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DE-QI ZHANG

(Professor of Mathematics; Office: S17-0608)

Contents

2 Revision of Group Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) . . . . . . . . . 21

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 44

6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) . . . . . . . . . . 57

7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) . . . . . . . . . 64

9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) . . . . . . . . . . . 68

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) . . . . 77

12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) . . . . . . . . 82

13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) . . . . . 85

14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) . . . . . . . 88

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) . . . . . . . . . . . 94

16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) . 102

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) . 107

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

iii

1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts 1

• Textbook:

• Reference book1:

London, Chapman & Hall, 1970 (1991 Reprinted). QA251 Har (Sci)

• Reference book2:

• Prerequisites:

Department’s description:

Lecturer’s description:

coset. Cyclic group. Abelian group. Normal subgroup. Quotient group.

Group homomorphism. Group action: orbit, stabiliser. Group isomorphism

theorems (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th = Correspondence). Product of groups.

2 1 Assessment: Test, HW Schedules; Syllabus; Texts

• Syllabus

Department’s description:

The objective of this module is to provide the essentials of ring theory and

module theory. Major topics: rings, ring isomorphism theorems, prime and

maximal ideals, integral domains, field of fractions, factorization, unique fac-

torization domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains, factorization

in polynomial domains, modules, module isomorphism theorems, cyclic mod-

ules, free modules of finite rank, finitely generated modules, finitely generated

modules over a principal ideal domain.

• Assessment:

(1) 30% from 60-minute common test which will be held (covering Lecture

Notes §1 - §9 and Tutorials 1 - 5) at S16-0304 during the lecture

time on Mon 4:10pm - 5:10pm, 18th Mar 2019. Students who are

absent from the test without an MC will be given 0 mark for the test.

A makeup test will be arranged for students with MC, but will be on

different topics/sections. The makeup test will be in reading week.

(2) 10% from 5 home works in tutorial weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. Due day:

Monday 6pm of the respective weeks. HW should be slipped inside my

office. Write your Tutorial group number on your script!

(3) The remaining 60% from the final exam in April/May 2019.

2 Revision of Group Theory 3

2.1. Notation for proper subset; standard sets

A1 ⊂ A.

Z = {· · · , −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, · · · }

(the set of integers)

Z≥0 = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . }

(the set of nonnegative integers)

N = {1, 2, 3, · · · }

(the set of natural numbers or positive integers)

Q = {m

n

| m, n are integers, n 6= 0}

(the set of rational numbers)

ation ∗ on S is a map

∗ : S × S −→ S

(s1 , s2 ) 7→ s1 ∗ s2 .

So we denote by s1 ∗ s2 the image ∗(s1 , s2 ). We use (S, ∗) to signify that S is a set

with a binary operation ∗.

set G together with a binary operation ∗ satisfying the three axioms below:

g ∗ eG = g = eG ∗ g, for every g ∈ G.

4 2 Revision of Group Theory

g 0 ∗ g = eG = g ∗ g 0 .

phism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e., if

isomorphism), denoted as

∼

ϕ : G1 → G2 ,

if ϕ is bijective.

G1 ∼

= G2 , or G1 ' G2 ,

∼

if there is an isomorphism ϕ : G1 → G2 .

g1 ∗ g2 ∗ g3

interpretations are the same, thanks to (G2).

(2) If two groups G1 , G2 are isomorphic to each other, we may ‘identify’ them.

2 Revision of Group Theory 5

(or commutative) if ∗ is commutaitve, i.e. if

g1 ∗ g2 = g2 ∗ g1 , for all gi ∈ G.

Let (G, ∗) be a group. Let g ∈ G.

g −1 .

denoted as ×, as in the cases (GLn (R), ×) and (R \ {0}, ×).

When ∗ is denoted as ×, (G, ×) is usually called a multiplicative group,

and (its multiplicative) identity eG is most likely denoted as 1G or simply

1.

(2) When ∗ is denoted as +, as in the case (Z, +), (G, +) is usually called an

additive group; we use

−g

most likely denoted as 0G or simply 0.

H (or (H, ∗)) is a subgroup of G, denoted as

H).

6 2 Revision of Group Theory

group. Let H ⊆ G be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(2)

h1 ∗ h2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H, and

h−1 ∈ H, ∀h ∈ H.

(3)

h1 ∗ h−1

2 ∈ H, ∀h1 , ∀h2 ∈ H.

Here h−1

2 is the inverse of h2 regarded as an element of G.

(1) Denote

hgi := {g n | n ∈ Z}.

Exercise. Show that hgi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup

generated by g (cf. Exercise below, or 1-generator subgroup theorem ??).

Exercise. Show that hSi is a subgroup of G, and will be called the subgroup

generated by the subset S.

2 Revision of Group Theory 7

g + g + · · · + g = ng (repeat n times). So

hgi = {ng | n ∈ Z}

G = hgi for some g ∈ G. Any a ∈ G such that G = hai is called a generator of G.

Definition 2.11. (Subgroup and its generating subset) Let (G, ∗) be a group,

H ≤ G (a subgroup) and S ⊆ G a nonempty subset. We say that H is generated

by S, and S is a generating set of H if H = hSi, i.e., if

group, and g ∈ G.

G is a finite group if |G| < ∞; G is an infinite group if |G| = ∞;

ord(g), or o(g).

(2) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N. Show that g s = eG if and and only if n|s.

8 2 Revision of Group Theory

(3) Suppose that ord(g) = n ∈ N and b|n. Show that ord(g b ) = n/b.

(4) Suppose that ord(g) = ∞. Show that the map below is bijective

ϕ : Z −→ hgi

s 7→ ϕ(s) := g s .

(5) Suppose that ord(h) = n ∈ N. Show that the map below is well defined

(meaning here that the result ψ(s̄) depends only on the class s̄, but not on the

choice of the representative s of the class) and bijective

ψ : Z/(n) −→ hhi

s̄ 7→ ψ(s̄) := hs .

(6) (difficult) The cyclic group (hgi, ∗) can be ‘identified’ with additive group

(Z, +) (when o(g) = ∞), or (Z/(n), +) (when o(g) = n), because the bijective

maps in (4) and (5) ‘preserve’ operations (so they are isomorphisms; cf. Def.

2.3).

a cyclic group of order n < ∞. (So hgi = {eG , g, . . . , g n−1 }.) Let H ≤ G (so

H = hg s i for some s ∈ Z by Cyclic-inheritance theorem ??). Then H = hg d i with

d = gcd(s, n). Thus

n

o(g s ) = |H| = , |H| | |G|, H = hg n/|H| i.

d

Corollary 2.15. (Cyclic group generator theorem) Let G = hgi be a cyclic

group of order n < ∞.

