The Guards

The three Guardsmen are interpolations into the Antigone legend, doubles for the
rank-and-file fascist collaborators or collabos of Anouilh's day. The card-playing
trio, made all the more mindless and indistinguishable in being grouped in three,
emerges from a long stage tradition of the dull-witted police officer. As the
Chorus notes, they smell of garlic and beer, concern themselves with the
mundane, and are in general not bad people. Serving as a spokesman of sorts,
the First Guard gives voice to their thoughts: they follow orders, and they cover
for themselves when things go wrong. They are eternally indifferent, innocent,
and ready to serve whatever powers that be. In other words, they have no
particular loyalty to Creon. As the Chorus indicates, they would arrest him if need
be. This indifference makes them brutal and dangerous. Some critics have taken
Anouilh's guards, which stand in contrast to the royal heroes of tragedy, as the
clearest manifestation of his "aristocratic pessimism."
Importantly, the Guards also figure as inappropriate spectators: men left entirely
untouched by the tragedy that unfolds before them. The Chorus makes this
especially clear in the prologue and epilogue, where the trio appears idly playing
cards. As the Chorus notes, the tragedy is "no skin of their backs." In this
respect, the indifferent trio recalls the guardsmen from Anouilh's other tragedies,
such as the guard whose chatter about the harvest close his Medea.

A figure of speech is a word or phrase that has a meaning something different than its literal
meaning. It can be a metaphor or simile that is designed to further explain a concept. Or, it
can be a different way of pronouncing a word or phrase such as with alliteration to give
further meaning or a different sound.

Examples of Figures of Speech


Using Alliteration
Alliteration is the repetition of beginning sounds. Examples are:
 Sally sells seashells.
 Walter wondered where Winnie was.
 Blue baby bonnets
 Nick needed notebooks.
 Fred fried frogs.
Using Anaphora
Anaphora is a technique where several phrases or verses begin with the same word or
words. Examples are:
 I came, I saw, I conquered - Julius Caesar
 Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition! King John - William Shakespeare
 We laughed, we loved, we sang
 With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, - Abraham Lincoln
 We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. - Winston Churchill
Using Assonance
Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in words that are close together. Examples are:
 A - For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore (Poe)
 E - Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee (Coleridge)
 I - From what I’ve tasted of desire, I hold with those who favor fire (Frost)
 O - Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn (Wordsworth)
 U - Uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (Poe)
Using a Euphemism
Euphemism is a word or phrase that replaces a word or phrase to make it more polite or
pleasant. Examples are:
 A little thin on top instead of bald
 Homeless instead of bum
 Letting him go instead of fired him
 Passed away instead of died
 Put to sleep instead of euthanize
Using Hyperbole
Hyperbole uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect. Examples are:
 I’ve told you a hundred times
 It cost a billion dollars
 I could do this forever
 She is older than dirt
 Everybody knows that
Using Irony
Irony is using words where the meaning is the opposite of their usual meaning. Examples
are:
 After begging for a cat and finally getting one, she found out she was allergic.
 A traffic cop gets suspended for not paying his parking tickets.
 The Titanic was said to be unsinkable.
 Dramatic irony is knowing the killer is hiding in a closet in a scary movie.
 Naming a Chihuahua Brutus
Using Metaphor
Metaphor compares two unlike things or ideas. Examples are:
 Heart of stone
 Time is money
 The world is a stage
 She is a night owl
 He is an ogre
Using Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia is a word that sounds like what it is describing. Examples are:
 Whoosh
 Splat
 Buzz
 Click
 Oink
Using Oxymoron
Oxymoron is two contradictory terms used together. Examples are:
 Peace force
 Kosher ham
 Jumbo shrimp
 Small crowd
 Free market
Using Personification
Personification is giving human qualities to non-living things or ideas. Examples are:
 The flowers nodded
 Snowflakes danced
 Thunder grumbled
 Fog crept in
 The wind howled
Using Simile
Simile is a comparison between two unlike things using the words "like" or "as." Examples
are:
 As slippery as an eel
 Like peas in a pod
 As blind as a bat
 Eats like a pig
 As wise as an owl
Using Synecdoche
Synecdoche is when a part represents the whole or the whole is represented by a part.
Examples are:
 Wheels - a car
 The police - one policeman
 Plastic - credit cards
 Coke - any cola drink
 Army - a soldier
Using Understatement
Understatement is when something is said to make something appear less important or less
serious. Examples are:
 It's just a scratch - referring to a large dent
 It is sometimes dry and sandy - referring to the driest desert in the world
 The weather is a little cooler today - referring to sub-zero temperatures
 I won’t say it was delicious - referring to terrible food
 The tsunami caused some damage - referring to a huge tsunami
These examples of figures of speech were selected to show a wide variety of types of word

Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/figure-of-speech-


examples.html#vd4ys8BojDR7KEff.99
Abstract
Microcredit is recognized as an effective tool to fight poverty by providing financial services to
those who do not have access to or are neglected by the commercial banks and financial
institutions. This research provides an overview of the role and performance of microcredit in
Pakistan. The major objective of the study is to show the microfinance sector performance and
impact of the microcredit on the different poverty levels. Financial services provided by Micro
Finance institutions (MFIs) generally include savings and credit. The result of the study was that
microcredit helps in the poverty alleviation of different categories of poor people and has the
positive effects on their living standards. It was found that there is a high interest rate on micro
loans because of the administrative cost. We discovered that there are three types of
organizations that provide services of microfinance in Pakistan. The government takes interest
and supports the microfinance sector and of their main initiative is microfinance ordinance 2001.
It was observed that there is improvement in the microfinance sector in the recent years in terms
of investments, active borrowers, branches and personnel According to an estimate, currently
67.6million people around the world have access to micro financing. This number is expected to
grow steadily in the future since the target is to reach 100 million poor people with credit by the
end of the year 2005.
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Poverty has been a major development problem of Pakistan. Microcredit seems to be one of the
effective solutions to removing poverty of the people. It can help to improve their income. It can
help them establish their own business and decrease their vulnerability. It also works as an
instrument of self-employment for men and women to bring about change. People with low
income do not have access to formal financial institutions, are the main clients of microcredit.
The target market of microfinance sector is estimated to be 25 to 30 million borrowers and
government has set the outreach goal posts to at least 3 million by 2010 and have moved it
further to 10 million by 2015. To increase outreach the sector adopted extensive growth strategy
and the overall growth rate of outreach varied from 100 percent in 2004 to a low level of 36
percent during 2005-06 and later to 52 percent in 2007. Outreach in terms of number of active
borrowers increased from a low base of 240,000 in 2003 to 1.27 million in 2007. Gross loan
portfolio increased from Rs. 2.3 billion in 2004 to 12.7 billion in 2007, loan size also increased
from Rs. 6,629 in 2004 to Rs. 10,000 in 2006 and 2007. The number of savers increased from
888,000 to 1.14 million in 2007 and investment in the sector is as high as $400 million during
1999-2005 (Pakistan Microfinance Network, 2007)
The vision of microcredit is quite simply to create systematic change in financial systems
worldwide. The aim of microcredit is providing financial services to targeted poor people and
small medium enterprises. Microfinance is the most important resource to provide the loans and
other basic financial services to increase the employment rate and productivity and earning
capacity. It will also create the empowerment of the people. Microfinance indirectly impacts on
the poor people through removing poverty and improving living standards, such as health,
education, food and other social impacts.
1.1 History of Microcredit
The microcredit approach is not so new. In the mid 1800s, individualist anarchist Lysander
Spooner wrote about the benefits of numerous small loans for entrepreneurial activities to the
poor as a way to alleviate poverty (Lysanderspooner.org). The importance of micro loans is a
very old phenomena but microcredit is became very popular and in organized ways in the mid
70s by the professor of economics Dr Muhammad Yunus, a noble prize winner in (2006) in
Bangladesh. When Muhammad Yunus realized that there was a whole sea of would-be
entrepreneurs among the poor of his country. These were people who could be running thriving
businesses but who could not start their start-ups due to a lack of capital. He endeavoured to find
ways of getting this start-up capital to people who needed it. He quickly discovered that credit-
lending institutions in Bangladesh were not providing the loans to poor without any collateral. So
he finally established a bank that would take on risky propositions, and lend out a few hundred
dollars at a time to individuals to start small businesses.
Professor Muhammad Yunus established the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh in 1983, fuelled by
the belief that credit is a fundamental human right. His objective was to help poor people escape
from poverty by providing loans on terms suitable to them and by teaching them a few sound
financial principles so they could help themselves (nobleprize.org).
Microcredit is defined as a credit provided to poor ‘free of collateral through institutionalized
mechanism. This credit is made available as and when ‘needed, at the doorstep of the client
(Bajwa, 2001). Microcredit is generally defined as making small loans available directly to
small-scale entrepreneurs to enable them either to establish or to expand micro-enterprises and
small business. Microcredit is normally applied to target groups that would otherwise not qualify
for loans from formal institutions. This includes the majority of those living below the poverty
line (Commonwealth Secretariat, 2001).
Microfinance is defined as formal scheme designed to improve the well being of poor through
better access to saving and services loans (Schreiner, 2000)

