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# ALGEBRA II

DE-QI ZHANG
(Professor of Mathematics; Office: S17-0608)

Contents

## 1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Revision of Group Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) . . . . . . . . . 21
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 44
6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) . . . . . . . . . . 57
7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) . . . . . . . . . 64
9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) . . . . 77
12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) . . . . . . . . 82
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) . . . . . 85
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) . . . . . . . 88
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) . . . . . . . . . . . 94
16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) . 102
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) . 107
18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

iii
1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts 1

• Textbook:

## QA162 Dum 2004 (CL; U town); QA162 Dum (Sci)

• Reference book1:

## Authors: Biran Hartley and T. O. Hawkes

London, Chapman & Hall, 1970 (1991 Reprinted). QA251 Har (Sci)

• Reference book2:

## Boston : Addison-Wesley, 2003. QA162 Fra 2003 (Sci)

• Prerequisites:

Department’s description:

## (MA2202 or MA2202S) and (MA2101 or MA2101S)

Lecturer’s description:

## Group: Binary operation. Inverse. Identity. Group axioms. Subgroup and

coset. Cyclic group. Abelian group. Normal subgroup. Quotient group.
Group homomorphism. Group action: orbit, stabiliser. Group isomorphism
theorems (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th = Correspondence). Product of groups.
2 1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts

• Syllabus

Department’s description:

The objective of this module is to provide the essentials of ring theory and
module theory. Major topics: rings, ring isomorphism theorems, prime and
maximal ideals, integral domains, field of fractions, factorization, unique fac-
torization domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains, factorization
in polynomial domains, modules, module isomorphism theorems, cyclic mod-
ules, free modules of finite rank, finitely generated modules, finitely generated
modules over a principal ideal domain.

## Sections 3 - 18 (= Dummit - Foote, Chapters 7 - 12)

• Assessment:

(1) 30% from 60-minute common test which will be held (covering Lecture
Notes §1 - §9 and Tutorials 1 - 5) at S16-0304 during the lecture
time on Mon 4:10pm - 5:10pm, 18th Mar 2019. Students who are
absent from the test without an MC will be given 0 mark for the test.
A makeup test will be arranged for students with MC, but will be on
different topics/sections. The makeup test will be in reading week.

(2) 10% from 5 home works in tutorial weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. Due day:
Monday 6pm of the respective weeks. HW should be slipped inside my

## Late submission will not be accepted!

(3) The remaining 60% from the final exam in April/May 2019.
2 Revision of Group Theory 3

## 2 Revision of Group Theory

2.1. Notation for proper subset; standard sets

## A subset A1 of a set A is a proper subset of A, if A1 6= A. In this case, denote

A1 ⊂ A.

Z = {· · · , −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, · · · }
(the set of integers)

Z≥0 = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . }
(the set of nonnegative integers)

N = {1, 2, 3, · · · }
(the set of natural numbers or positive integers)

Q = {m
n
| m, n are integers, n 6= 0}
(the set of rational numbers)

## Definition 2.2. (Binary operation) Let S be a nonempty set. A binary oper-

ation ∗ on S is a map
∗ : S × S −→ S

(s1 , s2 ) 7→ s1 ∗ s2 .
So we denote by s1 ∗ s2 the image ∗(s1 , s2 ). We use (S, ∗) to signify that S is a set
with a binary operation ∗.

## Definition 2.3. (Group; Homomorphism; Isomorphism) A group (G, ∗) is a

set G together with a binary operation ∗ satisfying the three axioms below:

## (G1) G has an identity eG (or simply e), i.e.,

g ∗ eG = g = eG ∗ g, for every g ∈ G.
4 2 Revision of Group Theory

## (G3) Every g ∈ G has an inverse g 0 , i.e. an element g 0 ∈ G satisfying

g 0 ∗ g = eG = g ∗ g 0 .

## (1) A map ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group homomorphism (or simply a homomor-

phism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e., if

## (2) A homomorphism ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group isomorphism (or simply an

isomorphism), denoted as

ϕ : G1 → G2 ,

if ϕ is bijective.

## (3) We say G1 and G2 are isomorphic, denoted as

G1 ∼
= G2 , or G1 ' G2 ,

if there is an isomorphism ϕ : G1 → G2 .

g1 ∗ g2 ∗ g3

## which could be interpreted as (g1 ∗ g2 ) ∗ g3 or g1 ∗ (g2 ∗ g3 ). The two different

interpretations are the same, thanks to (G2).

(2) If two groups G1 , G2 are isomorphic to each other, we may ‘identify’ them.
2 Revision of Group Theory 5

## Definition 2.5. (Abelian = Commutative group) A group (G, ∗) is abelian

(or commutative) if ∗ is commutaitve, i.e. if

g1 ∗ g2 = g2 ∗ g1 , for all gi ∈ G.

## Notation 2.6. (Multiplicative (resp. additive) group, identity, inverse)

Let (G, ∗) be a group. Let g ∈ G.

g −1 .

## Such a standard notation is used especially when the binary operation ∗ is

denoted as ×, as in the cases (GLn (R), ×) and (R \ {0}, ×).
When ∗ is denoted as ×, (G, ×) is usually called a multiplicative group,
and (its multiplicative) identity eG is most likely denoted as 1G or simply
1.

(2) When ∗ is denoted as +, as in the case (Z, +), (G, +) is usually called an
−g

## to denote the (additive) inverse of g ∈ G; the (additive) identity eG is

most likely denoted as 0G or simply 0.

## Definition 2.7. (Subgroup) Let (G, ∗) be a group and H ⊆ G a nonempty subset.

H (or (H, ∗)) is a subgroup of G, denoted as

H).

## (S2) (H, ∗) is a group.

6 2 Revision of Group Theory

## Theorem 2.8. (Equivalent subgroup definition theorem) Let (G, ∗) be a

group. Let H ⊆ G be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

## (1) H ≤ G, i.e., (H, ∗) is a subgroup of (G, ∗).

(2)
h1 ∗ h2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H, and

h−1 ∈ H, ∀h ∈ H.

## Here h−1 is the inverse of h regarded as an element of G.

(3)
h1 ∗ h−1
2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H.

Here h−1
2 is the inverse of h2 regarded as an element of G.

## Notation 2.9. (Generating set of a group) Let (G, ∗) be a group, and g ∈ G.

(1) Denote
hgi := {g n | n ∈ Z}.

## Here (when n > 0) g n = g ∗ g ∗ · · · ∗ g (repeat n times).

Exercise. Show that hgi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup
generated by g (cf. Exercise below, or 1-generator subgroup theorem ??).

## {g1n1 ∗ g2n2 ∗ · · · ∗ grnr | r ∈ N, gi ∈ S, ni ∈ Z}.

Exercise. Show that hSi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup
generated by the subset S.

## When S = {g1 , . . . , gr }, write hSi as hg1 , . . . , gr i. Thus h{g}i = hgi.

2 Revision of Group Theory 7

## (3) Suppose that (G, +) is an additive group. Then (when n > 0) g ∗ g ∗ · · · ∗ g =

g + g + · · · + g = ng (repeat n times). So

hgi = {ng | n ∈ Z}

## Definition 2.10. (Cyclic group and its generator) A group G is cyclic if

G = hgi for some g ∈ G. Any a ∈ G such that G = hai is called a generator of G.

Definition 2.11. (Subgroup and its generating subset) Let (G, ∗) be a group,
H ≤ G (a subgroup) and S ⊆ G a nonempty subset. We say that H is generated
by S, and S is a generating set of H if H = hSi, i.e., if

## Definition 2.12. (Order of a group, finite / infinite group) Let (G, ∗) be a

group, and g ∈ G.

## (1) The order of G is |G|, the number of elements in G. So |G| ∈ N or |G| = ∞.

G is a finite group if |G| < ∞; G is an infinite group if |G| = ∞;

ord(g), or o(g).

## and ord(g) = n. If no such n exists, then ord(g) = ∞.

(2) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N. Show that g s = eG if and and only if n|s.
8 2 Revision of Group Theory

(3) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N and b|n. Show that ord(g b ) = n/b.

(4) Suppose that ord(g) = ∞. Show that the map below is bijective

ϕ : Z −→ hgi

s 7→ ϕ(s) := g s .

(5) Suppose that ord(h) = n ∈ N. Show that the map below is well defined
(meaning here that the result ψ(s̄) depends only on the class s̄, but not on the
choice of the representative s of the class) and bijective

ψ : Z/(n) −→ hhi

s̄ 7→ ψ(s̄) := hs .

(6) (difficult) The cyclic group (hgi, ∗) can be ‘identified’ with additive group
(Z, +) (when o(g) = ∞), or (Z/(n), +) (when o(g) = n), because the bijective
maps in (4) and (5) ‘preserve’ operations (so they are isomorphisms; cf. Def.
2.3).

## Theorem 2.14. (Cyclic subgroup order theorem) Suppose that G = hgi is

a cyclic group of order n < ∞. (So hgi = {eG , g, . . . , g n−1 }.) Let H ≤ G (so
H = hg s i for some s ∈ Z by Cyclic-inheritance theorem ??). Then H = hg d i with
d = gcd(s, n). Thus
n
o(g s ) = |H| = , |H| | |G|, H = hg n/|H| i.
d
Corollary 2.15. (Cyclic group generator theorem) Let G = hgi be a cyclic
group of order n < ∞.

## (1) If G has a subgroup H of order c, then c ∈ N and c|n.

(2) If c ∈ N and c|n then G has exactly one subgroup Hc of order c; to be precise,
Hc = hg n/c i.

## (3) g r (with 1 ≤ r ≤ n) is a generator of G (i.e., G = hg r i) if and only if

gcd(r, n) = 1.
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## Theorem 2.16. (Decomposition into transpositions theorem) Every permu-

tation σ ∈ Sn (n ≥ 2) can be written as a product of transpositions of the type
(i, i + 1). So in notation of 2.9,

## Definition 2.17. (Signature, even / odd permutation) For integer n ≥ 2,

consider the formal product below where xi ’s are variables:
Y
D := (xi − xj ).
1≤i<j≤n

## For permutation σ ∈ Sn , define

Y
σ(D) = (xσ(i) − xσ(j) ).
1≤i<j≤n

Then σ(D) = sgn(σ)D with sgn(σ) = 1 or −1. We call sgn(σ) the signature of σ.
σ is an even permutation if sgn(σ) = 1.
σ is an odd permutation if sgn(σ) = −1.

## Corollary 2.18. (An being a group theorem) For n ≥ 3, let An := {σ ∈ Sn | σ

is an even permutation}. Then (An , ◦) is a subgroup of (Sn , ◦). (We call An the
alternating group of n letters.)

## Theorem 2.19. (3-cycles generating An theorem) An (n ≥ 3) is generated by

3-cycles (see 2.11).

## (3) We call g a representative of gH (and of Hg).

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## Exercise 2.21. (Important cosets relations). Let G be a group, H ≤ G (a

subgroup), and g ∈ G. Show that the following are equivalent.

(1) g ∈ H,

(2) gH = H,

(3) Hg = H,

(4) gH ⊆ H,

(5) gH ⊇ H,

(6) Hg ⊆ H,

(7) Hg ⊇ H.

## Theorem 2.22. (Lagrange theorem) Let G be a finite group, and H ≤ G (a

subgroup). In notation of ??, we have:

## Definition 2.23. (Index of a subgroup) Let G be a group and H ≤ G (a sub-

group). The index of H in G, denoted as

|G : H|

## is the number of left (or right) cosets of H in G. So |G : H| = |I| = |J| in notation

of ??, and (cf. Theorem 2.22)

|G| = |G : H||H|

which holds even when |G| = ∞ (by the proof of Theorem 2.22).
2 Revision of Group Theory 11

## Definition 2.24. (Normal subgroup) A subgroup N of a group G is a normal

subgroup (or is normal in G), denoted as

N G

if
gng −1 ∈ N, for all n ∈ N, g ∈ G.

## Exercise 2.25. (Important Equivalent definitions of normal subgroup).

Let N ≤ G and N = hN0 i, i.e., N is generated by a subset N0 ⊂ N . Then the
following are equivalent.

(1) N  G, i.e.,

## Example 2.26. (Center of a group) The centre of G,

Z(G) := {z ∈ G | gz = zg, ∀ g ∈ G}

## is a normal subgroup of G. Every subgroup H of G contained in Z(G) is also normal

in G.

Theorem 2.27. (Index-2 subgroup being normal theorem) Suppose the index
|G : H| = 2. Then H  G.

## Definition 2.28. (Normalizer; normalize) Let H ≤ G, and g ∈ G.

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## (1) We say g normalizes H if

gHg −1 = H.

(2)
NG (H) := {g ∈ G | gHg −1 = H}

(1) NG (H) ≤ G.

(2) H  NG (H).

## (4) NG (H) is the largest subgroup of G containing H as a normal subgroup.

Definition 2.30. (Set of left cosets) Let H  (G, ∗). So gH = Hg for all g ∈ G
(cf. Equivalent definitions of normal subgroup 2.25). Denote the left (and also right)
coset
ḡ := gH.

Denote
G/H := {ḡ | g ∈ G}

## ∗ : (G/H) × (G/H) −→ G/H

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 ∗ g2 := g1 g2 .

## + : (G/H) × (G/H) −→ G/H

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 + g2 := g1 + g2 .
2 Revision of Group Theory 13

## Theorem 2.31. (‘Normal’ cosets forming a subgroup theorem) Let H  G.

Then (G/H, ∗) defined above, is a group with the identity eG/H = eG = eH = h (for
any h ∈ H) and the order |G/H| = |G : H| (= |G|/|H| when |G| < ∞). (We call
G/H the quotient group of G modulo H.)

## Example 2.32. (Z/nZ = Z/(n)).

For the additive abelian group (Z, +) and its subgroup nZ (with n ≥ 2), we have
n−1
a
Z = ∪s∈Z (s + nZ) = (s + nZ).
s=0

## We get the quotient group:

Z/nZ = {s + nZ | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}

= {[s]n | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}.

## The element of Z/nZ is denoted as:

s = [s]n = s + nZ.

## Definition 2.33. (Image / Kernel of a homomorphism) Let (G1 , ∗1 ) and

(G2 , ∗2 ) be groups.

## (1) We recall that a map ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group homomorphism (or simply a

homomorphism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e.,
if
ϕ(g ∗1 g 0 ) = ϕ(g) ∗2 ϕ(g 0 ), for all g, g 0 ∈ G1 .

## (2) The image of ϕ is denoted by ϕ(G1 ) or Im(ϕ):

ϕ(G1 ) = {ϕ(g) | g ∈ G1 }.

## Ker(ϕ) := {g ∈ G | ϕ(g) = eG2 }.

14 2 Revision of Group Theory

Gi be groups.