(2) If c ∈ N and c|n then G has exactly one subgroup Hc of order c; to be precise,

Hc = hg n/c i.

gcd(r, n) = 1.

2 Revision of Group Theory 9

tation σ ∈ Sn (n ≥ 2) can be written as a product of transpositions of the type

(i, i + 1). So in notation of 2.9,

consider the formal product below where xi ’s are variables:

Y

D := (xi − xj ).

1≤i<j≤n

Y

σ(D) = (xσ(i) − xσ(j) ).

1≤i<j≤n

Then σ(D) = sgn(σ)D with sgn(σ) = 1 or −1. We call sgn(σ) the signature of σ.

σ is an even permutation if sgn(σ) = 1.

σ is an odd permutation if sgn(σ) = −1.

is an even permutation}. Then (An , ◦) is a subgroup of (Sn , ◦). (We call An the

alternating group of n letters.)

3-cycles (see 2.11).

10 2 Revision of Group Theory

subgroup), and g ∈ G. Show that the following are equivalent.

(1) g ∈ H,

(2) gH = H,

(3) Hg = H,

(4) gH ⊆ H,

(5) gH ⊇ H,

(6) Hg ⊆ H,

(7) Hg ⊇ H.

subgroup). In notation of ??, we have:

group). The index of H in G, denoted as

|G : H|

of ??, and (cf. Theorem 2.22)

|G| = |G : H||H|

which holds even when |G| = ∞ (by the proof of Theorem 2.22).

2 Revision of Group Theory 11

subgroup (or is normal in G), denoted as

N G

if

gng −1 ∈ N, for all n ∈ N, g ∈ G.

Let N ≤ G and N = hN0 i, i.e., N is generated by a subset N0 ⊂ N . Then the

following are equivalent.

(1) N G, i.e.,

Z(G) := {z ∈ G | gz = zg, ∀ g ∈ G}

in G.

Theorem 2.27. (Index-2 subgroup being normal theorem) Suppose the index

|G : H| = 2. Then H G.

12 2 Revision of Group Theory

gHg −1 = H.

(2)

NG (H) := {g ∈ G | gHg −1 = H}

(1) NG (H) ≤ G.

(2) H NG (H).

Definition 2.30. (Set of left cosets) Let H (G, ∗). So gH = Hg for all g ∈ G

(cf. Equivalent definitions of normal subgroup 2.25). Denote the left (and also right)

coset

ḡ := gH.

Denote

G/H := {ḡ | g ∈ G}

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 ∗ g2 := g1 g2 .

addition + on G/H:

(g1 , g2 ) 7→ g1 + g2 := g1 + g2 .

2 Revision of Group Theory 13

Then (G/H, ∗) defined above, is a group with the identity eG/H = eG = eH = h (for

any h ∈ H) and the order |G/H| = |G : H| (= |G|/|H| when |G| < ∞). (We call

G/H the quotient group of G modulo H.)

For the additive abelian group (Z, +) and its subgroup nZ (with n ≥ 2), we have

n−1

a

Z = ∪s∈Z (s + nZ) = (s + nZ).

s=0

Z/nZ = {s + nZ | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}

= {[s]n | 0 ≤ s ≤ n − 1}.

s = [s]n = s + nZ.

(G2 , ∗2 ) be groups.

homomorphism) if ϕ preserves (or is compatible with) the operations, i.e.,

if

ϕ(g ∗1 g 0 ) = ϕ(g) ∗2 ϕ(g 0 ), for all g, g 0 ∈ G1 .

ϕ(G1 ) = {ϕ(g) | g ∈ G1 }.

14 2 Revision of Group Theory

Gi be groups.

group. Let N (G) be the set of normal subgroups of G. Then the map below is

surjective

f : H(G) −→ N (G)

ϕ 7→ f (ϕ) := Ker(ϕ).

coprime m, n ∈ N, the map below is a well defined isomorphism

H ∩ N H, N HN ≤ G, and the map below is a group isomorphism

∼

ψ : H/(H ∩ N ) → HN/N

only if HK = KH.

|H| |K|

|HK| = .

|H ∩ K|

2 Revision of Group Theory 15

H G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

∼

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

H G. Then the map below is a group isomorphism

∼

τ : (G/N )/(H/N ) → G/H

γ : G → G/N

Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subgroups of G/N . Then the following are true.

H 0 = H1 /N with H1 := γ −1 (H 0 ) = {x ∈ G | γ(x) ∈ H 0 } ≤ G.

f : Σ1 → Σ2

H1 7→ H1 /N.

case,

G/H1 ∼

= (G/N )/(H1 /N ).

case,

|H2 : H1 | = |(H2 /N ) : (H1 /N )|.

16 2 Revision of Group Theory

2.41. (Commutator subgroup [G, G]; derived series) For a group G and gi ∈ G,

we call [g1 , g2 ] = g1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 a commutator. The commutator subgroup below is

the subgroup generated by commutators:

[G, G] := hg1−1 g2−1 g1 g2 ; gi ∈ Gi = {[g1 , g10 ]n1 . . . [gs , gs0 ]ns ; gi , gi0 ∈ G, s ≥ 1, ni ∈ Z}.

Define G(1) = [G, G], G(i+1) = [G(i) , G(i) ] so that we have the derived series:

G ⊇ G(1) ⊇ G(2) ⊇ · · · .

(∗) G = G0 G1 G2 · · · Gr 1

such that Gi /Gi+1 is abelian for all i (in particular, the last subgroup Gr is abelian).

(a) Show that a group G is solvable if and only if G(s) = 1 for some s > 0. Here

G(1) := [G, G] and G(i+1) := [G(i) , G(i) ] inductively.

(b) Show that S4 is solvable but S5 is not solvable. In general, it is known that Sn

(n ≥ 5) is not solvable. This is related to Galois’ result: a general polynomial

of degree ≥ 5 can not be solved by taking radicals.

some r ≥ 1.

the following are true.

(a) The centre of G/Z(G) can be written as Z(G/Z(G)) = Z2 /Z(G) for some

Z2 G.

(b) Let Z0 = {eG }, Z1 = Z(G), and inductively define Zi+1 such that Z(G/Zi ) =

Zi+1 /Zi . Show that Zi+1 G. We obtained the so called upper central

series of G, where Zi (G) = Zi and Z1 (G) = Z1 = Z(G):

2 Revision of Group Theory 17

called the nilpotent class of G.

