You are on page 1of 178

HERMES

Mt Olympus Mt Mosychlus Troy


Featuring more than fifty-seven brand new maps, ZEUS, Olympian gods, muses LEMNOS

Dowley
Mt Ossa
PALLAS ATHENE
Mt Ida MYSIA
photographs, diagrams and charts, the Atlas of World
Iona 563 Vercovicium
GREENLAND
Whithorn 360 (Housesteads)
York
Dodona T H E S S A LY
Religions is an essential companion to any study of the
Clonard 520 Deva (Chester)
ALASKA
B R I TAI N ORACLE OF ZEUS Mt Pelion
ICELAND SWEDEN
NOR
W FINLAND
R Canterbury
U S 596 S I A
Colonia Agrippina (Cologne)

AY
Dn

key religions of the world.


UNITED ie p
KINGDOM
Augusta Treverorum (Trier) er R
C A N A D A N ORTH IRELAND BELARUS . Vo LESBOS
A S I A
ATLANTIC
NY POLAND
C A R PAT H lg
A TL ANTIC

A
IAN

GERM
UKRAINE
Pergamum
AEGEAN
KHAZAKHSTAN
MT
OCEAN Marmoutier 372 R O M A N E M P I R E

aR
MONGOLIA
S
ASCLEPIOS
FRANCE

.
ITALY
O CEAN UZBE
KIS
G AU L Vercelli 360 Modena Alba Iulia ASCLEPIOS
LY D I A
The concise, helpful text guides the readers’ experience
PORTUGAL TURKM T
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ENIS D N. KOREA

AN
TURKEY
an
SKYROS
M I N O R
SPAIN TA
Bologna
JAPAN ube CAU

MEDITERRANEAN SEA
S. KOREA
CA
Mt OetaS H A N

N
C H I N A R. Gobi Desert
SYRIA
IRAQ IRAN AFGHANISTAN
I TALY B L AC K S E A SU
S
Serdica

C AS
TIBET Massilia Rome M Qian
EN Magnesia
and helps interpretation of the visuals. This atlas surveys
T
THRACE Constantinople TI
ALGERIA PAKISTAN
(Marseilles)

PIAN
SPAIN
LIBYA
ARMENIA Yellow R

S
EGYPT
Monte Nola 394 Chalcedon 400
SEA
MEXICO .
SAUDI
IND IA 415 ARTEMIS
Jiuquan
EUBOEA
HAWAII (U.S.A.) ARABIA
OMAN
Casino 529 Tun-huang Yungang

S EA
CUBA BURMA
MAURITANIA NIGER LAOS
Nicaea Caesarea 360 Marakanda Mt Parnassus LEBADAEA
the origins, historical development, and current strength, Sardes
CHAD SUDAN (N)
THAILAND M E D I PHILIPPINE Kaesong
AS MALI
DUR A RABIAN
Athens Gushnasp Wu-tai Shan Kunlun
High density of Painted Grey ware 1000–
ON
POSEIDON, ARTEMIS
YEMEN
P ACIFIC T IS.E P ACIFIC
S EA
Merv Mt Sipylus

A
VIETNAM

H
Carthage R R

AL
OCEAN G UA
TE M NICARAGUA
OCEAN Ephesus Pythian
Bactra Games for Apollo
Khotan DIONYSOS ARTEMIS
NI A N M E S Nisibis 325 LUN MOUNTAINS
Delphi Wangwu Kyongju JA PA N Mt Tmolus
BOETIA
A

CHIOS

GHANA
IAN
E
Antioch

A
COTE SUDAN ETHIOPIA
E A KUN
VENEZUELA

RIC
GU
OPO

SUR A
distribution, and nature of the major world religions and

GER
TA
Kyoto

AN
Chang’an AMPHIAREION OF Lao
OROPOS

FREN M
D’IVOIRE SRI LANKA

MA
COS A (S)

INA
GUY
Rhagae
Spread of Northern Black Polished ware 5
PA N

IA
N

CH
Thagaste
M A L A Y S I A388 TA M Tibetan Hua Gongxian Y E L LOW
S E A Salamis 335
COLOMBIA

Cithaeron Mts Nara


SOMALIA
IA

Ind
Dura- Taxila Song Yamato
P l a tAPHRODITE
eau
KENYA
Hindu ECUADOR GABON
Sidon Hamadan POSEIDON, Zhongnan SEA
Cyrene MtTang
Helicon s R APOLLO
D.R.

I
INDIAN Longmen
CONGO
Europos Ctesiphon Corinth Wu
their offshoots, and explores some of the religions of the
Jewish
Aryans arrive from Central Asia c. 1500 BC

.
I N D Leptis O N E Magna

ACHAEA
S I A

Indus R
PAPUA

u
OCEAN Isthmian
TIB ET Games
Shan
Alexandria PE RS IA Yoni .
Chinese religions TANZANIA NEW
Jerusalem
GUINEA
L Eleusis Athens Huo

A
Theravada Buddhism
PERU BRAZIL for Poseidon Pingdu Mao ANDROS
ANGOLA
A R. Putuo Shan
Mahayana Buddhism ZAMBIA
Wadi Natrun 320 Bethlehem 386 Cyllene Mts Y Lhasa
DEMETER tze CHINA Lu Ephesus
ancient world.
Mainly Roman Catholic Christian BOLIVIA
SOUTH A B ra h m a p O-mei Shan g Tiantai Shan
PALLAS ATHENE,
u t r SAMOS
MOZAMBIQUE
ZIMBABWE Scetis 330 Ga Lumbini
Nemean Games a R. Ya n ARTEMIS
ATTICA
Orthodox Christian
ATLANTIC NAMIBIA S Nemea ARTEMIS, DIONYSOS,
EGYPT Mohenjo-Daro Kusinara
for Zeus Heng Xi Kuocang

Nil
Mainly Protestant Christian PARAGUAY BOTSWANA MADAGASCAR
OCEAN AUSTRALIA
ARES Pataliputra Mycenae TaxilaHERA

ng
POSEIDON, HERMES
Sunni Muslim
S a ha ra

eR
CHILE
Olympia ICARIA Mt Mycale Early northern city

es
R ED
Shi-ite Muslim SOUTH

R.
AFRICA
D e se r t ZACYNTHUS Sarnath DeogharPALLAS ATHENE Sunium
Written specifically for students of all levels, this volume A R C A D I A Argos
Shinto ARGENTINA

URU

SEA
AY
Bodh Gaya DIONYSOS Lingjiu POSEIDON Mt Latmus
POSEIDON Luofou
Tribal, Muslim, Christian
DELOS

GU
Sanchi
Tribal, Christian
Traditional, tribal or NEW I N D I A
Epidaurus Nanhai APOLLO Hindu place of pilgrimage
A R A B I A HERA Didyma
is perfect for individual or course-based study. PaganASCLEPIOS
ZEALAND

CARIA
undifferentiated religion

Asrama (ashram) mentione


Jain Minority
Mainly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Ellora ORACLE OF APOLLO

s R.
Sikh minority
Jewish minority Significantly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Elephanta Karli Mt Parthenius Prome NAXOS
APOLLO OF AMYCLAE, PYU
Ramayana, since then pilg
Miles
0 1000 2000
ALWA PAROS

Indu
P ACIFIC
Muslim minority
Jewish centre 500 BCE ARTEMIS ORTHIA,
Aihole Pegu
Zoroastrian minority 0 1000
Kilometers
2000 A R A BI A N ATHENA CHALKIOIKOS, Sparta Sukhothai
Jewish settlement by 600 CE AXUM Amaravati Rangoon
SEA DIOSCURI B AY
OCEAN City mentioned in Ramaya
Mainly Christian by 300 CE
L AB ECONFGOA L N I A Angkor CHAMPA
ASCLEPIOS Kuruksetra since then pilgrimage site
Mainly Christian by 600 CE
Mainly Zoroastrian 500 BCE–600 CE
ETHIOPIA
FUNAN COS
Kailasa
SOUTH CHINA
SIKHISM WORLDWIDE TODAY Sassanians introduced Zoroastrianism after 226 CE
Anuradhapura
Funan SEA
MELOS Harappa
R. Prthadaka
Mahayana Buddhist formative area 0–300 CE Polonnaruwa
tlej
Ganga Sangama

Atlas of
Su
Kandy

Atlas of
Mainly Buddhist by 300 BCE
SRI LANKA
Mainly Buddhist by 600 CE TELOS
Confucian and Daoist from 300 BCE APHRODITE THERA
HELIOS
Shinto area CYTHERA
Early Christian monastery + date
INDIAN OCEAN BORNEO
Atranjikhera
RHODES
IONIAN SEA

SUM
Christian Patriarchal see in 600 CE APHRODITE

AT R
Hindu holy site in 600 CE from

World
Cyprus
Salagrama

A
Mithraic site 0–300 CE Srivijaya
Zoroastrian fire temple Mathura
Miles
J AVA S E A Ya

Ga
0 200 400 600
Buddhist sacred site 300 BCE–600 CE Sacred mountain mu Mithila

World Religions

ng
Mountain linked with Daoism 0 200 400 600 800
Cult site
JAVA
Mohenjo-Daro na
Kilometers Borobudur
Kusingara

es R
Site of games/arts competition Miles ZEUS Puskara Kalik

R.

.
N O RTH Deity worshipped widely in area
0 50 100 Mt Ida
Ayodhya Vaisali
CRETE

Religions
A TL AN TI C Oracle 0 50 100 150 Pataliputra

.
O CEAN Kausambi

us R
Kilometers
G a n g es R .
Arbuda Citrakuta Kasi Varanasi
P AC I FI C

I nd
O C E AN Atri-asrama
P ACIFIC Gaya
O CEAN Pancavati
A R ABIAN
Lanka
Tim Dowley
Omkara
S EA
Sikh population I N DI AN Dvaravati ada R.
O C E AN Narm
More than 19 million S O U TH Prabhasa
A TL AN TI C Miles Viraja
More than 500,000 O CEAN
Iona 563
Whithorn 360
Vercovicium
(Housesteads)
0 100 200
York
200,000–500,000 Clonard 520 Deva (Chester)
B R I TA I N

20,000–50,000
Canterbury 596 Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) Dn
ie p
0 100 200 300
Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
C A R PAT H
er R
. Vo
lg Kilometers
10,000–12,000 A TL ANTIC Marmoutier 372 R O M A N E M P I R E
IAN
MT

aR
S

.
O CE AN GAUL Vercelli 360 Modena Alba Iulia
Less than 5,000 State with more than 10% Bologna
D
ube
Jews in 1990 R.
an
B L AC K S E A
CAU
CA
SU AN Gobi Desert
I TA LY Serdica S SH

C AS
Jewish Massilia
community, with date established
Rome M
T EN
Qian
SPA IN Cities(Marseilles) THRACE Constantinople TI

PIAN
ARMENIA Yellow R

S
with Monte
over 40,000
415 JewishNola 394
population in 2015 Chalcedon 400 .
Casino 529 Tun-huang Jiuquan Yungang

S EA
Nicaea Caesarea 360 Marakanda
NORTH DAKOTA
M
E D I T Athens Gushnasp Wu-tai Shan Kunlun Kaesong
L. Superior Carthage E R R Merv
Seattle Ephesus Bactra Khotan
WASHINGTON
A N M E S Nisibis 325
Antioch LUN MOUNTAINS Wangwu Kyongju JA PA N
E A OPO KUN Kyoto
MONTANA Thagaste 388 N TA M Rhagae Chang’an Hua Gongxian LaoY E L LOW
MINNESOTA
S E A Salamis 335 IA Tibetan Nara

H
Dura- Taxila Song Yamato
Cyrene Sidon Hamadan Plateau Zhongnan S EA

I
Europos Ctesiphon Longmen

.
M Leptis Magna
TIM DOWLEY is a historian and ais prolific

Indus R

M
iss Alexandria PE RS IA Wu Tang Shan
Portland WISCONSIN MAINE Jerusalem
L TIB ET Huo

A
Pingdu Mao
Minneapolis- SOUTH DAKOTA L. Huron Bethlehem 386 A R. Putuo Shan
Wadi Natrun 320
sip

Lhasa
Y z e Lu
author and editor of Bible resources for adults
Albany St Paul gt Tiantai Shan
MICHIGAN O-mei Shan CHINA
pi

VT Scetis 330 A Brahmaputra R.


L. Michigan

IDAHO G LumbiniS Ya n
R.

L. Ontario NH EGYPT Mohenjo-Daro a Kusinara Heng Xi Kuocang

Nil
OREGON

ng
S ah ara NEW YORK

eR
and children including the Atlas of the European Detroit
Pataliputra

es
WYOMING

R ED
.

R.
D e s e Boston
r t 1852
2015 more than Sarnath Deoghar

SEA
2 million Jews MS Lingjiu
Miss

L. Erie Sanchi Bodh Gaya Luofou


Chicago 1837 IOWA RI (Jews from Surinam and Curacao)

Reformations and the Atlas of Christian History. He Cleveland Newport 1680 NEBRASKA PENNSYLVANIA CT
ouri R.

Hebrew Theological College


A R A B I A I N D I A Nanhai
New York (’Skokie Yeshiva’) founded 1922 Russian, Polish, Pagan
1839 Pittsburgh Newark
1852 1654 Mainly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Ukranian, Lithuanian Ellora

lives with his wife and Denver


three children in Dulwich, Cincinnati 1824 Philadelphia 1747 ILLINOIS immigrants 1880-1924 Prome
OHIO Elephanta Karli
Significantly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE
INDIANA PYU
Jewish centre 500 BCE MD
NJ Romanian immigrants ALWA Aihole Pegu P ACIFIC
NEVADA UTAH 1900-14 A R A BI A N
South London.
Baltimore 1842 Hebrew Union College Sukhothai
COLORADO KANSAS Jewish settlement
set up 1875: centre of by 600 CE AXUM Amaravati Rangoon
DE SEA B AY K H A Z A R E MP I R E
R.

Polish, FRANCE
Reform Judaism OCEAN
do

Mainly Christian by 300 CE Central European Hassidic A T L AN T I C Tours 732 OF Angkor CHAMPA
WEST immigrants 1933-45
ora

Louisville O C E AN
San Francisco MISSOURI
1832
VIRGINIA
Mainly Christian by 600 CE ETHIOPIA B BENGAL A RAL
Col

KENTUCKY VIRGINIA Y S EA
Mainly Zoroastrian 500 BCE–600 CE German and Z B L AC K S E A FUNAN
Ebr A Danube R. CAUC
S AO SUUT SH C H I N A
Austro-Hungarian oR N C ASPIAN
CALIFORNIA Ark Sassanians introduced Zoroastrianism after 226 CE T I Constantinople
Funan S E A S EA
World Religions
immigrants 1820-60 ro R. 673–77, 717–18 Tashkent
Due Anuradhapura N E Tiflis

.
an Mahayana Buddhist NORTHformative area 0–300 CE
Zaragoza
sa ARKANSAS CAROLINA Polonnaruwa E M
A R ME N I A
sR TENNESSEE Tagus R. P I
.

OKLAHOMA Toledo Kandy


pi R

Mainly Buddhist by 300 BCE R E Bukhara


. US emigrants SPA I N
Amida Ox
ARIZONA to Israel SRI LANKA Tigr
issip

More than 660,000 NEW Mainly Buddhist by 600 CE

us
Cordova M i Samarkand
Carthage K H U R A SA N

R.
SICILY Merv
Jews in 2015 MEXICO

sR
SOUTH Edessa
Atlanta

E
Confucian and Daoist from 300 BCE

.
Los Angeles Granada Aleppo Eup
Miss

S
CAROLINA hra Mosul

O
Tangier Rhodes 654 Qum Rey (Rages) Nishapur
Phoenix Balkh

P
Antioch
Shinto area

tes
Siffin

O
San Diego Dallas-Fort Worth CRETE CYPRUS SYRIA Nehavend 642

R.

TA
MISSISSIPPI ALABAMA Hamadhan Herat Kabul
Early
GEORGIA Charleston
Christian monastery 1750
+ date Qabis Damascus
O C EMAEND I TBarca
I N D I A N Tripoli S

M
E R R A N E A N E A Ghazni
(Spanish and Portuguese Jews) MAGHREB Kerbela BORNEO KO H I STA N

I A
SUM
Yarmuk 636
Ctesiphon Isfahan
Christian Patriarchal see in 600 CE P E

.
Indus R
Alexandria 640 Gaza Jerusalem Kufa

AT R
TEXAS Hindu holy site Savannah
in 600 CE1733 Al Qadisiya 636 R S
TLANTIC A FA R S I A

A
Fustat Basra Kirman

P ACIFIC LOUISIANA
Mithraic site 0–300 CE
L I BYA E G Y P T
Srivijaya Shiraz
Jur

O
Tabuk
Zoroastrian fire temple Juruft
CEAN Miles
J AVA S E A

PE
RS
New Orleans Hormuz
OCEAN Houston 0 200 400 600 IA

Nil
FLORIDA
Buddhist sacred site 300 BCE–600 CE N
GU
1802 MA K R A N

eR

HEJ
LF

.
Mountain linked with Daoism 0 200 400 600 800 JAVA

AZ
Kilometers Medina
Aswan Borobudur Hijr Suhar

R ED
South African, ARABIAN
S A H A R A D E S E R T

S EA
South American, NUBIAN DESERT
Israeli immigrants DESERT Mecca
1960-80
Miles Fort Lauderdale A R ABI AN
0 100 200
G ULF OF M EXICO Miami
Extent of Islam at death of Muhammad (632)
Extent of Islam at death of Abu Bakr (634)
SEA

YEM
ATLAS OF WORLD RELIGIONS

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 1 22/05/2018 15:00


Also in this series

Atlas of Christian History: Tim Dowley, 2016


Atlas of the European Reformations: Tim Dowley, 2015

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 2 22/05/2018 15:00


Atlas of World Religions
by Tim Dowley

Cartographer Nick Rowland FRGS

Fortress Press
Minneapolis

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 3 22/05/2018 15:00


ATLAS OF WORLD RELIGIONS

Copyright © 2018 Fortress Press / ZipAddress Limited. All Photograph acknowledgements


rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical articles Dreamstime.com:
or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any pp. 14–15 and cover © Onefivenine
manner without prior written permission from the pub- p. 26 and cover © Alexandre Fagundes De Fagundes
lisher. Email copyright@1517media or write to Permissions,
Fortress Press, PO Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440-1209 pp. 32–33 and cover, p. 125 © Pniesen
p. 38 © Kshishtofp
The right of Tim Dowley to be identified as the author of this p. 42 and cover © Kalcutta
work has been asserted by him. pp. 44–45 and cover © Sudhir0602
p. 54 © Yamitato
Cover design: Alisha Lofgren p. 56 and cover © Sean Pavone
pp. 58–59 © Lamzin Vladimir Lamzin Vladimir
Print ISBN: 978-1-4514-9968-1
p. 72 © Alan Kolnik
eBook ISBN: 978-1-5064-3975-4
pp. 80–81 and cover © Kobby Dagan
p. 82 © Yoav Sinai
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum
requirements of American National Standard for Informa- p. 96 © Checco
tion Sciences — Permanence of Paper for Printed Library p. 107 © Ken Wolter
Materials, ANSI Z329.48-1984. pp. 108–109 © Ahmad Faizal Yahya
p. 114 and cover © Konstantin Kaltygin
Manufactured in the USA p. 124 © Marta Beckett
pp. 132–33 © Chalermphon Kumchai
18 19 20 21 22 987654321 p. 141 © Hoang Bao Nguye
p. 148 © Joserpizarro

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 4 22/05/2018 15:00


Religion indeed enlightens, terrifies, subdues;
it gives faith, it inflicts remorse, it inspires resolutions,
it draws tears, it inflames devotion…
JOHN HENRY NEWMAN (1801–90)

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 5 22/05/2018 15:00


List of Maps 8

Contents Foreword 11
A Chronology of World Religions 12

Part 1: The Ancient World 14


Megaliths 16
Babylonia and Sumeria 18
Religion in Ancient Egypt 20
The Early City Religions 22
The Religions of Ancient Greece 25
Roman Religion 28
Zoroastrianism 30

Part 2: Hinduism 32
The Origins of Hinduism 34
Hindu Temple Worship 36
Hinduism and the Sacred 38
Hinduism in the Modern World 40
Jainism 42

