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 Prepared by Nesi Zakuta

◦ Dogus University
 Industial Enginering Faculty
What is Mobbing
• It was described as animal behaviours in 1960’s.

by Kondrad Lorenz

• It was described as behaviours of children in 1970’s

by Dr. Peter Paul Heineman

• It was described as group violence between adults in 1980^s

by Dr. Heinz Leymann

In theory:

Mobbing is conduct that cannot be objectively justified by a

reasonable code of conduct, and whose likely or actual cumulative
effect is to threaten, undermine, constrain, humiliate or harm another
person or their property, reputation, self-esteem, self-confidence or
ability to perform.
(Tim Field Foundation 2015)

For me:

Pestering the life

out of someone or some
3 Sides of Mobbing

Victims Mobbers Watcher

Types of Mobbing In Business

• Vertical from above (by employers or superiors)

• Vertical from below (by a lower hierarchic position)

• Horizontal or among peers (among workers with similar hierarchic


• Planned or strategic (within a deliberate corporate strategy aimed

at excluding one or more employees)

• Double mobbing (in the workplace and family).

The Common Personalities of Mobbers

• Over Controller

• Coward and Neurotic

• Hungry for more power

• Poisonous and not holding back to do some cheating actions

• Antipathetic

• Love to gain enemy

• Searching for selfish fun while bored

The Common Personalities of Victims

• Insecure Personality

• Lower Peer Acceptance

• "Different" in Some Way

• Physically Weak

• Quiet and non-communicative

• Make no compromises of
working principles and values
Trigger Actions

• If the target is competent, popular or successful.

• If the target has integrity or otherwise characteristics that

the bully perceives as a threat to their own status.

• If mobber has fearing that the target expose negative

aspect of his/her activities.
How would you understand you are
The Process of Mobbing

1) Systematic nature of harassment that are carried out habitually and

continually for at least six months.

2) Tendency to unarm the victim, putting him/her in situations in which

they feel impotent and incapable of controlling their daily work
activities, depriving him/her of all points of reference and stability.

3) Ruining the victim’s reputation, which can strongly destabilise

his/her psychological equilibrium.

4) Compromising the victim’s work performance ,so he/she is not able

to use their skills properly , thus he/she finds him/herself in
positions where he/she risks being blamed or making mistakes
which can damage the company, him/herself or third parties.
More Detaily;

Phase 1(stepping stone phase) Normal workplace conflicts remain

constantly unresolved, thus becoming ‘the norm’ and growing in
intensity. It is not yet a case of actual mobbing.

Phase 2 (Labelling) The victim is labelled from the moment in

which he/she has to behave defensively. During this phase, the
victim starts to experience health problems with psychological

Phase 3(Growing) The mobbing becomes a real case and the

personnel office gets involved.

Phase 4(Ending) The victim can be moved or subjected to minor

tasks, forced to take time off or undergo psychological treatment
or even quit and go into early retirement.
Different ways of Mobbing

• Discrediting
• Making you feel untrusted
• Knowingly, giving you a job,you cant complete at a given period.
• Hiding Info from you
• Ignoring you and isolating you from group
• Reduction of authority
• Spreading rumors
• Humiliating
• Emotional Ebuse
• Harrassment
The effects of Mobbing for victim
• Stress
• Depression
• Trauma
• Hopelessness
• Anger
• Sensitivity
• Obsession( not being able to stop thinking about
the experience in all its detail)
• sweating, shaking, panic attacks
• forgetfulness
• poor concentration
• skin problems
• Tiredness, exhaustion, sleeplessness, nightmares,
waking early, headaches and migraines
• Aches and pains in the joints and muscles
The effects of Mobbing for Business
• Sickness absenteeism

• Increased staff turnover rates

• Reduced productivity

• Griavance and ligitation cost: sevarance pay

• May put your business in trouble legally

Some numbers about mobbing

• A research over 9000 employee in USA showed that,%15

or male employees and %45 of female employees faced
with mobbing at previous 2 years.

• %10-15 of suicide situations caused by mobbing in


In Turkey,
• %40 of employees face with mobbing.
• %58 of victims are male and %42 are female.
• %86.72 of mobbing situations are vertical from above.
How to prevent from Mobbing

For companies,

• Constantly monitor mobbing risks

• Managing them with any necessary changes or moving people to new

For victims,

• Become aware of the problem and the fact that it is not your fault
• Do not invest your life into your work.
• Get professional help about it if possible.
• Try to control your feelings.
What to do:

Put your health before anything else

Try not to allow your stress
Document everything
Keep memos, emails and other documents that are evidential of
Especially if you get bullied in private, consider using a pocket voice
recorder (smartphone) to obtain a verbatim transcript.
Think and operate strategically
Focus your attention on what you can do and are doing.
Always act reasonably
Seek but do not depend on support from other managers or trade union.
Seek independent support from neutral third parties.
Equip yourself with your employer's policies and procedures, and make
sure that YOU follow them, and encourage others to do the same;
Be 100% fair and reasonable, even when standing your ground;
Always maintain your dignity and be polite, even in the face of rudeness.

ALO 170
What can you do if one of your employees is under
such a trouble?

• Do not ignore it but do not make decisions based on rumours.

• Do not try to understand what drives the bully's behaviour. Concentrate on
their actions rather than psychological causes.
• Use HR professionals and occupational psychologists.
• Use external specialists.
• Be prepared to dismiss an employee that bullies others.
• Leave no doubt in your employees' minds that it is always safe to speak out.
• Listen very carefully to the complainant
• Put your employees' health before anything else
• Follow policies and procedures
• Be 100% fair and reasonable
• If bullying is occurring, do not make excuses for it - it will happen again and
be worse next time.
Protective Actions All Around The World

• It’s legal crime in scandinavian countries.

• Germany added mobbing to collective labor agreement

• In france, penalty is 1 year imprisonment and 1.500 euro

• In Switzerland, perpetrators are fired.

• In Italy, mobbing is seen as a occupational illness

Protective Actions In Turkey

Turkish criminal law – 94. article:

takes criminal action against mobbing and punnish the mobbers
by prison sentence from 12 months to 3 year.

6098 numbered law of obligations- 417. article

Takes necessary protective measures and provide the rights of mobbing
Protective Actions In Turkey

Ceza Kanunu'nun 94. maddesi ; "Bir kişiye karşı insan onuruyla

bağdaşmayan ve bedensel veya ruhsal yönden acı çekmesine, algılama veya
irade yeteneğinin etkilenmesine, aşağılanmasına yol açacak davranışları
gerçekleştiren kamu görevlisi hakkında 3 yıldan 12 yıla kadar hapis cezasına
hükmolunur…." Bu suçun işlenişine iştirak eden diğer kişilerde kamu
görevlisi gibi cezalandırılır. Bu suçun ihmali davranışla işlenmesi halinde,
verilecek cezada bu nedenle indirim yapılmaz.”

6098 sayılı Borçlar Kanununun 417. Maddesinde, işçinin hem kişiliğinin,

hem de yaşam ve vücut bütünlüğünün korunmasına yönelik olarak düzenleme
yapılmıştır. Maddede, işveren-işçi hizmet ilişkisinde işçinin kişiliğini korumak,
saygı göstermek, işyerinde dürüstlük ilkelerine uygun bir düzeni sağlamak,
özellikle işçilerin psikolojik ve cinsel tacize uğramamaları ve bu tür tacizlere
uğramış olanların daha fazla zarar görmemeleri için gerekli önlemleri almakla
Any Questions?