(d) One can show that every finite p-group is nilpotent. Hint: Show that Z(G) 6=

1.

each Gi a pi -group for some prime pi .

and construct the so called lower central series (usually denoting Γi (G) := Γi ):

(g) It is known that Zs (G) = G for some (minimal) s ≥ 0 if and only if Γs (G) =

{eG } for some (minimal) s ≥ 0. Precisely, if c ≥ 0 is minimal such that

Γc (G) = {eG }, one can show by induction

such that ρ(g1 g2 ) = ρ(g1 ) ◦ ρ(g2 ) (i.e., ρ is a homomorphism, and we say there is an

action of G on X). Denote (ρ(g))(x) = g(x). For x ∈ X define the stabilizer

Gx := {g ∈ G | g(x) = x} ⊆ G, and the orbit

Gx := {g(x) | g ∈ G} ⊆ X.

relation, and the equivalence class containing x is equal to the orbit Gx.

`

(c) There exists {xi | i ∈ I} ⊆ X such that X = i∈I Gxi (disjoint union).

18 2 Revision of Group Theory

(d) One can show that the map below is a well defined bijection

Theorem 2.46. (Class equation) Let G be a finite group with Z(G) the centre.

Then there exists {xj | j ∈ J} ⊆ G such that the centralizers CG (xj ) = {y ∈ G | yxj =

6 G, and

xj y} =

X

|G| = |Z(G)| + |G : CG (xj )|.

j∈J

a prime number and p divides the order |G|. Then G has an element of order p.

G be a finite abelian group. Use induction on order of a group, one can show:

(a) If p is a prime number such that p | |G| then G contains an element of order

p.

2.49. (Simple group) A group G is called simple if 1 and G are the only normal

subgroups of G. Show that A5 is a simple group. In general, it is known that An (n ≥

5) is a simple group. Finite simple groups are classified in the book called ”ATLAS

of Finite Group Representations”. See: http://for.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/

a binary operation on

G1 × G2 = {(g1 , g2 ) | gi ∈ Gi }

as follows:

(g1 , g2 ) ∗ (g10 , g20 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , g2 ∗2 g20 ).

Prove that (G1 × G2 , ∗) is a group, called the direct product of the groups G1 and

G2 .

2 Revision of Group Theory 19

G := G1 × · · · × Gs

(called the direct product of the groups G1 , . . . , Gs ) with the binary operation ∗

given as:

(g1 , . . . , gs ) ∗ (g10 , . . . , gs0 ) = (g1 ∗1 g10 , . . . , gs ∗s gs0 ).

Let

Hi = {eG1 } × · · · × {eGi−1 } × {eGi+1 } × · · · {eGs }.

Gi ∼

= Hi .

More generally, one can define the direct product

Y

Gα

α∈Σ

Remark 2.51. Final remarks for further study in group theory: Sylow

theorems; structure theorem for finitely generated abelian group)

(1) Let G be a finite group and p a prime factor of |G|. Write

|G| = pr q

with r ≥ 1 and gcd(p, q) = 1. Then there is at least one subgroup H ≤ G such that

|H| = pr .

g ∈ G. The H above are called Sylow p-subgroups of G. The number np of Sylow

p-subgroups of G satisfies

np | |G|, np = 1 + kp

20 2 Revision of Group Theory

for some integer k ≥ 0. The above results form the so called Sylow’s Theorem.

(2) Exercsie. Find all Sylow p-subgroups for Sn , An (n = 3, 4, 5).

(3) Fundamental Theorem for finitely generated abelian group G. This

is important. It says that if G = hg1 , . . . , gs i is abelian and finitely generated (by s

elements) then

G∼

= Z × · · · × Z × Z/(pn1 1 ) × · · · × Z/(pnr r )

(4) Recall that a group G (6= {eG }) is simple if 1 and G are the only normal

subgroups of G. Z/(p) with p prime and An (n ≥ 5) are all simple groups. A5 is

the smallest non-abelian simple group. Finite simple groups have been completely

classified. Most of them appear in series. There are exactly 26 finite simple groups

which appear sporadically. The largest (resp. the 2nd largest) such sporadic finite

simple group M (resp. B) is called the Monster (resp. the baby Monster) simple

group with the order |M| =

246.320.59.76.112.133.17.19.23.29.31.41.47.59.71

∼ 8 × 1053

and

|B| = 241.313.56.72.11.13.17.19.23.31.47

∼ 4 × 1033 .

see:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sporadic group

or

http://web.mat.bham.ac.uk/atlas/v2.0/

There is one copy of the giant book ”ATLAS of Finite Group Representa-

tions” in Math Dept library (LKC centre). See also the recent update by Michael

Aschbacher ‘The status of the classification of the finite simple groups,’ in: No-

tices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol 51, yr 2004, no. 7, pp.

736–740.

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 21

1-2)

Definition 3.1. (Ring; Commutative ring; Ring with 1)

(1) A ring R, or more precisely, (R, +, ×), is a set R together with two binary

operations + (addition) and × (multiplication) satisfying the following axioms.

(a × b) × c = a × (b × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

(a + b) × c = (a × c) + (b × c), a × (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.

a × b = b × a, ∀ a, b ∈ R.

there is an element 1 ∈ R such that

1 × a = a = a × 1, ∀ a ∈ R.

of b (or the negative of b), and define the subtraction as:

a − b := a + (−b).

22 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(∗) a1 + a2 + a3 .

by the associativity. So the writing in (*) has a unique interpretation, with no

ambiguity, and hence makes sense. Similarly, we can/will write

a1 + · · · + an

write

1 = 1R , 0 = 0R .

makes sense to denote it as 1R , if exists.

(1b) 1 6= 0, and

(1c) every nonzero element a ∈ R \{0} has a multiplicative inverse a0 in the sense:

aa0 = 1 = a0 a.

as a−1 . Thus

aa−1 = 1 = a−1 a.

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 23

R× := R \ {0}.

Thus, if R is a division ring (resp. field) then (R× , ×) is a multiplicative group (resp.

commutative multiplicative group).

Remark 3.5.

E ⊆ F is a subfield if

a, b ∈ E ⇒ ab ∈ E,

(3) 1F ∈ E, and

(2) The set Z of integers with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, is a com-

mutative ring with 1 but it is neither a division ring nor a field. We call Z the

integer ring.

24 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

nZ = {ns | s ∈ Z}

multiplicative identity 1. Indeed, nZ is a subring of Z.

(4) The sets Q of rational numbers, R of real numbers, and C of complex numbers,

with the natural arithmetic operations +, ×, are fields. They are respectively

called the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers, and

the field of complex numbers.