Part 3: Buddhism 44
The Origins of Buddhism 46
What is Buddhism? 48
Buddhism Spreads beyond India 50
Buddhism in the Modern World 52
Confucianism and Taoism 54

Part 4: Judaism 58
Origin of the Jewish People 60
The Kingdom of Israel 62
Jewish Dispersions 64
The Jewish Diaspora 67
Judaism and the Rise of Islam 68
Anti-Semitism and Messianism 70
Jewish Emancipation 72
Judaism in the USA 74
The Holocaust 76

6 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 6 22/05/2018 15:00


Part 5: Christianity 80
Palestine under the Herods 82
Judaism and the Early Church 84
The Early Growth of Christianity 86
Christianity Becomes Official 88
Christendom in 1050 ce 92
The European Reformations 94
Christianity in the Americas c. 1750 96
An Age of Missions 98
The Mormons 102
Christianity Today 104

Part 6: Islam 108


Muhammad 110
The Early Growth of Islam 112
Islam in the Subcontinent 114
Islam in South-east Asia 116
Islam and Africa 120
Islam in Modern Asia 123
Islam in the Modern World 126
Sikhism 128

Part 7: World Religions Today 132


Japanese Religions 134
Religion in China Today 136
What are Indigenous Religions? 140
New Religious Movements 144
Modern Pilgrimage 148
Jerusalem: The Holy City 152
What is the Hajj? 154

Further reading 156


Gazetteer 157

Index 174

CO N T E N T S 7

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 7 22/05/2018 15:00


1 The Megaliths of Western Europe 16

List of Maps 2
3
Religious sites of Ancient Mesopotamia 19
Ancient Egypt 21
4 Ancient Empires of the Middle East 22
5 Cult Centres of Ancient Greece 24
6 Sources of the Roman Cults 28
7 Zoroastrianism: Origins and Spread 31
8 Hindu Origins 35
9 Temple Hinduism 37
10 Hindu Sacred Places 39
11 Hinduism Today 40
12 Jainism in India 43
13 The Buddhist Heartland 47
14 Buddhism Expands in India 49
15 The Early Spread of Buddhism 51
16 Buddhism Today 53
17 Taoism 55
18 The Exodus 61
19 The Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 63
20 The Jewish Exiles 64
21 The Jewish Diaspora c. 400 ce 66
22 The Jews and Islam c. 750 ce 68
23 Judaism in 16th and 17th Century Europe 70
24 Jewish Emancipation 1789–1918 73
25 The Origins of Judaism in the USA 74
26 Judaism and the Third Reich 76
27 The Modern State of Israel 79
28 Palestine in the time of Christ 83
29 Jews and Christians in the 1st century Roman Empire 84
30 The Spread of Christianity by 325 ce 86
31 Christianity in the 4th and 5th Centuries 88
32 World Religions 600 bce–600 ce: An Overview 90
33 The Church in 1050 92
34 Reformation Europe c. 1570 94
35 Christianity in the Americas c. 1750 97

8 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 8 22/05/2018 15:00


36 Worldwide Christian Missions in the early 20th Century 100
37 The Mormon Trail 102
38 Christianity Worldwide 104
39 The Journeys of Muhammad 111
40 The Spread of Islam by 750 ce 112
41 Islamic Expansion in India 115
42 The Spread of Islam in South-east Asia 116
43 World Religions: 1500 118
44 The Spread of Islam in Africa 121
45 Muslim Peoples of Modern Asia 122
46 Islam Worldwide Today 126
47 Sikh Origins 129
48 Sikhism in India today 130
49 Sikhism Worldwide Today 131
50 Japan: Places of Religious Importance 135
51 Major Religions of Modern China 136
52 World Religions in the 21st Century 138
53 Indigenous Religions Worldwide 142
54 New Religious Movements Worldwide 144
55 Some Modern Pilgrimage Sites 150
56 Jerusalem: Some Holy Sites 153
57 The Route of the Hajj 154

LIST OF MAPS 9

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 9 22/05/2018 15:00


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 10 22/05/2018 15:00
This atlas aims to survey the origins, historical development, and current

Foreword
strength, distribution, and nature of the major world religions and their
offshoots, and to look at some of the religions of the ancient world. To do
this within a relatively short book, it has been necessary to be selective
in the choice of topics and periods covered. For instance, there is no
treatment of Judaism in the medieval period, as this is fully covered in
the companion volume, Atlas of Christian History. Important aspects of
history of the church – such as the development of monasticism, the power
and size of the church and the papacy in the High Middle Ages, detailed
treatment of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, and the religious
wars that followed – are also treated comprehensively in Atlas of Christian
History, and it was felt otiose to duplicate coverage in this book.
The text accompanying the maps is not intended to provide exhaustive
coverage of the history and development of world religions, but offers an
accessible commentary to aid understanding and interpretation of the
respective maps.
The various sections of the book are arranged broadly in chronological
order of the founding or origins of the religions. A timeline is also provided
to give useful chronological comparisons of their history and development.

Tim Dowley
Dulwich, January 2017

FOREWORD 11

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 11 22/05/2018 15:00


A Chronology of
World Religions
Mesopotamia 372 Buddhism enters Korea from China
2800–2350 bce Sumerian city states c. 552 ce Buddhism enters Japan
2360–2180 Akkadian Empire, Mesopotamia c. 630 ce Buddhism enters Tibet
1450 bce Rise of Assyria c. 745 ce Buddhists persecuted in China
745–727 Tiglath-Pileser III 805 ce Saicho founds Tendai school
705–681 bce Sennacherib 806 ce Kukai founds Shingon school
845 ce Buddhists persecuted in China
Egypt
c. 1000 Theravada Buddhism revives in Sri Lanka and S. E. Asia
2700–2200 bce Egypt: Old Kingdom – Pyramid Age
1175 Honen founds Pure Land sect
r. 1545–1525 bce Amen-hotep I
1253 Nichiren founds Nichiren sect
r. 1515–1495 bce Thutmose I
c. 1200 Zen starts to grow in China, spreads to Japan
1290–24 bce Ramses II
c. 1617 Dalai Lamas become rulers of Tibet

Hinduism 1952 World Fellowship of Buddhists starts


1959 China takes over Tibet: suppresses Buddhism
c. 2700 bce Harappa Culture in Indus Valley
1989 Dalai Lama awarded Nobel Peace Prize
c. 800 bce Oral Vedas collected
c. 600 bce Upanishads collected
Jainism
c. 200 bce–200 ce Bhagavad Gita collected
c. 527, 510 or 425 bce Death of Mahaviri (by tradition)
c. 200 bce First contacts with South-east Asia
466 or 453 bce Council at Valabhi: Shvetamabara fixed
c . 50 ce Tantric tradition begins
c. 350 bce Split between Digambara and Shvetambara
1000–1150 Angkor Wat built in Cambodia
C17 Shvetambara Sthanakvasi sect begins
1948 ce Mohandas [Mahatma] Gandhi assassinated
C18 Shvetambara Terapanth sect begins
1998 Hindu nationalist party BJP wins Indian election
1949 Jain World Mission founded

Zoroastrianism
Sikhism
628–551 bce Zoroaster
1469–1539 ce Nanak, founder of Sikhism
205–276 ce Mani
1603–4 ce Adi Granth compiled
651 ce End of Persian Empire
1666–1708 Gobind Singh

Buddhism 1695 Khalsa formed


1799 Punjab united under Ramjit Singh
c. 563–483 bce Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (traditional dates)
1984 Indian government expels militants from Golden Temple,
c. 395 bce First Buddhist Council, Vaisali
Amritsar, killing many Sikhs
c. 272–232 bce r. Ashoka, Indian king who spread Buddhism
c. 100 bce Indian Mahayana Buddhism emerges
c. 50 ce Buddhism enters China
220 ce First Buddhist mission to Vietnam

12 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 12 22/05/2018 15:00


Taoism & Confucianism 431 Council of Ephesus condemns Nestorianism
c. 600–500 bce Legendary Lao Tsu 451 Council of Chalcedon
c. 551–479 bce Confucius 476 Fall of Roman Empire in West
c. 630 ce All Chinese provinces to honour Confucius 529 Benedict establishes his first monastery
1445 ce Taoist canon published 862 Cyril and Methodius’ mission to Moravia
1949 Communists take over mainland China 1054 Great Schism
1095 First Crusade called
Shinto
1123 First Lateran Council
c. 660 bce Legendary Emperor Jimmu
1176 Carthusian monastic order established
1868 ce Rule of Emperor Meiji begins
1517 Beginning of Protestant Reformation
1882 State Shinto begins
1549 Francis Xavier reaches Japan
1945 State Shinto ends
1563 Council of Trent ends
1946 Emperor Hirohito rejects divine title
1611 King James Version of Bible

Judaism 1738 John Wesley’s conversion experience


1795 London Missionary Society founded
c. 1800 bce Traditional date of patriarch Abraham
1799 Church Missionary Society founded
c. 1250 bce Traditional date of Exodus from Egypt
1804 British & Foreign Bible Society founded
1200–1020 bce ‘Judges’ rule Israel
1830 Book of Mormon
c. 1160 bce Philistines settle Palestine coast
1895 World Student Christian Federation founded
c. 1000–961 bce King David
1948 First assembly of World Council of Churches
c. 950 bce Solomon’s Temple built
1962–65 Second Vatican Council
922 bce Israel divides into Northern and Southern Kingdoms
(Israel and Judah)
722 bce Assyria conquers Northern Kingdom Islam

586–539 bce Solomon’s Temple destroyed; Exile to Babylonia 570–632 ce Prophet Muhammad

520–515 bce Second Temple built 622 ce Hijra: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina

166–160 bce Maccabean Rebellion 630 Conquest of Mecca

r. 40–4 bce Herod the Great 634–35 Conquest of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Persia

70 ce Herod’s Temple destroyed 641–43 Conquest of Egypt, Libya, Carthage, Nubia

c. 400 ce Palestinian Talmud completed 732 Battle of Poitiers stops Muslim expansion to France

c. 600 ce Babylonian Talmud completed 705–715 Conquest of Central Asia, Sind, Spain

1492 ce Jews expelled from Spain 1058–1111 Sufi scholar al-Ghazali

c. 1698–1759 Baal Shem Tov in Poland 1291 Muslims expel Crusaders from Palestine

c. 1800 ce Reform movement spreads in Western Europe 1492 Muslims expelled from Spain

1897 First Zionist Congress 1529 Otttoman Turks reach Vienna

1938–1945 Jewish Holocaust 1526–1857 Mughal Empire, India

1948 State of Israel founded 1947 Islamic state of Pakistan formed


1979 Islamic Revolution, Iran
Christianity 2001 Islamist terrorists attacks in USA
4 bce–30 ce Jesus of Nazareth
c. 65 ce Apostle Paul dies
312 ce Emperor Constantine recognizes Christianity
325 First Council of Nicaea
335 Constantine builds Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem

A C H R O N O LO G Y O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S 13

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 13 22/05/2018 15:00


Part 1
The Ancient World

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 14 22/05/2018 15:00


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 15 22/05/2018 15:00
Towards the end of the Neolithic era

Megaliths megaliths – structures composed of


large stones – were erected in Europe.
Most were dolmens – burial structures
THE MEGALITHS OF WESTERN EUROPE

Ring of Brodgar
consisting of a large, flat stone supported Callanish
on uprights, and passage graves –
located on islands and shores of the Loanhead of Daviot
Mediterranean and western Europe.
Balfarg N ORTH
Cairnpapple
However, as well as these megalithic tombs, Ballochroy SEA
there were menhirs – huge alignments of Long Meg & daughters
stones – such as those at Carnac, Brittany. Ballynoe
Castle Rigg
Their purpose is unknown; possibly they
B R I T
New Grange
I S H I S L E S
marked ritual procession routes.
Moel Ty Uchaf
Some large constructions, such as the Lios Parc y Rhos-y-beddau
Hal Tarxien stone buildings in Malta, were Meirw Saeth Maen
Mynydd-bach Rollright Stones
apparently temples: chalk sculptures found Cerrig Avebury
in them display realistic human features, Duon Stonehenge
Merrivale
and may represent gods and goddesses and
Merry Maidens
their priests.
Other megalithic structures possibly
had astronomical functions, perhaps Soumont-
Saint-Quentin
to help farmers determine the calendar La Madeleine St Just .
and agricultural seasons. For instance, Carnac ir eR
Lo
Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, England, has ATLANTIC
a circle of sarsen stones, some of which line
OCEAN
up with the sunrise at midsummer. Whatever

Rhône R.
its calendar purpose, Stonehenge was also Puy de
a place of worship; archaeologists have Pauliac
suggested that fertility-gods and goddesses PYR
EN Perarine
were worshipped there. EE
S
Eb
ro
R.
I B
E R I A
Tagus R.

M E D

A F R I C
AT L A S M T S

16 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 16 22/05/2018 15:00


map 1

SCANDINAVIA Celtic influence at its greatest extent


Area of Megalithic tombs
Stone circle
Megalithic tomb
Stone alignment

H B A LT I C Miles
0 100 200
SEA 0 100 200 300
s Kilometers

Vis
tul
a R.
El b

eR de
O

. rR
.
R.

Da Dn
in e

nub ies
e R. ter
Rh

n R.

P S
A L
Rhône R.

Danube R
ne .
B LACK S EA
T
I

A
L
Y

A N A
T O
M E D I T
L I
E
R
A
R
A
N
E
A N
F R I C A S E A

MEGALITHS 17

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 17 22/05/2018 15:00


Mesopotamia is the Greek name for the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers,

Babylonia and Sumeria currently occupied by Iraq and Syria. This region had no easily defensible frontiers,
and throughout historical times fierce hill-people raided from the east, while
herdsmen from the steppe overran the fertile lands from the west and south, as they
saw the potential of cultivating its rich soil and fishing its rivers. The northern part of
Mesopotamia has enough annual rainfall for farmers to grow grain and find pasture,
and people have lived in its hills and near its rivers since Neolithic times, about 12,000
years ago.

In ancient Babylonia to the south, agriculture great mother, goddess of fertility, love, and
depended on artificial irrigation, drawing war. The goddess Inanna was the principle
water from the rivers and carefully of life, depicted in paintings, carved into
controlling it. This skill was apparently stone, and modelled in clay in almost every
introduced there around 5000 bce, after prehistoric dwelling.
which settled life developed until the fourth The temples of Uruk employed large
millennium bce, when great cities flourished numbers of people and owned extensive
by the rivers and canals. From these cities, estates. Craftsmen made fine artefacts for
traders and colonists spread north up the use in temple services, weavers made clothes
Euphrates river into Syria, east into Persia, for the sacred statues and for the priests, and
and south down the Persian Gulf, carrying scribes recorded temple affairs. The priests
inventions and ideas from their culture – also played an important part in city life; the
foremost among them writing. The need to high priest was sometimes also king of the
organize and administer the large settlements city. Such seems to have been the regular
and their irrigation systems stimulated the structure of temple life in Babylonian cities
development of writing in Babylonia. for centuries.
Each major city in the south was the
The Sumerians centre for worship of a particular deity.
The dominant people of the south, the During the third millennium bce, besides
Sumerians, produced Babylonian cuneiform Anu and Inanna at Uruk, there were: Enlil,
writing – the most significant writing system lord of the atmosphere, who was worshipped
of the ancient Middle East – on clay tablets. at Nippur, and, next to Anu, chief of the gods;
Their religious beliefs are the earliest we can Enki, ruler of the fresh water from beneath
know about in Mesopotamia, although it the earth, who had his shrine at Eridu; the
is impossible to be sure that any particular sun-god, Utu, whose home was at Larsa; and
aspect is solely Sumerian because the land the moon-god, Nanna, who lived at Ur. Each
was always inhabited by a mixture of races. principal god had a family and servants, who
There is little that can be called distinctively were also honoured with temples and chapels.
‘Sumerian’ apart from their language. For example, Enlil’s son, Ninurta, was lord of
In Uruk (Erech), a city dating to Lagash. Lesser deities had shrines inside the
c. 3000 bce and best known from larger temples, but were also revered in small
archaeological excavations and from the shrines among the houses of the citizens.
earliest texts, there were two main temples. The temples dominated the cities. When a
One was for Anu, the supreme god, the temple grew old or was regarded as too small,
king of heaven; the other for Inanna, the a new one was built, often on the ruins of

18 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 18 22/05/2018 15:00


RELIGIOUS SITES OF ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA map 2

Z A C ASPIAN
GUT G L. Urmia
SEA
IAN R
S O
Tell Brak S
Dur Sharrukin M
M E KA
Tell Irmah Calah SS

T
S IT

S
O ES
P
O Ashur Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta
T
SEA

A
M

Tigri
AN

Mari Eu
I

s R.
ANE

ph
ra
ERR

tes
Capital during dynasty Agade Tutub

R.
of Sargon 2241–2186 BCE
DIT

Sippar Sacred to sun god


AKKAD
ME

Temple
Babylon Kish to Enlil
Susa Capital of Elam
Borsippa Nippur
ELA M
Dilbat Adab
Shuruppak
S U M E R Lagash
Erech (Uruk) Larsa
5 dynasties ruled here before 2000 BCE
Earliest known writing dates pre 3000 BCE Ur
Eridu
Ur-nammu reigned
Tell el-‘Ubaid 2044–2027 BCE
Temple founded by Home of biblical Abraham
A-anni-paddo of 1st
Ur dynasty 2438–2399 BCE
Miles
0 50 100 150
Ziggurat site PERSIAN
Fertile areas 0 50 100 200 GULF
Kilometers

the previous one. Over the years, the temples


came to be erected on platforms covering
the earlier buildings, towering above the
surrounding houses. Most important in these
temples was the holy room, where the statue
of the particular god stood. In Solomon’s
Temple, the Jewish sanctuary in Jerusalem,
the holy room had no statue: solely the Ark
of the Covenant.

B A B Y LO N I A A N D S U M E R I A 19

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 19 22/05/2018 15:00


‘Ancient Egypt’ is the civilization in the lower reaches of the Nile Valley from about

Religion in Ancient Egypt 3100 bce to 30 bce. This includes periods of strength such as the Old Kingdom
(c. 2700–2200 bce), when a line of powerful rulers left their pyramids as monuments;
the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000–1800 bce), another time of strong central government,
with influence on Egypt’s neighbours; and the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1225 bce),
when Egypt was among the dominant countries of the Near East.

It also includes periods when Egypt was are also references to ‘God’ or ‘The God’, who
divided internally and occupied by foreign seems to have been an unnamed universal
powers. These changes in political power divine power, controlling the universe and
and economic prosperity over 3,000 years upholding good against evil.
occasioned changes in philosophical and For a short time, from about 1375 to
religious attitudes; yet there are enough 1350 bce, there was an attempt to impose
consistent features to allow us to talk about a form of monotheism. The pharaoh
‘Egyptian religion’. Amenophis IV gradually developed worship
of the Aten, or the sun’s disk, until he was
Egyptian gods the only god whose worship was tolerated.
The gods of ancient Egypt – represented in The worship of Amun was attacked, while
the temples and tombs – are a bewildering the Aten was seen as the source of all life.
mix of strange forms, half-animal and This gift of life was passed to the king, who
half-human. We know little about actual changed his name to Akhenaten – ‘the one
Egyptian religious beliefs, since we have who is beneficial to the Aten’ – and to his
no records about Egyptian theology by family, and thence to the people.
ancient Egyptians. Many of the Egyptian As well as the ‘mainstream’ gods, the
gods represented powerful natural forces. Egyptians also adopted other deities. The king
Egypt’s prosperity depended on the daily or pharaoh was also seen as a god, although
reappearance of the sun and the annual this was a limited idea of divinity, because he
flooding of the Nile: these forces were was clearly mortal. Few rulers had a statue
regarded as gods needing to be coaxed and placed in the temple shrine as an object of
encouraged through sacrifice and worship. worship. Animals also feature in Egyptian
The gods were often originally linked religion. In some instances, all the animals of
with particular cities. As communities came one species were regarded as sacred, and were
together in larger political units, local deities mummified and buried in huge numbers.
gradually became important in the nation as The Egyptians seem always to have
a whole. For example, the god Amun, from believed in an afterlife. The earliest tombs
the city of Thebes, was a kind of national contain items of food and equipment, and
god, protecting and leading the whole nation later the decoration of tombs shows how
for a time during the New Kingdom, when the Egyptians thought such a life would be:
Thebes was home to the ruling family. There similar to this world – but better.