Microfinance refers to small-scale financial services primarily credit and savings provided to people who
farm or fish or herd; who operate small enterprises or micro enterprises where goods are produced,
recycled, repaired, or sold; who provide services; who work for wages or commissions; who gain income
from renting out small amounts of land, vehicles, draft animals, or machinery and tools; and to other
individuals and groups at the local levels of developing countries, both rural and urban. Many such
households have multiple sources of income (Robinson, Marguerite 2001).

The difference between microcredit and microfinance is that microcredit refers to very small
loans for unsalaried borrowers with little or no collateral, provided by legally registered
institutions. Currently, consumer credit provided to salaried workers based on automated credit
scoring is usually not included in the definition of microcredit, although this may change.
Microfinance typically refers to microcredit, savings, insurance, money transfers, and other
financial products targeted at poor and low-income people (microfinancegateway.org).
The term microfinance has been used interchangeably with microcredit in Pakistan, largely
because other services and products in the sector have been far less developed than credit.
Savings and insurance, for example, are still in their infancy as far as their provision by
microfinance institutions is concerned, and even some microfinance banks have been slow to
evolve their savings instruments and potential. Debate about microfinance in Pakistan continues
to be largely about microcredit (Haroon Jamal, 2008).
Definitions of micro credit differ, of course, from country to country. Some of the defining
criteria used include –size-loans are micro, or very small in size target users –micro
entrepreneurs and low-income households utilization-the use of funds –for income generation,
and enterprise development , but also for community use ( health/ education) etc. Terms and
conditions –most terms and conditions for microcredit loans are flexible and easy to understand,
and suited to the local conditions of the community. The word microcredit did not exist before
the seventies. Now it has become a buzz-word among the development practitioners. In the
process, the word has been imputed to mean everything to everybody. No one now is shocked if
somebody uses the term microcredit to mean agricultural credit, or rural or

