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ALGEBRA II

DE-QI ZHANG
(Professor of Mathematics; Office: S17-0608)

27th January 2019


Contents

1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts . . . . . . . . . . . 1


2 Revision of Group Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) . . . . . . . . . 21
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 44
6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) . . . . . . . . . . 57
7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) . . . . . . . . . 64
9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) . . . . 77
12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) . . . . . . . . 82
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) . . . . . 85
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) . . . . . . . 88
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) . . . . . . . . . . . 94
16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) . 102
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) . 107
18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

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1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts 1

1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts


• Textbook:

Title: Abstract algebra (Chapters 7 - 12 = My LN §3 - §18)

Authors: David S. Dummit, Richard M. Foote.

Imprint Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, c2004. Edition 3rd ed.

QA162 Dum 2004 (CL; U town); QA162 Dum (Sci)

• Reference book1:

Title: Rings, Modules and Linear Algebra

Authors: Biran Hartley and T. O. Hawkes

London, Chapman & Hall, 1970 (1991 Reprinted). QA251 Har (Sci)

• Reference book2:

Title: A first course in abstract algebra

Author: John B. Fraleigh,

Boston : Addison-Wesley, 2003. QA162 Fra 2003 (Sci)

• Prerequisites:

Department’s description:

(MA2202 or MA2202S) and (MA2101 or MA2101S)

Lecturer’s description:

The following topics will be assumed (read §2):

Vector space: Linear (in)dependence. Basis. Dimension. Matric space.

Group: Binary operation. Inverse. Identity. Group axioms. Subgroup and


coset. Cyclic group. Abelian group. Normal subgroup. Quotient group.
Group homomorphism. Group action: orbit, stabiliser. Group isomorphism
theorems (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th = Correspondence). Product of groups.
2 1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts

• Syllabus

Department’s description:

The objective of this module is to provide the essentials of ring theory and
module theory. Major topics: rings, ring isomorphism theorems, prime and
maximal ideals, integral domains, field of fractions, factorization, unique fac-
torization domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains, factorization
in polynomial domains, modules, module isomorphism theorems, cyclic mod-
ules, free modules of finite rank, finitely generated modules, finitely generated
modules over a principal ideal domain.

• Lecture Notes Contents:

Sections 3 - 18 (= Dummit - Foote, Chapters 7 - 12)

• Assessment:

(1) 30% from 60-minute common test which will be held (covering Lecture
Notes §1 - §9 and Tutorials 1 - 5) at S16-0304 during the lecture
time on Mon 4:10pm - 5:10pm, 18th Mar 2019. Students who are
absent from the test without an MC will be given 0 mark for the test.
A makeup test will be arranged for students with MC, but will be on
different topics/sections. The makeup test will be in reading week.

(2) 10% from 5 home works in tutorial weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. Due day:
Monday 6pm of the respective weeks. HW should be slipped inside my
office. Write your Tutorial group number on your script!

Late submission will not be accepted!

(3) The remaining 60% from the final exam in April/May 2019.
2 Revision of Group Theory 3

2 Revision of Group Theory


2.1. Notation for proper subset; standard sets

A subset A1 of a set A is a proper subset of A, if A1 6= A. In this case, denote

A1 ⊂ A.

Z = {· · · , −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, · · · }
(the set of integers)

Z≥0 = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . }
(the set of nonnegative integers)

N = {1, 2, 3, · · · }
(the set of natural numbers or positive integers)

Q = {m
n
| m, n are integers, n 6= 0}
(the set of rational numbers)

Denote by R the set of real numbers

Denote by C the set of complex numbers.

Definition 2.2. (Binary operation) Let S be a nonempty set. A binary oper-


ation ∗ on S is a map
∗ : S × S −→ S

(s1 , s2 ) 7→ s1 ∗ s2 .
So we denote by s1 ∗ s2 the image ∗(s1 , s2 ). We use (S, ∗) to signify that S is a set
with a binary operation ∗.

Definition 2.3. (Group; Homomorphism; Isomorphism) A group (G, ∗) is a


set G together with a binary operation ∗ satisfying the three axioms below:

(G1) G has an identity eG (or simply e), i.e.,

g ∗ eG = g = eG ∗ g, for every g ∈ G.
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(G2) ∗ is associative, i.e.,

(g1 ∗ g2 ) ∗ g3 = g1 ∗ (g2 ∗ g3 ), for all gi ∈ G.

(G3) Every g ∈ G has an inverse g 0 , i.e. an element g 0 ∈ G satisfying

g 0 ∗ g = eG = g ∗ g 0 .

Let (G1 , ∗1 ) and (G2 , ∗2 ) be groups.

(1) A map ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group homomorphism (or simply a homomor-


phism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e., if

ϕ(g ∗1 g 0 ) = ϕ(g) ∗2 ϕ(g 0 ), for all g, g 0 ∈ G1 .

(2) A homomorphism ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group isomorphism (or simply an


isomorphism), denoted as

ϕ : G1 → G2 ,

if ϕ is bijective.

(3) We say G1 and G2 are isomorphic, denoted as

G1 ∼
= G2 , or G1 ' G2 ,


if there is an isomorphism ϕ : G1 → G2 .

Remark 2.4. (1) In the future, we will write

g1 ∗ g2 ∗ g3

which could be interpreted as (g1 ∗ g2 ) ∗ g3 or g1 ∗ (g2 ∗ g3 ). The two different


interpretations are the same, thanks to (G2).

(2) If two groups G1 , G2 are isomorphic to each other, we may ‘identify’ them.
2 Revision of Group Theory 5

Definition 2.5. (Abelian = Commutative group) A group (G, ∗) is abelian


(or commutative) if ∗ is commutaitve, i.e. if

g1 ∗ g2 = g2 ∗ g1 , for all gi ∈ G.

Notation 2.6. (Multiplicative (resp. additive) group, identity, inverse)


Let (G, ∗) be a group. Let g ∈ G.

(1) The inverse of g is denoted as


g −1 .

Such a standard notation is used especially when the binary operation ∗ is


denoted as ×, as in the cases (GLn (R), ×) and (R \ {0}, ×).
When ∗ is denoted as ×, (G, ×) is usually called a multiplicative group,
and (its multiplicative) identity eG is most likely denoted as 1G or simply
1.

(2) When ∗ is denoted as +, as in the case (Z, +), (G, +) is usually called an
additive group; we use
−g

to denote the (additive) inverse of g ∈ G; the (additive) identity eG is


most likely denoted as 0G or simply 0.

Definition 2.7. (Subgroup) Let (G, ∗) be a group and H ⊆ G a nonempty subset.


H (or (H, ∗)) is a subgroup of G, denoted as

(H, ∗) ≤ (G, ∗), or simply H ≤ G,

if it satisfies axioms(S1) and (S2):

(S1) H is closed under ∗ (so ∗ : H × H → H is a well defined binary operation on


H).

(S2) (H, ∗) is a group.


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Theorem 2.8. (Equivalent subgroup definition theorem) Let (G, ∗) be a


group. Let H ⊆ G be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) H ≤ G, i.e., (H, ∗) is a subgroup of (G, ∗).

(2)
h1 ∗ h2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H, and

h−1 ∈ H, ∀h ∈ H.

Here h−1 is the inverse of h regarded as an element of G.

(3)
h1 ∗ h−1
2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H.

Here h−1
2 is the inverse of h2 regarded as an element of G.

Notation 2.9. (Generating set of a group) Let (G, ∗) be a group, and g ∈ G.

(1) Denote
hgi := {g n | n ∈ Z}.

Here (when n > 0) g n = g ∗ g ∗ · · · ∗ g (repeat n times).

Exercise. Show that hgi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup
generated by g (cf. Exercise below, or 1-generator subgroup theorem ??).

(2) In general, let S ⊆ G be a nonempty subset. Define hSi :=

{g1n1 ∗ g2n2 ∗ · · · ∗ grnr | r ∈ N, gi ∈ S, ni ∈ Z}.

Exercise. Show that hSi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup
generated by the subset S.

When S = {g1 , . . . , gr }, write hSi as hg1 , . . . , gr i. Thus h{g}i = hgi.


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(3) Suppose that (G, +) is an additive group. Then (when n > 0) g ∗ g ∗ · · · ∗ g =


g + g + · · · + g = ng (repeat n times). So

hgi = {ng | n ∈ Z}

which is called the subgroup (of the additive group G) generated by g.

Definition 2.10. (Cyclic group and its generator) A group G is cyclic if


G = hgi for some g ∈ G. Any a ∈ G such that G = hai is called a generator of G.

Definition 2.11. (Subgroup and its generating subset) Let (G, ∗) be a group,
H ≤ G (a subgroup) and S ⊆ G a nonempty subset. We say that H is generated
by S, and S is a generating set of H if H = hSi, i.e., if

H = {sn1 1 ∗ sn2 2 ∗ · · · ∗ snr r | r ∈ N, si ∈ S, ni ∈ Z}.

Definition 2.12. (Order of a group, finite / infinite group) Let (G, ∗) be a


group, and g ∈ G.

(1) The order of G is |G|, the number of elements in G. So |G| ∈ N or |G| = ∞.


G is a finite group if |G| < ∞; G is an infinite group if |G| = ∞;

(2) The order of g is |hgi|, and is denoted by

ord(g), or o(g).

Exercise. o(g) = 1 ⇐⇒ g = eG ⇐⇒ hgi = {eG }.

Exercise 2.13. (Important Second definition of order).

(1) If n is the smallest positive integer such that g n = eG , show that

hgi = {eG , g, g 2 , . . . , g n−1 }

and ord(g) = n. If no such n exists, then ord(g) = ∞.

(2) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N. Show that g s = eG if and and only if n|s.
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(3) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N and b|n. Show that ord(g b ) = n/b.

(4) Suppose that ord(g) = ∞. Show that the map below is bijective

ϕ : Z −→ hgi

s 7→ ϕ(s) := g s .

(5) Suppose that ord(h) = n ∈ N. Show that the map below is well defined
(meaning here that the result ψ(s̄) depends only on the class s̄, but not on the
choice of the representative s of the class) and bijective

ψ : Z/(n) −→ hhi

s̄ 7→ ψ(s̄) := hs .

(6) (difficult) The cyclic group (hgi, ∗) can be ‘identified’ with additive group
(Z, +) (when o(g) = ∞), or (Z/(n), +) (when o(g) = n), because the bijective
maps in (4) and (5) ‘preserve’ operations (so they are isomorphisms; cf. Def.
2.3).

Theorem 2.14. (Cyclic subgroup order theorem) Suppose that G = hgi is


a cyclic group of order n < ∞. (So hgi = {eG , g, . . . , g n−1 }.) Let H ≤ G (so
H = hg s i for some s ∈ Z by Cyclic-inheritance theorem ??). Then H = hg d i with
d = gcd(s, n). Thus
n
o(g s ) = |H| = , |H| | |G|, H = hg n/|H| i.
d
Corollary 2.15. (Cyclic group generator theorem) Let G = hgi be a cyclic
group of order n < ∞.

(1) If G has a subgroup H of order c, then c ∈ N and c|n.

(2) If c ∈ N and c|n then G has exactly one subgroup Hc of order c; to be precise,
Hc = hg n/c i.

(3) g r (with 1 ≤ r ≤ n) is a generator of G (i.e., G = hg r i) if and only if


gcd(r, n) = 1.
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(4) The number of generators of G is ϕ(n).

Theorem 2.16. (Decomposition into transpositions theorem) Every permu-


tation σ ∈ Sn (n ≥ 2) can be written as a product of transpositions of the type
(i, i + 1). So in notation of 2.9,

Sn = h(12), (23), (34), . . . , (n − 1, n)i.

Definition 2.17. (Signature, even / odd permutation) For integer n ≥ 2,


consider the formal product below where xi ’s are variables:
Y
D := (xi − xj ).
1≤i<j≤n

For permutation σ ∈ Sn , define


Y
σ(D) = (xσ(i) − xσ(j) ).
1≤i<j≤n

Then σ(D) = sgn(σ)D with sgn(σ) = 1 or −1. We call sgn(σ) the signature of σ.
σ is an even permutation if sgn(σ) = 1.
σ is an odd permutation if sgn(σ) = −1.

Corollary 2.18. (An being a group theorem) For n ≥ 3, let An := {σ ∈ Sn | σ


is an even permutation}. Then (An , ◦) is a subgroup of (Sn , ◦). (We call An the
alternating group of n letters.)

Theorem 2.19. (3-cycles generating An theorem) An (n ≥ 3) is generated by


3-cycles (see 2.11).

Definition 2.20. (Left / right cosets) Let G be a group and H ≤ G (a subgroup).

(1) Subsets gH (g ∈ G) are called left cosets of H in G.

(2) Subsets Hg (g ∈ G) are called right cosets of H in G.

(3) We call g a representative of gH (and of Hg).


10 2 Revision of Group Theory

Exercise 2.21. (Important cosets relations). Let G be a group, H ≤ G (a


subgroup), and g ∈ G. Show that the following are equivalent.

(1) g ∈ H,

(2) gH = H,

(3) Hg = H,

(4) gH ⊆ H,

(5) gH ⊇ H,

(6) Hg ⊆ H,

(7) Hg ⊇ H.

Theorem 2.22. (Lagrange theorem) Let G be a finite group, and H ≤ G (a


subgroup). In notation of ??, we have:

|G| = |I| |H|

i.e. |G| = |G : H| |H| (cf. Def. 2.23 ).

In particular, the order |H| divides |G|.

Definition 2.23. (Index of a subgroup) Let G be a group and H ≤ G (a sub-


group). The index of H in G, denoted as

|G : H|

is the number of left (or right) cosets of H in G. So |G : H| = |I| = |J| in notation


of ??, and (cf. Theorem 2.22)

|G| = |G : H||H|

which holds even when |G| = ∞ (by the proof of Theorem 2.22).
2 Revision of Group Theory 11

Definition 2.24. (Normal subgroup) A subgroup N of a group G is a normal


subgroup (or is normal in G), denoted as

N G

if
gng −1 ∈ N, for all n ∈ N, g ∈ G.

Exercise 2.25. (Important Equivalent definitions of normal subgroup).


Let N ≤ G and N = hN0 i, i.e., N is generated by a subset N0 ⊂ N . Then the
following are equivalent.

(1) N  G, i.e.,

gng −1 ∈ N , for all g ∈ G and n ∈ N ;

equivalently, g −1 ng ∈ N , for all g ∈ G and n ∈ N .

(2) gN g −1 ⊆ N for all g ∈ G.

(3) gN g −1 = N for all g ∈ G.

(4) gN = N g for all g ∈ G.

(5) gn0 g −1 ∈ N for all g ∈ G and n0 ∈ N0 .

Example 2.26. (Center of a group) The centre of G,

Z(G) := {z ∈ G | gz = zg, ∀ g ∈ G}

is a normal subgroup of G. Every subgroup H of G contained in Z(G) is also normal


in G.

Theorem 2.27. (Index-2 subgroup being normal theorem) Suppose the index
|G : H| = 2. Then H  G.

Definition 2.28. (Normalizer; normalize) Let H ≤ G, and g ∈ G.


12 2 Revision of Group Theory

(1) We say g normalizes H if


gHg −1 = H.

(2)
NG (H) := {g ∈ G | gHg −1 = H}

is called the normalizer of H in G.

Exercise 2.29. Let H ≤ K ≤ G. Show:

(1) NG (H) ≤ G.

(2) H  NG (H).

(3) If H  K then K ≤ NG (H).

(4) NG (H) is the largest subgroup of G containing H as a normal subgroup.

Definition 2.30. (Set of left cosets) Let H  (G, ∗). So gH = Hg for all g ∈ G
(cf. Equivalent definitions of normal subgroup 2.25). Denote the left (and also right)
coset
ḡ := gH.

Denote
G/H := {ḡ | g ∈ G}

the set of all left cosets of H in G. Define the operation ∗ on G/H:

∗ : (G/H) × (G/H) −→ G/H

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 ∗ g2 := g1 g2 .

When (G, +) is an additive abelian group, ḡ := g + H is a coset, and define the


addition + on G/H:

+ : (G/H) × (G/H) −→ G/H

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 + g2 := g1 + g2 .
2 Revision of Group Theory 13

Theorem 2.31. (‘Normal’ cosets forming a subgroup theorem) Let H  G.


Then (G/H, ∗) defined above, is a group with the identity eG/H = eG = eH = h (for
any h ∈ H) and the order |G/H| = |G : H| (= |G|/|H| when |G| < ∞). (We call
G/H the quotient group of G modulo H.)

Example 2.32. (Z/nZ = Z/(n)).


For the additive abelian group (Z, +) and its subgroup nZ (with n ≥ 2), we have
n−1
a
Z = ∪s∈Z (s + nZ) = (s + nZ).
s=0

We get the quotient group:

Z/nZ = {s + nZ | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}

= {[s]n | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}.

The element of Z/nZ is denoted as:

s = [s]n = s + nZ.

Definition 2.33. (Image / Kernel of a homomorphism) Let (G1 , ∗1 ) and


(G2 , ∗2 ) be groups.

(1) We recall that a map ϕ : G1 → G2 is a group homomorphism (or simply a


homomorphism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e.,
if
ϕ(g ∗1 g 0 ) = ϕ(g) ∗2 ϕ(g 0 ), for all g, g 0 ∈ G1 .

(2) The image of ϕ is denoted by ϕ(G1 ) or Im(ϕ):

ϕ(G1 ) = {ϕ(g) | g ∈ G1 }.