## (2) Let H(G) be the set of homomorphisms ϕ : G → (a group) from G to another

group. Let N (G) be the set of normal subgroups of G. Then the map below is
surjective
f : H(G) −→ N (G)

ϕ 7→ f (ϕ) := Ker(ϕ).

## Theorem 2.35. (Chinese remainder theorem (isomorphism version)) For

coprime m, n ∈ N, the map below is a well defined isomorphism

## Theorem 2.36. (Second isomorphism theorem) Let N  G and H ≤ G. Then

H ∩ N  H, N  HN ≤ G, and the map below is a group isomorphism

ψ : H/(H ∩ N ) → HN/N

only if HK = KH.

## (3) Let H ≤ G and K ≤ G. Then

|H| |K|
|HK| = .
|H ∩ K|
2 Revision of Group Theory 15

## Theorem 2.38. (Third isomorphism theorem) Let N ≤ H ≤ G, N  G and

H  G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

## Theorem 2.39. (Third isomorphism theorem) Let N ≤ H ≤ G, N  G and

H  G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

γ : G → G/N

## the (surjective) quotient map. Let Σ1 be the set of subgroups of G containing N =

Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subgroups of G/N . Then the following are true.

## (a) If N ≤ H1 ≤ G then γ(H1 ) = H1 /N ≤ G/N . Conversely, if H 0 ≤ G/N then

H 0 = H1 /N with H1 := γ −1 (H 0 ) = {x ∈ G | γ(x) ∈ H 0 } ≤ G.

f : Σ1 → Σ2

H1 7→ H1 /N.

## (c) H1 ∈ Σ1 is normal in G if and only if H1 /N is normal in G/N . If this is the

case,
G/H1 ∼
= (G/N )/(H1 /N ).

## (d) For Hi ∈ Σ1 , H1 ≤ H2 holds if and only if H1 /N ≤ H2 /N holds. If this is the

case,
|H2 : H1 | = |(H2 /N ) : (H1 /N )|.
16 2 Revision of Group Theory

2.41. (Commutator subgroup [G, G]; derived series) For a group G and gi ∈ G,
we call [g1 , g2 ] = g1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 a commutator. The commutator subgroup below is
the subgroup generated by commutators:

[G, G] := hg1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 ; gi ∈ Gi = {[g1 , g10 ]n1 . . . [gs , gs0 ]ns ; gi , gi0 ∈ G, s ≥ 1, ni ∈ Z}.

Define G(1) = [G, G], G(i+1) = [G(i) , G(i) ] so that we have the derived series:

G ⊇ G(1) ⊇ G(2) ⊇ · · · .

## 2.42. (Solvable group) A group G is called solvable if there is a finite series

(∗) G = G0  G1  G2  · · ·  Gr  1
such that Gi /Gi+1 is abelian for all i (in particular, the last subgroup Gr is abelian).

(a) Show that a group G is solvable if and only if G(s) = 1 for some s > 0. Here
G(1) := [G, G] and G(i+1) := [G(i) , G(i) ] inductively.

(b) Show that S4 is solvable but S5 is not solvable. In general, it is known that Sn
(n ≥ 5) is not solvable. This is related to Galois’ result: a general polynomial
of degree ≥ 5 can not be solved by taking radicals.

some r ≥ 1.

## 2.44. (Nilpotent group; upper/lower central series) Let G be a group. Then

the following are true.

(a) The centre of G/Z(G) can be written as Z(G/Z(G)) = Z2 /Z(G) for some
Z2  G.

(b) Let Z0 = {eG }, Z1 = Z(G), and inductively define Zi+1 such that Z(G/Zi ) =
Zi+1 /Zi . Show that Zi+1  G. We obtained the so called upper central
series of G, where Zi (G) = Zi and Z1 (G) = Z1 = Z(G):

## 1  Z1 (G)  Z2 (G)  Z3 (G)  · · · .

2 Revision of Group Theory 17

## (c) A group is nilpotent if Zs (G) = G for some s ≥ 0, with a minimal such s

called the nilpotent class of G.

(d) One can show that every finite p-group is nilpotent. Hint: Show that Z(G) 6=
1.

## (e) Further, a finite group G is nilpotent if and only if G = G1 × · · · × Gt with

each Gi a pi -group for some prime pi .

## Γ0 = G, Γ1 = [Γ0 , G], Γi+1 = [Γi , G]

and construct the so called lower central series (usually denoting Γi (G) := Γi ):

## G = Γ0 (G)  Γ1 (G)  Γ2 (G)  · · · .

(g) It is known that Zs (G) = G for some (minimal) s ≥ 0 if and only if Γs (G) =
{eG } for some (minimal) s ≥ 0. Precisely, if c ≥ 0 is minimal such that
Γc (G) = {eG }, one can show by induction

## 2.45. (Group action) Let X be a set, G a group and ρ : G −→ Sym(X) a map

such that ρ(g1 g2 ) = ρ(g1 ) ◦ ρ(g2 ) (i.e., ρ is a homomorphism, and we say there is an
action of G on X). Denote (ρ(g))(x) = g(x). For x ∈ X define the stabilizer
Gx := {g ∈ G | g(x) = x} ⊆ G, and the orbit
Gx := {g(x) | g ∈ G} ⊆ X.

## (b) We say that x ∼ y if x = g(y) for some g ∈ G. Prove that 0 ∼0 is an equivalence

relation, and the equivalence class containing x is equal to the orbit Gx.
`
(c) There exists {xi | i ∈ I} ⊆ X such that X = i∈I Gxi (disjoint union).
18 2 Revision of Group Theory

(d) One can show that the map below is a well defined bijection

## ψ : {gGx | g ∈ G} −→ Gx (gGx 7→ g(x)).

Theorem 2.46. (Class equation) Let G be a finite group with Z(G) the centre.
Then there exists {xj | j ∈ J} ⊆ G such that the centralizers CG (xj ) = {y ∈ G | yxj =
6 G, and
xj y} =
X
|G| = |Z(G)| + |G : CG (xj )|.
j∈J

## Theorem 2.47. (Cauchy’s theorem) Let G be a finite group. Suppose that p is

a prime number and p divides the order |G|. Then G has an element of order p.

## Theorem 2.48. (Converse to Lagrange theorem: abelian group case) Let

G be a finite abelian group. Use induction on order of a group, one can show:

(a) If p is a prime number such that p | |G| then G contains an element of order
p.

## (b) If d ∈ N such that d | |G| then G has a subgroup of order d.

2.49. (Simple group) A group G is called simple if 1 and G are the only normal
subgroups of G. Show that A5 is a simple group. In general, it is known that An (n ≥
5) is a simple group. Finite simple groups are classified in the book called ”ATLAS
of Finite Group Representations”. See: http://for.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/

## Exercise 2.50. (Product of groups) Let (Gi , ∗i ) (i = 1, 2) be two groups. Define

a binary operation on
G1 × G2 = {(g1 , g2 ) | gi ∈ Gi }

as follows:
(g1 , g2 ) ∗ (g10 , g20 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , g2 ∗2 g20 ).

Prove that (G1 × G2 , ∗) is a group, called the direct product of the groups G1 and
G2 .
2 Revision of Group Theory 19

## Similarly, for any s ≥ 1, there is a natural group structure on the product

G := G1 × · · · × Gs

(called the direct product of the groups G1 , . . . , Gs ) with the binary operation ∗
given as:
(g1 , . . . , gs ) ∗ (g10 , . . . , gs0 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , . . . , gs ∗s gs0 ).

Let
Hi = {eG1 } × · · · × {eGi−1 } × {eGi+1 } × · · · {eGs }.

Gi ∼
= Hi .

## Indeed, Hi is a normal subgroup: Hi  G1 × · · · × Gs .

More generally, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ

## of any collection of groups Gα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or countable).

Remark 2.51. Final remarks for further study in group theory: Sylow
theorems; structure theorem for finitely generated abelian group)
(1) Let G be a finite group and p a prime factor of |G|. Write

|G| = pr q

with r ≥ 1 and gcd(p, q) = 1. Then there is at least one subgroup H ≤ G such that

|H| = pr .

## Further, a subgroup H1 ≤ G satisfies |H1 | = pr if and only if H1 = gHg −1 for some

g ∈ G. The H above are called Sylow p-subgroups of G. The number np of Sylow
p-subgroups of G satisfies

np | |G|, np = 1 + kp
20 2 Revision of Group Theory

for some integer k ≥ 0. The above results form the so called Sylow’s Theorem.
(2) Exercsie. Find all Sylow p-subgroups for Sn , An (n = 3, 4, 5).
(3) Fundamental Theorem for finitely generated abelian group G. This
is important. It says that if G = hg1 , . . . , gs i is abelian and finitely generated (by s
elements) then
G∼
= Z × · · · × Z × Z/(pn1 1 ) × · · · × Z/(pnr r )

## where Z is repeated t times, ni ≥ 0 are integers and pi are prime (possibly pi = pj ).

(4) Recall that a group G (6= {eG }) is simple if 1 and G are the only normal
subgroups of G. Z/(p) with p prime and An (n ≥ 5) are all simple groups. A5 is
the smallest non-abelian simple group. Finite simple groups have been completely
classified. Most of them appear in series. There are exactly 26 finite simple groups
which appear sporadically. The largest (resp. the 2nd largest) such sporadic finite
simple group M (resp. B) is called the Monster (resp. the baby Monster) simple
group with the order |M| =

246.320.59.76.112.133.17.19.23.29.31.41.47.59.71

∼ 8 × 1053

and
|B| = 241.313.56.72.11.13.17.19.23.31.47

∼ 4 × 1033 .

see:
or
http://web.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/
There is one copy of the giant book ”ATLAS of Finite Group Representa-
tions” in Math Dept library (LKC centre). See also the recent update by Michael
Aschbacher ‘The status of the classification of the finite simple groups,’ in: No-
tices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol 51, yr 2004, no. 7, pp.
736–740.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 21

## 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture

1-2)
Definition 3.1. (Ring; Commutative ring; Ring with 1)

(1) A ring R, or more precisely, (R, +, ×), is a set R together with two binary
operations + (addition) and × (multiplication) satisfying the following axioms.

## (1b) The binary operation × is associative:

(a × b) × c = a × (b × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

## (1c) R satisfies the distributive law:

(a + b) × c = (a × c) + (b × c), a × (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

## (2) The ring R is commutative if multiplication is commutative:

a × b = b × a, ∀ a, b ∈ R.

## (3) The ring R is said to have an (multiplicative) identity (or contains 1) if

there is an element 1 ∈ R such that

1 × a = a = a × 1, ∀ a ∈ R.

## (4) (Subtraction) For a, b in a ring R we use −b to denote the additive inverse

of b (or the negative of b), and define the subtraction as:

a − b := a + (−b).

## (1) For multiplication, we will write ab instead of a × b.

22 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

## (2) For ai in a ring (or additive group) R, we will write

(∗) a1 + a2 + a3 .

## It can be understood as (a1 + a2 ) + a3 or a1 + (a2 + a3 ), which are the same

by the associativity. So the writing in (*) has a unique interpretation, with no
ambiguity, and hence makes sense. Similarly, we can/will write

a1 + · · · + an

## (3) To distinguish, sometimes, for multiplicative and additive identities 1, 0, we

write
1 = 1R , 0 = 0R .

## Remark 3.3. There is at most one multiplicative identity in a ring R. Hence, it

makes sense to denote it as 1R , if exists.

## (1a) R has a (multiplicative identity) 1,

(1b) 1 6= 0, and

(1c) every nonzero element a ∈ R \{0} has a multiplicative inverse a0 in the sense:

aa0 = 1 = a0 a.

## Such a multiplicative inverse a0 of a can be shown to be unique, and will be denoted

as a−1 . Thus
aa−1 = 1 = a−1 a.

## (2) A field is division ring which is commutative.

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 23

## (3) When R is a division ring or a field, denote

R× := R \ {0}.

Thus, if R is a division ring (resp. field) then (R× , ×) is a multiplicative group (resp.
commutative multiplicative group).

Remark 3.5.

## Definition 3.6. (Subfield) Let F = (F, +, ×) be a field. A nonempty subset

E ⊆ F is a subfield if

## (2) E is closed under multiplication ×:

a, b ∈ E ⇒ ab ∈ E,

(3) 1F ∈ E, and

## (1) The trivial ring {0}.

(2) The set Z of integers with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, is a com-
mutative ring with 1 but it is neither a division ring nor a field. We call Z the
integer ring.
24 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

## (3) For every n ≥ 2,

nZ = {ns | s ∈ Z}

## has natural addition + and multiplication ×. This nZ is a ring with no

multiplicative identity 1. Indeed, nZ is a subring of Z.

(4) The sets Q of rational numbers, R of real numbers, and C of complex numbers,
with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, are fields. They are respectively
called the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers, and
the field of complex numbers.

When n = 0,
Z/nZ = Z/{0} ∼
= Z.

## Note that nZ = −nZ and hence

Z/nZ = Z/(−n)Z.

When n = 1,
Z/nZ = Z/Z = {0}

(a trivial group).

## Thus it is more interesting to assume n ≥ 2. An element of Z/nZ is denoted

in many ways:
[s]n = [s] = s.

So
Z/nZ = {n , n , . . . , [n − 1]n },

or in another way:
Z/nZ = {0, 1, . . . , n − 1}.

## It has a natural well-defined multiplication (cf. Tutorial)

s1 × s2 := s1 × s2 .
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 25

## (6) (Quadratic field) (cf. Tutorial 1) Suppose D ∈ Q is not a perfect square in

Q (i.e., D 6= (m/n)2 for any m/n ∈ Q). Consider the 2-dimensional vector
space
√ √ √
Q[ D] := Q + Q D = {a + b D | a, b ∈ Q}

with a Q-basis {1, D}.

Then this (so called Quadratic Field) Q[ D] is a subfield of C, and hence
is a field.

If we define

√ a+b D √
Q( D) := { √ | a, b, c, d ∈ Q, c + d D 6= 0}
c+d D
√ √
then one can show that Q( D) = Q[ D]. Indeed, more generally, for a field
F , we have
Q(F ) := {α/β := αβ −1 | α, β ∈ F, β 6= 0} = F

## (7) (The Hamilton Quaternion ring) (cf. Tutorial 1)

Let
H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ R}

be a 4-dimensional vector space over R with an R-basis {1, i, j, k}. Define the
multiplication

## i2 = j 2 = k 2 = −1, ij = k = −ji, jk = i = −kj, ki = j = −ik.

Extend the multiplication linearly by the distributive law, we get a well defined
multiplication × on H. Then (H, +, ×) is a division ring, but not a field. We
call H the real Quaternion Ring.

## Indeed, for nonzero a + bi + cj + dk ∈ H,

a − bi − cj − dk
(a + bi + cj + dk)−1 = .
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2
26 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

Similarly,

HQ = Q + Qi + Qj + Rk == {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Q}

is a division ring, but not a field. We call HQ the rational Hamilton Quater-
nion ring.