cooperative credit, or consumer credit, credit from the savings and loan associations, or from
credit unions, or from money lenders. When someone claims microcredit has a thousand year
history, or a hundred year history, nobody finds it as an exciting piece of historical information
(Grameen –info.org).
1.2 Background to Pakistan
Pakistan became independent in August 14, 1947 after a long political struggle against British
regime. Pakistan is located in very important strategic location in South Asia, share eastern
border with India, north eastern border with China, while south-west border with Iran and
Afghanistan is at western and northern edge. Country has total area 796,095 sq km.
administratively, country is divided in four provinces, Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and NWFP,
with tribal area (Federal Administrative Tribal Area-FATA), Azad Jammu and Kashmir and
Federal Territory Islamabad. Country has total 153.96 inhabitant contributing 2.5 percent of
world population and 2nd largest country by population with PGR 1.8 percent (SBP Annual
report). Sixty five percent of total population is living rural areas while 35% in urban areas.
(Pakistan-―Some Basic Facts‖-2008)
In Pakistan various different languages are being spoken, more than 55 languages. English is the
official language and used in business, offices, education, and government etc. Urdu is the
national language of Pakistan. The other major four languages that are used in four provinces are
Panjabi, Pustho, Sindhi and Balochi.
In Pakistan, the majority of the population is Muslim, about 95% and other 5% of population
belongs to Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhs and Parsis.
The health sector in Pakistan is progressing during the last few years in term of per capita health
spending, life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality rates, provision of immunization to
children, provision of human and physical health infrastructure. Life expectancy is low in
Pakistan, 63.2 years for males and 63.6 in females, compare with other regional countries like
71.7 in male in Sri Lanka 70.2 in China. This low average in life expectancy in Pakistan is due to
poverty, low health spending, lack of infrastructure and lack of awareness. Pakistan is using
US$18 per capita for health which is very less than that of recommended minimum amount of
US$34 set by WHO (SBP-a, 2007).
Education figures are not encouraging in Pakistan. Now the country‘s literacy rate is 54 percent
which is still behind from other neighboring countries like Indian with 61 percent and Sri Lanka
90 percent. Currently, there are 0.23 million educational institutions in the country where 33.38
million students are enrolled and 1.35 million teaching staff are serving. While among these
institutions, 0.08 million institutions are working in private sector where 0.632 million teaching
staff are employed. Government is spending 1.84 % of total GDP on education (SBP-a, 2007).

1.3 Poverty in Pakistan


In Pakistan poverty has many dimensions. The poor in Pakistan have not only low income but
they also lack access to basic needs such as education, health, clean drinking water and proper
sanitation. The latter undermines and limits their capabilities, limits their opportunities to secure
employment, results in their social exclusion and exposes them to exogenous shocks. Then the
vicious cycle of poverty is accentuated when then government structures exclude the most
vulnerable from the decision making process. Poverty is one of the most important problems that
are faced by country. But due to increase of economic activities and policies of the government,
there are some good numbers came on poverty and poverty reduction. In Pakistan, 24 % of the
people live below the poverty line which was 34% in 2000-01. Poverty ratio almost is double in
rural areas compared to urban. For example, in 2006 the poverty ratio was 14.96%, while in rural
areas, it is 28% (SBP-a, 2007). Table 1 presents extremely poor in the country is 1.1 % in 2001
and 1 % in 2005, Ultra poor is10.8 % in 2001 and 6.5 % in 2005 and poor is 22.5 % in 2001 and
16.4 in 2005.

Microcredit is not new in Pakistan but relatively young compared to other countries in the
region. Initially microfinance started in 1960 by the agriculture banks, provide loans to the poor
farmer to gain fertilizers, yielding seeds and machinery etc. in the early 1980s Aga Khan Rural
Support Program (AKRSP) start its credit operation to the poor people by providing financial
and social services. But know large number of organization work as a microfinance provider to
poor people with objective of improving their income and living standards. It is considered one
of the effective tools of poverty alleviation and helping the poor people. According to one
estimate, there are about 20 to 30 Million clients requiring Micro Finance services in Pakistan
(Pakistan microfinance network). Starting the program Pakistan poverty alleviation fund by the
government of Pakistan is the key step to the microfinance. Some other micro finance
institutions are banks such as Khushhali Bank and Bank of Khyber, nonprofit organization such
as Islamic relief micro project and Rural Support Programmes etc, are also important
microfinance provider institution.
Rationale
The purpose of this study is to understand the detail procedure and work of micro credit
and the main goals and objectives to introduce micro loans. The role and organizations
of micro credit in Pakistan.
The first one is the role and organization of micro credit in Pakistan.
In the first part we are going to explain what microcredit is and how it works, the main
users of the micro credit and the interest rates on these micro loans. We analyze the
different types of microfinance institution in Pakistan. We also focus on how microcredit
helps in the removing of poverty alleviation and access of the microcredit to poor people
and the role of government of Pakistan in microfinance sector.
The performance of micro credit in Pakistan.
Our second question is the performance of microcredit in Pakistan. We intend to
measure the impact of microcredit on poor people, the increase in microcredit
investment and the growth rate of potential active borrowers in the recent years. We
also analyze the expansion and increasing of branches and personnel in the recent
years in Pakistan.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2 Literature review
In this section we present different theories of previous research in microfinance. We
explain microfinance, how it works, its role and user, and contribution in poverty alleviation.