(3) The kernel of ϕ is

Ker(ϕ) := {g ∈ G | ϕ(g) = eG2 }.


14 2 Revision of Group Theory

Theorem 2.34. (Kernel / Normal subgroup equivalence theorem) Let G,


Gi be groups.

(1) Let ϕ : G1 → G2 be a homomorphism. Then Ker(ϕ)  G1 .

(2) Let H(G) be the set of homomorphisms ϕ : G → (a group) from G to another


group. Let N (G) be the set of normal subgroups of G. Then the map below is
surjective
f : H(G) −→ N (G)

ϕ 7→ f (ϕ) := Ker(ϕ).

Theorem 2.35. (Chinese remainder theorem (isomorphism version)) For


coprime m, n ∈ N, the map below is a well defined isomorphism

ϕ : Z/(mn) −→ Z/(m) × Z/(n),

s̄ = s + mnZ 7→ ϕ(s̄) := (s̄, s̄) = (s + mZ, s + nZ).

Theorem 2.36. (Second isomorphism theorem) Let N  G and H ≤ G. Then


H ∩ N  H, N  HN ≤ G, and the map below is a group isomorphism

ψ : H/(H ∩ N ) → HN/N

h̄ = h(H ∩ N ) 7→ ψ(h̄) := h̄ = hN.

Extra exercise 2.37.

(1) Let H ≤ G and K ≤ G. Then HK ≤ G (i.e. HK is a subgroup of G) if and


only if HK = KH.

(2) Let H  G, K ≤ G. Then HK ≤ G.

(3) Let H ≤ G and K ≤ G. Then

|H| |K|
|HK| = .
|H ∩ K|
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Theorem 2.38. (Third isomorphism theorem) Let N ≤ H ≤ G, N  G and


H  G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

ḡ¯ = ḡ(H/N ) 7→ τ (ḡ¯) = ḡ = gH.

Theorem 2.39. (Third isomorphism theorem) Let N ≤ H ≤ G, N  G and


H  G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

ḡ¯ = ḡ(H/N ) 7→ τ (ḡ¯) = ḡ = gH.

Theorem 2.40. (Correspondence theorem) Let N  G and

γ : G → G/N

the (surjective) quotient map. Let Σ1 be the set of subgroups of G containing N =


Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subgroups of G/N . Then the following are true.

(a) If N ≤ H1 ≤ G then γ(H1 ) = H1 /N ≤ G/N . Conversely, if H 0 ≤ G/N then


H 0 = H1 /N with H1 := γ −1 (H 0 ) = {x ∈ G | γ(x) ∈ H 0 } ≤ G.

(b) The map below is a well defined bijection:

f : Σ1 → Σ2

H1 7→ H1 /N.

(c) H1 ∈ Σ1 is normal in G if and only if H1 /N is normal in G/N . If this is the


case,
G/H1 ∼
= (G/N )/(H1 /N ).

(d) For Hi ∈ Σ1 , H1 ≤ H2 holds if and only if H1 /N ≤ H2 /N holds. If this is the


case,
|H2 : H1 | = |(H2 /N ) : (H1 /N )|.
16 2 Revision of Group Theory

2.41. (Commutator subgroup [G, G]; derived series) For a group G and gi ∈ G,
we call [g1 , g2 ] = g1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 a commutator. The commutator subgroup below is
the subgroup generated by commutators:

[G, G] := hg1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 ; gi ∈ Gi = {[g1 , g10 ]n1 . . . [gs , gs0 ]ns ; gi , gi0 ∈ G, s ≥ 1, ni ∈ Z}.

Define G(1) = [G, G], G(i+1) = [G(i) , G(i) ] so that we have the derived series:

G ⊇ G(1) ⊇ G(2) ⊇ · · · .

(a) Compute the derived series of S4 .

(b) Prove that [S5 , S5 ] = A5 and [A5 , A5 ] = A5 .

2.42. (Solvable group) A group G is called solvable if there is a finite series


(∗) G = G0  G1  G2  · · ·  Gr  1
such that Gi /Gi+1 is abelian for all i (in particular, the last subgroup Gr is abelian).

(a) Show that a group G is solvable if and only if G(s) = 1 for some s > 0. Here
G(1) := [G, G] and G(i+1) := [G(i) , G(i) ] inductively.

(b) Show that S4 is solvable but S5 is not solvable. In general, it is known that Sn
(n ≥ 5) is not solvable. This is related to Galois’ result: a general polynomial
of degree ≥ 5 can not be solved by taking radicals.

Definition 2.43. Let p be a prime. A finite group G is a p-group if |G| = pr for


some r ≥ 1.

2.44. (Nilpotent group; upper/lower central series) Let G be a group. Then


the following are true.

(a) The centre of G/Z(G) can be written as Z(G/Z(G)) = Z2 /Z(G) for some
Z2  G.

(b) Let Z0 = {eG }, Z1 = Z(G), and inductively define Zi+1 such that Z(G/Zi ) =
Zi+1 /Zi . Show that Zi+1  G. We obtained the so called upper central
series of G, where Zi (G) = Zi and Z1 (G) = Z1 = Z(G):

1  Z1 (G)  Z2 (G)  Z3 (G)  · · · .


2 Revision of Group Theory 17

(c) A group is nilpotent if Zs (G) = G for some s ≥ 0, with a minimal such s


called the nilpotent class of G.

(d) One can show that every finite p-group is nilpotent. Hint: Show that Z(G) 6=
1.

(e) Further, a finite group G is nilpotent if and only if G = G1 × · · · × Gt with


each Gi a pi -group for some prime pi .

(f) One can also inductively define

Γ0 = G, Γ1 = [Γ0 , G], Γi+1 = [Γi , G]

and construct the so called lower central series (usually denoting Γi (G) := Γi ):

G = Γ0 (G)  Γ1 (G)  Γ2 (G)  · · · .

(g) It is known that Zs (G) = G for some (minimal) s ≥ 0 if and only if Γs (G) =
{eG } for some (minimal) s ≥ 0. Precisely, if c ≥ 0 is minimal such that
Γc (G) = {eG }, one can show by induction

Zi (G) ≤ Γs−i−1 (G) ≤ Zi+1 (G), (∀0 ≤ i ≤ c − 1).

2.45. (Group action) Let X be a set, G a group and ρ : G −→ Sym(X) a map


such that ρ(g1 g2 ) = ρ(g1 ) ◦ ρ(g2 ) (i.e., ρ is a homomorphism, and we say there is an
action of G on X). Denote (ρ(g))(x) = g(x). For x ∈ X define the stabilizer
Gx := {g ∈ G | g(x) = x} ⊆ G, and the orbit
Gx := {g(x) | g ∈ G} ⊆ X.

(a) One can show that Gx is a subgroup of G.

(b) We say that x ∼ y if x = g(y) for some g ∈ G. Prove that 0 ∼0 is an equivalence


relation, and the equivalence class containing x is equal to the orbit Gx.
`
(c) There exists {xi | i ∈ I} ⊆ X such that X = i∈I Gxi (disjoint union).
18 2 Revision of Group Theory

(d) One can show that the map below is a well defined bijection

ψ : {gGx | g ∈ G} −→ Gx (gGx 7→ g(x)).

Theorem 2.46. (Class equation) Let G be a finite group with Z(G) the centre.
Then there exists {xj | j ∈ J} ⊆ G such that the centralizers CG (xj ) = {y ∈ G | yxj =
6 G, and
xj y} =
X
|G| = |Z(G)| + |G : CG (xj )|.
j∈J

Theorem 2.47. (Cauchy’s theorem) Let G be a finite group. Suppose that p is


a prime number and p divides the order |G|. Then G has an element of order p.

Theorem 2.48. (Converse to Lagrange theorem: abelian group case) Let


G be a finite abelian group. Use induction on order of a group, one can show:

(a) If p is a prime number such that p | |G| then G contains an element of order
p.

(b) If d ∈ N such that d | |G| then G has a subgroup of order d.

2.49. (Simple group) A group G is called simple if 1 and G are the only normal
subgroups of G. Show that A5 is a simple group. In general, it is known that An (n ≥
5) is a simple group. Finite simple groups are classified in the book called ”ATLAS
of Finite Group Representations”. See: http://for.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/

Exercise 2.50. (Product of groups) Let (Gi , ∗i ) (i = 1, 2) be two groups. Define


a binary operation on
G1 × G2 = {(g1 , g2 ) | gi ∈ Gi }

as follows:
(g1 , g2 ) ∗ (g10 , g20 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , g2 ∗2 g20 ).

Prove that (G1 × G2 , ∗) is a group, called the direct product of the groups G1 and
G2 .
2 Revision of Group Theory 19

Similarly, for any s ≥ 1, there is a natural group structure on the product

G := G1 × · · · × Gs

(called the direct product of the groups G1 , . . . , Gs ) with the binary operation ∗
given as:
(g1 , . . . , gs ) ∗ (g10 , . . . , gs0 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , . . . , gs ∗s gs0 ).

Let
Hi = {eG1 } × · · · × {eGi−1 } × {eGi+1 } × · · · {eGs }.

Then there is a natural isomorphism

Gi ∼
= Hi .

Indeed, Hi is a normal subgroup: Hi  G1 × · · · × Gs .


More generally, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ

of any collection of groups Gα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or countable).

Remark 2.51. Final remarks for further study in group theory: Sylow
theorems; structure theorem for finitely generated abelian group)
(1) Let G be a finite group and p a prime factor of |G|. Write

|G| = pr q

with r ≥ 1 and gcd(p, q) = 1. Then there is at least one subgroup H ≤ G such that

|H| = pr .

Further, a subgroup H1 ≤ G satisfies |H1 | = pr if and only if H1 = gHg −1 for some


g ∈ G. The H above are called Sylow p-subgroups of G. The number np of Sylow
p-subgroups of G satisfies

np | |G|, np = 1 + kp
20 2 Revision of Group Theory

for some integer k ≥ 0. The above results form the so called Sylow’s Theorem.
(2) Exercsie. Find all Sylow p-subgroups for Sn , An (n = 3, 4, 5).
(3) Fundamental Theorem for finitely generated abelian group G. This
is important. It says that if G = hg1 , . . . , gs i is abelian and finitely generated (by s
elements) then
G∼
= Z × · · · × Z × Z/(pn1 1 ) × · · · × Z/(pnr r )

where Z is repeated t times, ni ≥ 0 are integers and pi are prime (possibly pi = pj ).


(4) Recall that a group G (6= {eG }) is simple if 1 and G are the only normal
subgroups of G. Z/(p) with p prime and An (n ≥ 5) are all simple groups. A5 is
the smallest non-abelian simple group. Finite simple groups have been completely
classified. Most of them appear in series. There are exactly 26 finite simple groups
which appear sporadically. The largest (resp. the 2nd largest) such sporadic finite
simple group M (resp. B) is called the Monster (resp. the baby Monster) simple
group with the order |M| =

246.320.59.76.112.133.17.19.23.29.31.41.47.59.71

∼ 8 × 1053

and
|B| = 241.313.56.72.11.13.17.19.23.31.47

∼ 4 × 1033 .

see:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sporadic group
or
http://web.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/
There is one copy of the giant book ”ATLAS of Finite Group Representa-
tions” in Math Dept library (LKC centre). See also the recent update by Michael
Aschbacher ‘The status of the classification of the finite simple groups,’ in: No-
tices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol 51, yr 2004, no. 7, pp.
736–740.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 21

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture


1-2)
Definition 3.1. (Ring; Commutative ring; Ring with 1)

(1) A ring R, or more precisely, (R, +, ×), is a set R together with two binary
operations + (addition) and × (multiplication) satisfying the following axioms.

(1a) (R, +) is an additive abelian group with 0 the additive identity.

(1b) The binary operation × is associative:

(a × b) × c = a × (b × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

(1c) R satisfies the distributive law:

(a + b) × c = (a × c) + (b × c), a × (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

(2) The ring R is commutative if multiplication is commutative:

a × b = b × a, ∀ a, b ∈ R.

(3) The ring R is said to have an (multiplicative) identity (or contains 1) if


there is an element 1 ∈ R such that

1 × a = a = a × 1, ∀ a ∈ R.

(4) (Subtraction) For a, b in a ring R we use −b to denote the additive inverse


of b (or the negative of b), and define the subtraction as:

a − b := a + (−b).

Notation 3.2. Let (R, +, ×) be a ring.

(1) For multiplication, we will write ab instead of a × b.


22 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(2) For ai in a ring (or additive group) R, we will write

(∗) a1 + a2 + a3 .

It can be understood as (a1 + a2 ) + a3 or a1 + (a2 + a3 ), which are the same


by the associativity. So the writing in (*) has a unique interpretation, with no
ambiguity, and hence makes sense. Similarly, we can/will write

a1 + · · · + an

for any n ≥ 3, which can/shall be understood as (· · · ((a1 + a2 ) + a3 ) + · · · + an )

(3) To distinguish, sometimes, for multiplicative and additive identities 1, 0, we


write
1 = 1R , 0 = 0R .

Remark 3.3. There is at most one multiplicative identity in a ring R. Hence, it


makes sense to denote it as 1R , if exists.

Definition 3.4. (Division ring; Field)

(1) A division ring R is a ring such that:

(1a) R has a (multiplicative identity) 1,

(1b) 1 6= 0, and

(1c) every nonzero element a ∈ R \{0} has a multiplicative inverse a0 in the sense:

aa0 = 1 = a0 a.

Such a multiplicative inverse a0 of a can be shown to be unique, and will be denoted


as a−1 . Thus
aa−1 = 1 = a−1 a.

(2) A field is division ring which is commutative.


3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 23

(3) When R is a division ring or a field, denote

R× := R \ {0}.

Thus, if R is a division ring (resp. field) then (R× , ×) is a multiplicative group (resp.
commutative multiplicative group).

Remark 3.5.

(1) A field is a division ring.

(2) A division ring is a ring.

Definition 3.6. (Subfield) Let F = (F, +, ×) be a field. A nonempty subset


E ⊆ F is a subfield if

(1) (E, +) is an additive subgroup of (F, +),

(2) E is closed under multiplication ×:

a, b ∈ E ⇒ ab ∈ E,

(3) 1F ∈ E, and

(4) a ∈ E \ {0} ⇒ (the inverse of a in F ) a−1 ∈ E.

We remark that a subfield is a field (satisfying all the axioms to be a field).

Example 3.7. (Rings)

(1) The trivial ring {0}.

(2) The set Z of integers with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, is a com-
mutative ring with 1 but it is neither a division ring nor a field. We call Z the
integer ring.
24 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(3) For every n ≥ 2,


nZ = {ns | s ∈ Z}

has natural addition + and multiplication ×. This nZ is a ring with no


multiplicative identity 1. Indeed, nZ is a subring of Z.

(4) The sets Q of rational numbers, R of real numbers, and C of complex numbers,
with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, are fields. They are respectively
called the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers, and
the field of complex numbers.

(5) Let n ∈ Z. Consider the quotient additive group Z/nZ.

When n = 0,
Z/nZ = Z/{0} ∼
= Z.

Note that nZ = −nZ and hence

Z/nZ = Z/(−n)Z.

When n = 1,
Z/nZ = Z/Z = {0}

(a trivial group).

Thus it is more interesting to assume n ≥ 2. An element of Z/nZ is denoted


in many ways:
[s]n = [s] = s.

So
Z/nZ = {[0]n , [1]n , . . . , [n − 1]n },

or in another way:
Z/nZ = {0, 1, . . . , n − 1}.

It has a natural well-defined multiplication (cf. Tutorial)

s1 × s2 := s1 × s2 .
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 25

Then (Z/nZ, +, ×) is a commutative ring with 1 (assuming n ≥ 2).

(6) (Quadratic field) (cf. Tutorial 1) Suppose D ∈ Q is not a perfect square in


Q (i.e., D 6= (m/n)2 for any m/n ∈ Q). Consider the 2-dimensional vector
space
√ √ √
Q[ D] := Q + Q D = {a + b D | a, b ∈ Q}

with a Q-basis {1, D}.

Then this (so called Quadratic Field) Q[ D] is a subfield of C, and hence
is a field.

If we define

√ a+b D √
Q( D) := { √ | a, b, c, d ∈ Q, c + d D 6= 0}
c+d D
√ √
then one can show that Q( D) = Q[ D]. Indeed, more generally, for a field
F , we have
Q(F ) := {α/β := αβ −1 | α, β ∈ F, β 6= 0} = F

since β −1 ∈ F and hence αβ −1 ∈ F

(7) (The Hamilton Quaternion ring) (cf. Tutorial 1)

Let
H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ R}

be a 4-dimensional vector space over R with an R-basis {1, i, j, k}. Define the
multiplication

i2 = j 2 = k 2 = −1, ij = k = −ji, jk = i = −kj, ki = j = −ik.

Extend the multiplication linearly by the distributive law, we get a well defined
multiplication × on H. Then (H, +, ×) is a division ring, but not a field. We
call H the real Quaternion Ring.

Indeed, for nonzero a + bi + cj + dk ∈ H,


a − bi − cj − dk
(a + bi + cj + dk)−1 = .
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2
26 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

Similarly,

HQ = Q + Qi + Qj + Rk == {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Q}

is a division ring, but not a field. We call HQ the rational Hamilton Quater-
nion ring.

(8) (Real valued-function ring) Let

RV [x] := {f : R → R}

be the set of all real-valued functions (in one variable x). For a scalar or
constant c ∈ R, we have the constant function c given below:

c: R → R

x 7→ c(x) := c.