20 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 20 22/05/2018 15:00


ANCIENT EGYPT map 3

MEDITERRANEAN SEA Capital of Hyksos kings


c. 1720–1570 BCE
Tanis/Avaris/Ramses
Sometimes capital after New Empire
DEAD

AN
c. 730–400 BCE
SEA

NA
Sais

CA
Pelusium EDOM
LI BYA LO W E R E G Y P T
Giza Onu/Heliopolis Centre of Re/Ra worship –
Capital of Old Kingdom Memphis major influence in Old Kingdom
Temples to Ptah Saqqara
Regional centre

UPPER
Hermopolis

EG
Ni
l
Y P.
eR

Abydos
First Dynasty tombs

Necropolis of Thebes Thebes/Nuwe


‘Valley of the Kings’
Capital of Egypt
during Middle Kingdom
and New Empire
Hierakonpolis Centre of worship of Amon

‘Door of South’ during Old Kingdom Elephantine/Yeb


Market for Nubian ivory
1st Cataract
RED
SEA
S. border of Old Kingdom
LO W E R N U B I A to c. 2100 BCE
Abu Simbel
2nd Cataract

S. border of Middle Kingdom to c. 1800 BCE

Miles
0 50 100 200
3rd Cataract U PPER NUBIA
0 50 100 200 300
Kilometers
N il e R

4th Cataract
Old Kingdom pyramid:
Napata 5th Cataract
.

mainly 4th Dynasty c. 2600–2500 BCE


Middle Kingdom pyramid: S. border of New Empire c. 1550–1100 BCE
c. 2100–1800 BCE
New Empire pyramid: Capital of Cushite Dynasty
ruling Upper Egypt c. 730–650 BCE
c. 1550–1100 BCE
Meroë

RELIGION IN ANCIENT EGYPT 21

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 21 22/05/2018 15:00


The rise of city civilizations brought

The Early City Religions about important religious developments.


Cities developed around 3500 bce in
Mesopotamia, and slightly later in Egypt.
ANCIENT EMPIRES OF THE MIDDLE EAST

Urban civilization spread into the Indus


Valley and rose independently in China. Hattus

The invention of the plough and introduction Troy

of irrigation greatly improved agricultural Hal


ys
R.
productivity, while the development of sea
travel, rise of metallurgy, and invention
of writing opened up for city-dwellers
occupations other than farming. Increasing
land and maritime contact with other
societies facilitated the sharing of concepts,
knowledge, and trade. Specialists uninvolved
in agriculture – such as the Sumerian temple
communities – now began to appear.
The rise of cities led to specialization: Knossos
men began to adopt different trades and
professions. Religion reflected this, with
the arrival of distinct priesthoods, temples,
festivals, theologies and, later, scriptures.
Although the Neolithic inter-relationship M EDITERRANEAN S EA
between human beings, nature, and the
gods continued, more personal religious
questions – about suffering, meaning, and
life after death – became more immediate.
Religion was evolving into a separate,
personal concern as well as a group affair.
Forms of urban religious life differed
between Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus
Valley and China. Religion in ancient Miles
0 100 200
Egypt was characterized by the worship Nile R.
Memphis
of, and sacrifice to, local and state gods, 0 100 200 300
Kilometers
in some instances in elaborate temples.
In Mesopotamia there was a succession
of peoples and religions, including the and tales of myth-ritual state ceremonies.
Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hurrians, Out of this Egyptian and Middle Eastern
Hittites, and West Semitic groups. State setting, Jewish concerns for the land and
religions, with their temples, kings, and ethical monotheism were later to emerge.
annual festivals, were characterized by their
mythologies: epic creation accounts, stories of
ritual victories by god-kings such as Marduk,

22 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 22 22/05/2018 15:00


map 4

Major trade routes


Settlements in existence before 3500 BCE
City-based civilizations
Hattushash

Hal
ys
R.

CASPIAN
SEA
Carchemish Haran

Nineveh

Sialk
Ugarit Ebla
Ashur
Hamath

Anatu
Tigr

Mari
is R.

Byblos
Eup
hra

sR
e t

Babylon
Hittite Empire Susa
Nippur
set up by Suppiluliuma I 1344–1322 BCE
Jericho Lagash
Mitanni after 1340 BCE
Assyrian Empire 1353-1318 BCE Erech
Assyrian Empire at maximum extent C7 BCE
Ur
Babylonian Empire under
Burnaburiash II 1347–1321 BCE Eridu
Elamite Empire under Tept-ahar 1353–1318 BCE
Egyptian Empire under
Amenophis IV & Tutankhamun 1352–1335 BCE

T H E E A R LY C I T Y R E L I G I O N S 23

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 23 22/05/2018 15:00


CULT CENTRES OF ANCIENT GREECE

Mt Erymanthus
Mt Pangaeus
DIONYSUS

MACEDONIA POSEIDON
THASOS SAMOTHRACE
CABEIRI

HERMES
Mt Olympus Mt Mosychlus Troy
ZEUS, Olympian gods, muses LEMNOS
Mt Ossa
PALLAS ATHENE
Mt Id
Dodona T H E S S A LY
ORACLE OF ZEUS Mt Pelion
LESBOS
ASCLEPIOS AEGEAN
SKYROS
MEDITERRANEAN Mt Oeta SEA
SEA Mt Parnassus LEBADAEA EUBOEA
POSEIDON, ARTEMIS M
Pythian Games for Apollo DIONYSOS
Delphi
BOETIACithaeron Mts
AMPHIAREION OF OROPOS CHIOS
POSEIDON, APHRODITE
Mt Helicon
Corinth
ACHAEA Isthmian Games
for Poseidon Eleusis Athens ANDROS
Cyllene Mts DEMETER PALLAS ATHENE,
Nemean Games SAMOS
ARES
for Zeus Nemea
Mycenae ATTICA ARTEMIS, DIONYSOS,
POSEIDON, HERMES HERA
Olympia ICARIA
PALLAS ATHENE
ZACYNTHUS Sunium
A R C A D I A Argos DIONYSOSEpidaurus POSEIDON DELOS
POS

HERA APOLLO
ASCLEPIOS
O
APOLLO OF AMYCLAE,
Mt Parthenius NAXOS
ARTEMIS ORTHIA,
PAROS
ATHENA CHALKIOIKOS, Sparta
DIOSCURI
LACONIA ASCL
COS
MELOS

APHRODITE THERA
CYTHERA

IONIAN SEA APHRODITE


from
Cyprus

Sacred mountain
Cult site
Site of games/arts competition Miles ZEUS
0 50 100 Mt Ida
Deity worshipped widely in area
Oracle 0 50 100 150 CRETE
Kilometers

24 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 24 22/05/2018 15:00


The Greeks and Romans created a world

The Religions of Ancient Greece


map 5
of gods and demi-gods, heroes, nymphs,
and satyrs that linked heaven (‘Olympia’)
and earth.

Well-known gods of antiquity were


introduced, or taken over from previous
or related sanctuaries and tribes: Poseidon
(Roman Neptune), symbolic of the sea;
Aphrodite (Roman Venus), symbolic of love;
Ares (Roman Mars), of war; Hephaistos
Troy (Roman Vulcan), of fire. Zeus (Roman
MYSIA Jupiter), the god of thunder, became the
Mt Ida
father-god. Thus the Greeks created a
myth that lent order and meaning to the
complexities of life.
S
In early times, some of the gods were
Pergamum A S I A
ASCLEPIOS
LY D I A identified with, and worshipped in, particular

Magnesia
M I N O R places: Zeus in Crete; Hera in Argos; Apollo –
ARTEMIS the beardless youth, god variously of music,
Mt Sipylus
Sardes healing, sun, and light – in Asia Minor; and
S ARTEMIS
Mt Tmolus Dionysus (or Bacchus) – god of the grape
harvest, wine, fertility, and ritual frenzy – in
APOLLO
Mycenae. These gods gradually began to
Ephesus function more widely, and sometimes took on
SAMOS ARTEMIS

A
HERA
Mt Mycale
characteristics of other deities. For example
POSEIDON Mt Latmus the North African deities Baal and Tannit
Didyma became respectively Saturn and the Heavenly
ORACLE OF APOLLO CARIA Goddess (Roman Dea Caelestis); Apollo
travelled from Didyma, Asia Minor to Delphi,
Greece, and thence to Rome.
ASCLEPIOS
COS Mount Olympus became the meeting
place of quasi-aristocratic gods, governed
by Zeus and his jealous wife, Hera. Kronos
TELOS
(time) became the father of Zeus; Uranus
HELIOS
(sky, or heaven) the father of Kronos –
RHODES symbolically linking power, time, and heaven.
In The Odyssey and The Iliad, the ancient
Greek poet Homer portrays the gods in
human terms, although they are immortal.
They prompt dread, fear, shame, and
reverence in humans, who in response pray,
praise, take oaths, sacrifice victims, and pour
libations. The gods were consulted through

THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT GREECE 25

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 25 22/05/2018 15:00


The Tholos of Delphi, birds (augury) or interpretation of dreams. daughter and was linked to grain. At festival
Greece, part of Other omens included lightning, thunder, time participants in ‘mystery’ initiation were
the Sanctuary of and falling stars. promised happiness and perhaps a vision of
Athena Pronaia, built
Greek religion dealt with some of the the god. The temple at Eleusis provided for
c. 370 bce.
great metaphysical problems: fate (the huge gatherings of up to 10,000 people.
Roman Parcae), death (Hades, a place where The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484–
life continued, with neither reward nor 425 bce) claimed the most ancient oracle
punishment), and good and evil. Some of the site in Greece was Dodona, with its great oak
great mythic tales and characters came into tree. Questions to this oracle reveal particular
being – such as Medea, Antigone, Oedipus, concerns about health. Other oracles were
and Theseus – and were the subjects of the Amphiareion of Oropos and Trophonius
dramatic works by major authors. at Lebadaea.
The ritual complex at Eleusis, West The temple-cult of Asclepios, the god of
Attica, involved the goddess Demeter and her healing, was established in times of need,

26 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 26 22/05/2018 15:00


especially by city-states threatened by disease. the king sat in Isis’ lap, creating a ‘madonna-
It became the most widespread of the newer and-child’ image. Isis and Serapis were
cults, with important centres at Pergamum, believed to be able to deliver from war,
Corinth, Epidaurus, and Kos. The cult used prison, pain, wandering, shipwreck, and
as remedies exercise, cold baths, rest, herbal even death.
prescriptions, and diet, along with dreams Greek religion seems to have been more
induced by suggestion. personal, individualistic, and pluralistic
Two syncretistic cults emerged from than the religion of the Romans, who
Egypt. The cult of Serapis fused the Greek emphasized the public, contractual aspects.
mysteries with the native Egyptian cult of Yet it is important not to impose a false
Osiris. In the cult of Isis – important in dichotomy between the religion of these
ancient myth as the king’s divine mother – two civilizations.

THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT GREECE 27

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 27 22/05/2018 15:00


Roman religion was originally related to

Roman Religion the agricultural economy. Rome’s only


unique mythology related to her own
creation, with the city personified as the
SOURCES OF THE ROMAN CULTS

chief deity.
NORTH
SEA
The Romans adopted many foreign gods
– especially Greek – modifying them to fit
their own needs. Three of the oldest deities –
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (Greek Zeus, Hera, B R I TA N N I A
and Athena) – were worshipped in a temple

Rh
ine
on Rome’s Capitoline Hill. Other later deities Colonia

R.
Agrippina
included Aesculapius (Greek Asclepios) from
293–291 bce, and Cybele, the ‘Great Mother’,
Augusta
from 204 bce. The Pantheon of Agrippa and Durocortorum Treverorum
Hadrian in Rome, commissioned during
Augustodunum
the reign of Augustus (r. 27 bce–14 ce) and
ATLANTIC Agunt
completed by Hadrian (r. 117–138 ce), was
dedicated to the twelve planetary gods as an OCEAN Lugdunum
Mediola

R hô ne R.
expression of cosmic order. Burdigala (Milan
There does not seem to have been a priest
class in Greece comparable to the priests Massilia

I
(pontifices) of Rome. Augustus appropriated
the ancient office of pontifex maximus,
incorporating in his person the religious TA R R
ACO
NE
tradition of the city. Beginning with the NS
IS
Emperor Caligula (37 ce), the imperial oath Toletum
included the name ‘Augustus’ between ‘Zeus M Carales
E D
the Saviour’ and ‘the holy Virgin of our city’. I
T
Cordoba
This concept of emperor worship can be
Cartha
traced back to Hellenistic, Oriental, and pre-
Tipasa
Roman Western models of deified kingship. Tingitanum Cirta
Evidence from the excavated city of
Pompeii, Italy, shows that family cults
flourished. Almost every house and
workshop had a private shrine with busts of
ancestors and other traditional household
gods, the Lares and Penates. The preserved
ruins of Ostia include by the 3rd century ce
fifteen shrines devoted to the god Mithras,
whose mystery cult flourished from the 1st to
the 4th century ce.
Miles
0 100 200 300 400 500
A F R I C A
0 100 300 500 700
Kilometers

28 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 28 22/05/2018 15:00


map 6

Roman Empire circa CE 117


Source of Roman cult/belief system
Rh
ine

a
R.

na
GERMANIA
gusta
erorum
Lauriacum Da
num nub
e R.
Aguntum

dunum Aquileia
Mediolanum
(Milan)

silia Salonae
I

B LACK S EA
T

L
A

I
A
Rome THRACE Sinope
Philippi Byzantium
Thessalonica
Rites SAMOTHRACE
Orphic Cabiri Troas PE
A

Orphic Rites Pergamum RS


GI

sus IA
Carales ACH AI A Diony
RY

LESBOS
E D Delphi Thebes Smyrna
PH

I Athens Ephesus
T Corinth Mi
th r
E Syracuse Apo
llo as
R Miletus Edessa
Carthage R on
eid Hierapolis
A Pos ne
he
ICIA

RHODES Antioch
N At
Cirta l la
s
Salamis
OEN

E Pa CRETE
A su
s Ado CYPRUS Aphrodit Palmyra
PH

ny e
N Dio
Gortyna nis
ea s
Ado
Rh lio
nis Byblos
He Damascus
S E
Leptis Magna A
Isis, O Caesarea
Cyrene siris
,S era
pis Jerusalem
LIBY
A Alexandria
Memphis ARABIA
EGYPT

R I C A
N il

. RED
eR

SEA

ROMAN RELIGION 29

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 29 22/05/2018 15:00


Zoroaster is the westernized version of ‘Zarathushtra’, the prophet of ancient Persia,

Zoroastrianism who may have lived c. 1200 bce, when Persia was emerging from the Stone Age. From
the age of 30, Zoroaster had a series of visions that inspired him to preach a new
message, which became the recognized teaching of a small kingdom in north-east
Persia. In time it spread throughout Persia, where it became the official religion for
1,000 years.

Zoroastrians believe their prophet was chosen widespread. The Achaemenid dynasty
by God to receive his unique revelation, that ruled Persia after Cyrus the Great
contained in 17 hymns, the Gathas, central to (d. 530 bce) spread Zoroastrianism
a major act of worship, yasna. Zarathushtra throughout the realm, largely through a
emphasized personal religion: all men and priestly tribe of Medes called ‘Magi’. During
women have a personal responsibility to the ensuing Parthian Empire (247 bce–
choose between good and evil, and will be 224 ce), steps were taken to collect the
judged hereafter. He taught that God – Ahura ancient traditions and sacred literature in the
Mazda, the Wise Lord – was the wholly good Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta.
creator of all things and is friend of all. Evil From earliest times, fire has been the
in the world comes from Angra Mainyu, the focus of Zoroastrian rites and devotions.
destructive spirit, who created demons, rules Temples were introduced into the religion
in hell, and from the beginning opposed by the Achaemenid monarch, Artaxerxes
God. The world is a battleground between II (404–359 bce). At the centre of their
the forces of good and evil: humankind was sacred buildings Zoroastrians placed the
created to aid God in this conflict. ‘icon’ of fire.
God also created a number of heavenly When the Islamic empire rose to power,
beings, foremost among them Amesha education, promotion, and equality before the
Spentas, the ‘Bounteous Immortals’, or sons law were denied to Zoroastrians, who were
and daughters of God: Vohu Manah, good forced to retreat to desert villages. Oppressed
mind; Asha, righteousness; Armaiti, devotion; and poor, they were frequently attacked by
Kshathra, dominion; Haurvatat, wholeness; Muslims. For almost 1,400 years of Muslim
and Ameretat, immortality. These are both rule, Zoroastrians endured persecution,
heavenly beings and ideals to which the oppression, poverty, injustice, and isolation.
righteous should aspire. In the 10th century ce, a small group
Zarathushtra taught that the world was of Zoroastrians left Persia to seek religious
essentially good, but spoilt by the attacks of freedom, settling in India, where they have
evil. He looked toward a day when the battle since lived in peace and security. Today
with evil would climax, the good triumph, Parsis and Iranian Zoroastrians are reckoned
and the world be restored to its perfect state. to number between 124,000 and 190,000
At the last, the dead will be raised and judged, worldwide, with the main base of their
the wicked will go to hell, and the righteous religion in India.
live with God in perfection for eternity.
We have no written sources for
Zoroastrianism’s first 700 years. By the
time the Persians came to power in the
6th century bce, the religion was already

30 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 30 22/05/2018 15:00


ZOROASTRIANISM: ORIGINS AND SPREAD map 7

ARAL Jax
S EA ar
tes
B LACK S EA

C AS
CAUC
ASU

R.
MACEDONIA S M

PIA
TS
Byzantium

N
Gordium
ARMENIA

SEA

Ox
us
Sardis .

R
ANATOLIA Tig
Antioch Nineveh Bactra HIN

ris
ASSYRIA Arbela PARTHIA BACTRIA KUSDU

R.
Palmyra p MES H
Eu
hra
O P O Ecbatana Kabul
MEDITERRANEAN SEA TAM
IA

tes
IA
ENIC

Damascus Ghazni Taxila

ZA
R. ELAM
PHO

GR
Babylon PERSIA Kandahar

OS
Jerusalem Susa

MT
Pasargadae
Memphis

S
L I B YA SINAI Persepolis

PE
EGYPT GEDROSIA R.
RS
AN

Indus
I GU
LF
ARABIA
Nile R.

I N DI A
RED

A F R I C A

T
RA
JA
SEA

GU Broach
ARABIAN Surat
SEA Mumbai

Likely Zoroastrian heartland


Persian (Achaemenid) Empire c. 500 BCE Miles
0 200 400 600 800
Sassanian Empire at its height
C19–C20 diaspora of Parsis 0 400 800 1200
Kilometers

ZO R O A S T R I A N I S M 31

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 31 22/05/2018 15:00


Part 2
Hinduism

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 32 22/05/2018 15:00


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 33 22/05/2018 15:00
The religion we know today as Hinduism may be almost as old as Indian civilization

The Origins of Hinduism itself. Archaeological evidence suggests continuities between the religion of the Indus
Valley society of 2500–1500 bce and modern Hinduism.