## (8) (Real valued-function ring) Let

RV [x] := {f : R → R}

be the set of all real-valued functions (in one variable x). For a scalar or
constant c ∈ R, we have the constant function c given below:

c: R → R

x 7→ c(x) := c.

f +g : R → R

f ×g : R → R

## Then (RV [x], +, ×) is a commutative ring with the multiplicative identity 1

being the constant function 1.

(9) (Ring R-valued functions) (cf. Tutorial 1) More generally, let X be a set
and R a ring. Let
Xto R := {f : X → R}

be the set of all maps between X and R. Then for f, g ∈ Xto R, there are
natural addition f + g and multiplication f g (x 7→ f (x) g(x), which is not the
composition) as in the previous example, such that

(Xto R, +, ×)
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 27

c: X → R

x 7→ c(x) = c.

of Xto R.

## Definition 3.8. Let R be a ring, n ∈ Z, and a ∈ R. We define n a as follows. When

n = 0Z , define
0Z a = 0R .

When n ≥ 1, define
n a = a + · · · + a (n times).

n a = −((−n) a)

## (1) (the killing power of 0 = 0R )

0R a = 0R = a 0R , (∀ a ∈ R).

(2) Recall that −a is the additive inverse of a (so that a + (−a) = 0). Then

## (−a) b = −(ab) = a (−b), (∀ a, b ∈ R).

(3)
(−a) (−b) = ab, (∀ a, b ∈ R).
28 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

## (5) (Distributive law for subtraction)

(a − b) c = ac − bc, a (b − c) = ab − ac.

## Definition 3.10. (Unit) Let R be a ring with 1 6= 0. An element u ∈ R is called

a unit if it has a multiplicative inverse u0 such that

uu0 = 1 = u0 u.

## We have seen in Definition of Division Ring that such multiplicative inverse u0 of u

is unique, and is denoted as u−1 .
Denote by
U (R) := {u ∈ R | u is a unit}

## Exercise 3.11. (Multiplicative group of units of a ring) Let R be a ring with

1 6= 0. Then (U (R), ×) is a multiplicative group, called the multiplicative group
of units of the ring R. [Hint. Check the axioms to be a (multiplicative) group.]

Example 3.12. Suppose that R is a division ring. Then U (R) = R \ {0}, which is
a multiplicative group.
U (R) is a commutative (= abelian) multiplicative group if (and only if) R is a
field.

## Remark 3.13. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0. Let u, v ∈ R. Then the

following are equivalent.

## (1) u is unit of R with v its multiplicative inverse.

(2) uv = 1.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 29

(3) vu = 1.

## Exercise 3.14. Let n ≥ 2. Then U (Z/nZ) is a commutative multiplicative group

of order
|U (Z/nZ)| = ϕ(n).

Here
ϕ(n) = |{1 ≤ s ≤ n | gcd(s, n) = 1}|

## Definition 3.15. (Integral domain) An integral domain is a commutative ring

with 1 6= 0 such that

for ∀ a, b ∈ R, ab = 0 =⇒ a = 0 or b = 0;

or equivalently,
for ∀ a, b ∈ R, a 6= 0, b 6= 0 =⇒ ab 6= 0.

## Remark 3.16. (Zero divisor) A nonzero element a of a ring is called a zero

divisor if there is a nonzero b ∈ R such that either ab = 0 or ba = 0.
Thus a commutative ring R with 1 is an integral domain if and only if R has no
zero divisors.

## Proposition 3.17. (Cancellation law) Let R be a ring with 1 6= 0. Then R is an

integral domain if and only if the cancellation law holds:

For ∀ a, b, c ∈ R, c 6= 0, ca = cb =⇒ a = b.

## Corollary 3.18. Let R be a finite integral domain, i.e., R is an integral domain

with the cardinality |R| < ∞. Then R is a field.

## (2) Every field is an integral domain.

30 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

## (1) The polynomial ring F [x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn over a field F is an

integral domain. Especially, F [x1 ] is an integral domain.

(2) More generally, assume R is an integral domain. Then the polynomial ring
R[x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn over R is an integral domain. Especially,
R[x1 ] is an integral domain.

## (2) Z/nZ is an integral domain.

(3) n is a prime.

## Definition 3.22. (Subring) Let R be a ring. A nonempty subset S ⊆ R is called

a subring of R if:

## (2) S is closed under multiplication ×:

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S.

## Proposition 3.23. (Subring criterion) Let R be a ring and S ⊆ R a nonempty

subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) S is a subring of R.

## (2) S is closed under subtraction and multiplication:

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S; a − b = a + (−b) ∈ S.

## [Hint. (S, +) is a subgroup of (R, +) iff it is closed under subtraction.]

Remark 3.24.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 31

## (1) Being a subring is a transitive condition: If R is a subring of S and S is a

subring of T then R is a subring of T .

## Example 3.25. Below are subrings relations:

Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R ⊂ C.

Example 3.26. (cf. Tutorial 1) the integral Hamilton Quaternion Ring below

HZ := Z + Zi + Zj + Zk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Z}

## is a subring of the rational Hamilton Quaternion Ring HQ , while HQ is a subring of

the real Hamilton Quaternion Ring H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk.

Example 3.27. Let R be a commutative ring. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial ring
over R. Then R is a subring of S which consists of constant polynomial functions.
[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of constant functions are still constant
functions.]

## Remark 3.28. (A subring with no 1) If R is a ring with 1 = 1R then a subring

S ⊆ R may not contain 1. E.g., for every integer m ∈ Z with |m| ≥ 2,

mZ = {ms | s ∈ Z}

## is a subring of Z which does not contains 1.

Example 3.29. Let R[x] be the set of real polynomials in one variable x. Every such
polynomial f (x) is a real-valued function. Hence R[x] is a subset of the real-valued
function ring (as in Example 3.7)

RV [x] = {f : R → R}.

## One can show that R[x] is a subring of RV [x].

[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of polynomials functions are still polyno-
mial functions.]
32 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

## Exercise 3.30. (Intersection of subrings) Let Rα (α ∈ Σ) be a (not necessarily

finite or countable) collection of subrings of a ring R. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Rα

is a subring of R.

In general, the union of subrings may not be a subring [e.g. 2Z ∪ 3Z ⊂ Z], but
we have:

R1 ⊆ R2 ⊆ · · ·

## be an ascending chain of subrings Ri of a ring R. Then the union

∪∞
i=1 Ri

is a subring of R.

## Notation 3.32. (Addition of ring subsets) Let R be a ring and let A, B, C be

subsets of R.

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

When A = {a}
a + B := {a + b | b ∈ B}.

## Similarly, when B = {b},

A + b := {a + b | a ∈ A}.

## We can also define addition

A1 + · · · + An = {a1 + · · · + an | ai ∈ Ai }.

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.
One can prove the associativity:

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C).
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 33

## Remark 3.33. (Addition of subrings) Let R be a ring and Ri (1 ≤ i ≤ n)

subrings. Then the addition (or sum) R1 + · · · + Rn is closed under subtraction, but
may not be closed under multiplication, and hence may not be a subring of R.
Indeed, let F = Q, R or C (a field), R = M2 (F ) the matrix ring, and
   
a 0 0 c
R1 = {  ; a, b ∈ F }, R2 = {  ; c ∈ F }.
b 0 0 0

## Then R1 , R2 are subrings of M2 (F ), but

 
e f
R1 + R2 = {  ; e, f, g ∈ F },
g 0
 
a a
is not a subring. Precisely,   is in R1 + R2 for any a ∈ F , but
a 0
     
1 1 2 2 4 2
 × = 
1 0 2 0 2 2

is not in R1 + R2 .

## (1) Let F be a field. Let R ⊆ F be a subring such that 1 ∈ R. Then R is an

integral domain.

(2) Conversely, one can show that every integral domain R is a subring of some
field Q(R) (the so called fraction field of R; cf. §8).

## Exercise 3.35. (Product of rings) Let n ≥ 1 and let Ri = (Ri , +, ×) (i =

1, . . . , n) be rings.

## (1) Show that there is a natural ring structure on the product

R := R1 × · · · × Rn
34 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(called the direct product of the rings R1 , . . . , Rn ) with the binary operation
+ and × given as:

## (a1 , . . . , an ) × (a01 , . . . , a0n ) := (a1 a01 , . . . , an a0n ).

More generally and similarly, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ

## of any collection of rings Rα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or countable).

(2) Let
Si := {0R1 } × · · · × {0Ri−1 } × Ri × {0Ri+1 } × · · · × {0Rn }.

Si ∼
= Ri .

## One can show that

R = S1 + · · · + Sn .

(3) We have
0R = (0R1 , . . . , 0Rn ).

## (4) If each Ri has 1 = 1Ri , then R also has 1 = 1R with

1R = (1R1 , . . . , 1Rn ).

## (6) If n ≥ 2 then R is not an integral domain (even when every Ri is an integral

domain or a field).

## (7) We have relation of unit subgroups: U (R) = U (R1 ) × · · · × U (Rn ).

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35

## 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings

(Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)
Example 4.1. (Polynomial ring R[x] over a ring R)
Let R = (R, +, ×) be a commutative ring with 1.

## (1) (Degree; Leading coefficient) Consider

n
X
g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0
i=0

## where we assume an 6= 0. We call g(x) a polynomial of degree n ≥ 0, in one

variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient
an 6= 0.

deg 0 = −∞.

## (3) (Constant polynomial) If g(x) has no positive-degree term, i.e., if g(x) = a0

with a0 ∈ R, we call such g(x) a constant polynomial.

## (4) (Polynomial ring) Let

d
X
R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}
j=0

## be the set of all polynomials in one variable x and with coefficients in R.

tion operations for polynomials
r
X s
X
i
g(x) = ai x , h(x) = bi x i
i=0 i=0

defined as X
g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi
i≥0
X
g(x)h(x) = ck x k
k≥0
36 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where
X
ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,
i+j=k

such that
(R[x], +, ×)

## is a ring, called the polynomial ring with coefficients in R.

(6) As an illustration, if

## g(x) + h(x) = (0 + 2)x3 + (3 + 0)x2 + (2 + 0)x + 6 − 5

= 2x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 1,

## = 6x5 + 4x4 − 10x3 + 18x2 + 12x − 30.

Remark 4.2. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial
ring over R.

(2) 0S = 0R .

## Exercise 4.3. (Polynomial ring in m variables) Can you define polynomial

rings in two variables
R[x, y]

## or even polynomial rings in m variables

R[x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ]?
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 37

Proposition 4.4. (Polynomial ring over integral domain) (cf. Tutorial 2 for
(3)) Let R be an integral domain. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1)
deg(f (x)g(x)) = deg f (x) + deg g(x).

(2) We have
U (R[x]) = U (R).

## Namely, g(x) is a unit of R[x] if and only if g = a0 ∈ R (a constant polynomial)

with a0 a unit in R.

## (1) (Matrix ring) Let

 
a11 a12 · · · a1n
 
 a21 a22 · · · a1n 
 
Mn (R) := {A = 
 .. .. .. ..  ; aij ∈ R}

 . . . . 
 
an1 an2 · · · ann

## (2) (Matrix addition and multiplication) For matrices A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (F ),

B = (bij ) ∈ Mn (F ) define the natural matrix addition and multiplication as:
 
a11 + b11 · · · a1n + b1n
 
 a21 + b21 · · · a1n + b2n 
 
A + B := (aij + bij ) = 

.. .. ..
,

 . . . 

an1 + bn1 · · · ann + bnn

and
AB := (cij )
38 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where
n
X
cij = aik bkj
k=1

## (4) (Scalar matrix)

A = (aij ) = Diag[a, . . . , a]

## (5) (Upper triangular matrix)

A = (aij ) = (aij )

## is an upper triangular matrix if aij = 0 (i < j). Similarly, we can define

lower triangular matrix.

(6) The set S := Mn (R) together with the matrix addition and multiplication just
defined, becomes a ring. We call Mn (R) the matrix ring of n × n square
matrices with entries in the ring R.

## When R = R or C we get the usual matrix space Mn (R) or Mn (C) of all n × n

real or complex matrices which has been studied in Linear Algebra I.

Remark 4.6. Let R be a ring and S = Mn (R) the matrix ring with entries in R.
Then

(1)
0S = (aij )

## where all aij = 0 (i.e., the zero matrix).

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 39

## (2) If R has 1 = 1R then S = Mn (R) also has 1 = 1S with

1S = Diag[1R , . . . , 1R ].

## (3) The set

Scn (R) := {Diag[a, . . . , a] | ai ∈ R}

R∼
= Scn (R).

## (4) The set

Dn (R) := {Diag[a1 , . . . , an ] | ai ∈ R}

## There is a natural ring isomorphism

Dn (R) ∼
= Rn := R × · · · × R (n times).

## (5) The set

U Tn (R) := {(aij ) | aij ∈ R, aij = 0 (∀i > j)}

## of all upper triangular matrices in Mn (R), is a subring of Mn (R).

Similarly, the set LTn (R) of all lower triangular matrices in Mn (R), is a subring
of Mn (R).

## Example 4.7. (General, or Special linear groups) Let R be a ring with 1.

40 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

(1) We set
GLn (R) := U (Mn (R))

the set of all units in Mn (R). This GLn (R) is a multiplicative group and called
the general linear group of degree n over R.

(2) Assume that R is a commutative ring with 1. We can define the determinant
det(A) = |A| in a usual way. Let

## SLn (R) := {A ∈ Mn (R) | det(A) = 1}

the set of all matrices in Mn (R) which have determinants equal to 1. This
SLn (R) is a multiplicative subgroup of GLn (R) and called the special linear
group of degree n over R.

Definition 4.8. (Group rings R[G]) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0. Let
G = {g1 , . . . , gn } be a finite multiplicative group of order n. Consider the following
formal sums

## where gk = gi gj ∈ G. Extend the above multiplication linearly by distributive law:

Xn Xn n
X
( ai gi ) × ( bj gj ) := ck gk
i=1 j=1 k=1

where
X
ck = ai bj
gi gj =gk

## with the sum running for all those (i, j) with gi gj = gk .

Then R[G] is a ring.
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 41

## Exercise 4.9. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0, G a multiplicative group

and R[G] the group ring. Then

group.

R → R[G],

r 7→ reG .

G → U (R[G]),

g 7→ 1R g.

## (4) If S is a subring of R then S[G] is a subring of R[G]. If H is a subgroup of G

then R[H] is a subring of R[G].
Pn Pn
(5) T := { i=1 ai gi ∈ R[G] | i=1 ai = 0} is a subring of R[G] (and indeed an
ideal of R[G]). To see, note that

Tr : R[G] → R
n
X n
X
ai gi 7→ ai
i=1 i=1

## Tr(ax + by) = a Tr(x) + b Tr(y), ∀a, b ∈ R; ∀ x, y ∈ R[G].

42 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

Note also that

## G = gi G = {g10 := gi g1 , g20 := gi g2 , . . . , gn0 := gi gn }.

P
Thus, whenever y = j bj gj ∈ T we have
X X X
Tr(gi y) = Tr( bj gi gj ) = Tr( bj gj0 ) = bj = Tr(y) = 0.
j j
P P P
Hence for any ai gi ∈ R[G] we have Tr(( ai gi ) y) = i ai Tr(gi y) = 0, so
P
( ai gi )y ∈ T .