For f, g ∈ RV [x], there are natural addition +

f +g : R → R

x 7→ (f + g)(x) := f (x) + g(x),

and multiplication × (which is not the composition)

f ×g : R → R

x 7→ (f g)(x) := f (x) g(x).

Then (RV [x], +, ×) is a commutative ring with the multiplicative identity 1


being the constant function 1.

(9) (Ring R-valued functions) (cf. Tutorial 1) More generally, let X be a set
and R a ring. Let
Xto R := {f : X → R}

be the set of all maps between X and R. Then for f, g ∈ Xto R, there are
natural addition f + g and multiplication f g (x 7→ f (x) g(x), which is not the
composition) as in the previous example, such that

(Xto R, +, ×)
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 27

is a ring, called R-valued function ring.

If R has 1 then so does Xto R. If R is commutative then so does Xto R.

Every c ∈ R defines a constant function (which is an element in Xto R)

c: X → R

x 7→ c(x) = c.

Identify R with the subset of Xto R of constant functions. Then R is a subring


of Xto R.

Definition 3.8. Let R be a ring, n ∈ Z, and a ∈ R. We define n a as follows. When


n = 0Z , define
0Z a = 0R .

When n ≥ 1, define
n a = a + · · · + a (n times).

When n ≤ −1, define


n a = −((−n) a)

where −((−n) a) is the additive inverse of (−n) a in R.

Exercise 3.9. Let R be a ring. Then

(1) (the killing power of 0 = 0R )

0R a = 0R = a 0R , (∀ a ∈ R).

(2) Recall that −a is the additive inverse of a (so that a + (−a) = 0). Then

(−a) b = −(ab) = a (−b), (∀ a, b ∈ R).

(3)
(−a) (−b) = ab, (∀ a, b ∈ R).
28 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(4) If R has 1 = 1R (the multiplicative identity), then

(−1R ) a = −a, (∀ a ∈ R).

(5) (Distributive law for subtraction)

(a − b) c = ac − bc, a (b − c) = ab − ac.

Definition 3.10. (Unit) Let R be a ring with 1 6= 0. An element u ∈ R is called


a unit if it has a multiplicative inverse u0 such that

uu0 = 1 = u0 u.

We have seen in Definition of Division Ring that such multiplicative inverse u0 of u


is unique, and is denoted as u−1 .
Denote by
U (R) := {u ∈ R | u is a unit}

the set of all units of R. Of course 1 ∈ U (R).

Exercise 3.11. (Multiplicative group of units of a ring) Let R be a ring with


1 6= 0. Then (U (R), ×) is a multiplicative group, called the multiplicative group
of units of the ring R. [Hint. Check the axioms to be a (multiplicative) group.]

Example 3.12. Suppose that R is a division ring. Then U (R) = R \ {0}, which is
a multiplicative group.
U (R) is a commutative (= abelian) multiplicative group if (and only if) R is a
field.

Remark 3.13. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0. Let u, v ∈ R. Then the


following are equivalent.

(1) u is unit of R with v its multiplicative inverse.

(2) uv = 1.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 29

(3) vu = 1.

Exercise 3.14. Let n ≥ 2. Then U (Z/nZ) is a commutative multiplicative group


of order
|U (Z/nZ)| = ϕ(n).

Here
ϕ(n) = |{1 ≤ s ≤ n | gcd(s, n) = 1}|

is Euler’s ϕ-function. [Hint. s ∈ U (Z/nZ)) iff gcd(s, n) = 1.]

Definition 3.15. (Integral domain) An integral domain is a commutative ring


with 1 6= 0 such that

for ∀ a, b ∈ R, ab = 0 =⇒ a = 0 or b = 0;

or equivalently,
for ∀ a, b ∈ R, a 6= 0, b 6= 0 =⇒ ab 6= 0.

Remark 3.16. (Zero divisor) A nonzero element a of a ring is called a zero


divisor if there is a nonzero b ∈ R such that either ab = 0 or ba = 0.
Thus a commutative ring R with 1 is an integral domain if and only if R has no
zero divisors.

Proposition 3.17. (Cancellation law) Let R be a ring with 1 6= 0. Then R is an


integral domain if and only if the cancellation law holds:

For ∀ a, b, c ∈ R, c 6= 0, ca = cb =⇒ a = b.

Corollary 3.18. Let R be a finite integral domain, i.e., R is an integral domain


with the cardinality |R| < ∞. Then R is a field.

Example 3.19. (Integral domains)

(1) Z is an integral domain.

(2) Every field is an integral domain.


30 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

Example 3.20. (cf. Tutorial 2 or Proposition 4.4)

(1) The polynomial ring F [x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn over a field F is an


integral domain. Especially, F [x1 ] is an integral domain.

(2) More generally, assume R is an integral domain. Then the polynomial ring
R[x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn over R is an integral domain. Especially,
R[x1 ] is an integral domain.

Proposition 3.21. Let n ≥ 2. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) Z/nZ is a field.

(2) Z/nZ is an integral domain.

(3) n is a prime.

Definition 3.22. (Subring) Let R be a ring. A nonempty subset S ⊆ R is called


a subring of R if:

(1) (S, +) is an additive subgroup of (R, +), and

(2) S is closed under multiplication ×:

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S.

Proposition 3.23. (Subring criterion) Let R be a ring and S ⊆ R a nonempty


subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) S is a subring of R.

(2) S is closed under subtraction and multiplication:

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S; a − b = a + (−b) ∈ S.

[Hint. (S, +) is a subgroup of (R, +) iff it is closed under subtraction.]

Remark 3.24.
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 31

(1) Being a subring is a transitive condition: If R is a subring of S and S is a


subring of T then R is a subring of T .

(2) If both Si are subring of R and S1 ⊆ S2 , then S1 is a subring of S2 .

Example 3.25. Below are subrings relations:

Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R ⊂ C.

Example 3.26. (cf. Tutorial 1) the integral Hamilton Quaternion Ring below

HZ := Z + Zi + Zj + Zk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Z}

is a subring of the rational Hamilton Quaternion Ring HQ , while HQ is a subring of


the real Hamilton Quaternion Ring H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk.

Example 3.27. Let R be a commutative ring. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial ring
over R. Then R is a subring of S which consists of constant polynomial functions.
[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of constant functions are still constant
functions.]

Remark 3.28. (A subring with no 1) If R is a ring with 1 = 1R then a subring


S ⊆ R may not contain 1. E.g., for every integer m ∈ Z with |m| ≥ 2,

mZ = {ms | s ∈ Z}

is a subring of Z which does not contains 1.

Example 3.29. Let R[x] be the set of real polynomials in one variable x. Every such
polynomial f (x) is a real-valued function. Hence R[x] is a subset of the real-valued
function ring (as in Example 3.7)

RV [x] = {f : R → R}.

One can show that R[x] is a subring of RV [x].


[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of polynomials functions are still polyno-
mial functions.]
32 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

Exercise 3.30. (Intersection of subrings) Let Rα (α ∈ Σ) be a (not necessarily


finite or countable) collection of subrings of a ring R. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Rα

is a subring of R.

In general, the union of subrings may not be a subring [e.g. 2Z ∪ 3Z ⊂ Z], but
we have:

Exercise 3.31. (Union of ascending subrings) Let

R1 ⊆ R2 ⊆ · · ·

be an ascending chain of subrings Ri of a ring R. Then the union

∪∞
i=1 Ri

is a subring of R.

Notation 3.32. (Addition of ring subsets) Let R be a ring and let A, B, C be


subsets of R.
Define the addition

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

When A = {a}
a + B := {a + b | b ∈ B}.

Similarly, when B = {b},

A + b := {a + b | a ∈ A}.

We can also define addition

A1 + · · · + An = {a1 + · · · + an | ai ∈ Ai }.

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.
One can prove the associativity:

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C).
3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 33

Remark 3.33. (Addition of subrings) Let R be a ring and Ri (1 ≤ i ≤ n)


subrings. Then the addition (or sum) R1 + · · · + Rn is closed under subtraction, but
may not be closed under multiplication, and hence may not be a subring of R.
Indeed, let F = Q, R or C (a field), R = M2 (F ) the matrix ring, and
   
a 0 0 c
R1 = {  ; a, b ∈ F }, R2 = {  ; c ∈ F }.
b 0 0 0

Then R1 , R2 are subrings of M2 (F ), but


 
e f
R1 + R2 = {  ; e, f, g ∈ F },
g 0
 
a a
is not a subring. Precisely,   is in R1 + R2 for any a ∈ F , but
a 0
     
1 1 2 2 4 2
 × = 
1 0 2 0 2 2

is not in R1 + R2 .

Remark 3.34. (Integral domain is a subring of a field)

(1) Let F be a field. Let R ⊆ F be a subring such that 1 ∈ R. Then R is an


integral domain.

(2) Conversely, one can show that every integral domain R is a subring of some
field Q(R) (the so called fraction field of R; cf. §8).

Exercise 3.35. (Product of rings) Let n ≥ 1 and let Ri = (Ri , +, ×) (i =


1, . . . , n) be rings.

(1) Show that there is a natural ring structure on the product

R := R1 × · · · × Rn
34 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(called the direct product of the rings R1 , . . . , Rn ) with the binary operation
+ and × given as:

(a1 , . . . , an ) + (a01 , . . . , a0n ) := (a1 + a01 , . . . , an + a0n ),

(a1 , . . . , an ) × (a01 , . . . , a0n ) := (a1 a01 , . . . , an a0n ).

More generally and similarly, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ

of any collection of rings Rα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or countable).

(2) Let
Si := {0R1 } × · · · × {0Ri−1 } × Ri × {0Ri+1 } × · · · × {0Rn }.

Then Si is a subring of R and there is a natural ring isomorphism

Si ∼
= Ri .

One can show that


R = S1 + · · · + Sn .

(3) We have
0R = (0R1 , . . . , 0Rn ).

(4) If each Ri has 1 = 1Ri , then R also has 1 = 1R with

1R = (1R1 , . . . , 1Rn ).

(5) R is commutative if and only if all Ri are commutative.

(6) If n ≥ 2 then R is not an integral domain (even when every Ri is an integral


domain or a field).

(7) We have relation of unit subgroups: U (R) = U (R1 ) × · · · × U (Rn ).


4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings


(Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)
Example 4.1. (Polynomial ring R[x] over a ring R)
Let R = (R, +, ×) be a commutative ring with 1.

(1) (Degree; Leading coefficient) Consider


n
X
g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0
i=0

where we assume an 6= 0. We call g(x) a polynomial of degree n ≥ 0, in one


variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient
an 6= 0.

(2) By convention, for zero polynomial 0, we define its degree as:

deg 0 = −∞.

(3) (Constant polynomial) If g(x) has no positive-degree term, i.e., if g(x) = a0


with a0 ∈ R, we call such g(x) a constant polynomial.

(4) (Polynomial ring) Let


d
X
R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}
j=0

be the set of all polynomials in one variable x and with coefficients in R.

(5) (Addition and multiplication) There are natural addition and multiplica-
tion operations for polynomials
r
X s
X
i
g(x) = ai x , h(x) = bi x i
i=0 i=0

defined as X
g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi
i≥0
X
g(x)h(x) = ck x k
k≥0
36 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where
X
ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,
i+j=k

such that
(R[x], +, ×)

is a ring, called the polynomial ring with coefficients in R.

(6) As an illustration, if

g(x) = 3x2 + 2x − 5, h(x) = 2x3 + 6

are polynomials of degree 2 and 3, respectively, then

g(x) + h(x) = (0 + 2)x3 + (3 + 0)x2 + (2 + 0)x + 6 − 5

= 2x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 1,

g(x)h(x) = (3x2 + 2x − 5) × (2x3 ) + (3x2 + 2x − 5) × (6)

= (6x5 + 4x4 − 10x3 ) + (18x2 + 12x − 30)

= 6x5 + 4x4 − 10x3 + 18x2 + 12x − 30.

Remark 4.2. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial
ring over R.

(1) R is a subring of S which consists of constant polynomial functions.

(2) 0S = 0R .

(3) S contains 1 = 1S , and 1S = 1R .

Exercise 4.3. (Polynomial ring in m variables) Can you define polynomial


rings in two variables
R[x, y]

or even polynomial rings in m variables

R[x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ]?
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 37

Proposition 4.4. (Polynomial ring over integral domain) (cf. Tutorial 2 for
(3)) Let R be an integral domain. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1)
deg(f (x)g(x)) = deg f (x) + deg g(x).

(2) We have
U (R[x]) = U (R).

Namely, g(x) is a unit of R[x] if and only if g = a0 ∈ R (a constant polynomial)


with a0 a unit in R.

(3) R[x] is an integral domain.

Example 4.5. (Matrix ring Mn (R)) Let R be a ring and let n ≥ 1.

(1) (Matrix ring) Let


 
a11 a12 · · · a1n
 
 a21 a22 · · · a1n 
 
Mn (R) := {A = 
 .. .. .. ..  ; aij ∈ R}

 . . . . 
 
an1 an2 · · · ann

be the set of all n × n square matrices with entries aij in R.

(2) (Matrix addition and multiplication) For matrices A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (F ),


B = (bij ) ∈ Mn (F ) define the natural matrix addition and multiplication as:
 
a11 + b11 · · · a1n + b1n
 
 a21 + b21 · · · a1n + b2n 
 
A + B := (aij + bij ) = 

.. .. ..
,


 . . . 

an1 + bn1 · · · ann + bnn

and
AB := (cij )
38 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where
n
X
cij = aik bkj
k=1

as we learnt in Linear Algebra I.

(3) (Diagonal matrix)

A = (aij ) = Diag[a11 , . . . , ann ]

is a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 (i 6= j).

(4) (Scalar matrix)


A = (aij ) = Diag[a, . . . , a]

is a scalar matrix if aii = a ∈ R (∀ i) and aij = 0 (i 6= j).

(5) (Upper triangular matrix)

A = (aij ) = (aij )

is an upper triangular matrix if aij = 0 (i < j). Similarly, we can define


lower triangular matrix.

(6) The set S := Mn (R) together with the matrix addition and multiplication just
defined, becomes a ring. We call Mn (R) the matrix ring of n × n square
matrices with entries in the ring R.

When R = R or C we get the usual matrix space Mn (R) or Mn (C) of all n × n


real or complex matrices which has been studied in Linear Algebra I.

Remark 4.6. Let R be a ring and S = Mn (R) the matrix ring with entries in R.
Then

(1)
0S = (aij )

where all aij = 0 (i.e., the zero matrix).


4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 39

(2) If R has 1 = 1R then S = Mn (R) also has 1 = 1S with

1S = Diag[1R , . . . , 1R ].

(3) The set


Scn (R) := {Diag[a, . . . , a] | ai ∈ R}

of all scalar matrices in Mn (R), is a subring of Mn (R).

There is a natural ring isomorphism

R∼
= Scn (R).

(4) The set


Dn (R) := {Diag[a1 , . . . , an ] | ai ∈ R}

of all diagonal matrices in Mn (R), is a subring of Mn (R).

There is a natural ring isomorphism

Dn (R) ∼
= Rn := R × · · · × R (n times).

(5) The set


U Tn (R) := {(aij ) | aij ∈ R, aij = 0 (∀i > j)}

of all upper triangular matrices in Mn (R), is a subring of Mn (R).

Similarly, the set LTn (R) of all lower triangular matrices in Mn (R), is a subring
of Mn (R).

(6) If T is a subring of R then Mn (T ) is a subring of Mn (R).

(7) Even if R is commutative, Mn (R) may not be commutative when n ≥ 2.

(8) If n ≥ 2, then Mn (R) is not an integral domain (even when R is a field).

Example 4.7. (General, or Special linear groups) Let R be a ring with 1.


40 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

(1) We set
GLn (R) := U (Mn (R))

the set of all units in Mn (R). This GLn (R) is a multiplicative group and called
the general linear group of degree n over R.

(2) Assume that R is a commutative ring with 1. We can define the determinant
det(A) = |A| in a usual way. Let

SLn (R) := {A ∈ Mn (R) | det(A) = 1}

the set of all matrices in Mn (R) which have determinants equal to 1. This
SLn (R) is a multiplicative subgroup of GLn (R) and called the special linear
group of degree n over R.

Definition 4.8. (Group rings R[G]) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0. Let
G = {g1 , . . . , gn } be a finite multiplicative group of order n. Consider the following
formal sums

R[G] = Rg1 + · · · + Rgn = {a1 g1 + · · · + an gn | ai ∈ R}.

Define the natural addition + as

(a1 g1 + · · · + an gn ) + (b1 g1 + · · · + bn gn ) := (a1 + b1 )g1 + · · · + (an + bn )gn .

For agi , bgj in R[G] define the multiplication × as:

(agi ) × (bgj ) = abgk

where gk = gi gj ∈ G. Extend the above multiplication linearly by distributive law:


Xn Xn n
X
( ai gi ) × ( bj gj ) := ck gk
i=1 j=1 k=1

where
X
ck = ai bj
gi gj =gk

with the sum running for all those (i, j) with gi gj = gk .


Then R[G] is a ring.
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 41

Exercise 4.9. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0, G a multiplicative group


and R[G] the group ring. Then

(1) R[G] is a commutative ring if and only if G is a commutative (= abelian)


group.

(2) R[G] has the multiplicative identity 1 being equal to 1R eG .

Remark 4.10. Let R[G] be a group ring.

(1) There is a natural injective ring homomorphism

R → R[G],

r 7→ reG .

We will identify R with the image ReG of this injective homomorphism.

(2) For every g ∈ G, the element 1R g is a unit in R[G].