When n = 0,

Z/nZ = Z/{0} ∼

= Z.

Z/nZ = Z/(−n)Z.

When n = 1,

Z/nZ = Z/Z = {0}

(a trivial group).

in many ways:

[s]n = [s] = s.

So

Z/nZ = {[0]n , [1]n , . . . , [n − 1]n },

or in another way:

Z/nZ = {0, 1, . . . , n − 1}.

s1 × s2 := s1 × s2 .

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 25

Q (i.e., D 6= (m/n)2 for any m/n ∈ Q). Consider the 2-dimensional vector

space

√ √ √

Q[ D] := Q + Q D = {a + b D | a, b ∈ Q}

√

with a Q-basis {1, D}.

√

Then this (so called Quadratic Field) Q[ D] is a subfield of C, and hence

is a field.

If we define

√

√ a+b D √

Q( D) := { √ | a, b, c, d ∈ Q, c + d D 6= 0}

c+d D

√ √

then one can show that Q( D) = Q[ D]. Indeed, more generally, for a field

F , we have

Q(F ) := {α/β := αβ −1 | α, β ∈ F, β 6= 0} = F

Let

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ R}

be a 4-dimensional vector space over R with an R-basis {1, i, j, k}. Define the

multiplication

Extend the multiplication linearly by the distributive law, we get a well defined

multiplication × on H. Then (H, +, ×) is a division ring, but not a field. We

call H the real Quaternion Ring.

a − bi − cj − dk

(a + bi + cj + dk)−1 = .

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2

26 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

Similarly,

HQ = Q + Qi + Qj + Rk == {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Q}

is a division ring, but not a field. We call HQ the rational Hamilton Quater-

nion ring.

RV [x] := {f : R → R}

be the set of all real-valued functions (in one variable x). For a scalar or

constant c ∈ R, we have the constant function c given below:

c: R → R

x 7→ c(x) := c.

f +g : R → R

f ×g : R → R

being the constant function 1.

(9) (Ring R-valued functions) (cf. Tutorial 1) More generally, let X be a set

and R a ring. Let

Xto R := {f : X → R}

be the set of all maps between X and R. Then for f, g ∈ Xto R, there are

natural addition f + g and multiplication f g (x 7→ f (x) g(x), which is not the

composition) as in the previous example, such that

(Xto R, +, ×)

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 27

c: X → R

x 7→ c(x) = c.

of Xto R.

n = 0Z , define

0Z a = 0R .

When n ≥ 1, define

n a = a + · · · + a (n times).

n a = −((−n) a)

0R a = 0R = a 0R , (∀ a ∈ R).

(2) Recall that −a is the additive inverse of a (so that a + (−a) = 0). Then

(3)

(−a) (−b) = ab, (∀ a, b ∈ R).

28 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(a − b) c = ac − bc, a (b − c) = ab − ac.

a unit if it has a multiplicative inverse u0 such that

uu0 = 1 = u0 u.

is unique, and is denoted as u−1 .

Denote by

U (R) := {u ∈ R | u is a unit}

1 6= 0. Then (U (R), ×) is a multiplicative group, called the multiplicative group

of units of the ring R. [Hint. Check the axioms to be a (multiplicative) group.]

Example 3.12. Suppose that R is a division ring. Then U (R) = R \ {0}, which is

a multiplicative group.

U (R) is a commutative (= abelian) multiplicative group if (and only if) R is a

field.

following are equivalent.

(2) uv = 1.

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 29

(3) vu = 1.

of order

|U (Z/nZ)| = ϕ(n).

Here

ϕ(n) = |{1 ≤ s ≤ n | gcd(s, n) = 1}|

with 1 6= 0 such that

for ∀ a, b ∈ R, ab = 0 =⇒ a = 0 or b = 0;

or equivalently,

for ∀ a, b ∈ R, a 6= 0, b 6= 0 =⇒ ab 6= 0.

divisor if there is a nonzero b ∈ R such that either ab = 0 or ba = 0.

Thus a commutative ring R with 1 is an integral domain if and only if R has no

zero divisors.

integral domain if and only if the cancellation law holds:

For ∀ a, b, c ∈ R, c 6= 0, ca = cb =⇒ a = b.

with the cardinality |R| < ∞. Then R is a field.

30 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

integral domain. Especially, F [x1 ] is an integral domain.

(2) More generally, assume R is an integral domain. Then the polynomial ring

R[x1 , . . . , xn ] in n variables x1 , . . . , xn over R is an integral domain. Especially,

R[x1 ] is an integral domain.

(3) n is a prime.

a subring of R if:

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S.

subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(1) S is a subring of R.

a, b ∈ S =⇒ ab ∈ S; a − b = a + (−b) ∈ S.

Remark 3.24.

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 31

subring of T then R is a subring of T .

Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R ⊂ C.

Example 3.26. (cf. Tutorial 1) the integral Hamilton Quaternion Ring below

HZ := Z + Zi + Zj + Zk = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d ∈ Z}

the real Hamilton Quaternion Ring H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk.

Example 3.27. Let R be a commutative ring. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial ring

over R. Then R is a subring of S which consists of constant polynomial functions.

[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of constant functions are still constant

functions.]

S ⊆ R may not contain 1. E.g., for every integer m ∈ Z with |m| ≥ 2,

mZ = {ms | s ∈ Z}

Example 3.29. Let R[x] be the set of real polynomials in one variable x. Every such

polynomial f (x) is a real-valued function. Hence R[x] is a subset of the real-valued

function ring (as in Example 3.7)

RV [x] = {f : R → R}.

[Hint. Multiplications and subtractions of polynomials functions are still polyno-

mial functions.]

32 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

finite or countable) collection of subrings of a ring R. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Rα

is a subring of R.

In general, the union of subrings may not be a subring [e.g. 2Z ∪ 3Z ⊂ Z], but

we have:

R1 ⊆ R2 ⊆ · · ·

∪∞

i=1 Ri

is a subring of R.

subsets of R.

Define the addition

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

When A = {a}

a + B := {a + b | b ∈ B}.

A + b := {a + b | a ∈ A}.

A1 + · · · + An = {a1 + · · · + an | ai ∈ Ai }.

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.

One can prove the associativity:

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C).

3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2) 33

subrings. Then the addition (or sum) R1 + · · · + Rn is closed under subtraction, but

may not be closed under multiplication, and hence may not be a subring of R.