Remark 4.11. When R is a division ring or a field, then R[G] (as an additive group),
is a vector space over R of dimension equal to |G|, with a basis {g1 , . . . , gn } = G.
Hence
R[G] = Rg1 + · · · + Rgn = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rgn ,

## Remark 4.12. The real Hamilton Quaternion division ring

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk

## which is called the Quternion group (of order 8).

We remark that the group ring R[Q8 ] and the real Hamilton Quaternion ring H
are not the same although both rings contain a copy of Q8 . Indeed, write

## g1 = 1, g2 = −1, g3 = i, g4 = −i, g5 = j, g6 = −j, g7 = k, g8 = −k.

Then
R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 .
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 43

## In R[Q8 ], we have g1 + g2 6= 0 and g3 + g4 6= 0, . . . (g1 , g2 , . . . , g8 being a basis of the

space R[Q8 ]), while in H we have 1 + (−1) = 0, and i + (−i) = 0, . . . .
More precisely, H is 4-dimensional over R:

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = R ⊕ Ri ⊕ Rj ⊕ Rk

## (a direct sum of 8 subspaces of dimension 1).

In H, v1 = i and v2 = −i are linearly dependent since v2 = −v1 , while in
R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rg8 , g3 and g4 form part of the basis
{g1 , . . . , g8 } of R[Q8 ], so they are linearly independent.
44 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings

(Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)
Definition 5.1. (Ring homomorphism; Isomorphism; Kernel; Image) Let
R, S be rings.

(1) A map
ϕ:R→S

## is a ring homomorphism (or simply a homomorphism) if it respects the

additive and multiplicative structures, i.e., it satisfies

(1a)
ϕ(a + b) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R, and

(1b)
ϕ(a b) = ϕ(a) ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R.

## (Thus a ring homomorphism is a group homomorphism between additive

groups (R, +) and (S, +), respecting the multiplicative structure too.)

## Ker(ϕ) = ϕ−1 (0S ) = {a ∈ R | ϕ(a) = 0S }.

(3) A map ϕ : R → S between two rings is called a ring isomorphism (or simply
an isomorphism) if it is a (ring) homomorphism and bijective. In this case, we
denote

ϕ : R → S.

## (4) We say rings R and S are isomorphic, denoted as

R∼
= S, or R ' S,

if there is a (ring) isomorphism ϕ : R → S.
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 45

Example 5.2.

R → S

a → 0

## (2) (Inclusion homomorphism) Suppose that R1 is a subring of a ring R. Then

the inclusion map
ι : R1 → R

a 7→ a
is a ring homomorphism.

## (3) (Quotient homomorphism) Let n ∈ Z. The quotient map

Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ s = [s]n

between additive groups (Z, +) and (Z/nZ, +), is actually a ring homomor-
phism between rings (Z, +, ×) and (Z/nZ, +, ×).

## (4) (Function evaluation map) Let X be a set, R a ring and

Xto R = {f : X → R}

## the ring of all maps from X to R as in Example 3.7. Fix an element c ∈ R.

Then
Ec : Xto R → R

f 7→ Ec (f ) := f (c)
is a ring homomorphism, and called the Evaluation at c.

## Exercise 5.3. Let R be a ring with 1. Then a ring homomorphism ϕ : R → S is

the zero map if and only if ϕ(1R ) = 0S . [Hint. ϕ(r) = ϕ(r1) = ϕ(r)ϕ(1).]
46 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## Notation 5.4. (Multiplication of ring subsets) Let R be a ring, A, B subsets

of R, and a, b, ai ∈ R.
Define the multiplication
Xn
A B := { ai bi | ai ∈ A, bi ∈ B, n ≥ 1}.
i=1

## In other words, A B is the smallest subset of (R, +) which contains {a b | a ∈

A, b ∈ B} and which is closed under addition.
When A = {a}
s
X
a B := {a} B = {a abi | bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

## Similarly, when B = {b},

s
X
A b := A {b} = { ai b | ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

## We can check that if 0 ∈ B then

{a1 , . . . , as }B = a1 B + · · · + as B, and

## B{a1 , . . . , at } = Ba1 + · · · + Bat .

Similarly we can define multiplication
Xs
A1 · · · An = { a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ Ai , s ≥ 1}
j=1

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.
In other words, we remark that:
(*) A1 · · · An is the the smallest subset of (R, +) which contains

{a1 . . . an | ai ∈ Ai }

## and which is closed under addition.

When Ai = A (∀i) and n ≥ 1, we define

An := A · · · A (n times).

So
s
X
n
A ={ a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
j=1
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 47

## Caution 5.5. AB is not equal to the set {a b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}. In fact, AB contains

(usually strictly) the latter set.

## Exercise 5.6. Let Ai , B be subsets of a ring R. Then

(1)
(A1 A2 )A3 = A1 (A2 A3 ).

## Proposition 5.7. Let R, S be rings and ϕ : R → S a ring homomorphism. Let

R1 ⊆ R be a a subring. Then

## ϕ(R1 ) = {b ∈ S | b = ϕ(a), for some a ∈ R1 }

of R1 is a subring of S.

and r ∈ R.

## (2a) I is a subring of R, and

48 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(2b) I is closed under left multiplication by elements from R: rI ⊆ I (∀r ∈ R), i.e.
(with (2a) assumed)
R I ⊆ I.

Similarly,

## (3b) I is closed under right multiplication by elements from R: Ir ⊆ I (∀r ∈ R),

i.e. (with (3a) assumed)
I R ⊆ I.

## (4) A subset I ⊆ R is an ideal (or 2-sided ideal, to emphasize) if it is both a

left-ideal and a right-ideal. In other words, I is an ideal if it is a subring and

R I ⊆ I, and, I R ⊆ I.

Remark 5.9. Results for right ideals are parallel to results for left ideals. So from
now on, we consider only left ideals and 2-sided ideals.

## Proposition 5.10. (Ideal criterion) Let R be a ring and I a nonempty subset of

R. Then the following are equivalent.

## (1) I is a 2-sided ideal of R.

(2)
∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, ar, a − b ∈ I.

## (3) (when R is commutative)

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, a − b ∈ I.

## (4) (when R is commutative with 1)

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ a + rb ∈ I.
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 49

## Proposition 5.11. Let Rα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of subrings of a ring R. Let Jα be

a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of Rα . Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

∩α∈Σ Rα .

## Corollary 5.12. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring

R. Then the intersection
∩α∈Σ Jα

## Proposition 5.13. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a finite family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals

of a ring R. Then the addition
X

α∈Σ
is also a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R.
More generally, if Jα (α ∈ Σ) is an infinite (countable or uncountable) family of
left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring R. Then the subset
X
{ xα | xα ∈ Jα , xα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}

## (1) Let X be a subset of a ring R. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be all the ideals of R with

Jα ⊇ X. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

## (which is an ideal by Corollary 5.12) is called the ideal generated by X,

and denoted as (X). So, notation wise,

(X) = ∩α∈Σ Jα .

## (*) This (X) is the smallest among all ideals of R containing X.

50 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## (2) When X = {r1 , . . . , rn }, we write

(X) = (r1 , . . . , rn ).

(r)

## (2) We have equality of ideals:

(X ∪ Y ) = (X) + (Y ).

## (X1 ∪ · · · ∪ Xn ) = (X1 ) + · · · + (Xn ).

(3)
(r1 , . . . , rn ) = (r1 ) + · · · + (rn ).

## Example 5.16. (cf. Notation 5.4) Let R be a ring. Let B ⊆ R and a, a1 , . . . , an ∈ R.

Then

(1)
s
X
RB = { ri bi | ri ∈ R, bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}
i=1

## is a left-ideal of R, but may not be a 2-sided ideal.

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 51

(2) In particular,
R a = {r a | r ∈ R},

or more generally,
Xn
R{a1 , . . . , an } = R a1 + · · · + R an = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}
i=1

## (3) The ideal (a) generated by a is given by the formula below:

(a) = Z a + a R + R a + R a R.

Here
Z a = {m a | m ∈ Z}.

## An arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:

n
X
0
ma + ar + r a + ri a ri0
i=1

where m ∈ Z; r, r0 , ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

(a) = R a R

## and an arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:

n
X
ri a ri0
i=1

where ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

## (5) If R is commutative and contains 1 then

(a) = a R = R a = {r a | r ∈ R}.

## An arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:

ra

where r ∈ R.
52 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## Exercise 5.17. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0 and I an ideal of R. Then

the following are equivalent.

(1) I = R.

(2) 1 ∈ I.

## (3) I contains a unit.

Example 5.18. For the integer ring Z, and for n ∈ Z, the principal ideal

(n) = nZ = {n s | s ∈ Z}.

Thus we have different notations for the same quotient ring (to be defined late on):

Z/nZ = Z/(n).

## Exercise 5.19. Suppose R is a ring with 1. Let X ⊆ R be a subset, and b1 , . . . , bn ∈

R. Then (cf. Notation 5.4)

## (1) The ideal generated by X is given as follows

s
X
(X) = RXR = { ri ai ri0 | ai ∈ X; ri , ri0 ∈ R; s ≥ 1}
i=1

## Exercise 5.20. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring

R. Then we have (cf. Notation 5.4)
X
R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = { aα | aα ∈ Jα ; aα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}
α
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 53

which is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R, and the smallest among those of R con-
taining all Jα (cf. Proposition 5.13).
If Σ is finite then
X
R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = Jα .
α∈Σ

Exercise 5.21. Let J, J1 , . . . , Jn be ideals of a ring. Then we have the equality (cf.
Notation 5.4)
k
X
J1 · · · Jn = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ Ji , k ≥ 1}
`=1

and it is an ideal of R.
In particular, we have the equality
k
X
n
J = J ···J = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ J, k ≥ 1}
`=1

and it is an ideal of R.

## Example 5.22. Let

R = R1 × · · · × Rn

n
X
R= Si .
i=1

## Remark 5.23. Let ϕ : R → S be a ring homomorphism. By Proposition 5.7, Ker ϕ

is an ideal of R.

## Exercise 5.24. (Inverse, image of an ideal) Let ϕ : R → S be a ring homomor-

phism. Let I be a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R and J a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of
S.
54 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## (1) Show that ϕ−1 (J) is a left (resp. 2-sided) of R.

(2) Show that if ϕ is surjective then ϕ(I) is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of S.

## 5.25. Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then (I, +) is a (normal) subgroup of

the additive group (R, +). Thus we can define the quotient additive group

R/I = {r = r + I | r ∈ R}.

r + s := r + s.

r × s := r s

## is a well-defined binary operation on R/I, i.e., this multiplication does not

depend on the choice of represenatitives r, s of the cosets.

## (3) r = 0R/I (= 0R ) if and only if r ∈ I.

Definition 5.27. (Quotient ring) Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then the
ring (R/I, +, ×) in Theorem 5.26 is called the quotient ring of R by I.

Remark 5.28. Let R be a ring and (I, +) a subgroup of the additive group (R, +).
Then I is an ideal of R if and only if the multiplication × on the additive quotient
group (R/I, +) given in Theorem 5.26 (1) is well-defined so that (R/I, +, ×) is a
ring.

Exercise 5.29. For the quotient ring R/I, take a, ai ∈ R/I (1 ≤ i ≤ n). Show by
induction that a1 · · · an = a1 · · · an and an = an .
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 55

## Proposition 5.30. (Quotient ring homomorphism) Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R an

ideal and R/I the quotient ring. Then the surjective quotient map

γ : R → R/I

r 7→ r = r + I

from the additive group (R, +) to the additive group (R/I, +) as in §2, is in fact a
ring homomorphism such that
Ker γ = I.

## Remark 5.31. (Equivalence of the concepts of kernel and ideal)

By Proposition 5.7, the kernel of every ring homomorphism is an ideal.
Conversely, by Proposition 5.30, every ideal is equal to the kernel of some (sur-
jective) ring homomorphism.

Definition 5.32. (cf. Tutorial 3 for (1) - (3)) (Nilpotent element, Nilradical,
Radical, Jacobson radical) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal.

We call the set

## of all nilpotent elements of R, the nilradical of R. If fact, nil(R) is an ideal

of R and nil(R/ nil(R)) = 0.

## (3) An ideal J of R is radical if rad(J) = J. Every prime ideal of R is radical.

56 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

## (4) When R contains 1 and I ⊂ R, define

Jac(I) = ∩M :max, M ⊇I M

## where M runs in the set of all maximal ideals of R containing I. In fact,

Jac(I) is an ideal of R containing the radical rad(I) of I. Jac(0) is called the
Jacobson radical of R. (See wiki - Jacobson radical for references). Thus
Jac(I) is the preimage of Jac(0R/I ) via R → R/I.

Example 5.33.

(1) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal. Then nil(R/I n ) ⊇ I/I n , and
rad(I n ) ⊇ I (the inclusions might be strict).

(2) For the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F , if we let I = (x) the principal ideal
generated by x, then I n = (xn ). Hence nil(F [x]/I n ) = I/I n and rad(I n ) = I.

(3) The Jacobson radical of Z/12Z is 6Z/12Z which is inclued in the intersection
(of two maximal ideals)

(2Z/12Z) ∩ (3Z/12Z).

The Jacobson radical of the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is 0 which is
contained in the intersection (of two maximal ideals)

(x) ∩ (x − 1).
6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 57

## 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lec-

ture 7)
Theorem 6.1. (The first isomorphism theorem for rings) Let

ϕ:R→S

ϕ=ϕ◦γ

where
γ : R → R/K

## is the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism, and

ϕ : R/K → ϕ(R),

r 7→ ϕ(r) := ϕ(r)

## is a (well-defined) ring isomorphism.

Proof. This almost follows from the first isomorphism theorem for groups. We
only need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group
homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).

Example 6.2. (1) (Proper ideal; Zero ideal) Let R be a ring. Then R and
{0R } are ideals of R. An ideal I of R is proper if I 6= R. The ideal {0} is
called the zero or trivial ideal and denoted by 0.

(2) For any integer n, the subset nZ ⊆ Z is an ideal of the integer ring Z.

## Conversely, every ideal of Z is equal to nZ for some integer. Indeed, every

subgroup of the additive group (Z, +) is equal to nZ for some integer n.

The map
γ : Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ [s]n = s
58 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

is the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism, and Z/nZ is in fact the quo-
tient ring of Z by nZ.