(3) There is a natural injective group homomorphism

G → U (R[G]),

g 7→ 1R g.

We will identify G with the image 1R G of this injective homomorphism.

(4) If S is a subring of R then S[G] is a subring of R[G]. If H is a subgroup of G


then R[H] is a subring of R[G].
Pn Pn
(5) T := { i=1 ai gi ∈ R[G] | i=1 ai = 0} is a subring of R[G] (and indeed an
ideal of R[G]). To see, note that

Tr : R[G] → R
n
X n
X
ai gi 7→ ai
i=1 i=1

is a R-linear (i.e., a homomorphism of R-modules):

Tr(ax + by) = a Tr(x) + b Tr(y), ∀a, b ∈ R; ∀ x, y ∈ R[G].


42 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

Note that T = Tr−1 (0) = Ker T . So T is closed under R-linear combination.


Note also that

G = gi G = {g10 := gi g1 , g20 := gi g2 , . . . , gn0 := gi gn }.

P
Thus, whenever y = j bj gj ∈ T we have
X X X
Tr(gi y) = Tr( bj gi gj ) = Tr( bj gj0 ) = bj = Tr(y) = 0.
j j
P P P
Hence for any ai gi ∈ R[G] we have Tr(( ai gi ) y) = i ai Tr(gi y) = 0, so
P
( ai gi )y ∈ T .

Remark 4.11. When R is a division ring or a field, then R[G] (as an additive group),
is a vector space over R of dimension equal to |G|, with a basis {g1 , . . . , gn } = G.
Hence
R[G] = Rg1 + · · · + Rgn = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rgn ,

the direct sum of 1-dimensional vector subspaces Rgi over R.

Remark 4.12. The real Hamilton Quaternion division ring

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk

contains a multiplicative group

Q8 := {±1, ±i, ±j, ±k}

which is called the Quternion group (of order 8).


We remark that the group ring R[Q8 ] and the real Hamilton Quaternion ring H
are not the same although both rings contain a copy of Q8 . Indeed, write

g1 = 1, g2 = −1, g3 = i, g4 = −i, g5 = j, g6 = −j, g7 = k, g8 = −k.

Then
R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 .
4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 43

In R[Q8 ], we have g1 + g2 6= 0 and g3 + g4 6= 0, . . . (g1 , g2 , . . . , g8 being a basis of the


space R[Q8 ]), while in H we have 1 + (−1) = 0, and i + (−i) = 0, . . . .
More precisely, H is 4-dimensional over R:

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = R ⊕ Ri ⊕ Rj ⊕ Rk

(a direct sum of 4 subspaces of dimension 1) while R[Q8 ] is 8-dimensional over R:

R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rg8

(a direct sum of 8 subspaces of dimension 1).


In H, v1 = i and v2 = −i are linearly dependent since v2 = −v1 , while in
R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rg8 , g3 and g4 form part of the basis
{g1 , . . . , g8 } of R[Q8 ], so they are linearly independent.
44 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings


(Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)
Definition 5.1. (Ring homomorphism; Isomorphism; Kernel; Image) Let
R, S be rings.

(1) A map
ϕ:R→S

is a ring homomorphism (or simply a homomorphism) if it respects the


additive and multiplicative structures, i.e., it satisfies

(1a)
ϕ(a + b) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R, and

(1b)
ϕ(a b) = ϕ(a) ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R.

(Thus a ring homomorphism is a group homomorphism between additive


groups (R, +) and (S, +), respecting the multiplicative structure too.)

(2) The kernel of a ring homomorphism ϕ is defined and denoted as:

Ker(ϕ) = ϕ−1 (0S ) = {a ∈ R | ϕ(a) = 0S }.

(3) A map ϕ : R → S between two rings is called a ring isomorphism (or simply
an isomorphism) if it is a (ring) homomorphism and bijective. In this case, we
denote

ϕ : R → S.

(4) We say rings R and S are isomorphic, denoted as

R∼
= S, or R ' S,


if there is a (ring) isomorphism ϕ : R → S.
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 45

Example 5.2.

(1) (Zero homomorphism) Let R, S be rings. The map

R → S

a → 0

is a ring homomorphism, called the zero or trivial map / homomorphism.

(2) (Inclusion homomorphism) Suppose that R1 is a subring of a ring R. Then


the inclusion map
ι : R1 → R

a 7→ a
is a ring homomorphism.

(3) (Quotient homomorphism) Let n ∈ Z. The quotient map

Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ s = [s]n

between additive groups (Z, +) and (Z/nZ, +), is actually a ring homomor-
phism between rings (Z, +, ×) and (Z/nZ, +, ×).

(4) (Function evaluation map) Let X be a set, R a ring and

Xto R = {f : X → R}

the ring of all maps from X to R as in Example 3.7. Fix an element c ∈ R.


Then
Ec : Xto R → R

f 7→ Ec (f ) := f (c)
is a ring homomorphism, and called the Evaluation at c.

Exercise 5.3. Let R be a ring with 1. Then a ring homomorphism ϕ : R → S is


the zero map if and only if ϕ(1R ) = 0S . [Hint. ϕ(r) = ϕ(r1) = ϕ(r)ϕ(1).]
46 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

Notation 5.4. (Multiplication of ring subsets) Let R be a ring, A, B subsets


of R, and a, b, ai ∈ R.
Define the multiplication
Xn
A B := { ai bi | ai ∈ A, bi ∈ B, n ≥ 1}.
i=1

In other words, A B is the smallest subset of (R, +) which contains {a b | a ∈


A, b ∈ B} and which is closed under addition.
When A = {a}
s
X
a B := {a} B = {a abi | bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

Similarly, when B = {b},


s
X
A b := A {b} = { ai b | ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

We can check that if 0 ∈ B then


{a1 , . . . , as }B = a1 B + · · · + as B, and

B{a1 , . . . , at } = Ba1 + · · · + Bat .


Similarly we can define multiplication
Xs
A1 · · · An = { a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ Ai , s ≥ 1}
j=1

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.
In other words, we remark that:
(*) A1 · · · An is the the smallest subset of (R, +) which contains

{a1 . . . an | ai ∈ Ai }

and which is closed under addition.


When Ai = A (∀i) and n ≥ 1, we define

An := A · · · A (n times).

So
s
X
n
A ={ a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
j=1
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 47

Caution 5.5. AB is not equal to the set {a b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}. In fact, AB contains


(usually strictly) the latter set.

Exercise 5.6. Let Ai , B be subsets of a ring R. Then

(1)
(A1 A2 )A3 = A1 (A2 A3 ).

(2) If 0 ∈ Ai (∀i), then

(A1 + · · · + An )B = A1 B + · · · + An B = (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An )B,

B(A1 + · · · + An ) = BA1 + · · · BAn = B(A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An ).

Proof. Hint. Use Remark (*) in Notation 5.4

Proposition 5.7. Let R, S be rings and ϕ : R → S a ring homomorphism. Let


R1 ⊆ R be a a subring. Then

(1) The ϕ-image

ϕ(R1 ) = {b ∈ S | b = ϕ(a), for some a ∈ R1 }

of R1 is a subring of S.

(2) Ker ϕ is a subring of R such that

∀ a ∈ R, ∀ k ∈ Ker ϕ =⇒ a k ∈ Ker ϕ, and, k a ∈ Ker ϕ.

In other words, Ker ϕ is a subring of R and

R (Ker ϕ) ⊆ Ker ϕ, and (Ker ϕ) R ⊆ Ker ϕ.

Definition 5.8. (Left, Right, 2-sided ideal) Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R a subset


and r ∈ R.

(1) A subset I ⊆ R is a left-ideal of R if:

(2a) I is a subring of R, and


48 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(2b) I is closed under left multiplication by elements from R: rI ⊆ I (∀r ∈ R), i.e.
(with (2a) assumed)
R I ⊆ I.

Similarly,

(3) a subset I ⊆ R is a right-ideal of R if:

(3a) I is a subring of R, and

(3b) I is closed under right multiplication by elements from R: Ir ⊆ I (∀r ∈ R),


i.e. (with (3a) assumed)
I R ⊆ I.

(4) A subset I ⊆ R is an ideal (or 2-sided ideal, to emphasize) if it is both a


left-ideal and a right-ideal. In other words, I is an ideal if it is a subring and

R I ⊆ I, and, I R ⊆ I.

Remark 5.9. Results for right ideals are parallel to results for left ideals. So from
now on, we consider only left ideals and 2-sided ideals.

Proposition 5.10. (Ideal criterion) Let R be a ring and I a nonempty subset of


R. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) I is a 2-sided ideal of R.

(2)
∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, ar, a − b ∈ I.

(3) (when R is commutative)

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, a − b ∈ I.

(4) (when R is commutative with 1)

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ a + rb ∈ I.
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 49

Proposition 5.11. Let Rα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of subrings of a ring R. Let Jα be


a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of Rα . Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of the subring (cf. Exercise 3.30)

∩α∈Σ Rα .

Corollary 5.12. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring


R. Then the intersection
∩α∈Σ Jα

is also a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R.

Proposition 5.13. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a finite family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals


of a ring R. Then the addition
X

α∈Σ
is also a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R.
More generally, if Jα (α ∈ Σ) is an infinite (countable or uncountable) family of
left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring R. Then the subset
X
{ xα | xα ∈ Jα , xα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}

is also a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R.

Definition 5.14. (Generating set of ideal; Principal ideal)

(1) Let X be a subset of a ring R. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be all the ideals of R with


Jα ⊇ X. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

(which is an ideal by Corollary 5.12) is called the ideal generated by X,


and denoted as (X). So, notation wise,

(X) = ∩α∈Σ Jα .

(*) This (X) is the smallest among all ideals of R containing X.


50 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(2) When X = {r1 , . . . , rn }, we write

(X) = (r1 , . . . , rn ).

(3) For r ∈ R, the ideal


(r)

generated by a single element r is called a principal ideal of R.

(4) An ideal I is called finitely generated if I = (r1 , . . . , rn ) for some ri ∈ R.

Exercise 5.15. Let R be a ring; X, Y, Xi subsets of R; and rj ∈ R. Then

(1) Let J be an ideal of R. Then (X) ⊆ J if and only if X ⊆ J.

(2) We have equality of ideals:

(X ∪ Y ) = (X) + (Y ).

More generally, by induction, we have:

(X1 ∪ · · · ∪ Xn ) = (X1 ) + · · · + (Xn ).

(3)
(r1 , . . . , rn ) = (r1 ) + · · · + (rn ).

Hint. Use (*) in Definition 5.14 and Proposition 5.13.

Example 5.16. (cf. Notation 5.4) Let R be a ring. Let B ⊆ R and a, a1 , . . . , an ∈ R.


Then

(1)
s
X
RB = { ri bi | ri ∈ R, bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}
i=1

is a left-ideal of R, but may not be a 2-sided ideal.


5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 51

(2) In particular,
R a = {r a | r ∈ R},

or more generally,
Xn
R{a1 , . . . , an } = R a1 + · · · + R an = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}
i=1

are left-ideals of R, but they may not be 2-sided ideals.

(3) The ideal (a) generated by a is given by the formula below:

(a) = Z a + a R + R a + R a R.

Here
Z a = {m a | m ∈ Z}.

An arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:


n
X
0
ma + ar + r a + ri a ri0
i=1

where m ∈ Z; r, r0 , ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

(4) If R contains 1 then


(a) = R a R

and an arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:


n
X
ri a ri0
i=1

where ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

(5) If R is commutative and contains 1 then

(a) = a R = R a = {r a | r ∈ R}.

An arbitrary element of (a) is of the form:

ra

where r ∈ R.
52 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

Exercise 5.17. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0 and I an ideal of R. Then


the following are equivalent.

(1) I = R.

(2) 1 ∈ I.

(3) I contains a unit.

Example 5.18. For the integer ring Z, and for n ∈ Z, the principal ideal

(n) = nZ = {n s | s ∈ Z}.

Thus we have different notations for the same quotient ring (to be defined late on):

Z/nZ = Z/(n).

Exercise 5.19. Suppose R is a ring with 1. Let X ⊆ R be a subset, and b1 , . . . , bn ∈


R. Then (cf. Notation 5.4)

(1) The ideal generated by X is given as follows


s
X
(X) = RXR = { ri ai ri0 | ai ∈ X; ri , ri0 ∈ R; s ≥ 1}
i=1

which is the smallest among all ideals of R containing X.

(2) The ideal generated by {b1 , . . . , bn } is given as follows

(b1 , . . . , bn ) = (b1 ) + · · · + (bn ) = R b1 R + · · · + R bn R

which is the smallest among all ideals of R containing {b1 , . . . , bn }.

Exercise 5.20. Let Jα (α ∈ Σ) be a family of left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring


R. Then we have (cf. Notation 5.4)
X
R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = { aα | aα ∈ Jα ; aα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}
α
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 53

which is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R, and the smallest among those of R con-
taining all Jα (cf. Proposition 5.13).
If Σ is finite then
X
R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = Jα .
α∈Σ

Exercise 5.21. Let J, J1 , . . . , Jn be ideals of a ring. Then we have the equality (cf.
Notation 5.4)
k
X
J1 · · · Jn = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ Ji , k ≥ 1}
`=1

and it is an ideal of R.
In particular, we have the equality
k
X
n
J = J ···J = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ J, k ≥ 1}
`=1

and it is an ideal of R.

Example 5.22. Let


R = R1 × · · · × Rn

be a direct product of rings as in Exercise 3.35. Then

Si = {0R1 } × · · · × {0Ri−1 } × Ri × {0Ri+1 } × · · · {0Rn }

is an ideal (2-sided) of R. Further,


n
X
R= Si .
i=1

Remark 5.23. Let ϕ : R → S be a ring homomorphism. By Proposition 5.7, Ker ϕ


is an ideal of R.

Exercise 5.24. (Inverse, image of an ideal) Let ϕ : R → S be a ring homomor-


phism. Let I be a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R and J a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of
S.
54 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(1) Show that ϕ−1 (J) is a left (resp. 2-sided) of R.

(2) Show that if ϕ is surjective then ϕ(I) is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of S.

(3) Is the “surjective” assumption in (2) necessary?

5.25. Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then (I, +) is a (normal) subgroup of


the additive group (R, +). Thus we can define the quotient additive group

R/I = {r = r + I | r ∈ R}.

Here we have the well-defined addition (cf. §2):

r + s := r + s.

Theorem 5.26. Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then

(1) For cosets r, s ∈ R/I, the multiplication × below

r × s := r s

is a well-defined binary operation on R/I, i.e., this multiplication does not


depend on the choice of represenatitives r, s of the cosets.

(2) (R/I, +, ×) is a ring with 0R/I = 0R .

(3) r = 0R/I (= 0R ) if and only if r ∈ I.

Definition 5.27. (Quotient ring) Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then the
ring (R/I, +, ×) in Theorem 5.26 is called the quotient ring of R by I.

Remark 5.28. Let R be a ring and (I, +) a subgroup of the additive group (R, +).
Then I is an ideal of R if and only if the multiplication × on the additive quotient
group (R/I, +) given in Theorem 5.26 (1) is well-defined so that (R/I, +, ×) is a
ring.

Exercise 5.29. For the quotient ring R/I, take a, ai ∈ R/I (1 ≤ i ≤ n). Show by
induction that a1 · · · an = a1 · · · an and an = an .
5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 55

Proposition 5.30. (Quotient ring homomorphism) Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R an


ideal and R/I the quotient ring. Then the surjective quotient map

γ : R → R/I

r 7→ r = r + I

from the additive group (R, +) to the additive group (R/I, +) as in §2, is in fact a
ring homomorphism such that
Ker γ = I.

(We call γ the quotient ring homomorphism.)

Remark 5.31. (Equivalence of the concepts of kernel and ideal)


By Proposition 5.7, the kernel of every ring homomorphism is an ideal.
Conversely, by Proposition 5.30, every ideal is equal to the kernel of some (sur-
jective) ring homomorphism.

Definition 5.32. (cf. Tutorial 3 for (1) - (3)) (Nilpotent element, Nilradical,
Radical, Jacobson radical) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal.

(1) An element a ∈ R is nilpotent if an = 0 for some n ≥ 1 (depending on a).


We call the set

nil(R) := {a ∈ R | an = 0, for some n ≥ 1}

of all nilpotent elements of R, the nilradical of R. If fact, nil(R) is an ideal


of R and nil(R/ nil(R)) = 0.

(2) We call the set

rad(I) = {r ∈ R | rn ∈ I, for some n ≥ 1}

the radical of I. In fact, rad(I) is an ideal of R containing I such that


rad(I)/I = nil(R/I).

(3) An ideal J of R is radical if rad(J) = J. Every prime ideal of R is radical.


56 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(4) When R contains 1 and I ⊂ R, define

Jac(I) = ∩M :max, M ⊇I M

where M runs in the set of all maximal ideals of R containing I. In fact,


Jac(I) is an ideal of R containing the radical rad(I) of I. Jac(0) is called the
Jacobson radical of R. (See wiki - Jacobson radical for references). Thus
Jac(I) is the preimage of Jac(0R/I ) via R → R/I.

Example 5.33.

(1) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal. Then nil(R/I n ) ⊇ I/I n , and
rad(I n ) ⊇ I (the inclusions might be strict).

(2) For the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F , if we let I = (x) the principal ideal
generated by x, then I n = (xn ). Hence nil(F [x]/I n ) = I/I n and rad(I n ) = I.

(3) The Jacobson radical of Z/12Z is 6Z/12Z which is inclued in the intersection
(of two maximal ideals)

(2Z/12Z) ∩ (3Z/12Z).