Indeed, let F = Q, R or C (a field), R = M2 (F ) the matrix ring, and

a 0 0 c

R1 = { ; a, b ∈ F }, R2 = { ; c ∈ F }.

b 0 0 0

e f

R1 + R2 = { ; e, f, g ∈ F },

g 0

a a

is not a subring. Precisely, is in R1 + R2 for any a ∈ F , but

a 0

1 1 2 2 4 2

× =

1 0 2 0 2 2

is not in R1 + R2 .

integral domain.

(2) Conversely, one can show that every integral domain R is a subring of some

field Q(R) (the so called fraction field of R; cf. §8).

1, . . . , n) be rings.

R := R1 × · · · × Rn

34 3 Rings: basics and examples (Tutorial 1; Lecture 1-2)

(called the direct product of the rings R1 , . . . , Rn ) with the binary operation

+ and × given as:

More generally and similarly, one can define the direct product

Y

Rα

α∈Σ

(2) Let

Si := {0R1 } × · · · × {0Ri−1 } × Ri × {0Ri+1 } × · · · × {0Rn }.

Si ∼

= Ri .

R = S1 + · · · + Sn .

(3) We have

0R = (0R1 , . . . , 0Rn ).

1R = (1R1 , . . . , 1Rn ).

domain or a field).

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 35

(Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

Example 4.1. (Polynomial ring R[x] over a ring R)

Let R = (R, +, ×) be a commutative ring with 1.

n

X

g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0

i=0

variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient

an 6= 0.

deg 0 = −∞.

with a0 ∈ R, we call such g(x) a constant polynomial.

d

X

R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}

j=0

(5) (Addition and multiplication) There are natural addition and multiplica-

tion operations for polynomials

r

X s

X

i

g(x) = ai x , h(x) = bi x i

i=0 i=0

defined as X

g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi

i≥0

X

g(x)h(x) = ck x k

k≥0

36 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where

X

ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,

i+j=k

such that

(R[x], +, ×)

(6) As an illustration, if

= 2x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 1,

Remark 4.2. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Let S := R[x] be the polynomial

ring over R.

(2) 0S = 0R .

rings in two variables

R[x, y]

R[x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ]?

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 37

Proposition 4.4. (Polynomial ring over integral domain) (cf. Tutorial 2 for

(3)) Let R be an integral domain. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1)

deg(f (x)g(x)) = deg f (x) + deg g(x).

(2) We have

U (R[x]) = U (R).

with a0 a unit in R.

a11 a12 · · · a1n

a21 a22 · · · a1n

Mn (R) := {A =

.. .. .. .. ; aij ∈ R}

. . . .

an1 an2 · · · ann

B = (bij ) ∈ Mn (F ) define the natural matrix addition and multiplication as:

a11 + b11 · · · a1n + b1n

a21 + b21 · · · a1n + b2n

A + B := (aij + bij ) =

.. .. ..

,

. . .

an1 + bn1 · · · ann + bnn

and

AB := (cij )

38 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

where

n

X

cij = aik bkj

k=1

A = (aij ) = Diag[a, . . . , a]

A = (aij ) = (aij )

lower triangular matrix.

(6) The set S := Mn (R) together with the matrix addition and multiplication just

defined, becomes a ring. We call Mn (R) the matrix ring of n × n square

matrices with entries in the ring R.

real or complex matrices which has been studied in Linear Algebra I.

Remark 4.6. Let R be a ring and S = Mn (R) the matrix ring with entries in R.

Then

(1)

0S = (aij )

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 39

1S = Diag[1R , . . . , 1R ].

Scn (R) := {Diag[a, . . . , a] | ai ∈ R}

R∼

= Scn (R).

Dn (R) := {Diag[a1 , . . . , an ] | ai ∈ R}

Dn (R) ∼

= Rn := R × · · · × R (n times).

U Tn (R) := {(aij ) | aij ∈ R, aij = 0 (∀i > j)}

Similarly, the set LTn (R) of all lower triangular matrices in Mn (R), is a subring

of Mn (R).

40 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

(1) We set

GLn (R) := U (Mn (R))

the set of all units in Mn (R). This GLn (R) is a multiplicative group and called

the general linear group of degree n over R.

(2) Assume that R is a commutative ring with 1. We can define the determinant

det(A) = |A| in a usual way. Let

the set of all matrices in Mn (R) which have determinants equal to 1. This

SLn (R) is a multiplicative subgroup of GLn (R) and called the special linear

group of degree n over R.

Definition 4.8. (Group rings R[G]) Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0. Let

G = {g1 , . . . , gn } be a finite multiplicative group of order n. Consider the following

formal sums

Xn Xn n

X

( ai gi ) × ( bj gj ) := ck gk

i=1 j=1 k=1

where

X

ck = ai bj

gi gj =gk

Then R[G] is a ring.

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 41

and R[G] the group ring. Then

group.

R → R[G],

r 7→ reG .

G → U (R[G]),

g 7→ 1R g.

then R[H] is a subring of R[G].

Pn Pn

(5) T := { i=1 ai gi ∈ R[G] | i=1 ai = 0} is a subring of R[G] (and indeed an

ideal of R[G]). To see, note that

Tr : R[G] → R

n

X n

X

ai gi 7→ ai

i=1 i=1

42 4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4)

Note also that

P

Thus, whenever y = j bj gj ∈ T we have

X X X

Tr(gi y) = Tr( bj gi gj ) = Tr( bj gj0 ) = bj = Tr(y) = 0.

j j

P P P

Hence for any ai gi ∈ R[G] we have Tr(( ai gi ) y) = i ai Tr(gi y) = 0, so

P

( ai gi )y ∈ T .

Remark 4.11. When R is a division ring or a field, then R[G] (as an additive group),

is a vector space over R of dimension equal to |G|, with a basis {g1 , . . . , gn } = G.

Hence

R[G] = Rg1 + · · · + Rgn = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rgn ,

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk

We remark that the group ring R[Q8 ] and the real Hamilton Quaternion ring H

are not the same although both rings contain a copy of Q8 . Indeed, write

Then

R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 .

4 Polynomial rings; Matrix rings; Group rings (Tutorial 2; Lecture 3-4) 43

space R[Q8 ]), while in H we have 1 + (−1) = 0, and i + (−i) = 0, . . . .

More precisely, H is 4-dimensional over R:

H = R + Ri + Rj + Rk = R ⊕ Ri ⊕ Rj ⊕ Rk

In H, v1 = i and v2 = −i are linearly dependent since v2 = −v1 , while in

R[Q8 ] = Rg1 + · · · + Rg8 = Rg1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rg8 , g3 and g4 form part of the basis

{g1 , . . . , g8 } of R[Q8 ], so they are linearly independent.