## (3) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and I an ideal of R. Then there is an

isomorphism
R[x]/I[x] ∼
= (R/I)[x]

where
n
X
I[x] = { ai xi | ai ∈ I, n ≥ 1}
i=1
is the polynomial ring with coefficients in I. Further, I[x] = I R[x] (cf. Nota-
tion 5.4).

## (4) If ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism, then it induces a homomorphism

(between matrix rings):

ϕn : Mn (R) → Mn (S)

## A = (rij ) 7→ ϕn (A) := (ϕ(rij )).

(5) Let R be a ring, J an ideal (2-sided) of R and Mn (R) the matrix ring over R.
Then Mn (J) is an ideal (2-sided) of Mn (R). The quotient ring homomorphism
γ : R → R/J induces a ring homomorphism

γJ : Mn (R) → Mn (R/J)

## the group ring. Then the map

Tr : R[G] → R
n
X n
X
ri gi 7→ ri
i=1 i=1

is a ring homomorphism.

## [Hint. Note gj G = G. Show Tr(gj X) = Tr(gj ) Tr(X).]

6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 59

(7) (One-sided ideals) Let n ≥ 2 and Mn (R) a matrix ring over a ring R. Let

Similarly, let

## Lk1 ,...,kr = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ j 6∈ {k1 , . . . , kr }}.

Then Lk1 ,...,kr is a left ideal of Mn (R), but not a right ideal of Mn (R).

Let
Rk1 ,...,kr = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ i 6∈ {k1 , . . . , kr }}.

Then Rk1 ,...,kr is a right ideal of Mn (R), but not a left ideal of Mn (R).

## Theorem 6.3. (Second isomorphism theorem for rings) Let R be a ring,

R1 ⊆ R a subring, and J ⊆ R an ideal. Then:

(1) R1 + J is a subring of R.

(2) R1 ∩ J is an ideal of R1 .

## (3) We have an isomorphism:

ϕ : R1 /(R1 ∩ J) → (R1 + J)/J,

r = r + (R1 ∩ J) 7→ ϕ(r) := r = r + J.

Proof. This almost follows from the second isomorphism theorem for groups. We
only need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group
homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).
60 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

Theorem 6.4. (Third isomorphism theorem for rings) Let R be a ring, and
let I ⊆ J be ideals of R. Then

## (2) We have an isomorphism:

ϕ : R/J ∼
= (R/I)/(J/I),

r = r + J 7→ r + J/I = (r + I) + J/I

Proof. This almost follows from the third isomorphism theorem for groups. We only
need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (not just a group homomorphism

an ideal, and
γ : R → R/I

## the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism. Let Σ1 be the set of subrings of R

containing I = Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subrings of R/I. Then

## (1) If R1 ∈ Σ1 then γ(R1 ) = R1 /I ∈ Σ2 . Conversely, if R10 ∈ Σ2 then R10 = R1 /I

with R1 := γ −1 (R10 ) = {r ∈ R | γ(r) ∈ R10 } ∈ Σ1 .

f : Σ1 → Σ2

R1 7→ R1 /I.

case,
R/J1 ∼
= (R/I)/(J1 /I).

## (4) For Ri ∈ Σ1 , R1 ⊆ R2 holds if and only if R1 /I ⊆ R2 /I holds.

Proof. This almost follows from the correspondence theorem for groups. We only
need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group homo-
morphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).
7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 61

## 7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4)

Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

## Proposition 7.1. (1) Let I ⊆ R be an ideal. Then I = R if and only if I contains

a unit, if and only if 1 ∈ I.

(2) Assume R is commutative. Then R is a field if and only if R has only two
ideals: 0 and R.

## Corollary 7.2. If R is a field, then every nonzero ring homomorphism f : R → S

is an injection. [Hint. f (1) 6= 0. And f (1) = f (a)f (a−1 ) for any a 6= 0.]

ideal if

(1)
M 6= S; and

## (2) for every ideal J of S with

M ⊆J ⊆S

we have J = M or J = S.

## Proposition 7.4. If J is a proper ideal of R (commutative with 1), i.e., J ⊂ R,

then J ⊆ M for some maximal ideal M of R.

## Proposition 7.6. Assume the ring R is commutative with 1 and M ⊆ R an ideal.

Then the following are equivalent.

## (2) The quotient ring R/M is a field.

62 7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4)

## Definition 7.7. (Prime ideal) Assume the ring R is commutative with 1. An

ideal P is called a prime ideal if:

(1)
P 6= R; and

(2)
a b ∈ P =⇒ a ∈ P, or b ∈ P.

## Example 7.8. (1) An ideal nZ (n ≥ 0) of the integer ring Z is a prime ideal, if

and only if either n = 0 (so that nZ = 0, the zero ideal), or n = p, a prime
number.

## (2) An ideal nZ (n ≥ 0) of the integer ring Z is a maximal ideal, if and only if

n = p, a prime number.

## Proposition 7.9. Assume R is commutative with 1 and P ⊆ R an ideal. Then the

following are equivalent.

## (2) The quotient ring R/P is an integral domain.

Corollary 7.10. Assume the ring R is commutative with 1. Then every maximal
ideal is a prime ideal.

## Proposition 7.11. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and I an ideal of R. Then

I is a prime ideal if and only if I[x] = I R[x] is a prime ideal of R[x] (cf. Notation
5.4)

## Proof. By Example 6.2, we have R[x]/I[x] ∼

= (R/I)[x]. We also use the fact that
S[x] is integral domain if and only if S is an integral domain (cf. Proposition 4.4 or
Example 3.20).

## Example 7.12. Consider the polynomial ring Z[x].

7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 63

(1) The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of Z[x] but it is not a maximal ideal.
This is because
Z[x]/(x) ∼
= Z.

## generated by p and x is a maximal ideal. This is because Z[x] → Z → Z/pZ

(f (x) 7→ f (0) 7→ f (0) = f (0) + pZ) induces

Z[x]/(p, x) ∼
= Z/pZ.

Example 7.13. Consider the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F . The principal
ideal (x) is a maximal ideal of F [x]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the
evaluation map f (x) 7→ f (0)):

F [x]/(x) ∼
= F.

Example 7.14. Consider the polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a
field F . The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of F [x, y], but it is not a maximal
ideal of F [x, y]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the evaluation map
f (x, y) 7→ f (0, y)):
F [x, y]/(x) ∼
= F [y].

## Proposition 7.15. (cf. Tutorial) (Inverse of a prime ideal) Let ϕ : R → S be a

ring homomorphism of commutative rings. Then

## (1) If P ⊆ S is a prime ideal, then ϕ−1 (P ) is either a prime ideal of R or equal

to R (this latter case will not happen when ϕ is onto, or when 1R ∈ R and
ϕ(1R ) = 1S ).

## In particular, if ϕ : R → S is the inclusion map, then either P ⊇ R (hence

P ∩ R = R), or P ∩ R is a prime ideal of the subring R.

## (2) If both R and S contain 1, ϕ is surjective and M is a maximal ideal of S, then

ϕ−1 (M ) is a maximal ideal of R. [Hint. Show that R/ϕ−1 (M ) ∼
= S/M ].
64 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

## 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lec-

ture 8)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

## Theorem 8.1. Let R be a commutative ring and let D be a set with ∅ =

6 D ⊆ R\{0}
which does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i.e.,
a, b ∈ D ⇒ ab ∈ D). Then there is a commutative ring Q = D−1 R with 1 such that:

Remark 8.2.

r
:= r d−1 =: r/d.
d

1Q = d/d

for any d ∈ D.

R → D−1 R

r 7→ rd/d

## for any d ∈ D, noting rd/d = rd1 /d1 for any d, d1 ∈ D.

8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 65

## Definition 8.3. (Ring of fractions)

(1) The ring Q = D−1 R in Theorem 5.26 is called the ring of fractions of D
with respect to R.

## (2) (Fraction field of an integral domain) If R is an integral domain and

D = R \ {0} we call D−1 R the fraction field of R and denoted as Q(R).
Namely,
Q(R) = D−1 R.

Corollary 8.4.

(1) Suppose that R is a subring of a field F . Then the fraction field Q(R) of R is
the subfield of F generated by R. Namely,

r1
Q(R) = {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0}.
r2

(2) More generally, suppose R is an integral domain and Q = Q(R) its fraction
field. If σ : R → F is an injective ring homomorphism to a field F , then σ
extends to an injective homomorphism

σ(r1 )
σ 0 : Q(R) → E =: {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0} ⊆ F.
σ(r2 )

Here E = Q(σ(R)) is the fraction field of the integral domain σ(R) and is the
subfield of F generated by σ(R).

## Definition 8.5. (Local ring) A commutative ring R with 1 6= 0, is called a local

ring if it has a unique maximal ideal (say M ).

Example 8.6.
R = {m/n | m, n ∈ Z; 2 6 |n}

is a subring of Z.
M = (2)

## is the unique maximal ideal of R. Hence R is a local ring.

66 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

## Example 8.7. (Localisation) Let R be an integral domain and P a prime ideal.

Then D := R \ P satisfies the condition of Theorem 8.1. Denote by

RP := D−1 R

## which is called the localisation of R at P . Then

P RP = {a/d | a ∈ P, d 6∈ P }

is the only maximal ideal in RP so that RP is a local ring. Here note that d ∈ D if
and only if d 6∈ P .
For instance, if R = F [x] is the polynomial ring over a field F and P = (x), then

RP = {f (x)/g(x) | g(0) 6= 0}

and
P RP = xRP = {f (x)/g(x) | f (0) = 0, g(0) 6= 0}.

domain.

## (1) If n 1R = 1R + · · · + 1R (n times) is equal to 0R for some n ≥ 1, we let p ≥ 1

be the minimum of such integer with p 1R = 0, denote

char R := p

and call it the characteristic of R; it turns out that such p is a prime number.
If no such n ≥ 1 exists, we set

char R := 0.

## So either char R = p is a prime and R contains a subring isomorphic to Z/(p)

(a field), or char R = 0 and R contains a subring isomorphic to Z.
8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 67

## (2) When R = F is a field, either F contains a subfield F0 isomorphic to Z/(p), or

F contains a subfield F0 isomorphic to Q = Q(Z). Such subfield F0 is called
the prime subfield of F .

## Remark 8.9. Every subfield F of R or C has characteristic equal to 0 and contains

the prime field Q. Indeed, F contains Q(Z 1F ) ∼
= Q(Z) = Q.

## Exercise 8.10. (Happy calculation time in char p)

Let F be a field of characteristic p > 0. E.g. F = Z/(p). Then

(x + y)p = xp + y p

holds for any x, y ∈ F . This is by binomial expansion of left hand side and noting
that p = 0 in F .
68 9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9)

## 9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lec-

ture 9)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

I + J = R.

## (1) The map

ϕ : R → (R/J1 ) × · · · (R/Jn ),

r 7→ (r = r + J1 , . . . , r = r + Jn )
is a ring homomorphism with

Ker ϕ = J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn .

(2) Suppose that Ji , Jj are comaximal for all i 6= j. Then ϕ is surjective and

J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn = J1 · · · Jn .

## (1) Factorize integer n as product

n = pr11 · · · prt t

## of powers of distinct primes. Then we have the isomorphism

τ : Z/nZ → (Z/pr11 Z) × · · · × (Z/prt t Z),

s 7→ (s, . . . , s).
9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) 69

## (2) In particular, τ induces isomorphism of multiplicative units groups:

U (Z/nZ) ∼
= U (Z/pr11 Z)) × · · · × U (Z/prt t Z).

## ϕ(n) = ϕ(pr1 ) · · · ϕ(prt t ) = (pr1 − pr1 −1 ) · · · (prt − prt −1 ).

70 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

## 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture

10)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

## Definition 10.1. (Euclidean domain) An integral domain is said to be a Eu-

clidean domain (or possesses a Euclidean / Division Algorithm) if there is a
function
N : R \ {0} → Z≥0

on R such that for any two elements a, b ∈ R with b 6= 0, there exist element q ∈ R
(called the quotient) and r ∈ R (the remainder) such that

a = qb+r

where
r = 0, or, N (r) < N (b).

## We call N the norm function, and N (a) the norm of a.

10.2. For a, b in a Euclidean domain R with b 6= 0, one can apply the Division
Algorithm:
a = q 0 b + r0 ,

b = q1 r0 + r1 ,

r0 = q2 r1 + r2 ,

···

rn−2 = qn rn−1 + rn ,

rn−1 = qn+1 rn ,
where rn is the last nonzero remainder. Such an rn exists since

## is a strictly decreasing sequence of nonnegative integers.

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 71

## Example 10.3. (Euclidean domains)

(1) Every field F is a Euclidean domain with respect to any function N : F → Z≥0 .

(2) The integer ring Z is a Euclidean domain with the modulus as the norm
function:
N (s) := |s|, s ∈ Z.

(3) The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a Euclidean domain where

## (4) The Gaussian integer ring

Z[i] := Z + Zi = {a + bi | a, b ∈ Z} ⊂ C

is a Euclidean domain where the norm function is just the square of the usual
modulus of complex number:

## Sketch of the proof: For given x, y ∈ R with y 6= 0, write x/y = α + βi

with α, β ∈ Q. Take r, s ∈ Z such that |α − s| ≤ 1/2 and |β − t| ≤ 1/2 and
note that s + ti ∈ Z[i]. Show that

x = y(s + ti) + r

## (5) The Eisenstein integer ring below is a Euclidean domain

Z[ζ3 ] = Z + Zζ3

where ζ3 = (−1 + −3)/2 is a primitive cubic root of unity: ζ3n = 1 if and
only if 3 | n. The norm function is just the square of the usual modulus:

## See wiki-Eisenstein integer for more details, or calculations.

72 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

## Definition 10.4. (PID) An integral domain R is a Principal Ideal Domain (PID)

if every ideal I ⊆ R is principal: I = (a) for some a ∈ I.

## Proof. Let N : R → Z≥0 be the norm function of the Euclidean domain R. It

suffices to consider the case I 6= 0. Take any a ∈ I \ {0} such the the norm N (a) is
minimum. Then one can check that I = (a).

Example 10.6. (cf. Tutorial) Consider the polynomial ring Z[x]. The ideal

## is not principal. Hence Z[x] is neither a PID, nor a Euclidean domain.

Example 10.7. (cf. [Dummit and Foote, §8.1, the Example after Proposition 1])

The quadratic integer ring Z[ −5] is not a P.I.D. Indeed, the ideal

I = (3, 2 + −5)

is not principal. Alternatively, one shows that 3 is an irreducible element but not a
prime element in the quadratic integer ring, and use Proposition 11.3
See [Dummit and Foote, §7.1] and Wiki-Quadratic Integers for other examples
of quadratic integer rings which are (or are not) Euclidean domain, or PID, or UFD.

a = bc

## for some c ∈ R. In this case, b is said to divide a, or to be a divisor of a,

written
b | a.
10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 73

## (2) d ∈ R is a greatest common divisor of a and b, denoted as

d = gcd(a, b)

if

(2a)
d | a, and, d | b; and

(2b)
d0 | a, and d0 | b =⇒ d0 | d.