The Jacobson radical of the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is 0 which is
contained in the intersection (of two maximal ideals)

(x) ∩ (x − 1).
6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 57

6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lec-


ture 7)
Theorem 6.1. (The first isomorphism theorem for rings) Let

ϕ:R→S

be a ring homomorphism. Let K = Ker ϕ. Then

ϕ=ϕ◦γ

where
γ : R → R/K

is the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism, and

ϕ : R/K → ϕ(R),

r 7→ ϕ(r) := ϕ(r)

is a (well-defined) ring isomorphism.

Proof. This almost follows from the first isomorphism theorem for groups. We
only need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group
homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).

Example 6.2. (1) (Proper ideal; Zero ideal) Let R be a ring. Then R and
{0R } are ideals of R. An ideal I of R is proper if I 6= R. The ideal {0} is
called the zero or trivial ideal and denoted by 0.

(2) For any integer n, the subset nZ ⊆ Z is an ideal of the integer ring Z.

Conversely, every ideal of Z is equal to nZ for some integer. Indeed, every


subgroup of the additive group (Z, +) is equal to nZ for some integer n.

The map
γ : Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ [s]n = s
58 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

is the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism, and Z/nZ is in fact the quo-
tient ring of Z by nZ.

(3) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and I an ideal of R. Then there is an


isomorphism
R[x]/I[x] ∼
= (R/I)[x]

where
n
X
I[x] = { ai xi | ai ∈ I, n ≥ 1}
i=1
is the polynomial ring with coefficients in I. Further, I[x] = I R[x] (cf. Nota-
tion 5.4).

(4) If ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism, then it induces a homomorphism


(between matrix rings):

ϕn : Mn (R) → Mn (S)

A = (rij ) 7→ ϕn (A) := (ϕ(rij )).

(5) Let R be a ring, J an ideal (2-sided) of R and Mn (R) the matrix ring over R.
Then Mn (J) is an ideal (2-sided) of Mn (R). The quotient ring homomorphism
γ : R → R/J induces a ring homomorphism

γJ : Mn (R) → Mn (R/J)

A = (rij ) 7→ γJ (A) = (rij ).

(6) Let G = {g1 , . . . , gn } be a multiplicative group of order |G| = n, R a ring and

R[G] = Rg1 + . . . Rgn

the group ring. Then the map

Tr : R[G] → R
n
X n
X
ri gi 7→ ri
i=1 i=1

is a ring homomorphism.

[Hint. Note gj G = G. Show Tr(gj X) = Tr(gj ) Tr(X).]


6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 59

(7) (One-sided ideals) Let n ≥ 2 and Mn (R) a matrix ring over a ring R. Let

Lk = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ j 6= k}.

Then Lk is a left ideal of Mn (R), but not a right ideal of Mn (R).

Similarly, let

Rk = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ i 6= k}.

Then Rk is a right ideal of Mn (R), but not a left ideal of Mn (R).

More generally, let 1 ≤ k1 < · · · < kr ≤ n and let

Lk1 ,...,kr = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ j 6∈ {k1 , . . . , kr }}.

Then Lk1 ,...,kr is a left ideal of Mn (R), but not a right ideal of Mn (R).

Let
Rk1 ,...,kr = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ i 6∈ {k1 , . . . , kr }}.

Then Rk1 ,...,kr is a right ideal of Mn (R), but not a left ideal of Mn (R).

Theorem 6.3. (Second isomorphism theorem for rings) Let R be a ring,


R1 ⊆ R a subring, and J ⊆ R an ideal. Then:

(1) R1 + J is a subring of R.

(2) R1 ∩ J is an ideal of R1 .

(3) We have an isomorphism:


ϕ : R1 /(R1 ∩ J) → (R1 + J)/J,

r = r + (R1 ∩ J) 7→ ϕ(r) := r = r + J.

Proof. This almost follows from the second isomorphism theorem for groups. We
only need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group
homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).
60 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

Theorem 6.4. (Third isomorphism theorem for rings) Let R be a ring, and
let I ⊆ J be ideals of R. Then

(1) J/I is an ideal of the quotient ring R/I.

(2) We have an isomorphism:

ϕ : R/J ∼
= (R/I)/(J/I),

r = r + J 7→ r + J/I = (r + I) + J/I

Proof. This almost follows from the third isomorphism theorem for groups. We only
need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (not just a group homomorphism
of additive groups).

Theorem 6.5. (Correspondence theorem for rings) Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R


an ideal, and
γ : R → R/I

the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism. Let Σ1 be the set of subrings of R


containing I = Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subrings of R/I. Then

(1) If R1 ∈ Σ1 then γ(R1 ) = R1 /I ∈ Σ2 . Conversely, if R10 ∈ Σ2 then R10 = R1 /I


with R1 := γ −1 (R10 ) = {r ∈ R | γ(r) ∈ R10 } ∈ Σ1 .

(2) The map below is a well defined bijection:

f : Σ1 → Σ2

R1 7→ R1 /I.

(3) J1 ∈ Σ1 is an ideal of R if and only if J1 /I is an ideal of R/I. If this is the


case,
R/J1 ∼
= (R/I)/(J1 /I).

(4) For Ri ∈ Σ1 , R1 ⊆ R2 holds if and only if R1 /I ⊆ R2 /I holds.

Proof. This almost follows from the correspondence theorem for groups. We only
need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group homo-
morphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).
7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 61

7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4)


Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

Proposition 7.1. (1) Let I ⊆ R be an ideal. Then I = R if and only if I contains


a unit, if and only if 1 ∈ I.

(2) Assume R is commutative. Then R is a field if and only if R has only two
ideals: 0 and R.

Corollary 7.2. If R is a field, then every nonzero ring homomorphism f : R → S


is an injection. [Hint. f (1) 6= 0. And f (1) = f (a)f (a−1 ) for any a 6= 0.]

Definition 7.3. (Maximal ideal) An ideal M of a ring S is called a maximal


ideal if

(1)
M 6= S; and

(2) for every ideal J of S with


M ⊆J ⊆S

we have J = M or J = S.

Proposition 7.4. If J is a proper ideal of R (commutative with 1), i.e., J ⊂ R,


then J ⊆ M for some maximal ideal M of R.

Apply J = 0 to the above, we get:

Corollary 7.5. If R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0, then R has a maximal ideal.

Proposition 7.6. Assume the ring R is commutative with 1 and M ⊆ R an ideal.


Then the following are equivalent.

(1) M is a maximal ideal.

(2) The quotient ring R/M is a field.


62 7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4)

Definition 7.7. (Prime ideal) Assume the ring R is commutative with 1. An


ideal P is called a prime ideal if:

(1)
P 6= R; and

(2)
a b ∈ P =⇒ a ∈ P, or b ∈ P.

Example 7.8. (1) An ideal nZ (n ≥ 0) of the integer ring Z is a prime ideal, if


and only if either n = 0 (so that nZ = 0, the zero ideal), or n = p, a prime
number.

(2) An ideal nZ (n ≥ 0) of the integer ring Z is a maximal ideal, if and only if


n = p, a prime number.

Proposition 7.9. Assume R is commutative with 1 and P ⊆ R an ideal. Then the


following are equivalent.

(1) P is a prime ideal.

(2) The quotient ring R/P is an integral domain.

Corollary 7.10. Assume the ring R is commutative with 1. Then every maximal
ideal is a prime ideal.

Proposition 7.11. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and I an ideal of R. Then


I is a prime ideal if and only if I[x] = I R[x] is a prime ideal of R[x] (cf. Notation
5.4)

Proof. By Example 6.2, we have R[x]/I[x] ∼


= (R/I)[x]. We also use the fact that
S[x] is integral domain if and only if S is an integral domain (cf. Proposition 4.4 or
Example 3.20).

Example 7.12. Consider the polynomial ring Z[x].


7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 63

(1) The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of Z[x] but it is not a maximal ideal.
This is because
Z[x]/(x) ∼
= Z.

(2) For every prime number p, the ideal

(p, x) = Z[x] p + Z[x] x

generated by p and x is a maximal ideal. This is because Z[x] → Z → Z/pZ


(f (x) 7→ f (0) 7→ f (0) = f (0) + pZ) induces

Z[x]/(p, x) ∼
= Z/pZ.

Example 7.13. Consider the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F . The principal
ideal (x) is a maximal ideal of F [x]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the
evaluation map f (x) 7→ f (0)):

F [x]/(x) ∼
= F.

Example 7.14. Consider the polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a
field F . The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of F [x, y], but it is not a maximal
ideal of F [x, y]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the evaluation map
f (x, y) 7→ f (0, y)):
F [x, y]/(x) ∼
= F [y].

Proposition 7.15. (cf. Tutorial) (Inverse of a prime ideal) Let ϕ : R → S be a


ring homomorphism of commutative rings. Then

(1) If P ⊆ S is a prime ideal, then ϕ−1 (P ) is either a prime ideal of R or equal


to R (this latter case will not happen when ϕ is onto, or when 1R ∈ R and
ϕ(1R ) = 1S ).

In particular, if ϕ : R → S is the inclusion map, then either P ⊇ R (hence


P ∩ R = R), or P ∩ R is a prime ideal of the subring R.

(2) If both R and S contain 1, ϕ is surjective and M is a maximal ideal of S, then


ϕ−1 (M ) is a maximal ideal of R. [Hint. Show that R/ϕ−1 (M ) ∼
= S/M ].
64 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lec-


ture 8)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

Theorem 8.1. Let R be a commutative ring and let D be a set with ∅ =


6 D ⊆ R\{0}
which does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i.e.,
a, b ∈ D ⇒ ab ∈ D). Then there is a commutative ring Q = D−1 R with 1 such that:

(1) Q contains R as a subring.

(2) Every element of D is a unit in Q.

(3) Every element of Q is of the form r d−1 for some r ∈ R and d ∈ D.

Remark 8.2.

(1) In D−1 R, when d ∈ D, we usually denote

r
:= r d−1 =: r/d.
d

(2) The addition + and multiplication × in Q = D−1 R are given as follows

r1 /d1 + r2 /d2 = (r1 d2 + r2 d1 )/(d1 d2 ),

(r1 /d1 ) (r2 /d2 ) = (r1 r2 )/(d1 d2 ).

(3) The multiplicative identity


1Q = d/d

for any d ∈ D.

(3) The inclusion R → D−1 R is given by

R → D−1 R

r 7→ rd/d

for any d ∈ D, noting rd/d = rd1 /d1 for any d, d1 ∈ D.


8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 65

Definition 8.3. (Ring of fractions)

(1) The ring Q = D−1 R in Theorem 5.26 is called the ring of fractions of D
with respect to R.

(2) (Fraction field of an integral domain) If R is an integral domain and


D = R \ {0} we call D−1 R the fraction field of R and denoted as Q(R).
Namely,
Q(R) = D−1 R.

Corollary 8.4.

(1) Suppose that R is a subring of a field F . Then the fraction field Q(R) of R is
the subfield of F generated by R. Namely,

r1
Q(R) = {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0}.
r2

(2) More generally, suppose R is an integral domain and Q = Q(R) its fraction
field. If σ : R → F is an injective ring homomorphism to a field F , then σ
extends to an injective homomorphism

σ(r1 )
σ 0 : Q(R) → E =: {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0} ⊆ F.
σ(r2 )

Here E = Q(σ(R)) is the fraction field of the integral domain σ(R) and is the
subfield of F generated by σ(R).

Definition 8.5. (Local ring) A commutative ring R with 1 6= 0, is called a local


ring if it has a unique maximal ideal (say M ).

Example 8.6.
R = {m/n | m, n ∈ Z; 2 6 |n}

is a subring of Z.
M = (2)

is the unique maximal ideal of R. Hence R is a local ring.


66 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

Example 8.7. (Localisation) Let R be an integral domain and P a prime ideal.


Then D := R \ P satisfies the condition of Theorem 8.1. Denote by

RP := D−1 R

which is called the localisation of R at P . Then

P RP = {a/d | a ∈ P, d 6∈ P }

is the only maximal ideal in RP so that RP is a local ring. Here note that d ∈ D if
and only if d 6∈ P .
For instance, if R = F [x] is the polynomial ring over a field F and P = (x), then

RP = {f (x)/g(x) | g(0) 6= 0}

and
P RP = xRP = {f (x)/g(x) | f (0) = 0, g(0) 6= 0}.

Here f (0) = 0 means the constant term of f (x) is zero.

Definition 8.8. (Characteristic of a field; Prime subfield) Let R be an integral


domain.

(1) If n 1R = 1R + · · · + 1R (n times) is equal to 0R for some n ≥ 1, we let p ≥ 1


be the minimum of such integer with p 1R = 0, denote

char R := p

and call it the characteristic of R; it turns out that such p is a prime number.
If no such n ≥ 1 exists, we set

char R := 0.

So either char R = p is a prime and R contains a subring isomorphic to Z/(p)


(a field), or char R = 0 and R contains a subring isomorphic to Z.
8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 67

(2) When R = F is a field, either F contains a subfield F0 isomorphic to Z/(p), or


F contains a subfield F0 isomorphic to Q = Q(Z). Such subfield F0 is called
the prime subfield of F .

Remark 8.9. Every subfield F of R or C has characteristic equal to 0 and contains


the prime field Q. Indeed, F contains Q(Z 1F ) ∼
= Q(Z) = Q.

Exercise 8.10. (Happy calculation time in char p)


Let F be a field of characteristic p > 0. E.g. F = Z/(p). Then

(x + y)p = xp + y p

holds for any x, y ∈ F . This is by binomial expansion of left hand side and noting
that p = 0 in F .
68 9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9)

9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lec-


ture 9)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

Definition 9.1. Two ideals I, J of R are said to be comaximal if

I + J = R.

Theorem 9.2. (Chinese remainder theorem) Let J1 , . . . , Jn be ideals of R. Then

(1) The map


ϕ : R → (R/J1 ) × · · · (R/Jn ),

r 7→ (r = r + J1 , . . . , r = r + Jn )
is a ring homomorphism with

Ker ϕ = J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn .

(2) Suppose that Ji , Jj are comaximal for all i 6= j. Then ϕ is surjective and

J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn = J1 · · · Jn .

Hence we have the isomorphism:

ϕ : R/(J1 · · · Jn ) → (R/J1 ) × · · · × (R/Jn ).

Corollary 9.3. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer.

(1) Factorize integer n as product

n = pr11 · · · prt t

of powers of distinct primes. Then we have the isomorphism



τ : Z/nZ → (Z/pr11 Z) × · · · × (Z/prt t Z),

s 7→ (s, . . . , s).
9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) 69

(2) In particular, τ induces isomorphism of multiplicative units groups:

U (Z/nZ) ∼
= U (Z/pr11 Z)) × · · · × U (Z/prt t Z).

Hence Euler’s ϕ-functions satisfy

ϕ(n) = ϕ(pr1 ) · · · ϕ(prt t ) = (pr1 − pr1 −1 ) · · · (prt − prt −1 ).


70 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture


10)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

Definition 10.1. (Euclidean domain) An integral domain is said to be a Eu-


clidean domain (or possesses a Euclidean / Division Algorithm) if there is a
function
N : R \ {0} → Z≥0

on R such that for any two elements a, b ∈ R with b 6= 0, there exist element q ∈ R
(called the quotient) and r ∈ R (the remainder) such that

a = qb+r

where
r = 0, or, N (r) < N (b).

We call N the norm function, and N (a) the norm of a.

10.2. For a, b in a Euclidean domain R with b 6= 0, one can apply the Division
Algorithm:
a = q 0 b + r0 ,

b = q1 r0 + r1 ,

r0 = q2 r1 + r2 ,

···

rn−2 = qn rn−1 + rn ,

rn−1 = qn+1 rn ,
where rn is the last nonzero remainder. Such an rn exists since

N (b) > N (r0 ) > N (r1 ) > · · · > N (rn )

is a strictly decreasing sequence of nonnegative integers.


10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 71

Example 10.3. (Euclidean domains)

(1) Every field F is a Euclidean domain with respect to any function N : F → Z≥0 .

(2) The integer ring Z is a Euclidean domain with the modulus as the norm
function:
N (s) := |s|, s ∈ Z.

(3) The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a Euclidean domain where

N (f ) := deg f, ∀ f ∈ F [x] \ {0}.

(4) The Gaussian integer ring

Z[i] := Z + Zi = {a + bi | a, b ∈ Z} ⊂ C

is a Euclidean domain where the norm function is just the square of the usual
modulus of complex number:

N (a + bi) := |a + bi|2 = (a + bi)(a − bi) = a2 + b2 , ∀ a + bi ∈ Z[i] \ {0}.

Sketch of the proof: For given x, y ∈ R with y 6= 0, write x/y = α + βi


with α, β ∈ Q. Take r, s ∈ Z such that |α − s| ≤ 1/2 and |β − t| ≤ 1/2 and
note that s + ti ∈ Z[i]. Show that

x = y(s + ti) + r

where N (r) < N (y).

(5) The Eisenstein integer ring below is a Euclidean domain

Z[ζ3 ] = Z + Zζ3

where ζ3 = (−1 + −3)/2 is a primitive cubic root of unity: ζ3n = 1 if and
only if 3 | n. The norm function is just the square of the usual modulus:

N (a + bζ3 ) = |a + bζ3 |2 = (a + bζ3 )(a + bζ3 ) = a2 − ab + b2 .

See wiki-Eisenstein integer for more details, or calculations.