Archaeological excavations have revealed Brahmanism. Many Hindus regard the


evidence of what appears to be a highly Vedas as a timeless revelation, the repository
developed urban culture – sometimes also of all knowledge, and a marker of Hindu
known as the ‘Harappa Culture’ – with well- identity: the Vedas form the foundation for
developed systems of farming, grain-storage, most of the later developments in Hinduism.
and pottery. However little is known about The earliest Vedas were mainly liturgical
the religion of this civilization. The large texts, used primarily in rituals of sacrifice
number of terracotta figurines unearthed addressed to such early gods as Agni, the fire
suggests continuity with later Hindu deities, god, and Soma, the plant god.
such as Shiva and the mother goddess, In due course, Aryan culture became
but scholars are wary of making definitive well established in northern India.
connections. The Indus Valley civilization Brahmanic (or Vedic) ideology, central
seems to have declined suddenly between to social and political life, was concerned
1800 and 1700 bce. with the ritual status and duties of the
What followed is the subject of academic king, the maintenance of social order, and
controversy. Some scholars claim the Indus the regulation of individual behaviour in
Valley civilization was replaced by the culture accordance with the all-embracing ideology
of the Aryans, Indo-European invaders, or of duty or righteousness (dharma). Dharma
migrants from the Caucasus region, who involved ritual and moral behaviour, and
moved south and settled in the Indian defined good conduct according to such
subcontinent. However others believe this factors as class (varna) and stage in life
Aryan civilization developed from within the (ashrama). It operated simultaneously at
Indus Valley, or Harappa, culture. several levels: the transcendental and eternal
An Iron Age culture, known by the style (sanatana dharma), the everyday (sadharana
of its pottery, as The Painted Grey Ware dharma), and the individual and personal
culture, flourished from 1000 to 500 bce, (svadharma). Neglecting dharma was
and was succeeded by the Northern Black believed to lead to undesirable social and
Polished Ware culture from about 500 bce. personal consequences.
Whatever its origins, the history of Hinduism
is the story of the next 2,000 years of Aryan The later Vedic Period
culture, often interacting with, and always In later Vedic texts – the Aranyakas and
dominating, non-Aryan cultures in the area. Upanishads – ritual practice began to be
The language of the Aryans was Sanskrit, seen as secondary to the gaining of spiritual
and our knowledge of the early Aryans knowledge. Central to this was the karma-
derives mainly from ancient Sanskrit samsara-moksha doctrine: all beings are
compositions – the Vedas – compiled over reincarnated into the world (samsara)
centuries, and originating in oral traditions over and over again; the results of action
from thousands of years earlier. The religion (karma) are reaped in future lives. This
of this period is variously known as Vedism, process of endless rebirth is characterized by
ancient Hinduism, Brahmanism, and Vedic suffering (dukkha); liberation (moksha) from

34 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 34 22/05/2018 15:00


HINDU ORIGINS map 8

High density of Painted Grey ware 1000–500 BCE


Spread of Northern Black Polished ware 500–100 BCE

Ind
sR Aryans arrive from Central Asia c. 1500 BCE

u
Yoni .

Taxila Early northern city


Hindu place of pilgrimage
s R. Asrama (ashram) mentioned in
Ramayana, since then pilgrimage site
Indu

City mentioned in Ramayana,


Kuruksetra Kailasa since then pilgrimage site
Harappa Prthadaka
R. Ganga Sangama
tlej
Su

Atranjikhera
Mathura Salagrama
Ya

Ga
mu Mithila

ng
Mohenjo-Daro na
Kusingara

es R
Puskara Kalika-sangama

R.

.
Ayodhya Vaisali
Pataliputra
.

Kausambi
us R

G a n g es R .
Arbuda Citrakuta Kasi Varanasi
I nd

Atri-asrama Gaya
Pancavati
A R ABIAN
Omkara Lanka
S EA
Dvaravati ada R.
Narm
Miles Prabhasa Viraja
0 100 200
B AY O F
0 100 200 300 BENGAL
Kilometers

this suffering can be obtained by gaining of the world. Ascetic groups known as
spiritual knowledge. strivers (sramanas) were formed during
Gaining spiritual knowledge thus this period, seeking liberation through
came to assume central importance, and austerity. Buddhism and Jainism – both of
the self-discipline and ascetic methods which rejected the authority of the Vedas –
necessary to gain it were developed in the originated in these groups.
Hindu traditions of yoga and renunciation

THE ORIGINS OF HINDUISM 35

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 35 22/05/2018 15:00


Sectarian worship of particular deities grew and flourished in India through much

Hindu Temple Worship of the first millennium ce. Increasingly, Vedic sacrifice was marginalized, giving
way to devotional worship, or puja – the ritual expression of love or devotion (bhakti)
to a deity.

Sanskrit narrative traditions also grew and Temple cults


flourished, most important of which were In early medieval India the worship of
the Hindu epics – the Ramayana and the Vishnu or one of his incarnations – normally
Mahabharata (the Puranas), devotional texts Krishna or Rama (Vaisnavism) – and worship
containing mythological stories about the of Shiva (Shaivism or Saivam) became
gods and goddesses and treatises on ritual widespread throughout the subcontinent,
worship – and devotional poetry in Indian promoting temple-cults and displacing
regional languages, particularly Tamil. Buddhism. Sectarian devotional groups
One of the most important developments emerged, dedicated to the worship of Vishnu
of this period was the composition of the (Vaishnavas), Shiva (Shaivas), and the
Bhagavad Gita, the ‘Song of the Lord’, goddess Devi (Shaktas).
contained in the Mahabharata. This work, From medieval times, many temples –
perhaps the most famous of the Hindu known as ‘Sakta’ temples – were also
scriptures, expresses in narrative form the devoted to goddesses. Such temples still
concerns of Hinduism: the importance of dot the countryside, a distinctive feature
dharma and the maintenance of social order of modern Hinduism.
and stability, together with the importance Within each temple stood a consecrated
of devotion to the transcendent as a icon, regarded as a partial embodiment of the
personal god. deity. Manuals known as Agamas, Tantras, and
Temple cities grew and flourished during Sarnhitas described the rituals to be performed
this period, serving not only as commercial during temple worship. In the temple, a
and administrative cores of kingdoms, but daily ritual known as puja involved waking,
as ritual centres. The temple was normally dressing, bathing, feeding, and entertaining
located at the heart of the town, and thus the god, as though he were a king. Such static
of the kingdom. Kings sought to derive images of the deity were hidden in a holy
legitimacy through their patronage of these place inside the temple, but often had movable
ritual sites, dedicated to one or the other of equivalents that were processed through the
the major deities of the Purana. village or city on festival days.

36 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 36 22/05/2018 15:00


TEMPLE HINDUISM map 9

Major Vaisnava temple


K Major Saiva temple
A du Major Sakta temple
R

In
Sarada Srinagari K s R.
O Site/centre linked with Sankara
T Main centre linked with Sankara
A
Site/centre linked with Ramanuja

S
Main centre linked with Ramanuja
PALAS Major dynasty
Badarika Kailasa
Kedara
Brahmaputra R.

Salagrama
R.
us A R A - P R A T I H A R A S
I nd G U R J Mathura Pasupatinath
amG A H
un A D A V
Y

aR ALAS
Puskara .
Prayaga
G ang
Khajuraho Kasi es R.
P A L A S
U LU K YA S
GU RJARA-CA K AL ACURIS

Dvaraka
Bhubanesar
Elapura
AS Konark
R A S T R A K U T A
S KY
LU

Godavari R.
CA

B AY O F
N
ER
ST

ARABIAN Aihole BENGAL


EA

Patadocol
SEA Vatapi Alampur
Mahakuteswar C A L U K Y A S
A S
A V

Srngeri Kanchipuram
L L

Yadavagiri Sriperumbudur
P A

Birthplace of Ramanuja
Srirangam
KU

Cidambaram
LAS

Tanjavur
EKH

Tiruppunduratti
ARAS

S
YA
ND

Ramesvaram
PA

Kanya Kumari
Miles
0 100 200
INDIAN OCEAN
0 100 200 300
Kilometers

HINDU TEMPLE WORSHIP 37

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 37 22/05/2018 15:00


By tradition there are seven sites of particular religious significance for Hindus. These

Hinduism and the Sacred are Varanasi, associated with Shiva; Kanchipuram, the site of a temple devoted to
Shiva; Haridwar; Ujjain; Ayodhya; and Mathura and Dwarka, both linked to Krishna.
The land of India itself is worshipped as ‘Divine Mother’ (Bharat Mata) and is
sanctified by Shaktipithas, centres of goddess worship.

Particularly important to Hinduism are cleanse the river, but with little success. Part
sacred rivers, and the holy towns and cities of the problem is that the Ganges is regarded
situated along their banks, which are seen as by Hindus as so sacred as to be beyond harm.
crossing-places (tirtha) between the secular Its waters are believed to be pure – even
and the sacred, and between the world of the medicinal – and the responsibility of the gods,
living and the dead. not of humans.
Hinduism lists seven sacred rivers: the In Hinduism, the sacred is everywhere, not
Ganges, Saraswati (a legendary watercourse merely in temples and sacred images, but also
whose whereabouts is disputed), Yamuna, in nature – in stones, trees, mountains, and
Indus, Narmada, Godavari, and Kaveri rivers. From time to time the sacred reveals
(Cauvery). Of these, the Ganges (Ganga), itself in the form of an arcane rock, stream,
said to have come down from the stars, is the or spring, and the site of such a manifestation
most important. Thousands take a daily dip becomes a place of worship. Pilgrims flock
in its waters, fulfilling the ritual purification to these places during auspicious months in
that is vital in Hinduism. A single immersion the Hindu calendar, and mythological stories
in the river is believed to earn great spiritual spring up concerning the miraculous nature of
merit for the worshipper. Known as the ‘Great the pilgrimage site.
Mother’, the Ganges has today become heavily
polluted. In a single five-mile stretch of the
1,560 mile-long river, some 60,000 people Indian sadhu near the Ganges river at Haridwar,
ritually cleanse themselves every day. Yet parts Uttarakhand, India.
of the river are
so polluted
by untreated
sewage,
industrial waste,
and pesticides
that they are
not just filthy
but disease-
carrying,
toxic, and
carcinogenic.
Hundreds of
millions of
dollars have
been spent in
attempts to

38 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 38 22/05/2018 15:00


HINDU SACRED PLACES map 10

Sites linked with Shiva


K ASHMIR Sites linked with Vishnu
Sarda du Sites linked with Sakta (Shakti)

In
s R.
Sacred bathing places
Amarnath Guru, Rishi or Holy Man
Katas
Kangra
T I B E T
Gangotri
Haridwar
Pehowa Kadarnath
PA K I S TA N Deoband Rishikesh Brahmaputra R.
Garmukhtesar Muktinath
R. Karni Devi
us N Anupshahr Soron
I nd J A S T H A Brindaban
Devi Patan
R A Khatu UT TAR P
Sadhubela Mathura a R ADESH
Gokul m Gorakhpur Hajo
Y
un Ayodhya
aR
.
Nathdwara Mahoba Chitrakut Sonpur Jahnu Ashram Kamakhya
Varanasi Gange Duarbasini
Chanderi Bindhyachal s R.
Khajuraho Khetrur
Sidhpur Shamlaji M A D H Y A B I Baidyanath
P R A D E S H H A R B ANG L AD E S H
Samudri Mata Vadnagar Ujjain Bhojpur Majholi Bishnupur Nabadwip
AT Tarakeswar Sitakund
Amarkantak
AR Dewas
Narm
ada R.
Dwarka Mandhata Kalighat Dakshineshwar
J
GU

Maheshwar Ramtek
Mangrol Broach Rajim O R I S S A
M A Kundalpur
H A R Jaipur
Nasik A S H T R A
Ellora Bhubaneswar
I N D I A Mahendragiri
Go
Rajnesh d a va ri R .
Tuljapur
A N D H R A Simhachalam
B AY O F
S H
Pandharpur P R A D E Annavaram BENGAL
Amaravati
ARABIAN Kolhapur ri s
h n a R.
K A R

Kotipalli
SEA Mangalagiri
N A T
A K A

Pattaparthy

Mangalore Kanchipuram
Kav Birthplace of Ramanuja
eri R. T A M I L Pondicherry
NADU
Srirangam
KER

Madurai
ALA

Trivandrum
SRI
Miles L ANK A
0 100 200

0 100 200 300


Kilometers
INDIAN OCEAN

HINDUISM AND THE SACRED 39

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 39 22/05/2018 15:00


Hinduism has been regarded as a ‘world

Hinduism in the Modern World religion’ since only the 19th century.
Hindu reformers and Western orientalists
then began to refer to the variety of
HINDUISM TODAY

beliefs and practices characterizing


religious life in South Asia as ‘Hinduism’.

Yet Hinduism possesses many features


characteristic of ‘indigenous religions’. It
has no single historical founder, no central N
A
revelation, no creed or unified system of
belief, no single doctrine of salvation, and no
centralized authority. In this way, it differs
from the other world religions.
Huge diversity and variety of religious
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS
movements, systems, beliefs, and practices
characterize Hinduism. There is no clear
P ACIFIC
division between the sacred and profane, the OCEAN
natural and supernatural: religion and social
life are inseparable. Yet most scholars agree
that unifying strands run through the diverse
traditions constituting Hinduism.
Hinduism has seen many changes during
its long history: for instance the rise and Hinduism by percentage
fall in prominence of some ancient gods, 5 – 9%
10 – 19%
such as Indra, king of the gods, and Varuna,
20 – 39%
god of the sea; the decline in importance of 40 – 59%
the fire sacrifice; and the rise in popularity over 60%
of the bhakti devotional tradition in the Hindu migrants C19 – early C20
6th century ce. Hindu migrants since 1947
Influenced by Western values, 19th and
early 20th century Hindu reformers such as
Vivekananda (1863–1902), Ram Mohan Roy gurus. Since Indian independence, Hinduism
(1772–1833), Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi has also become more politicized, with the
(1869–1948), and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan rise of Hindu nationalistic parties promoting
(1888–1975) advocated an ethical form of India as a Hindu state.
Hinduism that campaigned against social Hinduism has also transcended national
practices such as sati – the self-immolation boundaries. While it has long flourished
of widows on their husbands’ funeral pyres – beyond the Indian subcontinent, in such
and child marriage. Hinduism has since places as Java and Bali, in the 20th century
retreated somewhat from these reforms, the Hindu diaspora became widespread,
though sati is rare and strictly proscribed in establishing communities across the globe.
India. Some Hindus today uphold traditional Many Hindus migrated to the West,
Hindu practices, and consult astrologers and where their minority communities evolved

40 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 40 22/05/2018 15:01


map 11

E
N ORTH O P
ATLANTIC R
OCEAN
U
E

A F R I C A P ACIFIC
OCEAN

INDIAN
OCEAN
SOUTH
ATLANTIC
OCEAN

Miles
0 500 1000 1500

0 1000 2000
Kilometers

a distinctive form of Hinduism. Westernized and discrimination of the caste system.


Hindu ideas were imported back to India, Revisionist thinking now emphasizes the
increasing awareness of mystical traditions, positive side of castes. At the same time, some
sacred sites, and esoteric forms of spirituality. ‘untouchable’ and tribal groups have begun
Interest has grown in pilgrimage to sacred to abandon their traditional deities and
shrines, such as the Sabarimala temple practices to build temples and worship Hindu
in Kerala, and in festivals such as the deities such as Vishnu and Shiva.
Kumbh Mela. Apart from Hindu fundamentalism,
Modern Hinduism has also seen a Hinduism seems at ease with the modern
strengthening of the caste system. At the turn world. Yoga and the related spiritual
of the 20th century, Hindu reformers sought disciplines have been widely adopted and
to reform what they saw as the chauvinism Hindu spiritual teachers are active worldwide.

HINDUISM IN THE MODERN WORLD 41

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 41 22/05/2018 15:01


Jainism – like Hinduism and Buddhism – emerged from the Vedic culture of northern

Jainism India in about the 5th century bce and is based around the teachings of Mahavira,
whom Jains venerate as the 24th jina (‘conquerer’) of the last cosmic cycle. Jain
tradition dates Mahavira to 599–527 bce.

Jains hold that all living beings have a violence, which forbids causing harm to any
soul, and that these souls – undergoing a creature. Jains often have to compromise on
continuous cycle of death and rebirth – can some of their stricter ethical rules in order
be liberated only if the individual adopts an to live in the modern world. For instance
extreme ascetic lifestyle in order to become although some ascetic Jains refuse to use
omniscient, following the example of electrical equipment, believing it may harm
Mahavira himself. tiny creatures, most accept scientific and
In the years after Mahavira’s death, Jains technological discoveries.
broke into two main sects, Digambara and In the centuries after Mahavira’s death,
Shvetambara, which are divided by their Jainism spread throughout India, which
views on scripture. Shvetambara Jains believe remains its primary home. Diaspora
that their canon descends directly from communities do exist, though these are small
The Twelve-limbed Basket, the collection of and restricted by the absence of ascetics,
Mahavira’s teachings, while Digambara Jains who are allowed to travel only on foot.
believe this has been lost. They also differ There are more than three million Jains in
over whether there have been female jinas. the world, the majority in India. Digambara
Monasticism is important in Jainism Jains live predominantly in the Deccan,
because of the value placed on asceticism. Delhi, East Rajasthan, and neighbouring
The co-dependence of ascetics and the laity Madhya Pradesh; Shvetambara Jains live
is central to the structure of traditional Jain predominantly in Mumbai, Delhi, Rajasthan,
society. Because they believe all living beings Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. There are also
have souls, Jains are bound by a strict code Jain communities in East Africa, Europe, and
of ethics centred on the principle of non- North America.

Part of the ornately


carved ceiling of
the ancient Jain Sun
Temple, Ranakpur,
Rajasthan, India.

42 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 42 22/05/2018 15:01


JAINISM IN INDIA map 12

Jains make up 2-7% of population


Ancient Jain site (200 BCE–CE 100)
Important Jain holy site (= 7 wonders of Jainism)
I
Other Jain holy site

nd
us
R.
CHINA
H
PA K ISTAN I
M
A
Ind
us
R. Lal Mandir NEPL A Y A S
Delhi Gang
e
AL
R
T H A R T
sR
Yam Ghag R.
putra
.
E hra
D E S un R. Basarh hma
aR Bra
Ranakpur .
G ang
Ranapur Sonagiri e s R.
Hyderabad Jirawal Bamanavadji Pawapuri BANGLADESH
Mt Abu Rajgir
Dilwara Khajuraho
Rakhabh Dev
Parasnath Peak Dhaka
Patan
Ujjain
Kolkata
Narm ada R.
Palitana
Girnar
Satrunjaya Hill
INDIA Khandagiri
Tosali
Mumbai Go
d a va ri R. B AY O F
ARABIAN BENGAL
SEA Krish
na R Amaravati
.
Mosali
Andhapura

Gomateshwara Bangalore
Chennai
KavSravana Belgola
e ri R .

Cochin Madurai

Miles
0 100 200
SRI LANKA

0 100 200 300


Kilometers INDIAN OCEAN

JAINISM 43

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 43 22/05/2018 15:01


Part 3
Buddhism

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 44 22/05/2018 15:01


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 45 22/05/2018 15:01
‘Buddhism’ is an English name for a religion often called by its adherents the Dharma,

The Origins of Buddhism meaning both ‘the teaching’ and ‘the way things are’. It is named after the Buddha, ‘the
one who has awakened’.