(2c) Inductively, for ai ∈ R \ {0} (1 ≤ i ≤ n), we can define their greatest common
divisor as:
gcd(a1 , . . . , an ) := gcd(gcd(a1 , . . . , an−1 ), an ).

(a, b) = (d)

d = gcd(a, b).

## Exercise 10.10. More generally, if ai ∈ R are nonzero such that

(a1 , . . . , an ) = (d)

## for some d ∈ R. Then d is a greatest common divisor of a1 , . . . , an , i.e.,

d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

## (d) = (d0 ) ⇐⇒ d0 = ud for some unit u.

74 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

## (2) Let d be a greatest common divisor of a and b. Then d0 is another greatest

common divisor of a and b if and only if d0 = ud for some unit u.

## Theorem 10.12. Suppose R is a Euclidean domain. Let a, b be nonzero elements in

R. Let d = rn be the last nonzero remainder in the Division Algorithm 10.2. Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = (a, b).

In particular
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

## Proposition 10.13. Assume that R is a PID. Let a, b be nonzero elements. Let

d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

## Proof. This follows from Propositions 10.9 and 10.11.

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 75

## Proposition 10.14. Assume that R is a PID. Let a, b be nonzero elements. Let

d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

## (3) Such d above is unique up to multiplication by a unit of R.

Exercise 10.15. More generally, assume that R is a PID. Let ai be nonzero ele-
ments. Let d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a1 , . . . , an ).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

(2)
d = a1 x 1 + · · · + an x n

for some xi ∈ R.

## Proposition 10.16. Assume that R is a PID and P ⊆ R is an ideal. Then the

following are equivalent.

## (2) P is a nonzero prime ideal of R.

76 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

Corollary 10.17. Let R be a commutative ring such that the polynomial ring R[x]
is a PID. Then R is a field. [Hint. Consider the quotient ring R[x]/)(x).]
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 77

## 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tuto-

rial 6; Lecture 11)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

main.

(1a) r 6= 0,

## (1b) r is not a unit, and

(1c)
r = ab =⇒ a or b is a unit in R.

r = ab

## where neither a nor b is a unit of R.

(3) A nonzero element p ∈ R is called prime in R if the ideal (p) is a prime ideal,
or equivalently if
p | ab =⇒ p | a, or p | b.

a = ub

## Proposition 11.2. Assume that R is an integral domain. Then a prime element is

always irreducible.
78 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

it is prime.

## Definition 11.4. (UFD) An integral domain R is a Unique Factorisation Do-

main (or UFD for short) if every element r ∈ R \ {0} which is not a unit, satisfies:

(1) (Factorisation)
r = p1 . . . pn

r = q 1 . . . qm

## is another factorisation, with qi irreducible, then m = n and (after relabelling)

qi = ui pi for some units ui (i.e., qi is associate to pi ).

Example 11.5.

it is prime.

## The following result/formula can be generalised to gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

Proposition 11.7. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

## (2) Precisely, factorise

a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn
where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then
min(e1 ,f1 )
gcd(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmin(en ,fn ) .

## Here we set gcd(a, b) = 1 if min(ei , fi ) = 0 (∀i).

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 79

## Exercise 11.8. Let R be a UFD. Let a, b, c ∈ R such that c 6= 0. Then

gcd(c, a) = 1, c | ab =⇒ c | b.

Theorem 11.9.

## Euclidean domain =⇒ PID =⇒ UFD.

Proof. We remain to show that every PID is UFD. Assume now R is PID · · · .

## Corollary 11.10. (Fundamental theorem of arithmetic) The integer ring Z is

UFD.

Example 11.11. R := Z[ −5] is not a UFD. This is because
√ √
6 = 2 × 3 = (1 + 5)(1 − −5)

are two distinct (even up to associates) factorisations into irreducibles. See [Dummit
- Foote, §8.3, Example (5) and Exercise 8, for details].

## Definition 11.12. (lcm) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and let a, b ∈ R be

nonzero elements. A least common multiple of a and b, denoted as lcm(a, b), is
an element c of R such that

(1)
a | c, b | c, and,

(2)
a | c0 , b | c0 =⇒ c | c0 .

## The following result/formula can be generalised to lcm(a1 , . . . , an ).

Proposition 11.13. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

## (1) lcm(a, b) exists.

80 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

## (2) Precisely, factorise

a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn
where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then

max(e1 ,f1 )
lcm(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmax(en ,fn ) .

## Here we set lcm(a, b) = 1 if max(ei , fi ) = 0 (∀i).

Exercise 11.14. Use the fact that a prime ideal of a PID is a maximal ideal, or
otherwise, to show:

## (1) Z[x] is UFD but is not a PID.

(2) The polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a field F , is a UFD, but
is not a PID.

(3) Let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial over a field F . Then the quotient ring
F (x)/(f (x)) is a field if and only if f (x) is an irreducible polynomial in F [x].

## Example 11.15. (Irreducible Gaussian Integers) Below is a sketch. For details,

see [Dummit - Foote, §8.3, Proposition 18].
Consider the Gaussian integer ring R = Z[i] = Z + Zi, with the norm function

N (a + bi) = a2 + b2 .

## We can determine units as

U (R) = {±1, ±i}.

## So u ∈ R is a unit if and only if N (u) = 1. It follows that if N (a + bi) is a prime

number in Z then a + bi is irreducible in R.
In general, if π ∈ R is irreducible then (π) is a prime ideal of R and hence (π) ∩ Z
is also a prime ideal of Z and equal to some p Z with p a prime number in Z. Namely,

(π) ∩ Z = p Z.
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 81

## p2 = N (p) = N (ππ 0 ) = N (π)N (π 0 ).

It follows that either N (π) = p2 and π 0 is a unit (so that p is prime in R), or
N (π) = p = N (π 0 ). In the latter case, both π and π 0 are irreducible, and if we write
π = ap + bp i then we have

## Precisely, if q = 3 (mod 4) is a prime number then q is irreducible in R, since

q = a2 + b2 has no solution for a, b integers.
It is known that for other odd prime p, i.e., p = 1 (mod 4), we can write
p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (product of two irreducibles).
Finally, 1 + i and 1 − i are irreducible in R, since their norms are 2 (prime
number). Note also that
2 = (1 + i)(1 − i).

## Therefore, up to associates, all the irreducibles of R = Z[i] are as follows:

1 ± i, q, ap ± bp i

where prime number q = 3 (mod 4), where prime number p = 1 (mod 4) so that
p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (the solution (ap , bp ) to the equation (*) above is not unique
for a given p).
Using Chinese remainder theorem for rings and that in a PID, an irreducible
element is a prime element which generates a nonzero prime and hence maximal
ideal, one can show (cf. Tutorial):

R/2R ∼
= (R/(1 + i)R) × (R/(1 − i)R) ∼
= (Z/(2Z) × (Z/2Z),

R/pR ∼
= (R/(ap + bp i)) × (R/(ap − bp i)) ∼
= Z/(p) × Z/(p), and

## R/qR = Fq2 , a field of cardinality q 2 .

82 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

## 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lec-

ture 12)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.
We recall the definition of polynomial ring R[x] and degree of a polynomial below.
Consider
n
X
g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0
i=0

## where we assume an 6= 0. We call g(x) a polynomial of degree n ≥ 0, in one

variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient an 6= 0.
By convention, for zero polynomial 0, we define its degree as:

deg 0 = −∞.

## If g(x) has no positive-degree term, i.e., if g(x) = a0 with a0 ∈ R, we call such

g(x) a constant polynomial.
Let
d
X
R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}
j=0

## be the set of all polynomials in one variable x and with coefficients in R.

There are natural addition and multiplication operations for polynomials
r
X s
X
g(x) = ai xi , h(x) = bi x i
i=0 i=0

defined as X
g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi
i≥0
X
g(x)h(x) = ck x k
k≥0

where
X
ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,
i+j=k

such that
(R[x], +, ×)
12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) 83

## (2) The units of R[x] are just the units of R. Namely,

U (R[x]) = U (R).

## (3) R[x] is an integral domain.

Proposition 12.2. Let I be an ideal of R and let (I) = I[x] be the ideal of R[x]
generated by I. Then

(1)
R[x]/I[x] ∼
= (R/I)[x].

## Remark 12.3. If I = (a) = aR is a principal ideal of R, then aR[x] is the ideal of

R[x] generated by aR. Thus

R[x]/aR[x] ∼
= (R/aR)[x].

Example 12.4. Consider the integer ring Z and its ideal nZ. We have

Z[x]/nZ[x] ∼
= (Z/nZ)[x].

## Hence if n = p a prime number, then p Z[x] is a prime ideal of Z[x]. So p is a prime

element of Z and also of Z[x].

## Definition 12.5. The polynomial ring R[x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn can

be inductively defined as:

## R[x1 , x2 ] = (R[x1 ])[x2 ], . . . , R[x1 , . . . , xn ] = (R[x1 , . . . , xn−1 ])[xn ].

84 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

## 12.6. In a slightly more concrete formulation, a nonzero polynomial in R[x1 , . . . , xn ]

is a finite sum of nonzero monomial terms, i.e., a finite sum of elements of the form

axd11 · · · xdnn

where a ∈ R (the coefficient of the term) and the di are nonnegative integers. A
monic term xd11 · · · xdnn is called simply a monomial and is the monomial part of the
term axd11 · · · xdnn . The exponent di is called the degree in xi of the term and the
sum
d = d1 + d2 + · · · + dn

## is called the degree of the term. The ordered n-tuple

(d1 , d2 , . . . , dn )

## is the multidegree of the term. The degree of a nonzero polynomial is the

largest degree of any of its monomial terms. A polynomial is called homogeneous
or a form if all its terms have the same degree. If f is a nonzero polynomial
in n variables, the sum of all the monomial terms in f of degree k is called the
homogeneous component of f of degree k. If f has degree d then f may be
written uniquely as the sum

f = f0 + f1 + · · · + fd

## where fk is the homogeneous component of f of degree k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ d (where

some fk may be zero).

Theorem 12.7. Let F be a field. Then the polynomial ring F [x] is a Euclidean
domain with the norm function N : F [x] → Z≥0 given as: N (f ) = deg f .

Corollary 12.8. The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a PID and also UFD.
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 85

## 13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lem-

mas (Tutorial 7)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

## Definition 13.1. (Content of a polynomial; Primitive polynomial) Let R be

a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field.

## f (x) = c(f ) f1 (x)

so that c(f ) ∈ R \ {0} and gcd of coefficients of f1 (x) is 1. This c(f ) is unique
up to a unit factor of R, and called the content of f .

## We call f (x) ∈ R[x] a primitive polynomial if its content c(f ) is a unit in

R. We say c(f ) = 1 in this case.

## g(x) = c(g) g1 (x)

such that c(g) ∈ F × and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] is a primitive prolynomial. This c(g) is
unique up to a unit factor of R, and also called the content of g.

Remark 13.2. Let R be a UFD and F = Q(R) its fraction field. For nonconstant
g(x) ∈ F [x], as above, write
g(x) = c(g)g1 (x)

with c(g) ∈ F the content of g(x), and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] a primitive polynomial. Then
g(x) ∈ R[x] if and only if the content c(g) ∈ R.

Proposition 13.3. (Gauss lemma 1) Let R be a UFD and f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]
primitive polynomials. Then f (x) g(x) ∈ R[x] is still a primitive polynomial.
86 13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7)

Corollary 13.4. (Contents relation) Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its frac-
tion field, and f (x), g(x) ∈ F [x] nonconstant polynomials. Then we have contents
relation:
c(f g) = c(f ) c(g).

Exercise 13.5. Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field. Let f (x) ∈ R[x]
be a noncontant monic polynomial such that f (x) = g(x) h(x) for some nonconstant
monic polynomials g, h ∈ F [x]. Show that g, h ∈ R[x].

Exercise 13.6. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ Q[x] such that the product f g ∈ Z[x]. Show that
the product of any coefficient of g with any coefficient of f is an integer.

Corollary 13.7. (Gauss lemma 2) Assume R is UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction
field and f (x) ∈ R[x]. If f (x) is reducible in F [x] then f (x) is reducible in R[x].
More precisely, if
f (x) = g(x)h(x)

for some nonconstant polynomials g(x), h(x) ∈ F [x], and write g(x) = c(g) g1 (x), h(x) =
c(h) h1 (x) then c(g) c(h) = c(f ) ∈ R and

## is the factorisation in R[x] with g1 , h1 , g1 h1 ∈ R[x] all primitive polynomials.

Corollary 13.8. (Gauss lemma 3) Let R be a UFD with F its fraction field and
let p(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1) Suppose p(x) is a primitive polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and
only if it is irreducible in F [x].

(2) Suppose p(x) is a monic polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and
only if it is irreducible in F [x].

Theorem 13.9. The ring R is a UFD if and only if the polynomial ring R[x] is a
UFD.
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 87

Corollary 13.10. Assume that R is a UFD. Then the polynomial ring R[x1 , . . . , xn ]
is also a UFD for any n ≥ 1.

## Example 13.11. The polynomial ring Z[x1 , . . . , xn ] is a UFD for any n ≥ 1.

Example 13.12. The polynomial ring F [x1 , . . . , xn ] over a field F is a UFD for any
n ≥ 1.
88 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

## 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8;

Lecture 13)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

Proposition 14.1. Let F be a field and f ∈ F [x]. Then f has a factor of degree 1
in F [x] if and only if f has a root in F (i.e., there is an α ∈ F such that f (α) = 0).

## Proposition 14.2. (Irreducibility criterion, in small degree) Let F be a field.

Suppose f ∈ F [x] has deg f = 2 or 3. Then f is reducible in F [x] if and only if f
has a root in F .

Proposition 14.3. Assume f (x) = an xn +an−1 xn−1 +· · ·+a0 ∈ Z[x] has deg f = n.
Assume r/s (with r, s ∈ Z co-prime) is a rational root of f (x). Then

r | a0 , s | an .

In particular, if f (x) ∈ Z[x] is a monic polynomial and f (d) 6= 0 for all integers
d dividing the constant term of f (x), then f (x) has no roots in Q.

Exercise 14.4.

## (1) f (x) = x3 − 3x − 1 is irreducible in Z[x]. Indeed, by a Gauss lemma, it suffices

to show f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. Then we apply Proposition 14.2.

## (2) Let p ∈ Z be any prime number. The polynomials x2 − p and x3 − p are

irreducible in Q[x]. Indeed, just apply Proposition 14.2.

## (3) The polynomial x2 + 1 is reducible in (Z/(2))[x]. This follows by applying

Proposition 14.2. In fact, x2 + 1 = (x + 1)2 , since char Z/(2) = 2; see Exercise
8.10.