72 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

Definition 10.4. (PID) An integral domain R is a Principal Ideal Domain (PID)


if every ideal I ⊆ R is principal: I = (a) for some a ∈ I.

Proposition 10.5. A Euclidean domain R is a PID.

Proof. Let N : R → Z≥0 be the norm function of the Euclidean domain R. It


suffices to consider the case I 6= 0. Take any a ∈ I \ {0} such the the norm N (a) is
minimum. Then one can check that I = (a).

Example 10.6. (cf. Tutorial) Consider the polynomial ring Z[x]. The ideal

(2, x) = 2Z[x] + xZ[x]

is not principal. Hence Z[x] is neither a PID, nor a Euclidean domain.

Example 10.7. (cf. [Dummit and Foote, §8.1, the Example after Proposition 1])

The quadratic integer ring Z[ −5] is not a P.I.D. Indeed, the ideal

I = (3, 2 + −5)

is not principal. Alternatively, one shows that 3 is an irreducible element but not a
prime element in the quadratic integer ring, and use Proposition 11.3
See [Dummit and Foote, §7.1] and Wiki-Quadratic Integers for other examples
of quadratic integer rings which are (or are not) Euclidean domain, or PID, or UFD.

Definition 10.8. (GCD; Divisor; Multiple) Let a, b ∈ R with b 6= 0.

(1) a is said to be a multiple of b if

a = bc

for some c ∈ R. In this case, b is said to divide a, or to be a divisor of a,


written
b | a.
10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 73

(2) d ∈ R is a greatest common divisor of a and b, denoted as

d = gcd(a, b)

if

(2a)
d | a, and, d | b; and

(2b)
d0 | a, and d0 | b =⇒ d0 | d.

(2c) Inductively, for ai ∈ R \ {0} (1 ≤ i ≤ n), we can define their greatest common
divisor as:
gcd(a1 , . . . , an ) := gcd(gcd(a1 , . . . , an−1 ), an ).

This is a multi-symmetric function in a1 , . . . , an .

Proposition 10.9. Let a, b be nonzero elements in R such that

(a, b) = (d)

for some d ∈ R. Then d is a greatest common divisor of a and b, i.e.,

d = gcd(a, b).

Exercise 10.10. More generally, if ai ∈ R are nonzero such that

(a1 , . . . , an ) = (d)

for some d ∈ R. Then d is a greatest common divisor of a1 , . . . , an , i.e.,

d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

Proposition 10.11. Suppose R is an integral domain.

(1) Let d, d0 ∈ R. Then (cf. Tutorial)

(d) = (d0 ) ⇐⇒ d0 = ud for some unit u.


74 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

(2) Let d be a greatest common divisor of a and b. Then d0 is another greatest


common divisor of a and b if and only if d0 = ud for some unit u.

Theorem 10.12. Suppose R is a Euclidean domain. Let a, b be nonzero elements in


R. Let d = rn be the last nonzero remainder in the Division Algorithm 10.2. Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = (a, b).

In particular
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

We now focus on PIDs.

Proposition 10.13. Assume that R is a PID. Let a, b be nonzero elements. Let


d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

(3) Such d above is unique up to multiplication by a unit of R.

Proof. This follows from Propositions 10.9 and 10.11.


10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 75

Proposition 10.14. Assume that R is a PID. Let a, b be nonzero elements. Let


d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a, b).

(2)
d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

(3) Such d above is unique up to multiplication by a unit of R.

Exercise 10.15. More generally, assume that R is a PID. Let ai be nonzero ele-
ments. Let d ∈ R such that
(d) = (a1 , . . . , an ).

Then

(1)
d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

(2)
d = a1 x 1 + · · · + an x n

for some xi ∈ R.

(3) Such d above is unique up to multiplication by a unit of R.

Proposition 10.16. Assume that R is a PID and P ⊆ R is an ideal. Then the


following are equivalent.

(1) P is a maximal ideal of R.

(2) P is a nonzero prime ideal of R.


76 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

Corollary 10.17. Let R be a commutative ring such that the polynomial ring R[x]
is a PID. Then R is a field. [Hint. Consider the quotient ring R[x]/)(x).]
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 77

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tuto-


rial 6; Lecture 11)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

Definition 11.1. (Irreducible; Prime; Associate) Assume R is an integral do-


main.

(1) An element r ∈ R is called irreducible in R if:

(1a) r 6= 0,

(1b) r is not a unit, and

(1c)
r = ab =⇒ a or b is a unit in R.

(2) r ∈ R \ {0} is reducible in R if:

r = ab

where neither a nor b is a unit of R.

(3) A nonzero element p ∈ R is called prime in R if the ideal (p) is a prime ideal,
or equivalently if
p | ab =⇒ p | a, or p | b.

(4) Elements a, b ∈ R are said to be associate in R if

a = ub

for some unit u in R.

Proposition 11.2. Assume that R is an integral domain. Then a prime element is


always irreducible.
78 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

Proposition 11.3. Assume that R is PID. Then p ∈ R is irreducible if and only if


it is prime.

Definition 11.4. (UFD) An integral domain R is a Unique Factorisation Do-


main (or UFD for short) if every element r ∈ R \ {0} which is not a unit, satisfies:

(1) (Factorisation)
r = p1 . . . pn

where pi ’s are irreducible (but not necessarily distinct), and

(2) (Uniqueness) The factorisation in (1) is unique up to associates: if

r = q 1 . . . qm

is another factorisation, with qi irreducible, then m = n and (after relabelling)


qi = ui pi for some units ui (i.e., qi is associate to pi ).

Example 11.5.

(1) A field is a UFD, since no condition needs checked.

(2) We will see late on that a PID is a UFD.

Proposition 11.6. Assume that R is a UFD. Then p ∈ R is irreducible if and only


it is prime.

The following result/formula can be generalised to gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

Proposition 11.7. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

(1) gcd(a, b) exists.

(2) Precisely, factorise


a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn
where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then
min(e1 ,f1 )
gcd(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmin(en ,fn ) .

Here we set gcd(a, b) = 1 if min(ei , fi ) = 0 (∀i).


11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 79

Exercise 11.8. Let R be a UFD. Let a, b, c ∈ R such that c 6= 0. Then

gcd(c, a) = 1, c | ab =⇒ c | b.

Theorem 11.9.

Euclidean domain =⇒ PID =⇒ UFD.

Proof. We remain to show that every PID is UFD. Assume now R is PID · · · .

Corollary 11.10. (Fundamental theorem of arithmetic) The integer ring Z is


UFD.

Example 11.11. R := Z[ −5] is not a UFD. This is because
√ √
6 = 2 × 3 = (1 + 5)(1 − −5)

are two distinct (even up to associates) factorisations into irreducibles. See [Dummit
- Foote, §8.3, Example (5) and Exercise 8, for details].

Definition 11.12. (lcm) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and let a, b ∈ R be


nonzero elements. A least common multiple of a and b, denoted as lcm(a, b), is
an element c of R such that

(1)
a | c, b | c, and,

(2)
a | c0 , b | c0 =⇒ c | c0 .

The following result/formula can be generalised to lcm(a1 , . . . , an ).

Proposition 11.13. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

(1) lcm(a, b) exists.


80 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

(2) Precisely, factorise


a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn
where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then

max(e1 ,f1 )
lcm(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmax(en ,fn ) .

Here we set lcm(a, b) = 1 if max(ei , fi ) = 0 (∀i).

Exercise 11.14. Use the fact that a prime ideal of a PID is a maximal ideal, or
otherwise, to show:

(1) Z[x] is UFD but is not a PID.

(2) The polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a field F , is a UFD, but
is not a PID.

(3) Let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial over a field F . Then the quotient ring
F (x)/(f (x)) is a field if and only if f (x) is an irreducible polynomial in F [x].

Example 11.15. (Irreducible Gaussian Integers) Below is a sketch. For details,


see [Dummit - Foote, §8.3, Proposition 18].
Consider the Gaussian integer ring R = Z[i] = Z + Zi, with the norm function

N (a + bi) = a2 + b2 .

We can determine units as


U (R) = {±1, ±i}.

So u ∈ R is a unit if and only if N (u) = 1. It follows that if N (a + bi) is a prime


number in Z then a + bi is irreducible in R.
In general, if π ∈ R is irreducible then (π) is a prime ideal of R and hence (π) ∩ Z
is also a prime ideal of Z and equal to some p Z with p a prime number in Z. Namely,

(π) ∩ Z = p Z.
11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 81

Since p ∈ (π), p = ππ 0 in R. Then

p2 = N (p) = N (ππ 0 ) = N (π)N (π 0 ).

It follows that either N (π) = p2 and π 0 is a unit (so that p is prime in R), or
N (π) = p = N (π 0 ). In the latter case, both π and π 0 are irreducible, and if we write
π = ap + bp i then we have

(∗) p = N (π) = a2p + b2p .

Precisely, if q = 3 (mod 4) is a prime number then q is irreducible in R, since


q = a2 + b2 has no solution for a, b integers.
It is known that for other odd prime p, i.e., p = 1 (mod 4), we can write
p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (product of two irreducibles).
Finally, 1 + i and 1 − i are irreducible in R, since their norms are 2 (prime
number). Note also that
2 = (1 + i)(1 − i).

Therefore, up to associates, all the irreducibles of R = Z[i] are as follows:

1 ± i, q, ap ± bp i

where prime number q = 3 (mod 4), where prime number p = 1 (mod 4) so that
p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (the solution (ap , bp ) to the equation (*) above is not unique
for a given p).
Using Chinese remainder theorem for rings and that in a PID, an irreducible
element is a prime element which generates a nonzero prime and hence maximal
ideal, one can show (cf. Tutorial):

R/2R ∼
= (R/(1 + i)R) × (R/(1 − i)R) ∼
= (Z/(2Z) × (Z/2Z),

R/pR ∼
= (R/(ap + bp i)) × (R/(ap − bp i)) ∼
= Z/(p) × Z/(p), and

R/qR = Fq2 , a field of cardinality q 2 .


82 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lec-


ture 12)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.
We recall the definition of polynomial ring R[x] and degree of a polynomial below.
Consider
n
X
g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0
i=0

where we assume an 6= 0. We call g(x) a polynomial of degree n ≥ 0, in one


variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient an 6= 0.
By convention, for zero polynomial 0, we define its degree as:

deg 0 = −∞.

If g(x) has no positive-degree term, i.e., if g(x) = a0 with a0 ∈ R, we call such


g(x) a constant polynomial.
Let
d
X
R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}
j=0

be the set of all polynomials in one variable x and with coefficients in R.


There are natural addition and multiplication operations for polynomials
r
X s
X
g(x) = ai xi , h(x) = bi x i
i=0 i=0

defined as X
g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi
i≥0
X
g(x)h(x) = ck x k
k≥0

where
X
ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,
i+j=k

such that
(R[x], +, ×)
12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) 83

is a ring, called the polynomial ring with coefficients in R.

Proposition 12.1. (cf. Tutorial 2) Assume that R is an integral domain. Then

(1) For any f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x], we have

deg(f g) = deg f + deg g.

(2) The units of R[x] are just the units of R. Namely,

U (R[x]) = U (R).

(3) R[x] is an integral domain.

Proposition 12.2. Let I be an ideal of R and let (I) = I[x] be the ideal of R[x]
generated by I. Then

(1)
R[x]/I[x] ∼
= (R/I)[x].

(2) If I is a prime ideal of R then I[x] is a prime ideal of R[x].

Remark 12.3. If I = (a) = aR is a principal ideal of R, then aR[x] is the ideal of


R[x] generated by aR. Thus

R[x]/aR[x] ∼
= (R/aR)[x].

Example 12.4. Consider the integer ring Z and its ideal nZ. We have

Z[x]/nZ[x] ∼
= (Z/nZ)[x].

Hence if n = p a prime number, then p Z[x] is a prime ideal of Z[x]. So p is a prime


element of Z and also of Z[x].

Definition 12.5. The polynomial ring R[x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn can


be inductively defined as:

R[x1 , x2 ] = (R[x1 ])[x2 ], . . . , R[x1 , . . . , xn ] = (R[x1 , . . . , xn−1 ])[xn ].


84 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

12.6. In a slightly more concrete formulation, a nonzero polynomial in R[x1 , . . . , xn ]


is a finite sum of nonzero monomial terms, i.e., a finite sum of elements of the form

axd11 · · · xdnn

where a ∈ R (the coefficient of the term) and the di are nonnegative integers. A
monic term xd11 · · · xdnn is called simply a monomial and is the monomial part of the
term axd11 · · · xdnn . The exponent di is called the degree in xi of the term and the
sum
d = d1 + d2 + · · · + dn

is called the degree of the term. The ordered n-tuple

(d1 , d2 , . . . , dn )

is the multidegree of the term. The degree of a nonzero polynomial is the


largest degree of any of its monomial terms. A polynomial is called homogeneous
or a form if all its terms have the same degree. If f is a nonzero polynomial
in n variables, the sum of all the monomial terms in f of degree k is called the
homogeneous component of f of degree k. If f has degree d then f may be
written uniquely as the sum

f = f0 + f1 + · · · + fd

where fk is the homogeneous component of f of degree k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ d (where


some fk may be zero).

Theorem 12.7. Let F be a field. Then the polynomial ring F [x] is a Euclidean
domain with the norm function N : F [x] → Z≥0 given as: N (f ) = deg f .

Corollary 12.8. The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a PID and also UFD.
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 85

13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lem-


mas (Tutorial 7)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

Definition 13.1. (Content of a polynomial; Primitive polynomial) Let R be


a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field.

(1) Let f (x) ∈ R[x] be a nonconstant polynomial. Write

f (x) = c(f ) f1 (x)

so that c(f ) ∈ R \ {0} and gcd of coefficients of f1 (x) is 1. This c(f ) is unique
up to a unit factor of R, and called the content of f .

We call f (x) ∈ R[x] a primitive polynomial if its content c(f ) is a unit in


R. We say c(f ) = 1 in this case.

In the above notation, the content c(f1 ) = 1 and f1 is a primitive polynomial.

(2) In general, when g(x) ∈ F [x] is a nonconstant polynomial, we can write

g(x) = c(g) g1 (x)

such that c(g) ∈ F × and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] is a primitive prolynomial. This c(g) is
unique up to a unit factor of R, and also called the content of g.

Remark 13.2. Let R be a UFD and F = Q(R) its fraction field. For nonconstant
g(x) ∈ F [x], as above, write
g(x) = c(g)g1 (x)

with c(g) ∈ F the content of g(x), and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] a primitive polynomial. Then
g(x) ∈ R[x] if and only if the content c(g) ∈ R.

Proposition 13.3. (Gauss lemma 1) Let R be a UFD and f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]
primitive polynomials. Then f (x) g(x) ∈ R[x] is still a primitive polynomial.
86 13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7)

Corollary 13.4. (Contents relation) Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its frac-
tion field, and f (x), g(x) ∈ F [x] nonconstant polynomials. Then we have contents
relation:
c(f g) = c(f ) c(g).

Exercise 13.5. Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field. Let f (x) ∈ R[x]
be a noncontant monic polynomial such that f (x) = g(x) h(x) for some nonconstant
monic polynomials g, h ∈ F [x]. Show that g, h ∈ R[x].

Exercise 13.6. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ Q[x] such that the product f g ∈ Z[x]. Show that
the product of any coefficient of g with any coefficient of f is an integer.

Corollary 13.7. (Gauss lemma 2) Assume R is UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction
field and f (x) ∈ R[x]. If f (x) is reducible in F [x] then f (x) is reducible in R[x].
More precisely, if
f (x) = g(x)h(x)

for some nonconstant polynomials g(x), h(x) ∈ F [x], and write g(x) = c(g) g1 (x), h(x) =
c(h) h1 (x) then c(g) c(h) = c(f ) ∈ R and

f (x) = c(f ) g1 (x) h1 (x)

is the factorisation in R[x] with g1 , h1 , g1 h1 ∈ R[x] all primitive polynomials.

Corollary 13.8. (Gauss lemma 3) Let R be a UFD with F its fraction field and
let p(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1) Suppose p(x) is a primitive polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and
only if it is irreducible in F [x].

(2) Suppose p(x) is a monic polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and
only if it is irreducible in F [x].

Theorem 13.9. The ring R is a UFD if and only if the polynomial ring R[x] is a
UFD.
13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 87

Corollary 13.10. Assume that R is a UFD. Then the polynomial ring R[x1 , . . . , xn ]
is also a UFD for any n ≥ 1.

Example 13.11. The polynomial ring Z[x1 , . . . , xn ] is a UFD for any n ≥ 1.

Example 13.12. The polynomial ring F [x1 , . . . , xn ] over a field F is a UFD for any
n ≥ 1.
88 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8;


Lecture 13)
Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

Proposition 14.1. Let F be a field and f ∈ F [x]. Then f has a factor of degree 1
in F [x] if and only if f has a root in F (i.e., there is an α ∈ F such that f (α) = 0).

Proposition 14.2. (Irreducibility criterion, in small degree) Let F be a field.


Suppose f ∈ F [x] has deg f = 2 or 3. Then f is reducible in F [x] if and only if f
has a root in F .

Proposition 14.3. Assume f (x) = an xn +an−1 xn−1 +· · ·+a0 ∈ Z[x] has deg f = n.
Assume r/s (with r, s ∈ Z co-prime) is a rational root of f (x). Then

r | a0 , s | an .

In particular, if f (x) ∈ Z[x] is a monic polynomial and f (d) 6= 0 for all integers
d dividing the constant term of f (x), then f (x) has no roots in Q.

Exercise 14.4.