2.1 Concept of microfinance


Microfinance collectively refers to the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial
services like insurance, to the poor. As the poor people cannot avail these financial services
from the formal commercial banks (because of the collateral requirements), microfinance
tends to provide to them exclusive of these conditions. For these financial services, the poor
people are willing to pay for because of the added advantage they receive for not
collateralizing anything. The term also refers to the practice of sustainably delivering such
services. More broadly, it is a movement that envisions a world in which as many poor and
near poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high
quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund
transfers (Christen, R. P., Rosenberg, R., and Jayadeva, V., 2004).poor people are not able
to get loans from commercial banks due to lack in guarantee and collateral.

2.2 Microcredit as development tool


During the last two decades, micro-credit approach has been increasingly incorporated in
the development discourse. Specially the credit is given to the women and the popular
belief is that women are benefited and empowered and are being acknowledged for having
a productive and active role and thus it is the gateway of gaining freedom for themselves.
Since the start in Bangladesh by the NGOs, in the late 1970s, it has spread all over the
world and is now believed to be a successful method of poverty alleviation. Such NGO
Programmes have reversed conventional top down approach by creating livelihood
opportunities for the poorest citizen, especially for the women who are about 94 percent of
their client. (Thente, Sofia, 2003). Microcredit is now considered the effective development
tool of poor people 15
especially for women. Women are become more empowered and play important role in
generating income in the rural areas of Pakistan.
In most developing countries, policies for rural financial development have been based on
three erroneous beliefs concerning their target groups: 1. rural micro-entrepreneurs are
unable to recognize themselves, 2. they are too poor to save; and 3. they need cheap credit
for their income-generating activities or small enterprises (Harper, M, 2003). The
microfinance company analyzes the need of their target customer that they required small
loans in term of microcredit to sustain their small enterprises.

2.5 Users of microfinance


There are now nearly 70 million poor people who are getting benefits from 2500 micro
finance institutions in over 100 countries by microfinance (Sengupta, Aubuchon, 2008). This
fact shows how microcredit is important and useful, and how 16
a huge number of people are facilitated by the microfinance institutions. This is the reason
is that microfinance is gaining importance as an effective tool of social mobilization and
poverty alleviation.

2.7 Role of microcredit in poverty alleviation

Microfinance is recognized as an effective technique to remove poverty by providing