The traditional date for the birth of Buddha, is’ and this truth set him free. He was
who lived in north India for 80 years, is now the awakened one, the ‘Buddha’. He
563 bce. However most historians today gathered around him a group of disciples and
place him about a century later and his death wandered northern India, teaching all who
around 400 bce. The Buddha’s clan-name would listen. The Buddha died in old age,
was Gautama, but later tradition called though for him death was nothing.
him Siddhartha.
Buddhists tend to emphasize not Buddha What did he teach?
but his teaching, which – they say – leads The Buddha taught that ‘seeing things the
people to understand how things truly are, way they really are’ is the way to overcome
and then radically to reassess their lives. every sort of unpleasantness, imperfection,
The Buddha awakened to this truth and and frustration – dukkha, literally ‘pain’ or
taught it. ‘suffering’. He taught that, when we look
deeply, we can see our lives are at root
Who was the Buddha? simply dukkha.
Buddhism has always been more interested In the Buddhist tradition a creator-
in how the Buddha’s life story illustrates God does not exist. Suffering is the result
Buddhist teachings than in its historical truth. of our ignorance – not understanding
The legendary account of his life – a prince the way things really are. Central to this
who was protected from any knowledge of misunderstanding is failure to appreciate
the unpleasant aspects of life – developed that everything is by nature impermanent.
in the centuries after his death. According We need to learn to let go of attachments
to alternative Pali language sources, the and a deep-rooted fixed sense of selfhood,
Buddha was a high-born Shakyan who was since we have been confused and suffered for
protected from awareness of suffering as he infinite lifetimes.
grew up, but the shock of encountering old At death the body ceases, but the ever-
age, sickness, and death led to his renouncing flowing continuum of consciousness and its
worldly pursuits. He was already married mental accompaniments continues and ‘spins’
with a son, but now left his family and another body according to our good or bad
took up the life of a wandering seeker. He deeds (karma). Such ‘rebirth’ means that we
sought the truth that would lead to complete are yet again subject to suffering – old age,
freedom from suffering – a life of meditation, sickness, and death. This process ceases only
study, and asceticism – and obtained food by with letting go at the deepest level, attained
asking for alms. through meditation – a cessation Buddhists
Eventually, through deep meditation, call ‘enlightenment’ (in Sanskrit, ‘nirvana’).
Siddhartha came to ‘see it the way it really

46 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 46 22/05/2018 15:01


THE BUDDHIST HEARTLAND map 13

Major event in life of Buddha

H
Early Buddhist religious centre
I
M
A Brahmaputra R.
L
P A N C A L A A Y
Ahichchhatra
A S
(Ramnagar)
Yamun a

Legendary location of Buddha’s


ng S A K YA S
Ga

es descent from heaven by gold ladder


R.
M A L L A Birthplace of Buddha c. 563 BCE
R.

Sankassa Buddha’s teaching centre


Lumbini
Mathura (Sankasya Nagar) Shravasti Buddha’s ‘Great Renunciation’ c. 592 BCE
Kapilavastu
KOSALA

H i ra n y a v a t i R
Kanyakubja Buddha’s place of death c. 483 BCE

i R.
Kusinara

Rap

Ko s
Saketa
(Ayodhya) Gha

ti R
gha
VRJJI

Ga
.
ra

nd
R.

aki
Vaisali (Basrah )

R.
KASI L I C C H AV I
Buddha’s teaching centre ANGA
VAT S A Sarnath M AGADHA .

Brahm aputra R.
G an

R
ges R.

jara
Kausambi Varanasi
(Kosambi) Rajaghra (Rajgir)
R. Nairan Bodh Gaya
Son Site of Buddha’s enlightenment

a R.
Narmad
A
VANG

Tamralipti

Miles
0 100 200

0 100 200 300


B AY OF BENGAL
Kilometers

THE ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM 47

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 47 22/05/2018 15:01


Central to the Buddha’s vision of the way ahead was an order of monks and nuns –

What is Buddhism? known as the Sangha – living on alms and expressing their commitment to radical
transformation by renunciation. In time monasteries were established, together with a
monastic rule regulating the conduct of the Sangha.

The Buddha did not appoint a successor, writings distinguish between being free from
reportedly declaring that the teaching – the all suffering – ‘enlightened’ – and being a
Dharma – should be his successor. However Buddha. A Buddha is more than just liberated
after his death disagreements occurred, from his own suffering; a Buddha is also
initially over the monastic rules. Where such perfectly compassionate. A Buddha also
disputes could not be reconciled, monks in possesses miraculous abilities to help others.
the minority had to leave, resulting in the It takes many lifetimes of spiritual striving
formation of a number of different monastic to become a Buddha. Those who aim for the
traditions. The best known of these – the highest goal seek not just their own freedom
only early Indian Buddhist monastic from suffering and rebirth, but also vow to
tradition extant – is the ‘Way of the Elders’ follow the long path to Buddhahood over
(Theravada), found today in Sri Lanka, numerous rebirths.
Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar (Burma). The Mahayana is the way of those who
In time different doctrinal positions also aspire to become perfect Buddhas. Those
evolved, sometimes followed by identifiable who vow to do so are known as bodhisattvas.
schools. For example, the school known as Over time, the Mahayana elaborated how
Pudgalavada urged that, although the Buddha a Buddha is superior to someone who has
taught ‘not-self ’, there still exists the pudgala, simply put an end to their suffering. Even
something ‘in’ us. Other debates concerned his death was put on in order to present a
who or what the Buddha was. Some claimed ‘skilful teaching’ of impermanence. For the
a Buddha is more extraordinary than people Mahayana, the Buddha – indeed infinite
realize: he doesn’t need to sleep, defecate, Buddhas – are still around, living on higher
or even eat, but does so merely to meet planes – ‘Pure Lands’ – from which, through
human expectations. their compassion and with miraculous
powers, they help those in need. With
Mahayana Buddhism them are advanced bodhisattvas, also full of
The most significant development within compassion and able to help others.
Buddhism, the growth of the Mahayana – Particularly significant in the history of
the ‘Great Vehicle’ – appeared in texts Buddhism in India was the conversion of the
from around the 1st century ce. Mahayana great Emperor Ashoka (3rd century bce),
Buddhism is not a doctrinal school or which gave the religion important imperial
monastic tradition, and it makes no sense patronage – although scholars now reject the
to speak of two ‘schools’ of Buddhism, view that he attempted to make Buddhism
Theravada and Mahayana. Mahayana is the state religion.
essentially a vision of what Buddhism is
really all about.
Mahayana appears first in the Mahayana
sutras, which claim – controversially – to
be the words of the Buddha himself. These

48 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 48 22/05/2018 15:01


BUDDHISM EXPANDS IN INDIA map 14

Ashokan edict
Buddhist centre before and during Mauryan period
IRA Haimavata Buddhist sub-school centres
KASM
Mauryan Empire at greatest extent c. 3 BCE – c.1 BCE

Ind
GAND Taxila sR
HARA Region evangelized by Buddhist mission

u
.
before and during reign of Ashoka
Buddhist Heartland

H
SELEUCID T I B E T
A N P L A T E A U
I
EMPIRE M
R.
A L
us A Y A
Ind S

Ghag h
Gan
Mathura ge
R HIMA
Yam VA N
T H A R T

sR
R. TA

ra
un

.
E aR
D E S . a R.
putr
Prayaga (Allahabad) Pataliputra (Patna) B r a h ma
I N D I A Rajaghra
ada i ka
Sthavirav sangh
Sam AVA N T I
Haimavata M a ha Bodh Gaya
m a ti y VA N G A
a Vidisha (Bhilsa)
Ujjain a R.
mad
Nar Tamralipti
Valabhi
A Mahismati
RANT
A P A M a h a s a s a ka
Ma
M A H A R AS H ham
TRA ad i R .
A

Go
d a va ri R. B AY O F
NG

LI
KA
ARABIAN BENGAL
SEA Krish
na R
.

a
M a h a s a n g hi k

VA N AVA S A
M
MA AHISA
NDA
LA

S I M H A L A D V I PA / L A N K A
Anuradhapura
SIMHALA
Miles
0 100 200 (SRI LANKA)
Mahagama
0 100 200 300
Kilometers
INDIAN OCEAN

W H AT I S B U D D H I S M ? 49

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 49 22/05/2018 15:01


From the time of Ashoka, Buddhism began to travel further, according to tradition

Buddhism Spreads beyond India arriving in Sri Lanka. It later spread into South-East Asia, arriving in China via the
Central Asian trade routes during the early centuries ce, spreading to Korea and
other countries of East Asia, and reaching Japan in the 6th century ce. Buddhism
came to Tibet by various routes, including India and China, probably from about
the 7th century ce. A RAL
S EA

In India itself, for various reasons not yet only by completely letting go of self-reliance
fully understood – but possibly partly due and trusting in the Buddha’s power to save
to the rise of devotional theistic forms can the already-enlightened nature of the
of Hinduism and the impact of Islam – Buddha (a Buddha known here as Amida)
Buddhism declined, almost ceasing to exist shine forth. Humans must let go of the
from about the 14th century ce. egoism that encourages them to think they AF

It is common, but misleading, to speak can achieve anything spiritually worthwhile –


of the Buddhism of China, Japan, and Tibet, including enlightenment – through their
as Mahayana, as opposed to the Theravada own efforts. Being a monk or nun – or even
Buddhism of, for example, South-East meditating – is ultimately an irrelevant
Asia: but as stated earlier, they are not distraction and possible source of egoistic
comparable phenomena. Nevertheless, many attachment.
Mahayana scriptures were transmitted to, A
and usually given unquestioned authority in, Tantra and Vajrayana
China, Japan, and Tibet. Unlike in South- From the beginning Buddhists accepted
East Asia, Buddhists in these countries magic – bringing about desired results
could be expected to express adherence to through the manipulation of hidden forces,
the Mahayana vision as embracing their usually by ritual means such as sacred circles
highest aspirations. (mandalas), utterances of power (mantras),
and visualization. In addition to teaching,
Zen Buddhist monks and nuns might be asked by
Particularly characteristic of East Asian the lay communities that supported them to
Buddhism is the tradition known in perform magic rituals for crops, health, and
Japan as ‘Zen’. Zen – the word is related to children. From early times, Buddhist ritual
‘meditation’ – stresses direct, non-verbal, texts were produced, usually called tantras,
intuitive insight, expressed through arts such and sometimes controversially attributed
as painting, but sometimes it also employs to the Buddha himself. Gradually the more
humour and shock to bring about awakening. disputed aspects of Tantric Buddhism
Also important in Japanese Buddhism were diluted and absorbed into the wider
is the 13th-century tradition of Shinran. Mahayana context of compassion and
For Shinran, the awakening of a Buddha is wisdom. Such forms of tantra are found in
beyond the capability of the unenlightened; Tibetan Buddhism.

50 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 50 22/05/2018 15:01


THE EARLY SPREAD OF BUDDHISM map 15

Miles
Urgu 0 250 500 750
L. Balkhash
M O N G O L I A 0 250 500 750
A RAL Kilometers
S EA

Turfan
Kashgar

.
Ho R
Wan-fu-xiu Beijing

AN
Wu-tai

ang
AN Yarkand Dunhuang R. KO R E A

JAP
ST ow

Hw
I Kyangui
AN Y E L LOW

ll
Kyoto

Ye
GH Luoyang S EA
AF Gandhara Ya
Chang’an Nara
T I B E T

ng
Taxila
H

tze
M Jiu hua

R.
Multan A Shan
L Lhasa O-mei
sR
. Ga NE A Y A S Shan Putuo Shan
du PA L
Kusinara Tiantai E AS T C H I N A
ng
In

Shan
es

Lumbini S EA
R.

Sarnath C H I N A
Re
Sanchi Bodh Guangzhou
dR

INDIA Gaya MYA N MAR


.

A R A BI A N Hanoi
Ellora Ajanta Pagan
S EA P ACIFIC
B AY
Karli Prome
Ratnagiri
OF
B ENGAL Pegu Sukhothai OCEAN
Me

Amaravati Yangon

PH
kong

T H AI L AND S OUTH C HINA


S EA

IL
R.

Kanchipuram Angkor

IP
V I E T NAM

PIN
Saigon

ES
Anuradhapura
SRI
Kandy LANKA

I N D I A N O C E A N

BORNEO MOLUCCAS
Spread of Theravada Buddhism
Spread of Mahayana Buddhism
SU

CELEBES
MA

Spread of Vajrayana Buddhism


TRA

Major Buddhist site


Buddhist Heartland
Area where Mahayana Buddhism started JAVA
Borobudur
Buddhism present by 500 CE

B U D D H I S M S P R E A D S B E YO N D I N D I A 51

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 51 22/05/2018 15:01


During the European colonial period, Western visitors to South-East Asia started to

Buddhism in the Modern World study Buddhism, leading to a more text-based interpretation of the religion in the
West. Meanwhile Asian Buddhism underwent a revival, as it strove to resist Christian
missionary activity.

Sri Lanka, for instance, saw the development the Communist Party of Kampuchea –
of ‘Protestant Buddhism’ – a form of after which Buddhism was systematically
Buddhism that protested against Christianity dismantled. Buddhist temples were razed,
K
but also borrowed elements from it. monks killed, and libraries destroyed. After
Myanmar witnessed a similar revivalist 1979, the people of Cambodia attempted to
A RAL
development. At the beginning of the 20th reconstruct its Buddhist heritage, donating S EA
century, Chinese Buddhism also underwent money and rebuilding wats (temples).
revival, though its impact was lessened by the Buddhism was recognized as the state UZBE
K
growth of secular ideologies. religion in 1989.
Today most schools of Buddhism are
Secular ideologies and present in the West, and new Buddhist
authoritarianism organizations have emerged to meet the G
needs of Westerners. In Britain, for example, AF
In the mid-20th century, Buddhism in
Cambodia, China, Korea, Laos, Tibet, and Theravada Buddhism has a strong presence,
Vietnam was repressed by Communist with monasteries and educational centres
regimes. After the establishment of the catering both for Buddhists from Sri Lanka,
People’s Republic of China in 1949, Chinese Thailand, Myanmar, and for Western K
Communist leaders expected Buddhism converts. Japanese Mahayana schools such
would die away. When it did not, violent as Zen, Pure Land, and Tendai are also
attacks on Buddhist leaders and religious represented – as are newer lay movements
buildings were instigated, particularly during such as Soka Gakkai and Rissho Kosei-kai. ARA
the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Reacting to the suffering of the Vietnam S
British withdrawal from India in 1947 War, the Zen Buddhist Thích Nhat Hanh (b.
gave Communist China the opportunity 1926) tried to apply Buddhist meditation
to invade Tibet, in 1950. In 1959 the practice and teaching to instances of political,
Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, fled the economic, and environmental injustice and
country and China imposed direct rule. suffering in a movement known as ‘Engaged
Systematic suppression of Tibet’s Buddhist Buddhism’. Engaged Buddhists believe
heritage followed, including the looting of meditation and social engagement should
monasteries, destruction of libraries and go hand in hand, and set up meditation
religious images, and execution of monks. centres for laypeople in Asia and the West.
Thousands of Tibetans fled the country, In traditional Asian Buddhism, meditation
mostly going to India, Nepal, and Bhutan, practices were linked with monastic life:
but some travelling as far as Europe and today in Sri Lanka, Thailand, the USA, and
North America, spreading Tibetan forms Europe meditation has become an important
of Buddhism. part of life for laypeople too.
Cambodia gained independence
from France in 1953. In 1975, the capital,
Phnom Penh, fell to the Khmer Rouge –

52 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 52 22/05/2018 15:01


BUDDHISM TODAY map 16

Novosibirsk
R U S S I A N F E D E R A T I O N

KAZ AKHSTAN
Ulan Bator
M O N G O L I A
A RAL RT
S EA Almaty E SE
Urumchi I D
GOB
Tashkent Vladivostock
UZBE S TA N
KIS R GYZ NORTH
TA N KY Beijing
KOREA
TA J I K I S
TA N TAKLA MAK AN Pyongyang
Dushanbe DESERT

N
Seoul

PA
SOUTH

JA
AN
IST Y E L LOW KOREA Tokyo
H AN S EA
G Islamabad
A F Kabul T I B E T C H I N A
H

I
M Chengdu Wuhan Shanghai
A
IS TA N L Lhasa
AK NE A Y A S to Hawaii,
P Delhi PA L Chungking USA
B
E AS T C H I N A
Kathmandu HUTAN S EA
Karachi Taipei

I N D I A Dhaka TAIWAN

MYA N MA R Hanoi Hong


Kong
A R A BI A N Mumbai
B AY
LAOS
P ACIFIC
S E A to Europe, (Bombay)
to USA,

USA,
OF
B ENGAL Yangon T H AI L AND
Europe
OCEAN
Australia (Rangoon) Bangkok
PH

Manila
NAM

CAMBODIA
IL

Chennai
S OUTH C HINA
IP
VIET

(Madras)
Phnom S EA
PIN

to Europe Penh
Ho Chi Minh City
ES

(Saigon)
SRI
Colombo LANKA
to Europe
M A L A BRUNEI
Y S I
to UK, Kuala Lumpur A
Europe
to USA,
Australia

BORNEO
INDIAN OCEAN I
N
D
Theravada Buddhism O
Mahayana Buddhism Jakarta N E S I A
Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism Surabaya
Maharashtra Buddhism Miles
0 250 500
Buddhist emigration and teaching missions
% of Buddhists in population (blue) 0 250 500 750
Kilometers

BUDDHISM IN THE MODERN WORLD 53

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 53 22/05/2018 15:01


Confucianism Stone statue of

Confucianism and Taoism Confucianism is best known for its moral


philosophy, represented by the thinkers
Confucius (551–479 bce), Mencius (371–
Confucius from a
Chinese temple.

c. 289 bce), and Hsün-tzu (fl. 298–238 bce).


Although grounded in religion – the
ancient religion of the Lord-
on-high, or Heaven –
Confucianism gives
primary emphasis to
the ethical meaning of
human relationships.
Confucius
himself is
remembered
as a great
educator,
whose
teaching
centred on
the concept
of humanity
(jen). Yet he
made it clear
that Heaven protected him and gave him Neo-Confucianism
his message. Within a few hundred years of Confucian mysticism, and particularly
B
Confucius’ death, his principles had been the later Neo-Confucianism, tend toward
accepted as the basis for social and political pantheism, as in the thought of Chang Tsai
organization in China, and remained in place (1020–77), which is influenced by both
for more than two thousand years. Taoism and Buddhism. In his mystical vision,
What was an implicitly religious message the entire world is related to him as his
in Confucius becomes explicit in Mencius, own family. Other Neo-Confucian thinkers
who attempted to show how the Way of include Chu Hsi (1130–1200) and Wang
Heaven, the divine power of the cosmos, Yang-ming (1472–1529), whose schools were
could become human nature. If human called respectively ‘the teaching of principle’
nature is correctly cultivated and nurtured, (li-hsüeh) and ‘the teaching of mind’ (hsin-
even the ordinary person can become a sage. hsüeh). Both were concerned with achieving
The third founding father of sagehood: the debate between them
Confucianism, Hsün-tzu, is remembered for concerned how to do this. Chu Hsi believed
his doctrine of ritual action (li). He presents we have to go through an arduous process of
the practical side of Confucian religion, self-cultivation and ethical activity to reach
demonstrating the power of correct ritual jen. But for Wang, only an ‘enlightenment
action to transform the human heart – which experience’, uniting our minds with the mind
is prone to err – into the mind of a sage. of the Tao, can achieve sagehood.

54 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 54 22/05/2018 15:01


TAOISM map 17

R U S S I A N F E D E R A T I O N

M O N G O L I A

Qian Shan
NORTH S EA OF
.

Beijing
Ho R

Heng Shan KOREA


Pyongyang J A PA N
ang

T’ai
Shan Seoul
Hw

R. Qufu SOUTH AN
ow Y E L LOW KOREA JAP
Confucius born 551 BCE S E A
ll

Hua Shan Osaka


Ye

Mencius born c. 371 BCE Tokyo


Taibai Shan Chung Nan Sung
Shan
T I B E T Shan Mao Shan
Wu Tang Huo Shan
Shan Shanghai
Lhasa C H I N A Lu Shan Longhu
K’uai Chi Shan E AS T
C HINA
R Tiantai Shan
Shan K’uo Ts’ang Shan S E A
tze
.

Ya n g Xi Shan
BHUTAN Heng Shan Wuyuan
Wuyi Shan Zhu Xi born 1130 CE
Tamsui Sanshia
Taichung
Xi Jiang R. TAIWAN
Tainan
Goulou Shan
MYANMAR Hanoi P ACIFIC
Irrawad

B AY LAOS OCEAN
OF
B ENGAL
dy R

S OUTH C HINA P HILIPPINE


S EA S EA
Me
.

T HA IL A N D
PH
kong

M A

Manila
VIETN

Bangkok
IL
R.

IP

CAMBODIA
PI

A N DA M A N
NE

Phnom
S EA Penh
S

Bandar Labuan Sandakan


Georgetown Brunei
M A L A Y S I Miri C E L E BE S
Kuala Lumpur A
Sibu S EA
Malacca Kapit Miles
Singapore 0 250 500
Kuching
Pontianak 0 250 500 750
SUM

I BORNEO Kilometers
AT R

N
A

D Taoism present
O Taoism influence historically
J AVA S E A N E S I A
Cao Dai present
Mountain with Taoist association
Major Taoist temple

CO N F U C I A N I S M A N D TA O I S M 55

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 55 22/05/2018 15:01


The Neo-Confucians gave Confucianism But Taoism is not mere passive
a fresh lease of life, offering a new explanation contemplation. The texts of Lao-tzu and
of the Confucian vision that could compete Chuang-tzu were utilized by a later generation
with Taoism and Buddhism. Both Hsi and of religious-minded thinkers, whose ambition
Wang sought the moment when the human was to ‘steal the secret of Heaven and Earth’,
mind would be transformed into the Mind of wrestle from it the mystery of life, and fulfil
Heaven, the state of perfected excellence. their desire for immortality. The goal of the
Taoists was to become immortal (hsien). They
Taoism revived belief in personal deities, practised a
The Tao – a metaphysical absolute – seems to ritual of prayer, explored alchemy, and sought
have been a philosophical transformation of their goal through yoga and meditation.
an earlier personal God. The way it teaches This development in Taoism has been
leads to a union with itself – a way of passive called ‘Taoist religion’, distinguishing it
acceptance and mystical contemplation. Such from the classical philosophy of Lao-tzu and
is the teaching of the great Taoist thinkers, Chuang-tzu. This Taoist religion developed
Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu, about whose lives its own mystical tradition, with stories
little is known – if indeed they ever existed. of amazing drugs and miracle-working

The Hall of Prayer in


the Taoist Temple
of Heaven, Beijing,
China.