(1) f (x) = x3 − 3x − 1 is irreducible in Z[x]. Indeed, by a Gauss lemma, it suffices


to show f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. Then we apply Proposition 14.2.

(2) Let p ∈ Z be any prime number. The polynomials x2 − p and x3 − p are


irreducible in Q[x]. Indeed, just apply Proposition 14.2.

(3) The polynomial x2 + 1 is reducible in (Z/(2))[x]. This follows by applying


Proposition 14.2. In fact, x2 + 1 = (x + 1)2 , since char Z/(2) = 2; see Exercise
8.10.

Proposition 14.5. (Irreducibility criterion, modulo ideal) Let R be an in-


tegral domain, I ⊂ R a proper ideal and f (x) ∈ R[x] a non-constant polynomial.
Suppose that the image of f (x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two
polynomials of smaller positive degrees. Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 89

Exercise 14.6. Let f (x) = x2 + x + 1. Then f (x) is irreducible in (Z/(2))[x] by


applying Proposition 14.2. Hence f (x) is irreducible in Z[x] by Proposition 14.5,
and also irreducible in Q[x] by a Gauss lemma.

Proposition 14.7. (Eisenstein’s criterion) Let R be an integral domain, P ⊂ R


a prime ideal, and

f (x) = xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0

a polynomial in R[x] (here n ≥ 2). Suppose

ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].

Remark 14.8. (Eisenstein criterion over UFD) The same proof as in Proposi-
tion 14.7 shows:
Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field, P a prime ideal of R and

f (x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0

in R[x] with n ≥ 2 such that

an 6∈ P, ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x], and also in F [x] by Corollary 13.7.

Corollary 14.9. (Eisenstein criterion for Z[x]) Let p be a prime in Z and let

f (x) = xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0

a polynomial in Z[x] (here n ≥ 2). Suppose

p | ai (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), p2 6 | a0 .

Then f (x) is irreducible in Z[x] and Q[x].


90 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

Proof. This follows from Proposition 14.7 and Corollary 13.8.

Example 14.10. Let p ∈ Z be any prime number and let integer n ≥ 2. Then the
polynomial
f (x) = xn − p

is irreducible in Q[x] and hence p
n is not a rational number.
Indeed, by a Gauss lemma, equivalently, we need to show the irreducibility claim
of f (x) in Z[x]. For the latter claim, just apply Eisenstein criterion.

Proposition 14.11. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a
non-constant polynomial. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) (f ) is a maximal ideal of F [x].

(2) (f ) is a prime ideal of F [x].

(3) The quotient ring F [x]/(f ) is a field.

Proof. This follows from Propositions 10.16 and 11.3 and Corollary 12.8.

Proposition 14.12. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and g(x) a
non-constant polynomial such that

c g(x) = f1 (x)n1 · · · fk (x)nk

where c is a nonzero constant, the fi are distinct irreducible polynomials in F [x] and
the ni ≥ 1. Then

F [x]/(g) ∼ n
= (F [x]/(f1n1 )) × · · · × (F [x]/(fk k )).

Proof. This follows from Chinese remainder theorem for rings. Indeed, note that,
for i 6= j, we have
n n
1 = gcd(fini , fj j ) = h1 fini + h2 fj j
n
for some h1 , h2 ∈ F [x], by Propositions 10.14 and 11.13. So (fini )+(fj j ) = F [x].
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 91

Definition 14.13. (Multiplicity of a root) Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over
a field F and f (x) a non-constant polynomial. Recall that α ∈ F is a root of f (x)
(i.e., f (α) = 0) if and only if
(x − α) | f (x).

We say α ∈ F is a root of f (x) of multiplicity m if

(x − α)m | f (x), but (x − α)m+1 6 | f (x).

Proposition 14.14. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a non-
constant polynomial such that αi ∈ F (1 ≤ i ≤ k) are all the distinct roots of f (x)
of multiplicity mi ≥ 1. Then

f (x) = (x − α1 )m1 · · · (x − αk )mk q(x)


Pk
for some q(x) ∈ F [x]. In particular, i=1 mi ≤ deg f (x), and f (x) has at most
deg f (x) of roots in F , even counted with multiplicity.

Remark 14.15. Let p ∈ Z be a prime number. Let f (x) = xp − a with a 6= 0.

(1) In the complex field C, f (x) has exactly p distinct roots:

xk = exp(2kπi/p) = cos(2kπ/p) + i sin(2kπ/p) (0 ≤ k < n).

(2) If F is a field of characteristic p, say some over field of Z/(p), and a ∈ F , then
whenever β ∈ F is a root of f (x) (so that 0 = f (β) = β p − a) it is a multiple
root of multiplicity p. Indeed, we have (cf. Exercise 8.10)

f (x) = xp − a = xp + (−1)p a = xp + (−β)p = (x − β)p .

Proposition 14.16.

(1) Let F be a field and G ⊆ (F \ {0}, ×) a finite multiplicative subgroup. Then


G is cyclic.

(2) If F is a finite field, then F \ {0} is a cyclic multiplicative group.


92 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

Corollary 14.17. Let p be a prime. Then U (Z/(p)) = Z/(p) \ {[0]p } is a cyclic


multiplicative group of order p − 1.

Exercise 14.18. (cf. [Dummit-Foote, §9.5, Corollary 20]) Factor n ≥ 2 into product
of prime powers:
n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k

with pi distinct primes and αi ≥ 1. Then

(1)
U (Z/(n)) ∼ α
= U (Z/(pα1 1 )) × U (Z/(pk k )).

(2) U (Z/(2α )) is the product of a cyclic group of order 2 and cyclic group of order
2α−2 , for all α ≥ 2.

(3) U (Z/(pα )) is a cyclic group of order pα−1 (p − 1), for all odd prime p.

Remark 14.19. (Irreducibility via transformation) Let F be a field, and a, b ∈


F with a 6= 0. Let f (x) ∈ F [x] be a nonconstant polynomial. Then

(1)
ϕ: F → F

x 7→ ax + b
is a bijection with its inverse given by

ψ: F → F

x 7→ (x − b)/a.

Thus f (x) is irreducible in F [x] if and only if g(x) := f (ax + b) is irreducible.

(2) Suppose deg f (x) = n ≥ 1 and let h(x) = xn f (x−1 ) which is called the reverse
of f (x), and which is a polynomial in F [x] with deg h(x) ≤ n. We can recover
f (x) from its reverse via:
f (x) = xn h(x−1 ).

Further, f (x) is irreducible in F [x] if and only if its reverse h(x) is irreducible.
14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 93

Example 14.20. Let f (x) = x4 + 1. Then f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. Indeed, by


Remark 14.19, it suffices to show that

g(x) := f (x + 1) = (x + 1)4 + 1 = x4 + 4x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 2

is irreducible in Q[x] (or equivalently is irreducible in Z[x] by a Gauss lemma). Now


Eisenstein criterion readily implies the required irreducibility of g(x) in Z[x].

More generally, we have:

Example 14.21. Let p ∈ Z be a prime number. Then the so called cyclotomic


polynomial

Φp (x) = (xp − 1)/(x − 1) = xp−1 + xp−2 + · · · + x + 1

is irreducible over Q. Indeed, by Remark 14.19, equivalently, we need to show the


irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Q[x], or equivalently in Z[x] by a Gauss lemma. For
the irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Z[x], apply Eisenstein criterion.
94 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-


15)
In this section, a ring may not be commutative ring nor with 1.

Definition 15.1. Let R be a ring. A left R-module or a left module over R is


a nonempty set M together with

(1) a binary operation + so that (M, +) is an abelian additive group, and

(2) a (left) action of R on M , i.e., a map

R×M → M

(r, m) 7→ rm

satisfying

(2a) (distributive law)

(r + s)m = rm + sm, r(m + n) = rm + rn, ∀ r, s ∈ R; ∀ m, n ∈ M, and

(2b) (associative law)

(rs)m = r(sm), ∀ r, s ∈ R; ∀ m ∈ M.

If the ring R has a 1R , we impose the additional axiom

(2c) (trivial action by 1R )

1R m = m, ∀ m ∈ M.

Remark 15.2. (Unital module)

(1) We can define right R-module similarly.

(2) A left R-module is called unital if R has 1 and axiom (2c) holds.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 95

(3) When R is commutative, a left R-module M can be made into a right R-


module by defining
m r := r m, ∀ r ∈ R, m ∈ M.

(4) When R is field (or a division ring), a left module over R is just a vector space
over R.

(5) Due to the similarity, in the sequel, we will mainly consider left R-
modules.

In this course, whenever R has 1, every left R-module is assumed to


be unital.

Exercise 15.3. Let R be a ring with 1 and M a (unital) left R-module. Show that

0R m = 0M , (−1R ) m = −m, ∀ m ∈ M.

Example 15.4. Every additive abelian group M is a natural Z-module:

Z×M → M

(n, m) 7→ nm.

Here 0Z m := 0M , n m := m + · · · + m (n times) when integer n > 0, and n m :=


−((−n) m) when integer n < 0.
Thus Z-modules are just (additive) abelian groups.

Example 15.5. (Ring as a module over itself) Let R be a ring. Then M = R


is naturally a left R-module via the natural multiplication:

R × M → M,

(r, m) 7→ rm.

(Left R-submodules (to be defined below) of M = R are just left ideals of R.)
Similarly, M = R is naturally a right R-module.

Definition 15.6. Let R be a ring and M a left R-module.


A nonempty subset N ⊆ M is a left R-submodule of M if
96 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

(1) (N, +) is a subgroup of the additive group (M, +), and

(2) N is closed under the action of R:

r ∈ R, n ∈ N =⇒ r n ∈ N.

Remark 15.7. (1) A left R-submodule N of M is just a subset of M which


itself is a left R-module under the addition + : N × N → N and the action
R × N → N as the restrictions of the addition + : M × M → M and action
R × M → M , respectively.

(2) When R is a field (or division algebra), a left R-submodule is just an R-


subspace.

Example 15.8. Let R be a ring, I ⊆ R a left ideal of R, and M a left R-module.


Then define and denote
s
X
IM := { ai mi | ai ∈ I, mi ∈ M, s ≥ 1}
i=1

which is a left R-submodule of M .

Example 15.9. (Free module Rn ) Let R be a ring with 1. Let

Rn := {(a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ R}.

Define addition

+ : Rn × Rn → Rn ,

(X = (x1 , . . . , xn ), Y = (y1 , . . . , yn )) 7→ X + Y := (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ).

Define R-action :

R × Rn → Rn ,
.
(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yn )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryn ).

Then Rn is a left R-module, and called the free left module of rank n over R.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 97

Example 15.10. Let Rn be the free left R-module of rank n over R as defined in
Example 15.9.

(1) Let I1 , . . . , In be left ideals of R. Then

I1 × · · · × In := (a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ I}

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

(2)
n
X
{(x1 , . . . , xn ) | xi ∈ R, xi = 0}
i=1

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

Example 15.11. (F [x]-modules) Let F be a field and V a vector space over F .


Fix a linear transformation
T : V → V.

Then V has a natural F [x]-module structure, depending on T .


Indeed, recall that for linear transformations Ti : V → V (i = 1, 2, . . . ) and
scalars αi ∈ F , the linear combination

α1 T1 + α2 T2 : V → V

v 7→ (α1 T1 + α2 T2 )(v) := α1 T1 (v) + α2 T2 (v)

is a well defined linear transformation. Inductively, the linear combination

α1 T1 + · · · + αk Tk

is a well defined linear transformation.


For a polynomial
n
X
f (x) = ai xi ∈ F [x]
i=0

we define
n
X
f (T ) = ai T i = a0 IV + a1 T + · · · + an T n ,
i=0
98 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Here
T 0 = IV : V → V

v 7→ IV (v) := v
is the identity map, and the compositions below are linear transformations:

T 2 := T ◦ T ; T 3 = T ◦ T ◦ T ; . . . ; T n = T ◦ · · · ◦ T (n times)

Now we define the action:


F [x] × V → V

(f (x), v) 7→ f (x)v := f (T )(v).


One can check that the action makes V a left F [x]-module, depending on the linear
transformation T : V → V .
So a given vector space V over F may have many different left F [x]-module
structures.
If W ⊆ V is a T -invariant subspace, i.e.

T (W ) ⊆ W

then W is a left F [x]-submodule of V since

f (x)(w) = f (T )(w) ∈ W, ∀ f (x) ∈ F [x], ∀ w ∈ W.

Proposition 15.12. (Submodule Criterion) Let R be a ring with 1 and M a left


R-module. Let N ⊆ M be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) N is a left R-submodule of M .

(2)
∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x, y ∈ N =⇒ x + ry ∈ N.

Exercise 15.13. Let M be a left R-module.

(1) Let Nα (α ∈ Σ) be a collection of left R-submodules of M . Prove that the


intersection
∩α∈Σ Nα

is a left R-submodule of M .
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 99

(2) Let
N1 ⊆ N2 ⊆ · · ·

be an ascending chain of left R-submodules of M . Prove that the union

∪∞
i=1 Ni

is a left R-submodule of M .

Without the ascending assumption, is a union of submodules always a sub-


module?

Definition 15.14. (Torsion element of a module) An element m of a left R-


module is a torsion element if
rm = 0

for some nonzero r ∈ R. Denote

Tor(M ) := {m ∈ M | r m = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R}

the set of all torsion elements of M .

Exercise 15.15. (cf. Tutorial) (Torsion submodule) If R is an integral domain,


then Tor(M ) is an R-submodule of M , called the torsion submodule of M .

Exercise 15.16. Let n ≥ 2 and R = Mn (F ) the matrix ring of size n × n over a


field F . For each k, let

Mk = {A = (aij ) ∈ R | aij = 0, ∀j 6= k}.

Show that Mk is left R-submodule of M := R regarded as a natural left R-module,


but is not a right R-submodule of M := R regarded as a natural right R-module.

Definition 15.17. (Centre of a ring) Let R be a ring. The centre Z(R) of the
ring R is defined and denoted as

Z(R) := {z ∈ R | z r = r z, ∀ r ∈ R}.
100 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Remark 15.18.

(1) The centre Z(R) is a commutative subring of R.

(2) A ring R is commutative if and only if Z(R) = R.

Exercise 15.19. Let M be a left R-module. Let z ∈ Z(R). Then

z M := {z m | m ∈ M }

is a left R-submodule of M .

Definition 15.20. (R-Algebra; Homomorphism)

(1) Let R be a commutative ring with 1R . An R-algebra is a ring A with 1A


together with a ring homomorphism

f: R → A

such that
f (1R ) = 1A , and

f (R) ⊆ Z(A).

For simplicity, we write


r a := f (r) a.

We have

r a = a r; r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b) = a (b r) = (a b) r, ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

An R-algebra A has a natural left (resp. right) R-module structure given


respectively as:
R×A → A

(r, a) 7→ r a;

A×R → A

(a, r) 7→ a r = r a.
15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 101

(2) Let A and B be two R-algebras. An R-algebra homomorphism is a ring


homomorphism
ϕ: A → B

such that
ϕ(1A ) = 1B , and

ϕ(r a) = r ϕ(a), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ a ∈ A.

An R-algebra isomorphism ϕ : A → B is an R-algebra homomorphism


which is bijective. In this case, the inverse ϕ−1 : B → A is also an R-algebra
isomorphism.

Remark 15.21. If A is an R-algebra, then A is a ring with 1A which is a (unital)


left R-module satisfying:

(∗) r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b), ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

Conversely, if R is a commutative ring with 1R and A is a ring with 1A which is


a (unital) left R-module satisfying the condition (∗) above, then A is an R-algebra
by defining
f : R → A,

r 7→ r 1A .
Sometimes, we use the condition (*) as defining axiom for A to be an R-algebra.
102 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tu-


torial 9; Lecture 16)
Throughout this section, a ring is assumed to have 1.

Definition 16.1. (Ring endo (homomorphism); Isomorphism; Kernel; Im-


age) Let R be a ring, and M, N left R-modules.

(1) A map
ϕ : M 7→ N

is an R-module homomorphism if it respects the R-module structures of


M and N , i.e.,

(1a)
ϕ(x + y) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y), ∀ x, y ∈ M, and

(1b)
ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x ∈ M.

(2) An R-module homomorphism ϕ : M → N is an isomorphism (of R-modules)


if it is bijective. In this case, we say M and N are isomorphic, and denote


ϕ : M → N, or

M∼
= N, or M ' N.

(3) If ϕ : M → N is a left R-module homomorphism, define and denote the kernel


of ϕ as
Ker ϕ = ϕ−1 (0N ) = {m ∈ M | ϕ(m) = 0}

and the image as

ϕ(M ) := {n ∈ N | n = ϕ(m), for some m ∈ M }.


16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 103

(4) Let M and N be left R-modules and define

HomR (M, N ) := {ϕ : M → N | ϕ is a left R-module homomorphism}

to be the set of all left R-module homomorphisms from M into N .

When M = N , a left R-module ϕ : M → M is also called an endomorphism


of the left R-module M . We denote

EndR (M ) = HomR (M, M ).

Remark 16.2. Let ϕ : M → N be a left R-module homomorphism. Then Ker ϕ is


a left R-submodule of N while the image ϕ(M ) is a left R-submodule of N .
More generally, for any left R-submodule M1 of M , the image ϕ(M1 ) is a left
R-submodule of N .

Example 16.3. Let M be a left R-module and N a left R-submodule of M . Then


the inclusion map
ι: N → M

n 7→ n
is a homomorphism of left R-modules.