44 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

Definition 5.1. (Ring homomorphism; Isomorphism; Kernel; Image) Let

R, S be rings.

(1) A map

ϕ:R→S

additive and multiplicative structures, i.e., it satisfies

(1a)

ϕ(a + b) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R, and

(1b)

ϕ(a b) = ϕ(a) ϕ(b), ∀ a, b ∈ R.

groups (R, +) and (S, +), respecting the multiplicative structure too.)

(3) A map ϕ : R → S between two rings is called a ring isomorphism (or simply

an isomorphism) if it is a (ring) homomorphism and bijective. In this case, we

denote

∼

ϕ : R → S.

R∼

= S, or R ' S,

∼

if there is a (ring) isomorphism ϕ : R → S.

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 45

Example 5.2.

R → S

a → 0

the inclusion map

ι : R1 → R

a 7→ a

is a ring homomorphism.

Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ s = [s]n

between additive groups (Z, +) and (Z/nZ, +), is actually a ring homomor-

phism between rings (Z, +, ×) and (Z/nZ, +, ×).

Xto R = {f : X → R}

Then

Ec : Xto R → R

f 7→ Ec (f ) := f (c)

is a ring homomorphism, and called the Evaluation at c.

the zero map if and only if ϕ(1R ) = 0S . [Hint. ϕ(r) = ϕ(r1) = ϕ(r)ϕ(1).]

46 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

of R, and a, b, ai ∈ R.

Define the multiplication

Xn

A B := { ai bi | ai ∈ A, bi ∈ B, n ≥ 1}.

i=1

A, b ∈ B} and which is closed under addition.

When A = {a}

s

X

a B := {a} B = {a abi | bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}.

i=1

s

X

A b := A {b} = { ai b | ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.

i=1

{a1 , . . . , as }B = a1 B + · · · + as B, and

Similarly we can define multiplication

Xs

A1 · · · An = { a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ Ai , s ≥ 1}

j=1

for subsets Ai ⊆ R.

In other words, we remark that:

(*) A1 · · · An is the the smallest subset of (R, +) which contains

{a1 . . . an | ai ∈ Ai }

When Ai = A (∀i) and n ≥ 1, we define

An := A · · · A (n times).

So

s

X

n

A ={ a1 (j) · · · an (j) | ai (j) ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.

j=1

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 47

(usually strictly) the latter set.

(1)

(A1 A2 )A3 = A1 (A2 A3 ).

R1 ⊆ R be a a subring. Then

of R1 is a subring of S.

and r ∈ R.

48 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(2b) I is closed under left multiplication by elements from R: rI ⊆ I (∀r ∈ R), i.e.

(with (2a) assumed)

R I ⊆ I.

Similarly,

i.e. (with (3a) assumed)

I R ⊆ I.

left-ideal and a right-ideal. In other words, I is an ideal if it is a subring and

R I ⊆ I, and, I R ⊆ I.

Remark 5.9. Results for right ideals are parallel to results for left ideals. So from

now on, we consider only left ideals and 2-sided ideals.

R. Then the following are equivalent.

(2)

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, ar, a − b ∈ I.

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ ra, a − b ∈ I.

∀r ∈ R; ∀a, b ∈ I =⇒ a + rb ∈ I.

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 49

a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of Rα . Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

∩α∈Σ Rα .

R. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

of a ring R. Then the addition

X

Jα

α∈Σ

is also a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R.

More generally, if Jα (α ∈ Σ) is an infinite (countable or uncountable) family of

left (resp. 2-sided) ideals of a ring R. Then the subset

X

{ xα | xα ∈ Jα , xα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}

Jα ⊇ X. Then the intersection

∩α∈Σ Jα

and denoted as (X). So, notation wise,

(X) = ∩α∈Σ Jα .

50 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(X) = (r1 , . . . , rn ).

(r)

(X ∪ Y ) = (X) + (Y ).

(3)

(r1 , . . . , rn ) = (r1 ) + · · · + (rn ).

Then

(1)

s

X

RB = { ri bi | ri ∈ R, bi ∈ B, s ≥ 1}

i=1

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 51

(2) In particular,

R a = {r a | r ∈ R},

or more generally,

Xn

R{a1 , . . . , an } = R a1 + · · · + R an = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}

i=1

(a) = Z a + a R + R a + R a R.

Here

Z a = {m a | m ∈ Z}.

n

X

0

ma + ar + r a + ri a ri0

i=1

where m ∈ Z; r, r0 , ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

(a) = R a R

n

X

ri a ri0

i=1

where ri , ri0 ∈ R; n ≥ 1.

(a) = a R = R a = {r a | r ∈ R}.

ra

where r ∈ R.

52 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

the following are equivalent.

(1) I = R.

(2) 1 ∈ I.

Example 5.18. For the integer ring Z, and for n ∈ Z, the principal ideal

(n) = nZ = {n s | s ∈ Z}.

Thus we have different notations for the same quotient ring (to be defined late on):

Z/nZ = Z/(n).

R. Then (cf. Notation 5.4)

s

X

(X) = RXR = { ri ai ri0 | ai ∈ X; ri , ri0 ∈ R; s ≥ 1}

i=1

R. Then we have (cf. Notation 5.4)

X

R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = { aα | aα ∈ Jα ; aα 6= 0 for only finitely many α}

α

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 53

which is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R, and the smallest among those of R con-

taining all Jα (cf. Proposition 5.13).

If Σ is finite then

X

R(∪α∈Σ Jα ) = Jα .

α∈Σ

Exercise 5.21. Let J, J1 , . . . , Jn be ideals of a ring. Then we have the equality (cf.

Notation 5.4)

k

X

J1 · · · Jn = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ Ji , k ≥ 1}

`=1

and it is an ideal of R.

In particular, we have the equality

k

X

n

J = J ···J = { a1 (`) · · · an (`) | ai (`) ∈ J, k ≥ 1}

`=1

and it is an ideal of R.

R = R1 × · · · × Rn

n

X

R= Si .

i=1

is an ideal of R.

phism. Let I be a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of R and J a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of

S.

54 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

(2) Show that if ϕ is surjective then ϕ(I) is a left (resp. 2-sided) ideal of S.

the additive group (R, +). Thus we can define the quotient additive group

R/I = {r = r + I | r ∈ R}.

r + s := r + s.

r × s := r s

depend on the choice of represenatitives r, s of the cosets.

Definition 5.27. (Quotient ring) Let R be a ring and I ⊆ R an ideal. Then the

ring (R/I, +, ×) in Theorem 5.26 is called the quotient ring of R by I.