56 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 56 22/05/2018 15:01


immortals, levitations, and bodily ascents Syncretism
to heaven. Using early texts, the Taoist The great Chinese religions have always
religionists created long-lasting institutions. influenced each other’s development. Both
Some of these groups still exist, tracing Taoism and Confucianism borrowed a
their roots back to Taoist movements of great deal from Buddhism, with the Taoists
the late 2nd century ce. With their esoteric reforming their religious structures, founding
teachings, orthodox teachers, and social monasteries, and writing a canon of sacred
organizations, they resemble other great texts in imitation of Buddhist models.
religious traditions, seeking unity with the The heyday of religious cross-fertilization
Tao that cannot be named. in China came during the Ming dynasty
A major goal of all forms of Taoism was (1369–1644), when many religious thinkers,
the quest for freedom: freedom from political such as Lin Chao-en (1517–98), sought to
and social constraints; a profound search for harmonize the three great religions, declaring
immortality; and a search for oneness with that they are one. Lin sought to combine
the Tao – the principle of the universe, and the best features of Taoist and Buddhist
a pattern for human behaviour, but never a meditation with a Confucian sense of shared
conscious god. concern for fellow creatures, in a uniquely
Throughout its history, the masters of Chinese religious synthesis, still present in
Taoism have sought, in various ways, to China today. Most religious Chinese are a
become part of the ‘self-so-ness’ of reality. mixture of all three great religions: Chinese
Taoist religion recognizes that life is a syncretism has been so successful at blending
beautiful – and frightening – panorama of traditions that few in China today would
transformations. In their mountain retreats think it odd to be simultaneously Buddhist,
and lake pavilions, Taoists have been poets Taoist, and Confucian.
of nature.

CO N F U C I A N I S M A N D TA O I S M 57

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 57 22/05/2018 15:01


Part 4
Judaism

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 58 22/05/2018 15:01


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 59 22/05/2018 15:01
According to the Old Testament account, Abraham’s grandson Jacob (or ‘Israel’) had

Origin of the Jewish People twelve sons – the original ‘children of Israel’. These forefathers of Israel’s twelve tribes
spent their last years and died not in Canaan – the Promised Land – but in Egypt,
driven there by famine.

Jacob’s son Joseph became a senior for almost a year. Here God gave Israel the
administrator in Egypt and died there. ‘A moral law, the Ten Commandments. God
new king, who did not know about Joseph, also gave instructions for the construction of
came to power in Egypt’ (Exodus 1:8) and the a ‘tabernacle,’ a sacred tent situated in a large
Egyptians now used Israelites as slave labour. courtyard, first erected on the anniversary
An Israelite named Moses – brought up of the Israelites’ escape from Egypt. Soon
in the Egyptian court – fled for his life to the after, the tabernacle was dismantled and the
Sinai Peninsula. Near Mount Sinai God spoke Israelites left Sinai.
to him from a burning bush, telling him he Forty years elapsed between the exodus
must rescue the people of Israel and bring from Egypt and the entry into Canaan, many
them to the promised land. Moses was to go spent at the oasis of Kadesh-Barnea in the
to pharaoh and demand his people’s release. Wilderness of Zin. But the children of Israel
Pharaoh refused his demands; only after also wandered south to Sinai again, then
ten terrible plagues did he finally consent north and east through the rugged Edomite
and let the Israelites go. The route taken is territory south of the Dead Sea. From here
debated. The traditional route runs from they could have followed the King’s Highway,
Ra’amses to Succoth, then north across the but the Edomites would not allow them
Red Sea, or ‘Sea of Reeds’, before turning across their territory, so they had to travel
south-east to Mount Sinai. The location around it. To the north the Amorites blocked
of some places visited by the Israelites are the King’s Highway but were defeated in
equally uncertain. The traditional site of battle. Attempts by the King of Moab to
Mount Sinai is Jebel Musa; however, some overthrow Israel were also thwarted.
scholars place it at Jebel Helal, north Sinai. Israel now camped on the plains of
In this case, the Israelites would have taken Moab, close to the River Jordan, and Moses
the Way to Shur, via Beersheba. addressed his people for the last time, before
It took the Hebrews about three months dying at Mount Nebo (or Pisgah).
to reach Mount Sinai, where they stayed

60 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 60 22/05/2018 15:01


THE EXODUS map 18

Traditional route of the Exodus


Acco
Alternative route of the Israelites
Enemy fortress

N
Pyramid site
Mountain

A
Road

Jordan R.
MEDITERRANEAN

A
Miles
0 20 40
S EA AMMON

N
0 20 40 60
Kilometers Jericho
Heshbon
Ashdod Death

A
Mt Nebo of Moses
(Deuteronomy 34)
Hebron
Gaza DEAD Dibon

C
Arad SEA Arnon R.
NIL E D ELTA Beersheba
MOAB

( W ok
Zoan (Tanis) Pelusium

B ro
ad
a
Wa y o f t h e S e e
o f l-A Wilderness

i
Israelites leave Egypt
(Exodus 12) Eg ris h
yp ) of Zin
Ra’amses (Avaris) t
G o s h e n Succoth ur Punon
Sh
Pibeseth (Bubastis) Pithom y to Jebel Helal Kadesh-
Wa
Barnea
E G Y P T Wilderness Moses sends 12
spies to Canaan

Bitter
of Shur (Numbers 13)

ay
On (Heliopolis)

ighw
Lakes

g’s H
Wilderness

K in
Noph (Memphis)
Water too bitter
of Paran
to drink (Exodus 15)

Ezion-Geber
Marah ?
Elim ? Sinai
R.

Peninsula
Nile

GULF

Hazeroth ?
OF

Kibroth-
F A QAB
SUE

hattaavah ?
Alush ?
Z

M I D I A N
GULF O

Rephidim ? Taberah ?
Israelite conflict
with Amalekites Mt Sinai
(Exodus 17-18) (Jebel Musa,
Mt Horeb)
Moses receives
the Law
(Exodus 19-20)

RED S EA

ORIGIN OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE 61

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 61 22/05/2018 15:01


For a period after the Israelites occupied Canaan, they were governed by a series of

The Kingdom of Israel military leaders known in the Old Testament as ‘judges’. The greatest of these was the
prophet Samuel.

However Samuel displayed little military The Ark of the Covenant was now moved to
prowess, and during his rule the this city.
neighbouring Philistines captured the David’s capture of Jerusalem finally
Israelites’ holy Ark of the Covenant – the completed the Israelite conquest of
chest from the wilderness tabernacle that Canaan. Having built a palace for himself
contained the sacred tablets of the Ten in Jerusalem, David was anxious to build a
Commandments. house – or temple – for God. But a prophet
When Samuel grew old and appointed his forbade it, telling David that his son would be
sons judges, they took bribes and perverted allowed to build this temple.
justice. Neighbouring states were already David now consolidated his kingdom:
kingdoms, and it was thought that Israel’s uniting his people, breaking the power of
military failures were due in part to her lack the Philistines, and expanding his frontiers
of leadership and unity. The elders of Israel with the Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites,
demanded that Samuel appoint a king to and Arameans. He extended his kingdom to
govern them. include lands from Dan in the north to the
Brook of Egypt in the south, and his empire
Saul stretched much further, to the Euphrates river
Israel’s first king began his reign full of in the north and to Ezion-geber on the Gulf
promise. Saul was rich, tall, young, and of Aqaba in the south. Edom, Moab, Ammon,
popular. He led Israel successfully against and Aram all became his vassal states, forced
the Ammonites. In a series of assaults on to pay tribute.
Philistine garrisons, he achieved several
victories over the old enemy. With the help Solomon
of his son Jonathan, King Saul recorded a At his death, c. 970 bce, David handed over
notable victory at Michmash. to his son Solomon an empire that 50 years
Successful campaigns in the south earlier would have been unimaginable, and
prepared the way for Saul’s successor, David, whose size would not be seen again under
to enlarge his realm. However, Saul’s jealousy Israelite rule. Solomon built a temple in his
of David – to the point of trying to kill capital city, Jerusalem, where a complex
him – marked a turn in his fortune. He and system of animal sacrifices was carried out.
Jonathan died when Israel was defeated by
the Philistines at the Battle of Gilboa.

David
David had been declared heir to the throne
during Saul’s lifetime, but spent the final years
of Saul’s reign in flight from him. He began
his own reign in the city of Hebron, but later
moved his capital to Jebus (captured from the
Jebusites), changing its name to Jerusalem.

62 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 62 22/05/2018 15:01


THE KINGDOMS OF SAUL, DAVID, AND SOLOMON map 19

Aleppo Eu
ph
ra t e s
R.

.
Orontes R
Tiphsah

H A M A T H

CYPRUS Hamath

Arvad
E A

Tadmor
S

R.

tes
Oron
Byblos
N

N
B
E A

HO
- R R.
ni

a
Lit
I D

ASCUS
DAM
N

TH

M-
BE

A
A R Abana R.
A

Sidon
Damascus
R
R

rpar R.
Tyre Dan Pha
E

Kedesh CAH
AA
T

Hazor
I

Acco
D

Kinnereth
E

Megiddo L
E
M

Beth-shan Ramoth-gilead
T
A
Sea

R
the

E
Jordan R.
f
Way o

Jabbok R. A M M O N
S

Shechem
Joppa
E
I

Rabbah
Gibeah
(Amman)
D

Ashdod Jerusalem
Gath Hebron
Gaza H D EAD
S EA
N

Raphia Gerar D A B
OA
R

U Beersheba M Kir-hareseth
E

J
( W ok
B ro

T
ad o

Zoar
f E -A ri
ie

S
l

gy sh) Tamar
pt
A
O M

Kadesh-barnea
E D

EGYPT
y
Highwa
g ’s
Kin

Miles Saul’s Kingdom


0 25 50 100
Ezion- Territory conquered by David
geber
Sinai 0 25 50 100 150 Solomon’s area of influence
G ULF OF Kilometers
A QABA

THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL 63

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 63 22/05/2018 15:01


The story of the early development of

Jewish Dispersions Judaism is much debated. The narrative


based on the biblical books of Ezra
and Nehemiah has been important
THE JEWISH EXILES

for the development of Jewish self-


understanding, but is not necessarily
founded in historical reality.

In 586 bce Nebuchadnezzar II, king of the


neo-Babylonian Empire, destroyed Jerusalem
and took many its people as captives to
Babylon, along with much of the population
of Judea.
In Babylon there was now a community Ta
of  people who considered themselves ICIA
Aspendos CIL
Judeans, or Jews. They believed there should Sele
be a single temple in Jerusalem where
religious sacrifice could be carried out. In
an attempt to maintain continuity with the
past, houses of assembly, ‘synagogues’ in
Greek, were set up in Babylon. Here prayer, CYPRUS

singing or chanting, teaching, and reading


and discussion of the Torah took place.
During this period, scribes also first appeared.
Based in the synagogue, their role was to M EDITERRANEAN S EA S
Ty
understand the Torah and interpret its rules
for the contemporary situation. This ‘guild of
scholars’ seems to have evolved into the rabbis Sama
of later rabbinic Judaism. Shec
In 539 the army of Cyrus II ‘the Great’ Jerusal
of Persia captured Babylon. According to
Alexandria
the book of Ezra, he permitted the Jews to
Daphne
return from exile and rebuild their temple
in Jerusalem. When Jewish religious leaders
returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the Temple,
the city was apparently established as a temple E G Y P T
community led by the priests. S i n a i

Elephantine
Nile R.

Miles
0 50 100 150

Syene
RED
0 50 100
Kilometers
200 SEA

64 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 64 22/05/2018 15:01


map 20

Caesarea

M T
S L. Van C ASPIAN
S SEA
R U
U
A
T
L. Urmia
Z Hyrcania
Tarsus S Y R I A Harran
A
G
R
ICIA Carchemish A O
CIL Arpad Pethor
Gozan S
S
S
Seleucia Y Nineveh M
Aleppo R T
Antioch I Arbela
A Resen

S
Orontes R.

Tiphsah Rezeph Calah M E D I A


M
E
Eu p

Hamath Ashur
YPRUS S P E R S I A
hra

Qatna O
P
tes

Tigris

Riblah
R.

Hara
O

Ava
R.

Byblos Nehavend
T
A
M
IA

Sidon Damascus Sippara Ecbatana


Tyre Mahoza
Hazor
Cutha
Babylon
Jordan R.

Samaria Nippur
Sura IA
Shechem
A B YLON Susiana
Jerusalem Rabbah B Sepharvaim
(Amman)
Pumbedita E L A M
Ellasar
Uruk
aphne

S i n a i City where Jews settled after dispersion


Probable area of settlement of Jewish exiles
ARABIAN PERSIAN
Exiles from Canaan to Assyrian captivity 701 BCE
DESERT GULF
Exiles from Canaan to Babylonian captivity 586 BCE
Return of exiles under Sheshbazar & Zerubbabel c. 538, 521 BCE
Return of exiles under Ezra & Nehemiah c. 458 BCE
RED Dispersal after revolt against Persia 359–328 BCE
SEA Jewish exiles after Assyrian and Babylonian conquests 701, 586 BCE

JEWISH DISPERSIONS 65

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 65 22/05/2018 15:01


THE JEWISH DIASPORA c. 400 ce

N ORTH
SEA

BRI TA NN I A
Noviomagus
Colonia Agrippina (Cologne)
Bonna (Bonn)

D nie p
Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
Durocortorum R.

er
G E R M A N
Lutetia I A Castra Regina SARMATIANS

R.
Cenabum Aureliani

Rhine
ATLANTIC N O R I C U M Danube R
Vesontio .
OCEAN GALLIA PA N N O N I A
Olbia
R A ET I A
Mediolanum
Lugdunum (Lyons) (Milan) Aquileia
Ravenna DACI A
Rhône R.

AQU I TA N I A Genoa
Tolosa (Toulouse) DA L MAT I A
Salonae
Elimberris Massilia T
I Oescus
Serdica MO ESI A
B LAC
(Marseilles)
Arelate Roma A IA Sin
(Rome) L E DON T H R ACI A
I C
Tarraco Neapolis (Naples) A Barium M AThessalonica Byzantium BITHYNIA
HISPANIA (Tarragona)
LUSI TANIA

Salernum Tarentum Larisa Nicomedia


Ancyra
Emerita Augusta Thebae Pergamum G A L A T I A Caesa
Panormus Corinth ASIA
E D Patrae
Corduba B A E TI C A M I T Ephesus C
Carthago Carthago E SICILIA Sparta A I AAthens
Nova R
Syracusae
A CH Miletus Tarsus
Gades Cirta
(Cadiz) R
Caesarea A
NUMIDIA Hadrumetum C R E TA
N
Volubilis M A U R E TA N I A E CYPRUS
A
N
Cyrene S E A
Oea C
Berenice
Alexandria Je
L I B YA
Pelusium
A F R I C A Memphis

City with Jewish community by 300 CE AEGYPTUS


City with large Jewish community by 300 CE
N il

City with Jewish community by 400 CE .


eR

RED
Area of Jewish settlement by 300 CE
Area of Jewish settlement by 400 CE Miles
0 100 200 300
Roman Empire by c. 300 CE
Jewish dispersion routes 0 200 400
Kilometers

66 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 66 22/05/2018 15:01


Jewish dispersion (the ‘Diaspora’) started

The Jewish Diaspora


map 21
in the 6th century bce, when many Jews
opted to remain in Babylon, where they
had been taken as exiles. From this time
on, Jewish communities ‘of the Diaspora’
grew all around the Mediterranean Sea,
focussing their religious observance
around the local synagogue.

During the Roman period, Jewish hopes


rose for a messiah who would rescue his
people from the Roman occupiers and restore
Do the Judean state. In 66 ce the Jews rose in
nR
revolt against Rome. Rome retook Jerusalem
pe

R. .
r

TIANS and destroyed its temple in 70 ce in a


crushing defeat. No longer would Jerusalem
Tanais
Olbia be the destination of Jewish pilgrims or the
centre of Jewish cultural life.
Galilee now became a centre of Jewish
AL A N S life. Johanan ben Zakai (30–90 ce) founded
C A a school at Jamnia, or Yavneh, Galilee, where
B LACK S EA U C
A S ‘rabbi’ (master) became the formal title for
C AS

Sinope U
S teachers. The school at Jamnia began to
PIA

Amisus
BITHYNIA function as a Jewish council, discussing the
N

PONTU S Trapezus
meaning of the Jewish law. It is also held
SEA

Ancyra ARM E NI A
m G A L A T I A Caesarea to have founded Rabbinic Judaism: the
IA CAP PADOCIA belief that, on Mount Sinai, Moses – the
s C ILICIA first rabbi – received from God the written
Tarsus M Nisibis PA RT H I A NS
Antiochia ES
O
law (the ‘Torah’, or Pentateuch) and an oral
PO
SYRIA explanation (the ‘oral Torah’).
Tigris A
TA

Ecbatana
The Jewish community in Egypt
M

CYPRUS
Dura
I

Palmyra
R.

Hulwan
remained quite strong, but Greek culture –
Damascus Babylon Ctesiphon
A
Caesarea
and Hellenistic Judaism – was on the wane.
Euph

Sura
In Babylon, the ruler of the Jews of the
a Jerusalem
ra

es
Diaspora was known as the ‘exilarch’, or
t

R.
elusium A R A B I A
his
head of the exiles, a hereditary position
recognized by the state.
PTUS The conversion of the Roman Emperor
Constantine to Christianity in 313 ce was
N il

. inauspicious for Jews. Although Judaism


eR

RED

was never actually proscribed, life for Jews


SEA

became increasingly difficult.

THE JEWISH DIASPORA 67

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 67 22/05/2018 15:01


In the 7th and 8th centuries ce Islam arose

Judaism and the Rise of Islam and spread with extraordinary rapidity.
Muslim Arabs conquered Syria and
Palestine in 634, defeated Persia in 637,
THE JEWS AND ISLAM c. 750 ce

FRANKISH Metz

.
eR
Paris EMPIRE

Rhin
and took Egypt soon after. In 711 they
invaded Spain and set up a Muslim state. A T L A N T IC
OCEAN
Within a single century, many Jews had

Rhône R.
come under Muslim rule.

BY
Z
T

I
For most Jews, living conditions improved. A
Rome L
They also shared in the intellectual ferment of Y
the Arab world. Arabs translated and studied Toledo SARDINIA
the learning of Greece, Persia, China, and
SICILY
India. Drawing on these resources, Muslim
and Jewish scholars made great advances Cadiz Kairouan
in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy,
chemistry, medicine, and philology. One of Tlemcen M E D I T E R
Fez
the greatest Jewish philosophers, Sa’adiah MAGHREB Tripoli Barca
ben Yosef Gaon (882–942), grappled with the
problem of faith and knowledge, discussing
proofs of God’s existence.