Proposition 16.4. (Homomorphism criterion; Linear combination of ho-


momorphisms) Let R be a ring with 1. Let M, N, L be left R-modules.

(1) A map
ϕ:M →N

is a left R-module homomorphism if and only if

ϕ(rx + y) = rϕ(x) + ϕ(y), ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ x, y ∈ M.

(2) Let ϕi ∈ HomR (M, N ) and αi ∈ R. Then the linear combination

α1 ϕ1 + α2 ϕ2 : M → N,

m 7→ (α1 ϕ1 + α2 )(m) := α1 ϕ1 (m) + α2 ϕ2 (m)


104 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

belongs to HomR (M, N ).

In particular,

ϕ1 + ϕ2 ∈ HomR (M, N ), α1 ϕ1 ∈ HomR (M, N ).

With the just defined addition

+ : R × HomR (M, N ) → HomR (M, N )

(ϕ1 , ϕ2 ) 7→ ϕ1 + ϕ2

and the action


R × HomR (M, N ) → HomR (M, N )

(α, ϕ) 7→ αϕ
we get a left R-module structure on the additive group (HomR (M, N ), +).

(3) If ϕ ∈ HomR (L, M ) and ψ ∈ HomR (M, N ) then the composition

ψ ◦ ϕ ∈ HomR (L, N ).

(4) We have a natural ring structure (with multiplicative identity 1)

(HomR (M, M ), +, ◦)

on the set HomR (M, M ), where the addition + is as defined above, and ◦ is
the composition (Caution: ϕ ◦ ψ is not ϕ × ψ). The identity map

IM : M → M

m 7→ IM (m) := m.

serves as the multiplicative identity of the ring HomR (M, M ).

We call EndR (M ) = HomR (M, M ) the Endomorphism ring of the left R-


module M .

(5) Suppose that R is commutative. Then for α ∈ R, the scalar map

αIM : M → M

m 7→ αm.
16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 105

belongs to HomR (M, M ).

The map
f : R → HomR (M, M ),

α 7→ αIM
is a ring homomorphism with

f (R) ⊆ Z(HomR (M, M )) (the centre)

with which HomR (M, M ) becomes an R-algebra.

Proposition 16.5. (Quotient module, map) Let R be a ring, M a left R-module,


N a left R-submodule and M/N the quotient additive abelian group.

(1) The action


R × (M/N ) → M/N

(r, m = m + N ) 7→ rm
is well defined and makes M/N into a left R-module, called the quotient left
R-module of M by N .

(2) The quotient map


γ : M → M/N,

m 7→ m = m + N
is a left R-module surjective homomorphism with

Ker γ = N.

Notation 16.6. Let A, B be subsets of a left R-module M . We define the addition


(or sum, but not union!)

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

Similarly, for subset Ai ⊆ M , we define the addition


Xn
A1 + · · · + An := { ai | ai ∈ Ai }.
i=1
106 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

Remark 16.7. Let N1 , . . . , Nk be left R-submodules of a left R-module M . Then


the addition N1 + · · · + Nk is a left R-submodule of M , and is the smallest among
all left R-submodules of M containing all Ni .

Theorem 16.8. (Isomorphism theorems for modules)

(1) (First isomorphism theorem) Let M, N be left R-modules and let

ϕ: M → N

be a left R-module homomorphism. Then Ker ϕ is a left R-submodule of M and

M/(Ker ϕ) ∼
= ϕ(M ).

(2) (Second isomorphism theorem) Let A, B be left R-submodules of the left R-


module M . Then
A/(A ∩ B) ∼
= (A + B)/B.

(3) (Third Isomorphism Theorem) Let M be a left R-module, and let A, B be


left R-submodules of M with A ⊆ B. Then

M/B ∼
= (M/A)/(M/B).

(4) (Correspondence Theorem for modules) Let N be a left R-submodule of the


left R-module M . There is a bijection between the left R-submodules of M which
contain N and the left R-submodules of M/N . The correspondence is given by

A ←→ A/N

for all A ⊇ N .
This correspondence commutes with the processes of taking additions and inter-
sections.

Proof. Similar to those for rings or groups.


17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 107

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free mod-


ules (Tut 9; Lect 17)
Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

Definition 17.1. (Generating set of a module) Let M be a left R-module and


let N1 , . . . , Nn be left R-submodules of M .

(1) We recall the addition


n
X
N1 + · · · + Nn = { ai | ai ∈ Ni }
i=1

which turns out to be a left R-submodule of M .

(2) For any subset A ⊆ M , let


s
X
RA := { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.
i=1

RA is a left R-submodule of M and is the smallest among all left R-submodules


of M containing A. We call the RA the submodule of M generated by A.

If A = {a1 , . . . , at } one can show that


Xt
RA = Ra1 + · · · + Rat = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}.
i=1

If N is a left R-submodule of M and N = RA for some subset A ⊆ M , we call


A a set of generators or generating set for N ; and we say N is generated
by A.

(3) A submodule N of M (possibly N = M ) is finitely generated if there is


some finite subset A of M such that N = RA, that is, if N is generated by
some finite subset.

(4) A left R-submodule N of M (possibly N = M ) is cyclic if there exists an


element a ∈ M such that N = Ra, that is, if N is generated by one element:

N = Ra = {ra | r ∈ R}.
108 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Example 17.2.

(1) Let R = Z and M any R-module, i.e., any additive abelian group. If a ∈ M ,
then Ra is just the subgroup of M generated by a. If A ⊆ M , then RA is just
the subgroup of M generated by A.

(2) Let R be a ring. Then M = R is naturally a left R-module (cf. Example 15.5).

(3) Let R be a ring with 1 and M = Rn the free left module of rank n over R as
defined in Example 15.9. Let

e1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0), e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , en = (0, . . . , 0, 1).

Then
M = Re1 + · · · + Ren

and M is generated by {e1 , . . . , en }.

Definition 17.3. (Direct product) Let M1 , . . . , Mk be a finite collection of left


R-modules. The product

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) | mi ∈ Mi }

has a natural left R-module structure. Precisely, define the addition

+ : M × M → M,

(X = (x1 , . . . , xk ), Y = (y1 , . . . , yk )) 7→ X + Y := (x1 + y1 , . . . , xk + yk ).

Define R-action :

R × M → M,
.
(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yk )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryk ).

Then M = M1 × · · · × Mk is a left R-module, and called the direct product of


M1 , . . . , Mk .
More generally, one can define the direct product
Y

α∈Σ
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 109

of any collection of left R-modules Mα (α ∈ Σ, where Σ may not be finite or


countable). See Tutorial 9.

Proposition 17.4. Let N1 , . . . , Nk be submodules of the left R-module M . Then


the following are equivalent.

(1) The map


π : N1 × · · · × Nk → N1 + · · · + Nk ,

(a1 , . . . , ak ) 7→ a1 + · · · + ak
is an isomorphism (of left R-modules). Namely,

N1 × · · · × Nk ∼
= N1 + · · · + Nk .

(2)
Nj ∩ (N1 + · · · + Nj−1 + Nj+1 + · · · + Nk ) = 0, (∀ 1 ≤ j ≤ k).

(3) Every r ∈ N1 + · · · + Nk can be written uniquely in the form

r = a1 + · · · + ak

with ai ∈ Ni .

Definition 17.5. (Direct sum of submodules) If a left R-module M = N1 +· · ·+


Nk is the sum of left R-submodules N1 , . . . , Nk satisfying the equivalent conditions
in Proposition 17.4, then M is said to be the (internal) direct sum of N1 , . . . , Nk ,
and denoted as
M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nk .

Remark 17.6. Let

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) |, mi ∈ Mi }

be the product of left R-modules Mi as in Definition 17.3. Let

Ni = {(0, · · · , 0, ai , 0, · · · , 0) | ai ∈ Mi is at i-th position}.


110 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Then Mi ∼
= Ni (as left R-module) and

M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nn .

Sometimes, we identify Mi = Ni and write

M = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn .

So the direct product


M = M1 × · · · × Mn

of finitely many modules Mi is just the direct sum

M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn

of Mi identified with the submodule (of M ):

{0M1 } × · · · × {0Mi−1 } × Mi × {0Mi+1 } × · · · × {0Mn }.

Theorem 17.7. (Chinese remainder theorem for modules) Let R be a ring


with 1 and Ai ideals of R which are pair wise comaximal (i.e., Ai + Aj = R, ∀i 6= j).
Then
A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak = A1 · · · Ak

and
M/(A1 . . . Ak )M ∼
= (M/(A1 M ) × · · · × (M/(Ak M ).

Proof. Similar to the case for ring.

Definition 17.8. (Free on a subset; Basis) A left R-module F is said to be


free on the subset A of F if for every nonzero x ∈ F , there exist unique nonzero
elements
r1 , . . . , rn ∈ R

and unique
a1 , . . . , a n ∈ A
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 111

such that
x = r1 a1 + · · · + rn an .

In this situation, we say A is a basis or set of free generators for F .


If R is a commutative ring, the rank of F is defined as |A|, the cardinality of A.

Theorem 17.9.

(1) For any set A there is a free left R-module F (A) on the set A and F (A)
satisfies the universal property:

If M is any left R-module and

ϕ:A→M

is any map of sets, then there is a unique left R-module homomorphism

Φ : F (A) → M

such that
ϕ=Φ◦ι

where
ι : A → F (A)

is the inclusion map.

(2) When A = {a1 , . . . , an } is a finite set,

F (A) = Ra1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Ran ∼


= Rn

(as left R-modules).

Corollary 17.10.

(1) If F1 , F2 are free left R-modules on the same set A, then there is a unique
isomorphism
ϕ : F1 → F2
112 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

such that the restriction


ϕ|A

equals the identity map

idA : A → A

a 7→ idA (a) = a.

(2) If F is any free left R-module with basis A, then

F ∼
= F (A)

(as left R-modules).

In particular, F enjoys the same universal property with respect to A as F (A)


does in Theorem 17.9.

Remark 17.11. More generally, let A1 , A2 be two sets and

ϕ0 : A1 → A2

a bijection. Then there is a unique isomorphism (of left R-modules):

ϕ : F (A1 ) → F (A2 )

such that
ϕ|A1 = ϕ0 .

Remark 17.12. Let Mi (1 ≤ i ≤ n) be left R-submodules of M . Suppose that


M1 + · · · + Mn = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn is a direct sum and each Mi is a free left R-module
with a basis Ai , then M1 + · · · + Mn is a free left R-module with a basis ni=1 Ai (a
`

disjoint union).

Remark 17.13.

(1) If F is a free left R-module with basis A, we shall often define left R-module
homomorphism
ϕ:F →N
17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 113

from F into other left R-module N by simply specifying their ϕ-values on the
elements of A and then saying “extend by linearity” (applying Theorem 17.9
to F = F (A)).

(2) When R = Z, the free module on a set A is called the free abelian group
on A. If |A| = n, we call F (A) the free abelian group of rank n; we have

F (A) ∼
= Z × · · · × Z (n times).
114 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-


19)
Definition 18.1. (Noetherian module/ring) Let R be a ring and M a left R-
module.

(1) The left R-module M is said to be a Noetherian R-module or to satisfy the


Ascending Chain Condition on submodules (or ACC on submodules) if there
are no infinite ascending chains of submodules, i.e., whenever

M1 ⊆ M2 ⊆ M3 ⊆ · · ·

is an ascending chain of left R-submodules of M , then there is a positive


integer m such that
Mm = Mm+1 = Mm+2 = · · ·

(2) The ring R is said to be Noetherian if it is Noetherian as a left module over


itself, i.e., if there are no infinite ascending chains of left ideals in R.

Theorem 18.2. Let R be a ring and M a left R-module. Then the following are
equivalent.

(1) M is a Noetherian left R-module.

(2) Every nonempty set of submodules of M contains a maximal element under in-
clusion.

(3) Every submodule of M is finitely generated.

Corollary 18.3. A PID is Noetherian ring.

Proposition 18.4. Let R be an integral domain and M a free R-module of rank


n < ∞. Then any n + 1 elements of M are R-linearly dependent, i.e., for any
y1 , . . . , yn+1 ∈ M there are elements r1 , . . . , rn+1 ∈ R, not all zero, such that

r1 y1 + · · · + rn+1 yn+1 = 0.
18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 115

Definition 18.5. (Rank of a module) Let R be an integral domain and M an


R-module.

(1) We can define R-linearly (in)dependent subset A of M as in linear algebra.

(2) The rank of an R-module M is the maximal number of R-linearly independent


elements of M . So it is either a finite number or infinity.

Remark 18.6. We remark that if A is a linearly independent subset of M , then


the R-submodule
Xn
RA = { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, n ≥ 1}
i=1

of M is a free R-module with a basis A (cf. Definition 17.8).


Thus, if M has rank r ∈ Z>0 then M contains an R-submodule isomorphic to
Rr .

Theorem 18.7. Let R be a PID, M a free R-module of finite rank n and N a


R-submodule of M . Then

(1) N is free R-module of rank m ≤ n, and

(2) There exists a basis


{y1 , . . . , yn }

of M such that
{a1 y1 , . . . , am ym }

is a basis of N , where a1 , . . . , am are nonzero elements of R with the divisibility


relations
a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

Definition 18.8. Recall that a left R-module C is cyclic if C = Ra for some a ∈ C.


In this case, the surjective homomorphism

γ: R → C

r 7→ ra
116 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

induces an isomorphism
R/ Ker γ ∼
= C.

Conversely, for every left ideal I of R, the quotient ring R/I is a cyclic left
R-module since R/I = R 1R with 1R = 1R + I ∈ R/I.

Definition 18.9. (cf. Tutorial) (Torsion module; Torsion free module) Let M
be a left R-module.

(1) An element m ∈ M is called a torsion element if rm = 0 for some nonzero


element r ∈ R.

Denote by

Tor(M ) := {m ∈ M | rm = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R}

the set of all torsion elements in M .

(2) The left R-module M is called torsion free if Tor(M ) = {0}.

(3) M is a said to be a torsion module if Tor(M ) = M .

(4) If R is an integral domain, then one can show that Tor(M ) is a left R-
submodule of M .

Theorem 18.10. (Fundamental theorem, Existence: Invariant Factor Form)


Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

(1)
M∼
= Rr ⊕ R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am )

for some r ≥ 0 and nonzero elements a1 , . . . , am of R which are not units in


R and which satisfy the divisibility relations:

a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

(2) M is torsion free if and only if M is a free left R-module.


18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 117

(3) In the decomposition in (1),

Tor(M ) ∼
= R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am ).

In particular, M is a torsion module if and only if r = 0, and in this case

am M = 0.

Definition 18.11. (Free rank; Invariant factors) The integer r in Theorem


18.10 is called the free rank or the Betti number of M and the elements

a1 , . . . , a m ∈ R

(defined up to multiplication by units in R) are called the invariant factors of M.

Theorem 18.12. (Fundamental Theorem, Existence: Elementary Divisor


Form) Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

M∼
= Rr ⊕ R/(pα1 1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(pαt t )

where r ≥ 0 is an integer and pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t are positive powers of (not necessarily
distinct or non-associate) primes in R.

Definition 18.13. (Elementary divisors) Let R be a PID and M a finitely gen-


erated R-module as in Theorem 18.12. The prime powers

pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t

(defined up to multiplication by units in R) are called the elementary divisors of


M.

Theorem 18.14. (Fundamental Theorem, Uniqueness) Let R be a PID. Then

(1) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if
they have the same free rank and the same list of invariant factors.

(2) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if
they have the same free rank and the same list of elementary divisors.
118 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

Applying Theorem 18.10, 18.12 and 18.14 to R = Z and finitely generated abelian
group G (as R-module) we get the two theorems below.

Theorem 18.15. (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian


Groups) Let G be a finitely generated abelian group. Then

(1)
G∼
= Zr × Z/(n1 ) × · · · × Z/(nu )

for some integers r, n1 , . . . , nu satisfying the following conditions:

(1a) r ≥ 0; nj ≥ 2 (∀ j), and

(1b) the divisibility relations


n1 | n2 | · · · | nu .

(2) The expression in (1) is unique : if

G∼
= Zt × Z/(m1 ) × · · · × Z/(mv )

where t and m1 , . . . , mv satisfy (1a) and (1b), then t = r, v = u and mi = ni


(∀ i).

Definition 18.16. (Free rank; Invariant factor for f.g. abelian group) The
integer r in Theorem 18.15 is called the free rank or Betti number of G and the
integers n1 , . . . , nu are called the invariant factors of G. The description of G in
Theorem 18.15 is called the invariant factor decomposition of G.

Theorem 18.17. Let G be an abelian group of order n > 1 and let the unique
factorization of n into distinct prime powers be

n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k .

Then

(1)
G∼
= A1 × · · · × Ak

where |Ai | = pαi i .


18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 119

(2) For each A = Ai ∈ {A1 , . . . , Ak } with |A| = pα ,

A∼
= Z/(pβ1 ) × · · · × Z/(pβt )

with
1 ≤ β1 ≤ · · · ≤ βt

and
β1 + · · · + βt = α

where t and β1 , . . . , βt depend on i.

(3) The decomposition in (1) and (2) is unique, i.e., if

G∼
= B1 × · · · × B`

with |Bi | = pαi i for all i, then Bi ∼


= Ai and Bi and Ai have the same invariant
factors.

Definition 18.18. (Elementary divisors for f.g. abelian group) The inte-
gers integers pβj described in Theorem 18.17 are called the elementary divisors
of G. The description of G in Theorem 18.17 is called the elementary divisor
decomposition of G.

End of The Course; Thanks for the patient reading!