financial services for those who have no access to or are neglected by the banks and
financial institutions. The poor people are very sharp in removing their poverty, they have
good ideas and they are very hard workers but the problem is with them they have no
resources. Microcredit is helping provide these resources by small loans, and help people
improve their income level. According to Ahmad (2000), it is recognized that people living in
poverty are innately capable of working their way out of poverty with dignity, and can
demonstrate creative potentials to improve their situation when an enabling environment
and the right opportunity exists. It has been noted that in many countries of the world,
micro-credit programmes, provide access to small capitals to people living in poverty.
The phenomenon of poverty was felt and observed more during the decade of 1990s, as
the overall growth slowed down. While the slower economic growth contributed to poverty,
the ―trickle-down effect‖ once thought to improve living conditions, did not reach the lowest
level owing largely to lack of accessibility of institutions, unjust and 17
non-poor policies (Waheed, 2001). Poverty has been a major challenge since the known
civilization came into existence. After the 1990s the poverty rate rose in the economy, and
to control it, microcredit is the one of the best tools. Large numbers of poor people have
improved their income as well as contribute to national economy.
In recent years, in its wider dimension micro-credit known as micro-finance, has become a
much-favored intervention for poverty alleviation in the developing countries and least
developed countries. There is scarcely a poor country and development oriented donor
agency, (multilateral, bilateral and private) not involved in promotion (in one form or other)
of a micro-finance program. Many achievements are claimed about the impact of micro-
finance programs, and an outside observer cannot but wonder at the range of diversity of
the benefits claimed. Various studies demonstrate that rapid and sustainable poverty
reduction depends on interaction of a wide range of policy measures and interventions at
macro and micro levels. (Ahmed, S, 2002)

2.9 Grameen model


A prominent economist and professor from Bangladesh, Muhammad Yunus in 1976, came
up with a new concept and model, which is called, ―The Grameen Model‖. During a field
trip to a relatively poor village in Bangladesh with his students in 1974, 18
Muhammad Yens interviewed a woman who had a small business of making bamboo
benches. Due to the shortage of the resources to purchase the raw materials, she was
forced to borrow small amounts of money from a local lender. Without any collateral, she
could only borrow enough money to buy the raw materials to build one piece at a time. The
woman had to repay the lender with high interest rates. Sometimes the interest rate of that
loan exceeded 10% of the principal amount. After repaying the lender, the woman was left
with a profit margin that was not enough to even meet her basic daily needs. Had she had
access to more complimentary terms for her loan, she would have been able to save
enough money to protect her from future uncertainties and in the long run, would have been
able to raise herself above the survival level. Discouraged by what he saw, Dr. Yunus took
matters into his own hands and lent a small amount of money as a loan to some 42 rural
basket-weavers. He found that these small loans went a long way, and almost everyone
who had borrowed the money, were keen to repay their loans. Dr. Yunus found out that
even with this tiny amount of money it is possible not only to help the poor to survive but
also to create the spark of personal initiative and enterprise in the people, necessary to pull
themselves out of poverty (Roy, Mark, A, 2003).
In Grameen model, a unique and innovative approach of group lending is used. As
Sengupta, Aubuchon (2008) described, the group lending has many benefits. First, groups
usually organize in members who are neighbors to each other; those can understand each
other well and recognize their needs. Second, if anyone of the group members are not
present in the group meeting, the leader or another member can pay its installment. We can
say that there is a kind of mutual understanding between all members. Third, in south Asia
generally, and specifically in Bangladesh, there are social pressures among members of
society with social bindings with them. If one member of the group will not pay even one
installment, social pressure will be levied from all eight groups on this member. Ultimately
he will try to pay installments. This leads to the reduction of risk.

2.10 Microfinance provides Empowerment


Microfinance provides empowerment to the women‘s. Misra (p.3) describes empowerment
as a power to the people and self governance. He quoted ―Empowerment builds self-
reliance and strength in women, preparing them towards 19
gathering the ability to determine the choice of life. This adds to the command over
resources outwit insubordination and signify their social role‖.
While according to PREM,WB (2002,p.11), ―Empowerment is the expansion of assets and
capabilities of poor people to participate in , negotiate with , influence, control, and hold
accountable institutions that affect their lives.‖ 20

Objective:
The objective of this study is to investigate empirically relationship between Microfinance and
poverty alleviation.
Problem statement:

“What is the impact of Microfinance and poverty alleviation on women empowerment in


Pakistan?”

Hypothesis:

Ho: there is no relationship between Microfinance and poverty alleviation.

H1: there is relationship between Microfinance and poverty alleviation.