Babylon
In Babylon the authority and importance A F R I C A
of the Gaons – heads of the Babylonian
Jewish academies – grew immensely
after 600 ce. The Gaons ensured that the
Miles
Babylonian Talmud – religious documents 0 100 200 300 400 500

compiled in the Babylonian academies 0 100 300 600


Kilometers
between the 3rd and 5th centuries ce –
became more widely accepted.
Islamic conquests by 750 CE
In the 9th century a gaonate was Main areas of Jewish settlement
established in Palestine, and was recognized City in Islamic area with large Jewish community
as authoritative by Jews in Spain, Egypt, Other city
and Italy. Under the Gaons collections Khorasan road: main trade route between
Baghdad and Samarkand, and overland route
of Talmudic laws were made, synagogue to China
poetry written, prayer books drawn up, and
the text of the Bible fixed and annotated.
Most influential were the Responsa Variants from rabbinic Judaism arose.
(Hebrew, She’elot ve-Teshuvot – questions In 8th century ce Babylon, Anan ben David
and answers), questions on matters of (c. 715–c. 795) and the Karaite movement he
religious practice sent to the Gaons, possibly founded rejected the Talmud and
debated in the academies, and answered in all forms of oral law, such as the Mishnah,
their name. taking a stand on the Bible only. It seemed the

68 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 68 22/05/2018 15:01


map 22

A R AL
BY

S EA
.
ZA

D anube R B L AC K S EA
NT

L E C AS P IA N
IN

Y Constantinople SEA
EM Khiva
PI Bukhara
RE Tabriz Samarkand
CILY Merv
xu

O
s R.
Haran Kazvin
Tus Balkh
Mosul Rayy
Antioch
Ti g r i s

Aleppo Nishapur Maimana


Hamadan
E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A Damascus Herat
R.

Nihawend
Eu

Tyre hr Ghazni
ate Baghdad
p

ipoli Barca s R.
Jerusalem

.
Indus R
Pumbedita Ahwas
Damietta Ramleh Kufa
Fustat Basra
Shiraz Kerman
EGYPT
PE

RS
Messene
IA
N Kis
Taima
Nil

GU
eR

LF
A
.

Khaibar Daybul
Aswan Medina
Muscat
R ED
S EA

Mecca ARABIA

I N D IA N
Zebid
OCEAN
Mocha

Karaites might divide the Jewish world, but


the movement rapidly dwindled into a sect,
which survives today in small numbers.

JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF ISLAM 69

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 69 22/05/2018 15:01


From the 10th century onwards, anti-

Anti-Semitism and Messianism Jewish sentiment and violence became


increasingly frequent and bitter in
Christian Europe. Lies about the Jews

circulated, and the Jews were expelled


from England in 1290, from France in
1306, and from Spain in 1492.
N ORTH
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the SEA
Muslim Ottoman Empire was in the
ascendant, expanding into Europe until
halted at Vienna in 1683. Most Jews now
lived either in Christian Poland–Lithuania or ENGLAND A
NETHE
under the Ottoman Empire, where conditions RLA
London
were generally less difficult, but where they Colog
were still subject to arbitrary acts by rulers. In Se
ine
Christian Italy, severe penalties were imposed R.
on the Jews in this period. Paris
From the early 17th century, Jews began ATLANTIC
to move from Poland and the Ottoman OCEAN FRANCE
Empire into the cities of the West, where
there was growing recognition of the value of

Rhône R.
Jewish commercial activity.
The Protestant Reformers on the whole Toulouse
favoured Jews, but Martin Luther moved
Eb
from tolerance to anti-Jewish abuse. The rite ro
R. Barcelona
of non-Sephardic Jews in Europe, especially
S PA I N
PORTUGAL
Germany – known as ‘Ashkenazi’ – dates to
the 16th century, and has its own German- Toledo
M
Jewish dialect, Yiddish.
Anti-Jewish riots continued, but the
authorities now more often protected the Jews,
regarded as useful for their money-lending
and trading. In Ukraine and Poland many Jews
were killed in massacres in 1648 and 1649.
In the late 17th century a number of
Jewish messianic movements arose. The most
Western Ashenazi Jews
important centred on Shabbetai Zevi (1628–
Eastern Ashkenazi Jews
1716). The Jewish community regarded his Sephardic Jews
followers with suspicion and the episode Italian Jews (=Roman)
resulted in disillusion with messianism. Major Jewish migration
Yeshivah (Rabbinic school) Miles
Jews had been expelled from England Karaite centre
0 1

in 1290, but began to return in 1656 during Kabbalist or Sabbataean centre 0 100
Kilome
Cromwell’s protectorate.

70 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 70 22/05/2018 15:01


JUDAISM IN 16th AND 17th CENTURY EUROPE map 23

RTH
B A LT I C Birzai
EA SEA Vilna
Königsberg
Hamburg PRUSSIA Grodno Trakal Minsk
P O L A N D Sluck R U S S I A
Poznan
ND Amsterdam Berlin Brest-Litovsk
Pinsk
NETHE
RLANDS
Warsaw
Dresden Lublin
Cologne Breslau Ludmir
Frankfurt Kiev
Rh

eR Prague Lvov Ostrog


in

Se . Luck Dn Don R.
ine Krakov iep
R. Dan Nickelsburg Derazne er R.
u
Paris Augsburg be R .
Strasburg Halicz
Munich Vienna
Budapest
ANCE AUSTRIA HUNGARY
Padua
Pavia Venice
Rhône R.

Cremona Mantua Bucharest


Belgrade
use Livorno B LACK S EA
IT Ulcini
Sofia
A O
Rome L T Edirne
rcelona Y T Constantinople
Salonica O
Naples M
A
N
M E M
E D P I R
I Smyrna (Izmir) E
T
E
R
R
A Euphr
N a
tes

E
A
R.

N
S E A Safed

Jerusalem

A F R I C A Cairo

E G Y P T
Miles
0 100 200 300 400 500
N il

0 100 .
RED
eR

300 500 700


Kilometers SEA

ANTI-SEMITISM AND MESSIANISM 71

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 71 22/05/2018 15:01


The writings of Moses Mendelssohn (1729–86), a German Jewish philosopher, led

Jewish Emancipation to the development of a Jewish Enlightenment, the Haskalah, that attempted to
introduce the Jewish community to contemporary European thought and culture.

In 1781 the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph equal rights were not granted until 1890.
II, issued an Edict of Toleration. In 1789 Emancipation was achieved in the Austro-
the revolutionary National Assembly of Hungarian Empire in 1867. But in Eastern
France declared that no religious opinion Europe Jewish life continued much as it had
should be persecuted. In 1806 the Emperor during previous centuries. In Russia it took
Napoleon even summoned an Assembly of the 1917 Revolution and World War I for the
Jewish Notables. Jews to attain full citizenship.
These progressive tendencies were largely Emancipation also aided the assimilation
suppressed after the Napoleonic wars, but of Jews – and sometimes their cultural
the rights of Jews continued to be asserted. disappearance, when they merged through
By 1871 all restrictions had been removed in marriage into the surrounding society.
Germany, and Jews were declared full citizens Counter-intuitively, with increased
of the newly unified Reich. The Scandinavian tolerance came anti-Semitism, based on
countries had only small Jewish populations, pseudo-scientific ideas of racial stereotypes. AT
but full emancipation was accomplished From the 1880s, anti-Semitic movements O
in 1848 in Denmark, 1851 in Norway, and were promoted in Germany and France
1865 in Sweden. by such as Wilhelm Marr (1819–1904), Mile
0

The Netherlands was traditionally tolerant who insisted on the racial distinction of 0
Kilo
and Jewish rights had been established there Germans and Jews, and invented the term
early. Great Britain also had a longer history ‘anti-Semitism’.
of tolerance; throughout the 19th century
the Jewish community enjoyed commercial Interior of the Old Portuguese Synagogue, Amsterdam, known
prosperity and civil respect. Yet full as the Esnoga or Snoge, opened in 1675. PO

Lisb

72 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 72 22/05/2018 15:01


JEWISH EMANCIPATION 1789–1918 map 24

FRANCE State NORWAY 1851 St Petersburg


Stockholm
1791 Date of emancipation 600
104,000 Jewish population late C19
Jewish enlightenment centre
Jewish ghetto SWEDEN 1865
3,900
DENMARK 1848 B A LT I C
3,500
N ORTH Copenhagen SEA Mos
SEA Königsberg Vilna
NETHERLANDS
1796 E lb
104,000 e R. PRUSSIA 1850 RUSSIA 1917
GREAT BRITAIN 5,111,000
1890 Vist
Amsterdam ula R Warsaw
200,000 .
GERMANY 1871 Breslau
London Zamost’ye
587,000
Rh

BELGIUM 1830
15,000
ine

Zhitomir
R.

Frankfurt
Se Prague
ine Tarnopol
R. Mainz Prossnitz
Paris
ATLANTIC Vienna
Da
OCEAN Loir
e R. nub
e R. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 1867
1,951,000
SWITZERLAND 1874 Odessa
FRANCE 1791 13,000
Miles
0 100 200 300
104,000 ROMANIA
Venice 1918
Milan 266,700
R h ô n e R.

0 200 400
Kilometers Bordeaux
Bucharest
SERBIA 1878
ITALY 5,700 B LACK
1848-70
Marseilles 43,000 BULGARIA 1878 SEA
Eb
O 31,200
ro Rome T
R. T Constantinople
PORTUGAL SPAIN 1968 O
1910 Naples M
500 Madrid A
N
Tagus R. E
Lisbon GREECE M
P I
R E
M E D I T E R R SICILY
A
N
E
A N
Tangier S E A

J E W I S H E M A N C I PAT I O N 73

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 73 22/05/2018 15:01


At the start of the 19th century many East

Judaism in the USA European Jews in rural areas lived in a


close-knit community known as a shtetl,
a stockaded, traditional culture shut off
THE ORIGINS OF JUDAISM IN THE USA

from the secular world. However, as large


numbers began to emigrate to the United
States, initially attracted by business and
Seattle
social opportunities, Orthodox leaders WASHINGTON
such as Rabbi Samson Hirsch (1808–88) MONTANA

encouraged them to involve themselves in


the culture of the Western world. Portland
Albany
IDAHO
Reform Judaism originated in Germany, OREGON
where the 18th century Enlightenment WYOMING

stressed reason and progress. Abraham


Geiger (1810–74) and others declared that
modern Jews could no longer accept the
Torah as revealed truth, and encouraged Denve
changes in ritual law and worship. Dietary NEVADA UTAH
COLORAD

R.
laws were abandoned, prayers were translated

do
ora
from Hebrew into the vernacular, and San Francisco

Col
synagogue worship was changed. Some Jews
CALIFORNIA
even began to worship on Sunday rather than
Shabbat (Saturday, the traditional Jewish
Sabbath). More than 660,000
Jews in 2015
ARIZONA NEW
MEXICO
In the USA, the Reform movement Los Angeles
Phoenix
was led by Isaac Wise (1819–1900), who in San Diego
1875 set up the Hebrew Union College in
Cincinnati, Ohio, the main seminary for
training Reform rabbis. P ACIFIC
OCEAN

Miles
0 100 200

0 100 200 300


Kilometers

74 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 74 22/05/2018 15:01


map 25

State with more than 10% Jews in 1990


Jewish community, with date established
Cities with over 40,000 Jewish population in 2015

NORTH DAKOTA L. Superior

A MINNESOTA

Mi
ssi WISCONSIN MAINE
s
SOUTH DAKOTA Minneapolis- L. Huron
sip

St Paul MICHIGAN
pi

VT

L. Michigan
R.

L. Ontario NH
NEW YORK
OMING
2015 more than
Detroit 2 million Jews MS Boston 1852
Miss

L. Erie
NEBRASKA IOWA Chicago 1837 PENNSYLVANIA CT RI (Jews from Surinam and Curacao)
Newport 1680
ouri R.

Hebrew Theological College


(’Skokie Yeshiva’) founded 1922 Cleveland Newark New York Russian, Polish,
1839 Pittsburgh 1852 1654 Ukranian, Lithuanian
ILLINOIS immigrants 1880-1924
Denver OHIO
INDIANA Philadelphia 1747
Cincinnati 1824 NJ Romanian immigrants
MD
Hebrew Union College Baltimore 1842 1900-14
COLORADO KANSAS set up 1875: centre of DE Polish,
Reform Judaism Central European Hassidic
WEST immigrants 1933-45
MISSOURI
Louisville VIRGINIA
KENTUCKY
1832 VIRGINIA
German and
Austro-Hungarian
Ark immigrants 1820-60
an NORTH
sa ARKANSAS CAROLINA
OKLAHOMA s R TENNESSEE
.
pi R

. US emigrants
to Israel
issip

NEW
MEXICO Atlanta SOUTH
Miss

CAROLINA
Dallas-Fort Worth MISSISSIPPI ALABAMA
GEORGIA Charleston 1750
(Spanish and Portuguese Jews)

TEXAS Savannah 1733


ATLANTIC
LOUISIANA

Houston New Orleans FLORIDA


OCEAN
1802

South African,
South American,
Israeli immigrants
1960-80
Fort Lauderdale
GULF OF M EXICO Miami

JUDAISM IN THE USA 75

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 75 22/05/2018 15:01


In 1933, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), leader

The Holocaust of the NSDAP – Nationalsozialistische


Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the Nazi Party –
was appointed German Chancellor
JUDAISM AND THE THIRD REICH

Germany in 1937
amid the economic disaster of the ‘Greater Germany’ in 1942
Territory occupied by Germany
Great Depression. Once in power, the
Axis power or occupied by Axis power
Nazi Party suspended the constitution, Jewish Ghetto
eliminated other political parties, Concentration camp or slave-labour camp
outlawed strikes, and staged book- Extermination camp
Site of mass murder
burnings. In 1934 the role of Hitler’s European borders in 1937
elite security force, the SS, was expanded
under Heinrich Himmler (1900–45), NORTH
taking over many police functions as well SEA
as running the concentration camps.

Jewish academics and professionals lost their NETHERLA


115,00
jobs, Jewish shops were boycotted, and Jews IRELAND
106,00
30,000
were prevented from participating in civic 5,000 UNITED KINGDOM
4,500 340,000
life. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws deprived 350,000
W
BELGIUM Amsterd
Jews of their citizenship and criminalized 44,000
London 24,000 Herzoge
sexual relationships between Jews and non- 30,000
Jews. In 1938 Jewish communal bodies were Mechele
Alderney LUX.
put under the control of the Gestapo secret Sei 3,000
ne Drancy 700
police. On 9 November 1938, ‘Kristallnacht’, R.
500
Paris
the Nazis organized an onslaught against
the Jewish population, killing, looting, and ATLANTIC
setting fire to homes, schools, shops, and OCEAN FRANCE
270,000
250 synagogues. 83,000
180,000
When the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939,

R h ôn e R.
at the start of World War II, Germans forced
Jews to hand over jewellery, clear rubble,
Gurs Les
carry heavy loads, and scrub floors and Noë
lavatories with their prayer shawls. After the Eb
ro
German invasion of Russia in 1941, the Nazis R.

began carrying out what they euphemistically


Madrid
termed ‘the final solution to the Jewish PORTUGAL
3,000
problem’: the extermination of European 4,000 SPAIN
5,000
Jews. Following Hitler’s orders, mobile task 3,500
forces called Einsatzgruppen – killing squads
under the command of Reinhard Heydrich
(1904–42) – began systematically to murder Miles
the Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe. Of 0 100 200 300

4,500,000 Jews who lived in Soviet territory, 0 100 200 400


Kilometers
more than half fled before the invasion;

76 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 76 22/05/2018 15:01


map 26

GERMANY Country
FINLAND 365,000 Jews pre-war
2,000 125,000 Approx number of Jews killed
1,800 85,000 Numbers of Jews post war
NORWAY
2,000 SWEDEN
870 10,000
1,000 22,000 Klooga ESTONIA Vaivara
5,000
1,000
500
LATVIA
94,000 R U S S I A
TH 80,000 Riga
12,000
A DENMARK Kaiserwald
7,000 B A LT I C LITHUANIA
120 160,000
5,500 SEA 135,000 Kaunas
Moscow
20,000
Vilna
NETHERLANDS
115,000 Stutthof Ponary
106,000 Neuengamme POLAND Minsk
30,000 Ravensbrück 3,275,000
Bergen-Belsen 4,565,000 Bialystok Trostenets
Sachsenhausen
(with Lithuania) Treblinka
Westerbork Berlin 120,000 Warsaw
Niederhagen
BELGIUM Amsterdam Bernburg
Chelm
Lodz
44,000 Mittelbau Gross Rosen Sobibor
24,000 Herzogenbusch Dora Lublin
Buchenwald Majdanek
30,000 GERMANY Czestochawa Krakow- Belzek
Rh

Mechelen 365,000 Theresienstadt Sosnoviec Plaszow Brody Kiev


ine

LUX. 125,000 Prague Auschwitz Lvov Babi-Yar


R.

3,000 85,000 Strysnow


Drancy Flossenberg Brno
700 Natzweiler- CZECHOSLOVAKIA
. 500 Mauthausen Nitra 360,000 – 277,000 Bar
aris Struthof
Dachau an 55,000 Balanowka
D

AUSTRIA ub e
Edineti Bogdanovka
180,000 – 70,000 R. Budapest
SWITZERLAND 16,000 HUNGARY Odessa
CE 20,000 440,000 – 300,000 ROMANIA
00 35,000 200,000 800,000
0 264,000
00 Jasenovac 300,000
R h ôn e R.

Gospic
ITALY Zemun
50,000 Sajmiste YUGOSLAVIA
7,500 AD 75,000
Les Milles 52,000 B LACK SEA
Sofia BULGARIA
RI 60,000
oë AT
IC 50,000
10,500
SE 46,500
A
Rome

GREECE
75,000
65,000 TURKEY
10,500 75,000
M E 80,000
D
I
T
E
R
R
A
N
E
A
N
S E A

T H E H O LO C AU S T 77

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 77 22/05/2018 15:01


those who remained were concentrated in began to campaign to bring such a Jewish
restricted areas of large cities (‘ghetttos’). state into existence.
Einsatzgruppen rounded them up, took Earlier in the 19th century, Jewish
them to the woods, and machine-gunned pioneers had already started to return to
them to death. In early 1942, senior Nazis Palestine, living mostly in four holy cities:
met at Wannsee, on the outskirts of Berlin, Hebron, Jerusalem, Safed, and Tiberias. Some
to coordinate plans for the murder of up to such ‘Zionists’ ignored the problem that there
11 million Jews. Central to their strategy was was already an indigenous Palestinian Arab
the network of death camps at Chelmno, population; others believed Jews and Arabs
Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, could co-exist and develop the land together.
Majdanek, and Belzec. At Auschwitz, the The need for a state where Jews
largest of these camps, the first gassing had could escape persecution was drastically
taken place in September 1941. demonstrated by the Holocaust. As the
By September 1942, Germany had enormity of Nazi crimes was revealed, the
conquered most of Europe. But as the Zionist cause gained new momentum. Since
murder of Jews continued, resistance grew. 1920, Palestine had been governed by the
In the Warsaw ghetto, the Jewish Fighting British, under a League of Nations mandate.
Organization retaliated. However 7,000 Jews In May 1947, the United Nations decided
lost their lives in the fighting, and 30,000 that Palestine should now be partitioned
more were deported to Treblinka. The into a Jewish state and an Arab state. On
murders continued across Europe. In the 14 May 1948, the independence of the
summer of 1944 the last deportations took Jewish State of Israel was declared by the
place, when more than 67,000 were sent from United Nations. Palestinian refugees fled
the Lodz ghetto to Birkenau. Most victims their homes in Israeli-held territory, many
were sent to the gas chamber, but some were sheltering in refugee camps. The Israeli War
chosen for inhuman medical experiments. of Independence continued throughout 1948,
By the end of the war, more than 6 million and conflict re-occurred in 1954, in 1967,
Jews had lost their lives in the most terrible and 1973.
circumstances imaginable. Following the Six Day War (1967),
In the years since, the Jewish community between neighbouring Arab states and Israel,
has struggled with the religious perplexity Israel took possession of territories previously
of the Holocaust: where was God at Jewry’s allotted to Arab countries by the United
time of dire need? These terrible events Nations. Since that time, these ‘occupied
are commemorated today on Holocaust territories’ have roused Jewish-Arab tensions,
Memorial Days and in Holocaust memorials with Israel seeing them as vital to their
and museums throughout the world, such as national security, and the Arabs striving to
Yad va-Shem in Israel. regain political dominance.