Remark 5.28. Let R be a ring and (I, +) a subgroup of the additive group (R, +).

Then I is an ideal of R if and only if the multiplication × on the additive quotient

group (R/I, +) given in Theorem 5.26 (1) is well-defined so that (R/I, +, ×) is a

ring.

Exercise 5.29. For the quotient ring R/I, take a, ai ∈ R/I (1 ≤ i ≤ n). Show by

induction that a1 · · · an = a1 · · · an and an = an .

5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6) 55

ideal and R/I the quotient ring. Then the surjective quotient map

γ : R → R/I

r 7→ r = r + I

from the additive group (R, +) to the additive group (R/I, +) as in §2, is in fact a

ring homomorphism such that

Ker γ = I.

By Proposition 5.7, the kernel of every ring homomorphism is an ideal.

Conversely, by Proposition 5.30, every ideal is equal to the kernel of some (sur-

jective) ring homomorphism.

Definition 5.32. (cf. Tutorial 3 for (1) - (3)) (Nilpotent element, Nilradical,

Radical, Jacobson radical) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal.

We call the set

of R and nil(R/ nil(R)) = 0.

rad(I)/I = nil(R/I).

56 5 Ring homomorphisms; Ideals; Quotient rings (Tutorial 3; Lecture 5-6)

Jac(I) = ∩M :max, M ⊇I M

Jac(I) is an ideal of R containing the radical rad(I) of I. Jac(0) is called the

Jacobson radical of R. (See wiki - Jacobson radical for references). Thus

Jac(I) is the preimage of Jac(0R/I ) via R → R/I.

Example 5.33.

(1) Let R be a commutative ring and I an ideal. Then nil(R/I n ) ⊇ I/I n , and

rad(I n ) ⊇ I (the inclusions might be strict).

(2) For the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F , if we let I = (x) the principal ideal

generated by x, then I n = (xn ). Hence nil(F [x]/I n ) = I/I n and rad(I n ) = I.

(3) The Jacobson radical of Z/12Z is 6Z/12Z which is inclued in the intersection

(of two maximal ideals)

(2Z/12Z) ∩ (3Z/12Z).

The Jacobson radical of the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is 0 which is

contained in the intersection (of two maximal ideals)

(x) ∩ (x − 1).

6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 57

ture 7)

Theorem 6.1. (The first isomorphism theorem for rings) Let

ϕ:R→S

ϕ=ϕ◦γ

where

γ : R → R/K

ϕ : R/K → ϕ(R),

r 7→ ϕ(r) := ϕ(r)

Proof. This almost follows from the first isomorphism theorem for groups. We

only need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group

homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).

Example 6.2. (1) (Proper ideal; Zero ideal) Let R be a ring. Then R and

{0R } are ideals of R. An ideal I of R is proper if I 6= R. The ideal {0} is

called the zero or trivial ideal and denoted by 0.

(2) For any integer n, the subset nZ ⊆ Z is an ideal of the integer ring Z.

subgroup of the additive group (Z, +) is equal to nZ for some integer n.

The map

γ : Z → Z/nZ

s 7→ [s]n = s

58 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

is the (surjective) quotient ring homomorphism, and Z/nZ is in fact the quo-

tient ring of Z by nZ.

isomorphism

R[x]/I[x] ∼

= (R/I)[x]

where

n

X

I[x] = { ai xi | ai ∈ I, n ≥ 1}

i=1

is the polynomial ring with coefficients in I. Further, I[x] = I R[x] (cf. Nota-

tion 5.4).

(between matrix rings):

ϕn : Mn (R) → Mn (S)

(5) Let R be a ring, J an ideal (2-sided) of R and Mn (R) the matrix ring over R.

Then Mn (J) is an ideal (2-sided) of Mn (R). The quotient ring homomorphism

γ : R → R/J induces a ring homomorphism

γJ : Mn (R) → Mn (R/J)

Tr : R[G] → R

n

X n

X

ri gi 7→ ri

i=1 i=1

is a ring homomorphism.

6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7) 59

(7) (One-sided ideals) Let n ≥ 2 and Mn (R) a matrix ring over a ring R. Let

Similarly, let

Then Lk1 ,...,kr is a left ideal of Mn (R), but not a right ideal of Mn (R).

Let

Rk1 ,...,kr = {A = (aij ) ∈ Mn (R) | aij = 0, ∀ i 6∈ {k1 , . . . , kr }}.

Then Rk1 ,...,kr is a right ideal of Mn (R), but not a left ideal of Mn (R).

R1 ⊆ R a subring, and J ⊆ R an ideal. Then:

(1) R1 + J is a subring of R.

(2) R1 ∩ J is an ideal of R1 .

∼

ϕ : R1 /(R1 ∩ J) → (R1 + J)/J,

r = r + (R1 ∩ J) 7→ ϕ(r) := r = r + J.

Proof. This almost follows from the second isomorphism theorem for groups. We

only need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group

homomorphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).

60 6 Ring isomorphism theorems (Tutorial 4; Lecture 7)

Theorem 6.4. (Third isomorphism theorem for rings) Let R be a ring, and

let I ⊆ J be ideals of R. Then

ϕ : R/J ∼

= (R/I)/(J/I),

r = r + J 7→ r + J/I = (r + I) + J/I

Proof. This almost follows from the third isomorphism theorem for groups. We only

need to observe that ϕ is a ring homomorphism (not just a group homomorphism

of additive groups).

an ideal, and

γ : R → R/I

containing I = Ker(γ), and Σ2 the set of subrings of R/I. Then

with R1 := γ −1 (R10 ) = {r ∈ R | γ(r) ∈ R10 } ∈ Σ1 .

f : Σ1 → Σ2

R1 7→ R1 /I.

case,

R/J1 ∼

= (R/I)/(J1 /I).

Proof. This almost follows from the correspondence theorem for groups. We only

need to observe that γ is a ring homomorphism (which is not just a group homo-

morphism of additive groups, i.e., which also respects the product).

7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 61

Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

a unit, if and only if 1 ∈ I.

(2) Assume R is commutative. Then R is a field if and only if R has only two

ideals: 0 and R.

is an injection. [Hint. f (1) 6= 0. And f (1) = f (a)f (a−1 ) for any a 6= 0.]

ideal if

(1)

M 6= S; and

M ⊆J ⊆S

we have J = M or J = S.

then J ⊆ M for some maximal ideal M of R.

Then the following are equivalent.