## Proposition 14.5. (Irreducibility criterion, modulo ideal) Let R be an in-

tegral domain, I ⊂ R a proper ideal and f (x) ∈ R[x] a non-constant polynomial.
Suppose that the image of f (x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two
polynomials of smaller positive degrees. Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 89

## Exercise 14.6. Let f (x) = x2 + x + 1. Then f (x) is irreducible in (Z/(2))[x] by

applying Proposition 14.2. Hence f (x) is irreducible in Z[x] by Proposition 14.5,
and also irreducible in Q[x] by a Gauss lemma.

## Proposition 14.7. (Eisenstein’s criterion) Let R be an integral domain, P ⊂ R

a prime ideal, and

## a polynomial in R[x] (here n ≥ 2). Suppose

ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

## Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].

Remark 14.8. (Eisenstein criterion over UFD) The same proof as in Proposi-
tion 14.7 shows:
Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field, P a prime ideal of R and

## in R[x] with n ≥ 2 such that

an 6∈ P, ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

## Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x], and also in F [x] by Corollary 13.7.

Corollary 14.9. (Eisenstein criterion for Z[x]) Let p be a prime in Z and let

## a polynomial in Z[x] (here n ≥ 2). Suppose

p | ai (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), p2 6 | a0 .

## Then f (x) is irreducible in Z[x] and Q[x].

90 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

## Proof. This follows from Proposition 14.7 and Corollary 13.8.

Example 14.10. Let p ∈ Z be any prime number and let integer n ≥ 2. Then the
polynomial
f (x) = xn − p

is irreducible in Q[x] and hence p
n is not a rational number.
Indeed, by a Gauss lemma, equivalently, we need to show the irreducibility claim
of f (x) in Z[x]. For the latter claim, just apply Eisenstein criterion.

Proposition 14.11. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a
non-constant polynomial. Then the following are equivalent.

## (3) The quotient ring F [x]/(f ) is a field.

Proof. This follows from Propositions 10.16 and 11.3 and Corollary 12.8.

Proposition 14.12. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and g(x) a
non-constant polynomial such that

## c g(x) = f1 (x)n1 · · · fk (x)nk

where c is a nonzero constant, the fi are distinct irreducible polynomials in F [x] and
the ni ≥ 1. Then

F [x]/(g) ∼ n
= (F [x]/(f1n1 )) × · · · × (F [x]/(fk k )).

Proof. This follows from Chinese remainder theorem for rings. Indeed, note that,
for i 6= j, we have
n n
1 = gcd(fini , fj j ) = h1 fini + h2 fj j
n
for some h1 , h2 ∈ F [x], by Propositions 10.14 and 11.13. So (fini )+(fj j ) = F [x].
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 91

Definition 14.13. (Multiplicity of a root) Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over
a field F and f (x) a non-constant polynomial. Recall that α ∈ F is a root of f (x)
(i.e., f (α) = 0) if and only if
(x − α) | f (x).

## (x − α)m | f (x), but (x − α)m+1 6 | f (x).

Proposition 14.14. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a non-
constant polynomial such that αi ∈ F (1 ≤ i ≤ k) are all the distinct roots of f (x)
of multiplicity mi ≥ 1. Then

## f (x) = (x − α1 )m1 · · · (x − αk )mk q(x)

Pk
for some q(x) ∈ F [x]. In particular, i=1 mi ≤ deg f (x), and f (x) has at most
deg f (x) of roots in F , even counted with multiplicity.

## xk = exp(2kπi/p) = cos(2kπ/p) + i sin(2kπ/p) (0 ≤ k < n).

(2) If F is a field of characteristic p, say some over field of Z/(p), and a ∈ F , then
whenever β ∈ F is a root of f (x) (so that 0 = f (β) = β p − a) it is a multiple
root of multiplicity p. Indeed, we have (cf. Exercise 8.10)

## f (x) = xp − a = xp + (−1)p a = xp + (−β)p = (x − β)p .

Proposition 14.16.

G is cyclic.

## (2) If F is a finite field, then F \ {0} is a cyclic multiplicative group.

92 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

## Corollary 14.17. Let p be a prime. Then U (Z/(p)) = Z/(p) \ {p } is a cyclic

multiplicative group of order p − 1.

Exercise 14.18. (cf. [Dummit-Foote, §9.5, Corollary 20]) Factor n ≥ 2 into product
of prime powers:
n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k

## with pi distinct primes and αi ≥ 1. Then

(1)
U (Z/(n)) ∼ α
= U (Z/(pα1 1 )) × U (Z/(pk k )).

(2) U (Z/(2α )) is the product of a cyclic group of order 2 and cyclic group of order
2α−2 , for all α ≥ 2.

(3) U (Z/(pα )) is a cyclic group of order pα−1 (p − 1), for all odd prime p.

## Remark 14.19. (Irreducibility via transformation) Let F be a field, and a, b ∈

F with a 6= 0. Let f (x) ∈ F [x] be a nonconstant polynomial. Then

(1)
ϕ: F → F

x 7→ ax + b
is a bijection with its inverse given by

ψ: F → F

x 7→ (x − b)/a.

## Thus f (x) is irreducible in F [x] if and only if g(x) := f (ax + b) is irreducible.

(2) Suppose deg f (x) = n ≥ 1 and let h(x) = xn f (x−1 ) which is called the reverse
of f (x), and which is a polynomial in F [x] with deg h(x) ≤ n. We can recover
f (x) from its reverse via:
f (x) = xn h(x−1 ).

Further, f (x) is irreducible in F [x] if and only if its reverse h(x) is irreducible.
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 93

## Example 14.20. Let f (x) = x4 + 1. Then f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. Indeed, by

Remark 14.19, it suffices to show that

## is irreducible in Q[x] (or equivalently is irreducible in Z[x] by a Gauss lemma). Now

Eisenstein criterion readily implies the required irreducibility of g(x) in Z[x].

polynomial

## is irreducible over Q. Indeed, by Remark 14.19, equivalently, we need to show the

irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Q[x], or equivalently in Z[x] by a Gauss lemma. For
the irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Z[x], apply Eisenstein criterion.
94 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

## 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-

15)
In this section, a ring may not be commutative ring nor with 1.

## Definition 15.1. Let R be a ring. A left R-module or a left module over R is

a nonempty set M together with

R×M → M

(r, m) 7→ rm

satisfying

## (2b) (associative law)

(rs)m = r(sm), ∀ r, s ∈ R; ∀ m ∈ M.

## (2c) (trivial action by 1R )

1R m = m, ∀ m ∈ M.

## (1) We can define right R-module similarly.

(2) A left R-module is called unital if R has 1 and axiom (2c) holds.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 95

## (3) When R is commutative, a left R-module M can be made into a right R-

module by defining
m r := r m, ∀ r ∈ R, m ∈ M.

(4) When R is field (or a division ring), a left module over R is just a vector space
over R.

(5) Due to the similarity, in the sequel, we will mainly consider left R-
modules.

## In this course, whenever R has 1, every left R-module is assumed to

be unital.

Exercise 15.3. Let R be a ring with 1 and M a (unital) left R-module. Show that

0R m = 0M , (−1R ) m = −m, ∀ m ∈ M.

Z×M → M

(n, m) 7→ nm.

## Here 0Z m := 0M , n m := m + · · · + m (n times) when integer n > 0, and n m :=

−((−n) m) when integer n < 0.
Thus Z-modules are just (additive) abelian groups.

## Example 15.5. (Ring as a module over itself) Let R be a ring. Then M = R

is naturally a left R-module via the natural multiplication:

R × M → M,

(r, m) 7→ rm.

(Left R-submodules (to be defined below) of M = R are just left ideals of R.)
Similarly, M = R is naturally a right R-module.

## Definition 15.6. Let R be a ring and M a left R-module.

A nonempty subset N ⊆ M is a left R-submodule of M if
96 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

## (2) N is closed under the action of R:

r ∈ R, n ∈ N =⇒ r n ∈ N.

## Remark 15.7. (1) A left R-submodule N of M is just a subset of M which

itself is a left R-module under the addition + : N × N → N and the action
R × N → N as the restrictions of the addition + : M × M → M and action
R × M → M , respectively.

subspace.

## Example 15.8. Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R a left ideal of R, and M a left R-module.

Then define and denote
s
X
IM := { ai mi | ai ∈ I, mi ∈ M, s ≥ 1}
i=1

## Example 15.9. (Free module Rn ) Let R be a ring with 1. Let

Rn := {(a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ R}.

+ : Rn × Rn → Rn ,

## (X = (x1 , . . . , xn ), Y = (y1 , . . . , yn )) 7→ X + Y := (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ).

Define R-action :

R × Rn → Rn ,
.
(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yn )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryn ).

Then Rn is a left R-module, and called the free left module of rank n over R.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 97

Example 15.10. Let Rn be the free left R-module of rank n over R as defined in
Example 15.9.

## (1) Let I1 , . . . , In be left ideals of R. Then

I1 × · · · × In := (a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ I}

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

(2)
n
X
{(x1 , . . . , xn ) | xi ∈ R, xi = 0}
i=1

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

## Example 15.11. (F [x]-modules) Let F be a field and V a vector space over F .

Fix a linear transformation
T : V → V.

## Then V has a natural F [x]-module structure, depending on T .

Indeed, recall that for linear transformations Ti : V → V (i = 1, 2, . . . ) and
scalars αi ∈ F , the linear combination

α1 T1 + α2 T2 : V → V

## is a well defined linear transformation. Inductively, the linear combination

α1 T1 + · · · + αk Tk

## is a well defined linear transformation.

For a polynomial
n
X
f (x) = ai xi ∈ F [x]
i=0

we define
n
X
f (T ) = ai T i = a0 IV + a1 T + · · · + an T n ,
i=0
98 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Here
T 0 = IV : V → V

v 7→ IV (v) := v
is the identity map, and the compositions below are linear transformations:

T 2 := T ◦ T ; T 3 = T ◦ T ◦ T ; . . . ; T n = T ◦ · · · ◦ T (n times)

F [x] × V → V

## (f (x), v) 7→ f (x)v := f (T )(v).

One can check that the action makes V a left F [x]-module, depending on the linear
transformation T : V → V .
So a given vector space V over F may have many different left F [x]-module
structures.
If W ⊆ V is a T -invariant subspace, i.e.

T (W ) ⊆ W

## Proposition 15.12. (Submodule Criterion) Let R be a ring with 1 and M a left

R-module. Let N ⊆ M be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

## (1) N is a left R-submodule of M .

(2)
∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x, y ∈ N =⇒ x + ry ∈ N.

## (1) Let Nα (α ∈ Σ) be a collection of left R-submodules of M . Prove that the

intersection
∩α∈Σ Nα

is a left R-submodule of M .
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 99

(2) Let
N1 ⊆ N2 ⊆ · · ·

## be an ascending chain of left R-submodules of M . Prove that the union

∪∞
i=1 Ni

is a left R-submodule of M .

module?

## Definition 15.14. (Torsion element of a module) An element m of a left R-

module is a torsion element if
rm = 0

## Exercise 15.15. (cf. Tutorial) (Torsion submodule) If R is an integral domain,

then Tor(M ) is an R-submodule of M , called the torsion submodule of M .

## Exercise 15.16. Let n ≥ 2 and R = Mn (F ) the matrix ring of size n × n over a

field F . For each k, let

## Show that Mk is left R-submodule of M := R regarded as a natural left R-module,

but is not a right R-submodule of M := R regarded as a natural right R-module.

Definition 15.17. (Centre of a ring) Let R be a ring. The centre Z(R) of the
ring R is defined and denoted as

Z(R) := {z ∈ R | z r = r z, ∀ r ∈ R}.
100 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Remark 15.18.

## Exercise 15.19. Let M be a left R-module. Let z ∈ Z(R). Then

z M := {z m | m ∈ M }

is a left R-submodule of M .

## (1) Let R be a commutative ring with 1R . An R-algebra is a ring A with 1A

together with a ring homomorphism

f: R → A

such that
f (1R ) = 1A , and

f (R) ⊆ Z(A).

## For simplicity, we write

r a := f (r) a.

We have

r a = a r; r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b) = a (b r) = (a b) r, ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

## An R-algebra A has a natural left (resp. right) R-module structure given

respectively as:
R×A → A

(r, a) 7→ r a;

A×R → A

(a, r) 7→ a r = r a.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 101

## (2) Let A and B be two R-algebras. An R-algebra homomorphism is a ring

homomorphism
ϕ: A → B

such that
ϕ(1A ) = 1B , and

ϕ(r a) = r ϕ(a), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ a ∈ A.

## An R-algebra isomorphism ϕ : A → B is an R-algebra homomorphism

which is bijective. In this case, the inverse ϕ−1 : B → A is also an R-algebra
isomorphism.

## Remark 15.21. If A is an R-algebra, then A is a ring with 1A which is a (unital)

left R-module satisfying:

(∗) r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b), ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

## Conversely, if R is a commutative ring with 1R and A is a ring with 1A which is

a (unital) left R-module satisfying the condition (∗) above, then A is an R-algebra
by defining
f : R → A,

r 7→ r 1A .
Sometimes, we use the condition (*) as defining axiom for A to be an R-algebra.
102 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

## 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tu-

torial 9; Lecture 16)
Throughout this section, a ring is assumed to have 1.

## Definition 16.1. (Ring endo (homomorphism); Isomorphism; Kernel; Im-

age) Let R be a ring, and M, N left R-modules.

(1) A map
ϕ : M 7→ N

## is an R-module homomorphism if it respects the R-module structures of

M and N , i.e.,

(1a)
ϕ(x + y) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y), ∀ x, y ∈ M, and

(1b)
ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x ∈ M.

## (2) An R-module homomorphism ϕ : M → N is an isomorphism (of R-modules)

if it is bijective. In this case, we say M and N are isomorphic, and denote

ϕ : M → N, or

M∼
= N, or M ' N.

## (3) If ϕ : M → N is a left R-module homomorphism, define and denote the kernel

of ϕ as
Ker ϕ = ϕ−1 (0N ) = {m ∈ M | ϕ(m) = 0}

## ϕ(M ) := {n ∈ N | n = ϕ(m), for some m ∈ M }.

16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 103

## When M = N , a left R-module ϕ : M → M is also called an endomorphism

of the left R-module M . We denote

## Remark 16.2. Let ϕ : M → N be a left R-module homomorphism. Then Ker ϕ is

a left R-submodule of N while the image ϕ(M ) is a left R-submodule of N .
More generally, for any left R-submodule M1 of M , the image ϕ(M1 ) is a left
R-submodule of N .

## Example 16.3. Let M be a left R-module and N a left R-submodule of M . Then

the inclusion map
ι: N → M

n 7→ n
is a homomorphism of left R-modules.

## Proposition 16.4. (Homomorphism criterion; Linear combination of ho-

momorphisms) Let R be a ring with 1. Let M, N, L be left R-modules.