Zionism
Theodore Herzl (1860–1904), an Austro-
Hungarian Jewish journalist, came to
believe the Jews needed a homeland of
their own as a refuge from the growing
anti-Semitism in 19th century Europe, and

78 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 78 22/05/2018 15:01


THE MODERN STATE OF ISRAEL map 27

Territory allocated to Israel by U.N. 1947 Sidon Damascus


Territory gained by Israel in 1948 War
and 1949 Armistice (Jerusalem divided)
LEBANON
Territory occupied by Israel after Yom Kippur War Tyre
(June 1967) Kiryat Shmona
Territory occupied by Israel after Yom Kippur War
but returned to Egypt by April 1982 GOLAN S Y R I A
H E I G H TS
Territory occupied by Israel June 1982 to June 1985
Syrian territory occupied by Israel in 1987 SEA OF
GALILEE
Egyptian territory occupied by Israel [Gaza] in 1967 Haifa
R.
uk
rm
Miles Ya
0 10 20 30 40

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

A E L
Kilometers Jenin
Netanya

J ordan R.
Nablus
I S R Jabbok R.
A

WEST
S E

Tel Aviv
BANK
Ramallah Amman
N
A

Jerusalem
E

N
A
R
R
I T E Hebron D EAD
M E D Gaza City S EA
A rno n R.
A
AZ

Beersheba
El Arish
Dimona

J O R D A N

E G Y P T Mitzpeh
Ramon

International border
Disputed border
1949 armistice border - ‘Green Line’
U.N. designated International Zone, 1947
SINAI Eilat Security wall built by Israel to divide West Bank
Aqaba (showing built portions c. 2012)
GULF OF AQABA

T H E H O LO C AU S T 79

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 79 22/05/2018 15:01


Part 5
Christianity

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 80 22/05/2018 15:01


Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 81 22/05/2018 15:01
In 40 bce Herod the Great, who had been military prefect of Galilee and joint tetrarch

Palestine under the Herods of Judea, was made ‘king of the Jews’ by the Roman senate. Soon after, the Parthians
invaded Syria and Palestine and installed their own king. However, Herod gradually
reconquered his kingdom, and in 37 bce captured Jerusalem, executing Antigonus,
the last of the Maccabean priest-rulers. Thereby he secured the throne for himself
until his death in 4 bce, when the kingdom was divided among his three sons.

Although a Jew by religion, Herod was very governor or ‘procurator’ then ruled Judea until
unpopular. He strongly supported Roman 41 ce. Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and part of
policy, even erecting shrines to pagan Transjordan from 4 bce to 39 ce, while Herod
gods. As well as building several cities and Philip ruled the northern regions until 34 ce.
fortresses outside Jerusalem, Herod made The Decapolis was a confederation of
major additions to the city, such as the ten cities formed after the Roman general
Temple Mount, the Antonia Fortress, and Pompey’s campaign (65–62 bce). It gave
the Upper Palace. In 19 bce reconstruction protection to its Gentile citizens, who were
of  the temple commenced, work that mainly Greek-speaking Roman soldiers,
continued almost until 70 ce, when the against both militant Jews and Arabian tribes.
temple was again and finally destroyed, this
time by the Romans.
Upon the death of Herod, Palestine
became a province ruled by his sons as
‘tetrarchs’, provincial rulers subject to Rome.
Archelaus, ‘Herod the Ethnarch’, ruled Judea
from 4 bce to 6 ce, when he was exiled by Remains of the aqueduct built under Herod the
the Romans for misgovernment. A Roman Great at Caesarea Maritima.

82 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 82 22/05/2018 15:01


PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST map 28

Ab
Sidon aR

an
Herod the Great’s Kingdom (till 4 BCE) I T U R E A .
Tetrarchy of Herod Philip Damascus

A
Tetrarchy of Herod Antipas

I
Tetrarchy of Herod Archelaus 4 BCE–CE 6; Mt Hermon

C
then under direct Roman administration
S Y R I A

I
Free cities Tyre Litani R.

N
Paneas
(Caesarea Philippi)

E
Site linked with Jesus A

G
U
in New Testament LA

P H
Other settlements in Jesus’ time NI TRACHONITIS
Main area of
Jesus’ ministry TI
City/fortress/palace constructed S
by Herod the Great
Ptolemais L E EChorazin Julias

A
City/fortress/palace constructed I Capernaum

NE
by son of Herod the Great Bethsaida

TA
Road Genessaret SEA OF
GA

BA
Magdala GALILEE Gergesa
Sepphoris
Miles Mt Carmel Tiberias AURAN
0 10 20 30
Nazareth k R. ITI S
r mu
0 10 20 30 40 Mt Tabor Ya
Kilometers
Nain
D E
Caesarea C
S E A

Maritima Scythopolis A
Pella P
SAM Salim O
AR L
IA Aenon

I
Home of Jewish
A N

sect: Samaritans

S
J ordan R.

Samaria Gerasa
N E

Neapolis Sychar
Jabbok R.
R A

Antipatris Mt Gerizim
E R

Joppa
A

Phasaelis
E
I T

Lydda Philadelphia
E

Archelais
E D

?Emmaus Jericho
Jamnia
M

Jerusalem Bethphage
Site of Jesus’ last week, Julias Livias
Azotus crucifixion and resurrection
Qumran
Bethany Centre of
Bethlehem
Ashkelon J U Essene sect
D E
Anthedon A Herodium
Agrippias Machaerus
Hebron
Gaza DEAD
SEA Arnon R.
Gerar
I D U M E A Masada
Besor

Areopolis E A S T E R N
A D E S E R T
E
Br

ok T
A
o

B
N A

PA L E S T I N E U N D E R T H E H E R O D S 83

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 83 22/05/2018 15:01


The Christian faith began in Palestine,

Judaism and the Early Church regarded by the Jews as their ‘promised
land’. Jesus, the apostles, and the earliest
converts to Christianity were all Jews.

Po R.
After his death, Jesus’ followers in
Jerusalem formed a community of
believers that soon spread, as their
message was carried by itinerant
preachers and missionaries. At first DA
DR LM

A
all believers were Jews, but they were IA AT
I TI
C IA
soon joined by Gentiles and were T SE
A A
called variously followers of ‘the Way’, Rome L
‘Christians’, and ‘Nazarenes’. I
Paul possibly A
travelled to Spain

In 62 ce the death of James, leader of the Puteoli


Jerusalem believers, led some to leave
the city, weakening its Jewish Christian
community. During the First Jewish-Roman
War (66–73 ce), Rome destroyed Herod’s
T YRRHENIAN
temple and sacked Jerusalem. The destruction SEA
of the temple ended the priesthood and
Rhegium
sacrifice system, and proved a lasting disaster M SICILIA
for Judaism. E Syracuse
The Christian community probably D
I
left Jerusalem just before the siege, taking T
refuge at Pella, beyond the Jordan, though E
some believers later returned. Christian R
R
communities founded by the apostles near the A
Mediterranean coast survived, as did those
at Capernaum and Rimmon in Galilee, and
Cochaba in Gaulanitis.
After the failure of the Jewish Bar Kokhba
Revolt (132–35 ce), the Sanhedrin council
moved to Jamnia in Galilee. Many Jews were
killed, expelled, or sold into slavery after the
rebellions against Rome. This, combined
with the conversion of pagans, Samaritans,
and Jews, gradually resulted in a Christian
Jewish diaspora C1 CE
majority in Palestine. By degrees, Christianity
Christian concentration C1 CE
separated from Judaism over several Paul’s 3rd missionary journey
generations and Christian missionaries Paul’s journey to Rome
directed themselves increasingly to Gentiles Borders of Roman Empire A F R I C A
in the Holy Land and abroad. Christian church/house-church C1 CE

84 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 84 22/05/2018 15:01


JEWS AND CHRISTIANS IN THE 1st CENTURY ROMAN EMPIRE map 29

be R.
Danu

DA
LM B LACK S EA
AT
IA
A MOESIA
O N I
E D T H R A C E
A C
M Philippi IA
Thessalonica HYN
BIT PONTUS
Apollonia s R.
MYSIA Haly
Troas
Assos
Pergamum

A
Mitylene

TI
Thyatira Pisidian
AEGEAN
LA
Smyrna Philadelphia Antioch C A P PA D O C I A
SEA Ephesus G A
Corinth Athens Hierapolis Iconium
ium Zabdizene
I A Magnesia
Colossae Derbe
HA Aegina Miletus Tralles Lystra CILICIA
e P
Attalia A M P H Y Edessa
AC

Cos LIA Tarsus


Patara L Y C I A Perge
Myra Antioch
Seleucia Euphr
ate
s
R S YR IA

R.
R CRETA Salmone Salamis
A Lasea CYP RU S
N Paphos
E
A N Damascus
S E A Sidon
Tyre
Cyrene
Ptolemais
Caesarea Pella
Jaffa Samaria
Azotus Jerusalem
Alexandria
L I B YA

AEGYPTUS
.
Nile R

Miles
R I C A 0 100 200

0 100 200 300


Kilometers

J U D A I S M A N D T H E E A R LY C H U R C H 85

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 85 22/05/2018 15:01


Christianity rapidly spread beyond

The Early Growth of Christianity Palestine into the entire Mediterranean


area. Within 15 years of the resurrection,
a Christian presence was established in
THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY BY 325 ce

Rome itself. Imperial trade routes made N ORTH


possible the rapid traffic of ideas as well SEA
as merchandise.
York
In the eastern Mediterranean, three centres Lincoln
of the Christian church rapidly emerged.
B R I TA N N I A
The church became a significant presence
in its original heartlands, with Jerusalem London
Colonia
BELGICA
emerging as a leading centre of thought and GERMANIA
activity. Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey, Augusta
was already an important area of Christian Rotomagnus
Rheims

R.
(Rouen)

Rhine
expansion and the destination of several of
the apostle Paul’s letters. Expansion in this ATLANTIC G A L L I A
region continued, with the great imperial OCEAN
Lugdunum
city of Constantinople, modern Istanbul, Medi
Vienne (M
a particularly influential centre. Growth Bordeaux Valence
also took place to the south, with the city A I
NI NS
I TA Arelate A R B ONE
of Alexandria emerging as a stronghold of U N
A Q Narbonne
Christian faith. Marseilles
CO RS
With this expansion, new debates opened
up. While the New Testament deals with the
ANIA
Barcelona
H I S P A N I A Tarragona
relationship of Christianity and Judaism, S
LUSIT

the expansion of Christianity into Greek- Toledo


speaking regions led to debates about how M E D
Christianity related to Greek philosophy. Carthago
Nova Carth
Christian growth and expansion was not ICA
ET
BA Hippo
without problems. The ‘imperial cult’, which NUMIDIA
regarded worship of the Roman emperor
as demonstrating loyalty to the empire, N I A
R E T A
M A U
was strong in the eastern Mediterranean,
and many Christians were penalized for
worshipping only Christ. The spread of
Christianity regularly triggered local
persecutions: for example the suppression
under the Emperor Decius (249–51), which A F
was particularly vicious in North Africa.
Christianity was not officially recognized Miles
as a legitimate religion by the Roman state 0 100 200 300 400 500

until 313 ce, when Constantine, a recent 0 100 300 500 700
Kilometers
convert, was joint emperor.

86 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 86 22/05/2018 15:01


map 30

Metropolitan See C2 CE
Site of church by C2 CE
Site of church by C4 CE
Christian presence by 45 CE
Christian presence by 100 CE
Christian presence by 185 CE
Elb Christian presence by 325 CE
e R.
Border of Roman Empire c. 300 CE

Colonia Agrippina
GERMANIA
Augusta Treverorum (Trier) Dn
iep Don R.
Regensburg (Regina Castra) er R
heims Dn .
R.

ies
ter
Rhine

Da R.
nub
RAETIA e R.
NORICUM
PA
NN DACIA
ON
num Mediolanum Aquileia IA (LOST 270)
nne (Milan) Mursa
nce Singidunum
IS Ravenna D
S A
NEN L Tomi
late
NARB
O Pisa Florence M
A MOESIA
B LACK
Salone T
I A SEA
I

arseilles
T

L
A

CO RS I CA Rome I Sinope
Adrianopolis
A MACEDONIA Y N I A
elona Philippi T H R A CIA Constantinople B I T H Trebizond
a Naples Thessalonica PONT
S A R D IN IA U S
GALA ARMENIA
Larisa MYSIA A S I A TIA
LY

Ancyra
CA

Carales Nicopolis NI
M Smyrna Sardes
O

E D A CONTESTED
I Athens CAPPADOCIA
T Corinth Ephesus Laodicea WITH
Carthage E SIC ILI A AC HA I A
Iconium PARTHIA
R CILICIA
Syracuse Sparta Perge Edessa
Hippo R LYCIA
A Nisibis ADIABENE
MIDIA N RHODES
Hadrumetum Patara Antioch
E Salamis ME
A CRETA SO
N CYPRUS Palmyra PO
West of line TA
Latin-speaking SYRIA Dura-Europos MI
S E A
East of line A
Greek-speaking
Seleucia-
Barca Ctesiphon
LIB Jerusalem
YA Alexandria
Tanis

A F R I C A Memphis
AEGYPTUS ARABIA

RED
N il

.
eR

SEA

T H E E A R LY G R O W T H O F C H R I S T I A N I T Y 87

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 87 22/05/2018 15:01


Christianity had become the official

Christianity Becomes Official religion of the Empire by the end of


the 4th century. This new relationship
between Christian church and Christian

emperor led to turbulent church–state N ORTH JUT ES


relations in the later Roman Empire and SEA
throughout the Middle Ages. P I CTS
F RI S
A NG
SA X
The 4th and 5th centuries were marked by
H I B ER N I A
a series of controversies over the identity of
Jesus Christ and the doctrine of God. A series B R I TA N N I A TH
of councils strove to resolve these differences
and to ensure the unity of the Christian F R A NKS
church throughout the Roman Empire. Most
ANNI
important of these councils was Chalcedon Rheims ALEM

R.
in e
(451), which set out the definitive Christian 496: Clovis converts from
Arianism to orthodoxy

Rh
B R ETO N S
interpretation of the identity of Jesus Christ
as ‘true God and true man’. ATLANTIC
The fall of the Roman Empire, OCEAN

N G D O M

R hô ne R.
Medio
traditionally dated to 476, led to widespread (M
insecurity in the Western church. In the Arelate
East the church continued to flourish, as the (Arles)

K I
Eastern Empire, based at Constantinople, SUEVIC B ASQ U ES
was largely unaffected by the attacks from KINGDOM

I C
431
northern European invaders that eventually

H
ended Roman power in the West.

T
O
The disruptions within the Roman Empire

G
Toletum M
S E

I
during the 5th century led to a growing rift (Toledo) I D I
V T
between the Western and Eastern churches. E
V A N D
Increasing tension over political as much as A L
Car
Hippo Regius K
theological issues led eventually to the ‘Great Augustine d. 430 I N
G
Schism’ between East and West in 1054.
The removal of Rome as a stabilizing
influence gave a significant new role to the
church in the West, and particularly to its
monasteries. The founding of Benedict of
Nursia’s first monastery at Monte Cassino
around 525 marked the beginning of the
monastic movement which was to become
so influential in medieval Europe. The pope’s
role as an increasingly powerful political force Miles
also began to emerge during this period. 0 100 200 300 400 500

0 100 300 500 700


Kilometers

88 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 88 22/05/2018 15:01


CHRISTIANITY IN THE 4th AND 5th CENTURIES map 31

Border of Roman Empire in 481


Territory under Arian ruler
J UTES
Area with Monophysite churches
Area of Catholic Christianity
FR ISIANS Nestorian church
ANGLE S
SAXO NS Patriarchal seat
Elb Church Council or synod
eR
. City with church
TH Tribal movements
S L AVS
U
RI
NG
IA

ANNI
ALEM
NS
R.

Lauriacum LOM B ARDS


in e

s from
doxy (Enns)
Rh

Da
nub
e R.
H U N S A L A NS

Mediolanum Aquileia
(Milan) GE P IDS

Arelate

CA
(Arles) O S T R O G OT H I C B LACK S EA

SP
IA
K I N G D O M Sardica 451: 4th Ecumenical Council:

N
against Monophysites

SEA
Rome 381: 2nd Ecumenical Council
431: Alaric sacks city
Constantinople
Chalcedon
Nicaea Sebaste A RM E N I A N
325: 1st Ecumenical Council: Valarshapat
against Arians C HUR C H 491: Monophysite synod
E D Manzikert
I Ephesus
T 431: 3rd Ecumenical Council:
E against Nestorians JACO B I T E
R
A L R Perge Tarsus C HUR C H Edessa
Carthage A
egius K N Nisibis
I N Euph
e d. 430 E Antioch r P E R S I A N
G A
Tigris
at

D N E M P I R E
es

O
R.

M S
R.

E A Damascus

Seleucia
C Alexandria Jerusalem
O P
T IC
CHU
RC
H

Oxyrhyncus
A R A B S
N il e R.

Ptolemais RED
SEA
Ethiopian Church moves towards Monophysites

C H R I S T I A N I T Y B E CO M E S O F F I C I A L 89

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 89 22/05/2018 15:01


WORLD RELIGIONS 600 bce–600 ce: AN OVERVIEW

Iona 563 Vercovicium


Whithorn 360 (Housesteads)
York
Clonard 520 Deva (Chester)
BR ITA IN
Canterbury 596 Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) Dn
ie p
Augusta Treverorum (Trier) er R
. Vo
C A R PAT H lg
A TL ANTIC Marmoutier 372 R O M A N E M P I R E
IAN
MT

aR
S

.
O CEAN GAUL Vercelli 360 Modena D
Alba Iulia
Bologna an CAU
ube CA
R. B L AC K S E A SU
ITALY Serdica S

C AS
Massilia Rome M
T
(Marseilles) THRACE Constantinople

PIAN
SPAIN ARMENIA

S
415 Monte Nola 394 Chalcedon 400
Casino 529

S EA
Nicaea Caesarea 360 Mara
M E D I T Athens Gushnasp
E
Carthage R R Merv
A N Ephesus Bact
E A Antioch M E S Nisibis 325
OPO Rhagae
Thagaste 388 N TA M
S E A Salamis 335 IA
Cyrene Sidon Dura- Hamadan
Leptis Magna Europos Ctesiphon
Alexandria Jerusalem P ER S I A
Wadi Natrun 320 Bethlehem 386
Scetis 330
EGYPT Nil M
S a h a ra eR

R ED
.
D e s e r t
SEA
A R A B I A
Mainly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE
Significantly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Eleph
Jewish centre 500 BCE ALWA
A R A BI A N
Jewish settlement by 600 CE AXUM SEA
Mainly Christian by 300 CE
Mainly Christian by 600 CE ETHIOPIA
Mainly Zoroastrian 500 BCE–600 CE
Sassanians introduced Zoroastrianism after 226 CE
Mahayana Buddhist formative area 0–300 CE
Mainly Buddhist by 300 BCE
Mainly Buddhist by 600 CE
Confucian and Daoist from 300 BCE
Shinto area
Early Christian monastery + date
Christian Patriarchal see in 600 CE
Hindu holy site in 600 CE
Mithraic site 0–300 CE
Zoroastrian fire temple Miles
0 200 400 600
Buddhist sacred site 300 BCE–600 CE
Mountain linked with Daoism 0 200 400 600 800
Kilometers

90 AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

Atlas of World Religions_INS_Fortress.indd 90 22/05/2018 15:01


map 32

SH
AN Gobi Desert
EN
Qian
TI Yellow R
.
Tun-huang Jiuquan Yungang
Marakanda
Wu-tai Shan Kunlun Kaesong
Merv Khotan
Bactra Wangwu Kyongju JAPAN
LUN MOUNTAINS
KUN Kyoto
Chang’an Hua Gongxian LaoY E L LOW
Tibetan Nara
H

Taxila Song Yamato


Plateau Zhongnan SEA
I

Longmen
.
Indus R

Wu Tang Shan
L TIBET Huo
A

Pingdu Mao
A Lhasa R. Putuo Shan
Y t z e Lu Tiantai Shan
A Brahmaputra R.
Ga Lumbini
S
O-mei Shan
Ya n g CHINA
Mohenjo-Daro Kusinara Heng Xi Kuocang
ng

Pataliputra
es
R.

Sarnath Deoghar
Bodh Gaya Lingjiu Luofou
Sanchi
I N D I A Nanhai
Pagan
Ellora
Elephanta Karli Prome
PYU
R A BI A N Aihole Pegu P ACIFIC
Am