(1) A map
ϕ:M →N

## (2) Let ϕi ∈ HomR (M, N ) and αi ∈ R. Then the linear combination

α1 ϕ1 + α2 ϕ2 : M → N,

## m 7→ (α1 ϕ1 + α2 )(m) := α1 ϕ1 (m) + α2 ϕ2 (m)

104 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

In particular,

## + : R × HomR (M, N ) → HomR (M, N )

(ϕ1 , ϕ2 ) 7→ ϕ1 + ϕ2

## and the action

R × HomR (M, N ) → HomR (M, N )

(α, ϕ) 7→ αϕ
we get a left R-module structure on the additive group (HomR (M, N ), +).

## (3) If ϕ ∈ HomR (L, M ) and ψ ∈ HomR (M, N ) then the composition

ψ ◦ ϕ ∈ HomR (L, N ).

## (4) We have a natural ring structure (with multiplicative identity 1)

(HomR (M, M ), +, ◦)

on the set HomR (M, M ), where the addition + is as defined above, and ◦ is
the composition (Caution: ϕ ◦ ψ is not ϕ × ψ). The identity map

IM : M → M

m 7→ IM (m) := m.

module M .

## (5) Suppose that R is commutative. Then for α ∈ R, the scalar map

αIM : M → M

m 7→ αm.
16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 105

## belongs to HomR (M, M ).

The map
f : R → HomR (M, M ),

α 7→ αIM
is a ring homomorphism with

## Proposition 16.5. (Quotient module, map) Let R be a ring, M a left R-module,

N a left R-submodule and M/N the quotient additive abelian group.

## (1) The action

R × (M/N ) → M/N

(r, m = m + N ) 7→ rm
is well defined and makes M/N into a left R-module, called the quotient left
R-module of M by N .

## (2) The quotient map

γ : M → M/N,

m 7→ m = m + N
is a left R-module surjective homomorphism with

Ker γ = N.

## Notation 16.6. Let A, B be subsets of a left R-module M . We define the addition

(or sum, but not union!)

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

## Similarly, for subset Ai ⊆ M , we define the addition

Xn
A1 + · · · + An := { ai | ai ∈ Ai }.
i=1
106 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

## Remark 16.7. Let N1 , . . . , Nk be left R-submodules of a left R-module M . Then

the addition N1 + · · · + Nk is a left R-submodule of M , and is the smallest among
all left R-submodules of M containing all Ni .

ϕ: M → N

M/(Ker ϕ) ∼
= ϕ(M ).

module M . Then
A/(A ∩ B) ∼
= (A + B)/B.

## (3) (Third Isomorphism Theorem) Let M be a left R-module, and let A, B be

left R-submodules of M with A ⊆ B. Then

M/B ∼
= (M/A)/(M/B).

## (4) (Correspondence Theorem for modules) Let N be a left R-submodule of the

left R-module M . There is a bijection between the left R-submodules of M which
contain N and the left R-submodules of M/N . The correspondence is given by

A ←→ A/N

for all A ⊇ N .
This correspondence commutes with the processes of taking additions and inter-
sections.

## Proof. Similar to those for rings or groups.

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 107

## 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free mod-

ules (Tut 9; Lect 17)
Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

## Definition 17.1. (Generating set of a module) Let M be a left R-module and

let N1 , . . . , Nn be left R-submodules of M .

## (1) We recall the addition

n
X
N1 + · · · + Nn = { ai | ai ∈ Ni }
i=1

## (2) For any subset A ⊆ M , let

s
X
RA := { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

## RA is a left R-submodule of M and is the smallest among all left R-submodules

of M containing A. We call the RA the submodule of M generated by A.

## If A = {a1 , . . . , at } one can show that

Xt
RA = Ra1 + · · · + Rat = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}.
i=1

## If N is a left R-submodule of M and N = RA for some subset A ⊆ M , we call

A a set of generators or generating set for N ; and we say N is generated
by A.

## (3) A submodule N of M (possibly N = M ) is finitely generated if there is

some finite subset A of M such that N = RA, that is, if N is generated by
some finite subset.

## (4) A left R-submodule N of M (possibly N = M ) is cyclic if there exists an

element a ∈ M such that N = Ra, that is, if N is generated by one element:

N = Ra = {ra | r ∈ R}.
108 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Example 17.2.

(1) Let R = Z and M any R-module, i.e., any additive abelian group. If a ∈ M ,
then Ra is just the subgroup of M generated by a. If A ⊆ M , then RA is just
the subgroup of M generated by A.

(2) Let R be a ring. Then M = R is naturally a left R-module (cf. Example 15.5).

(3) Let R be a ring with 1 and M = Rn the free left module of rank n over R as
defined in Example 15.9. Let

## e1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0), e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , en = (0, . . . , 0, 1).

Then
M = Re1 + · · · + Ren

## Definition 17.3. (Direct product) Let M1 , . . . , Mk be a finite collection of left

R-modules. The product

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) | mi ∈ Mi }

+ : M × M → M,

## (X = (x1 , . . . , xk ), Y = (y1 , . . . , yk )) 7→ X + Y := (x1 + y1 , . . . , xk + yk ).

Define R-action :

R × M → M,
.
(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yk )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryk ).

## Then M = M1 × · · · × Mk is a left R-module, and called the direct product of

M1 , . . . , Mk .
More generally, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 109

## of any collection of left R-modules Mα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or

countable). See Tutorial 9.

## Proposition 17.4. Let N1 , . . . , Nk be submodules of the left R-module M . Then

the following are equivalent.

## (1) The map

π : N1 × · · · × Nk → N1 + · · · + Nk ,

(a1 , . . . , ak ) 7→ a1 + · · · + ak
is an isomorphism (of left R-modules). Namely,

N1 × · · · × Nk ∼
= N1 + · · · + Nk .

(2)
Nj ∩ (N1 + · · · + Nj−1 + Nj+1 + · · · + Nk ) = 0, (∀ 1 ≤ j ≤ k).

## (3) Every r ∈ N1 + · · · + Nk can be written uniquely in the form

r = a1 + · · · + ak

with ai ∈ Ni .

## Definition 17.5. (Direct sum of submodules) If a left R-module M = N1 +· · ·+

Nk is the sum of left R-submodules N1 , . . . , Nk satisfying the equivalent conditions
in Proposition 17.4, then M is said to be the (internal) direct sum of N1 , . . . , Nk ,
and denoted as
M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nk .

## Remark 17.6. Let

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) |, mi ∈ Mi }

## Ni = {(0, · · · , 0, ai , 0, · · · , 0) | ai ∈ Mi is at i-th position}.

110 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Then Mi ∼
= Ni (as left R-module) and

M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nn .

## Sometimes, we identify Mi = Ni and write

M = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn .

## So the direct product

M = M1 × · · · × Mn

M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn

## Theorem 17.7. (Chinese remainder theorem for modules) Let R be a ring

with 1 and Ai ideals of R which are pair wise comaximal (i.e., Ai + Aj = R, ∀i 6= j).
Then
A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak = A1 · · · Ak

and
M/(A1 . . . Ak )M ∼
= (M/(A1 M ) × · · · × (M/(Ak M ).

## Definition 17.8. (Free on a subset; Basis) A left R-module F is said to be

free on the subset A of F if for every nonzero x ∈ F , there exist unique nonzero
elements
r1 , . . . , rn ∈ R

and unique
a1 , . . . , a n ∈ A
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 111

such that
x = r1 a1 + · · · + rn an .

## In this situation, we say A is a basis or set of free generators for F .

If R is a commutative ring, the rank of F is defined as |A|, the cardinality of A.

Theorem 17.9.

(1) For any set A there is a free left R-module F (A) on the set A and F (A)
satisfies the universal property:

ϕ:A→M

Φ : F (A) → M

such that
ϕ=Φ◦ι

where
ι : A → F (A)

= Rn

## (as left R-modules).

Corollary 17.10.

(1) If F1 , F2 are free left R-modules on the same set A, then there is a unique
isomorphism
ϕ : F1 → F2
112 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

ϕ|A

## equals the identity map

idA : A → A

a 7→ idA (a) = a.

F ∼
= F (A)

## In particular, F enjoys the same universal property with respect to A as F (A)

does in Theorem 17.9.

ϕ0 : A1 → A2

## a bijection. Then there is a unique isomorphism (of left R-modules):

ϕ : F (A1 ) → F (A2 )

such that
ϕ|A1 = ϕ0 .

## Remark 17.12. Let Mi (1 ≤ i ≤ n) be left R-submodules of M . Suppose that

M1 + · · · + Mn = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn is a direct sum and each Mi is a free left R-module
with a basis Ai , then M1 + · · · + Mn is a free left R-module with a basis ni=1 Ai (a
`

disjoint union).

Remark 17.13.

(1) If F is a free left R-module with basis A, we shall often define left R-module
homomorphism
ϕ:F →N
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 113

from F into other left R-module N by simply specifying their ϕ-values on the
elements of A and then saying “extend by linearity” (applying Theorem 17.9
to F = F (A)).

(2) When R = Z, the free module on a set A is called the free abelian group
on A. If |A| = n, we call F (A) the free abelian group of rank n; we have

F (A) ∼
= Z × · · · × Z (n times).
114 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

## 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-

19)
Definition 18.1. (Noetherian module/ring) Let R be a ring and M a left R-
module.

## (1) The left R-module M is said to be a Noetherian R-module or to satisfy the

Ascending Chain Condition on submodules (or ACC on submodules) if there
are no infinite ascending chains of submodules, i.e., whenever

M1 ⊆ M2 ⊆ M3 ⊆ · · ·

## is an ascending chain of left R-submodules of M , then there is a positive

integer m such that
Mm = Mm+1 = Mm+2 = · · ·

## (2) The ring R is said to be Noetherian if it is Noetherian as a left module over

itself, i.e., if there are no infinite ascending chains of left ideals in R.

Theorem 18.2. Let R be a ring and M a left R-module. Then the following are
equivalent.

## (1) M is a Noetherian left R-module.

(2) Every nonempty set of submodules of M contains a maximal element under in-
clusion.

## Proposition 18.4. Let R be an integral domain and M a free R-module of rank

n < ∞. Then any n + 1 elements of M are R-linearly dependent, i.e., for any
y1 , . . . , yn+1 ∈ M there are elements r1 , . . . , rn+1 ∈ R, not all zero, such that

r1 y1 + · · · + rn+1 yn+1 = 0.
18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 115

R-module.

## (2) The rank of an R-module M is the maximal number of R-linearly independent

elements of M . So it is either a finite number or infinity.

## Remark 18.6. We remark that if A is a linearly independent subset of M , then

the R-submodule
Xn
RA = { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, n ≥ 1}
i=1

## of M is a free R-module with a basis A (cf. Definition 17.8).

Thus, if M has rank r ∈ Z>0 then M contains an R-submodule isomorphic to
Rr .

## Theorem 18.7. Let R be a PID, M a free R-module of finite rank n and N a

R-submodule of M . Then

## (2) There exists a basis

{y1 , . . . , yn }

of M such that
{a1 y1 , . . . , am ym }

## is a basis of N , where a1 , . . . , am are nonzero elements of R with the divisibility

relations
a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

## Definition 18.8. Recall that a left R-module C is cyclic if C = Ra for some a ∈ C.

In this case, the surjective homomorphism

γ: R → C

r 7→ ra
116 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

induces an isomorphism
R/ Ker γ ∼
= C.

Conversely, for every left ideal I of R, the quotient ring R/I is a cyclic left
R-module since R/I = R 1R with 1R = 1R + I ∈ R/I.

Definition 18.9. (cf. Tutorial) (Torsion module; Torsion free module) Let M
be a left R-module.

element r ∈ R.

Denote by

## (3) M is a said to be a torsion module if Tor(M ) = M .

(4) If R is an integral domain, then one can show that Tor(M ) is a left R-
submodule of M .

## Theorem 18.10. (Fundamental theorem, Existence: Invariant Factor Form)

Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

(1)
M∼
= Rr ⊕ R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am )

## for some r ≥ 0 and nonzero elements a1 , . . . , am of R which are not units in

R and which satisfy the divisibility relations:

a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

## (2) M is torsion free if and only if M is a free left R-module.

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 117

## (3) In the decomposition in (1),

Tor(M ) ∼
= R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am ).

am M = 0.

## Definition 18.11. (Free rank; Invariant factors) The integer r in Theorem

18.10 is called the free rank or the Betti number of M and the elements

a1 , . . . , a m ∈ R

## Theorem 18.12. (Fundamental Theorem, Existence: Elementary Divisor

Form) Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

M∼
= Rr ⊕ R/(pα1 1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(pαt t )

where r ≥ 0 is an integer and pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t are positive powers of (not necessarily
distinct or non-associate) primes in R.

## Definition 18.13. (Elementary divisors) Let R be a PID and M a finitely gen-

erated R-module as in Theorem 18.12. The prime powers

pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t

M.

## Theorem 18.14. (Fundamental Theorem, Uniqueness) Let R be a PID. Then

(1) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if
they have the same free rank and the same list of invariant factors.

(2) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if
they have the same free rank and the same list of elementary divisors.
118 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

Applying Theorem 18.10, 18.12 and 18.14 to R = Z and finitely generated abelian
group G (as R-module) we get the two theorems below.

## Theorem 18.15. (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian

Groups) Let G be a finitely generated abelian group. Then

(1)
G∼
= Zr × Z/(n1 ) × · · · × Z/(nu )

## (1b) the divisibility relations

n1 | n2 | · · · | nu .

## (2) The expression in (1) is unique : if

G∼
= Zt × Z/(m1 ) × · · · × Z/(mv )

## where t and m1 , . . . , mv satisfy (1a) and (1b), then t = r, v = u and mi = ni

(∀ i).

Definition 18.16. (Free rank; Invariant factor for f.g. abelian group) The
integer r in Theorem 18.15 is called the free rank or Betti number of G and the
integers n1 , . . . , nu are called the invariant factors of G. The description of G in
Theorem 18.15 is called the invariant factor decomposition of G.

Theorem 18.17. Let G be an abelian group of order n > 1 and let the unique
factorization of n into distinct prime powers be

n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k .

Then

(1)
G∼
= A1 × · · · × Ak

## where |Ai | = pαi i .

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 119

## (2) For each A = Ai ∈ {A1 , . . . , Ak } with |A| = pα ,

A∼
= Z/(pβ1 ) × · · · × Z/(pβt )

with
1 ≤ β1 ≤ · · · ≤ βt

and
β1 + · · · + βt = α

## (3) The decomposition in (1) and (2) is unique, i.e., if

G∼
= B1 × · · · × B`

## with |Bi | = pαi i for all i, then Bi ∼

= Ai and Bi and Ai have the same invariant
factors.

Definition 18.18. (Elementary divisors for f.g. abelian group) The inte-
gers integers pβj described in Theorem 18.17 are called the elementary divisors
of G. The description of G in Theorem 18.17 is called the elementary divisor
decomposition of G.