62 7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4)

ideal P is called a prime ideal if:

(1)

P 6= R; and

(2)

a b ∈ P =⇒ a ∈ P, or b ∈ P.

and only if either n = 0 (so that nZ = 0, the zero ideal), or n = p, a prime

number.

n = p, a prime number.

following are equivalent.

Corollary 7.10. Assume the ring R is commutative with 1. Then every maximal

ideal is a prime ideal.

I is a prime ideal if and only if I[x] = I R[x] is a prime ideal of R[x] (cf. Notation

5.4)

= (R/I)[x]. We also use the fact that

S[x] is integral domain if and only if S is an integral domain (cf. Proposition 4.4 or

Example 3.20).

7 Prime ideals; Maximal ideals (Tutorial 4) 63

(1) The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of Z[x] but it is not a maximal ideal.

This is because

Z[x]/(x) ∼

= Z.

(f (x) 7→ f (0) 7→ f (0) = f (0) + pZ) induces

Z[x]/(p, x) ∼

= Z/pZ.

Example 7.13. Consider the polynomial ring F [x] over a field F . The principal

ideal (x) is a maximal ideal of F [x]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the

evaluation map f (x) 7→ f (0)):

F [x]/(x) ∼

= F.

Example 7.14. Consider the polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a

field F . The principal ideal (x) is a prime ideal of F [x, y], but it is not a maximal

ideal of F [x, y]. This is because the isomorphism below (via the evaluation map

f (x, y) 7→ f (0, y)):

F [x, y]/(x) ∼

= F [y].

ring homomorphism of commutative rings. Then

to R (this latter case will not happen when ϕ is onto, or when 1R ∈ R and

ϕ(1R ) = 1S ).

P ∩ R = R), or P ∩ R is a prime ideal of the subring R.

ϕ−1 (M ) is a maximal ideal of R. [Hint. Show that R/ϕ−1 (M ) ∼

= S/M ].

64 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

ture 8)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

6 D ⊆ R\{0}

which does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i.e.,

a, b ∈ D ⇒ ab ∈ D). Then there is a commutative ring Q = D−1 R with 1 such that:

Remark 8.2.

r

:= r d−1 =: r/d.

d

1Q = d/d

for any d ∈ D.

R → D−1 R

r 7→ rd/d

8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 65

(1) The ring Q = D−1 R in Theorem 5.26 is called the ring of fractions of D

with respect to R.

D = R \ {0} we call D−1 R the fraction field of R and denoted as Q(R).

Namely,

Q(R) = D−1 R.

Corollary 8.4.

(1) Suppose that R is a subring of a field F . Then the fraction field Q(R) of R is

the subfield of F generated by R. Namely,

r1

Q(R) = {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0}.

r2

(2) More generally, suppose R is an integral domain and Q = Q(R) its fraction

field. If σ : R → F is an injective ring homomorphism to a field F , then σ

extends to an injective homomorphism

σ(r1 )

σ 0 : Q(R) → E =: {α ∈ F | α = , ri ∈ R, r2 6= 0} ⊆ F.

σ(r2 )

Here E = Q(σ(R)) is the fraction field of the integral domain σ(R) and is the

subfield of F generated by σ(R).

ring if it has a unique maximal ideal (say M ).

Example 8.6.

R = {m/n | m, n ∈ Z; 2 6 |n}

is a subring of Z.

M = (2)

66 8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8)

Then D := R \ P satisfies the condition of Theorem 8.1. Denote by

RP := D−1 R

P RP = {a/d | a ∈ P, d 6∈ P }

is the only maximal ideal in RP so that RP is a local ring. Here note that d ∈ D if

and only if d 6∈ P .

For instance, if R = F [x] is the polynomial ring over a field F and P = (x), then

RP = {f (x)/g(x) | g(0) 6= 0}

and

P RP = xRP = {f (x)/g(x) | f (0) = 0, g(0) 6= 0}.

domain.

be the minimum of such integer with p 1R = 0, denote

char R := p

and call it the characteristic of R; it turns out that such p is a prime number.

If no such n ≥ 1 exists, we set

char R := 0.

(a field), or char R = 0 and R contains a subring isomorphic to Z.

8 Rings of fractions; Local rings (Tutorial 5; Lecture 8) 67

F contains a subfield F0 isomorphic to Q = Q(Z). Such subfield F0 is called

the prime subfield of F .

the prime field Q. Indeed, F contains Q(Z 1F ) ∼

= Q(Z) = Q.

Let F be a field of characteristic p > 0. E.g. F = Z/(p). Then

(x + y)p = xp + y p

holds for any x, y ∈ F . This is by binomial expansion of left hand side and noting

that p = 0 in F .

68 9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9)

ture 9)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

I + J = R.

ϕ : R → (R/J1 ) × · · · (R/Jn ),

r 7→ (r = r + J1 , . . . , r = r + Jn )

is a ring homomorphism with

Ker ϕ = J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn .

(2) Suppose that Ji , Jj are comaximal for all i 6= j. Then ϕ is surjective and

J1 ∩ · · · ∩ Jn = J1 · · · Jn .

n = pr11 · · · prt t

∼

τ : Z/nZ → (Z/pr11 Z) × · · · × (Z/prt t Z),

s 7→ (s, . . . , s).

9 Chinese remainder theorem (Tutorial 5; Lecture 9) 69

U (Z/nZ) ∼

= U (Z/pr11 Z)) × · · · × U (Z/prt t Z).

70 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

10)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

clidean domain (or possesses a Euclidean / Division Algorithm) if there is a

function

N : R \ {0} → Z≥0

on R such that for any two elements a, b ∈ R with b 6= 0, there exist element q ∈ R

(called the quotient) and r ∈ R (the remainder) such that

a = qb+r

where

r = 0, or, N (r) < N (b).

10.2. For a, b in a Euclidean domain R with b 6= 0, one can apply the Division

Algorithm:

a = q 0 b + r0 ,

b = q1 r0 + r1 ,

r0 = q2 r1 + r2 ,

···

rn−2 = qn rn−1 + rn ,

rn−1 = qn+1 rn ,

where rn is the last nonzero remainder. Such an rn exists since

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 71

(1) Every field F is a Euclidean domain with respect to any function N : F → Z≥0 .

(2) The integer ring Z is a Euclidean domain with the modulus as the norm

function:

N (s) := |s|, s ∈ Z.

(3) The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a Euclidean domain where

Z[i] := Z + Zi = {a + bi | a, b ∈ Z} ⊂ C

is a Euclidean domain where the norm function is just the square of the usual

modulus of complex number:

with α, β ∈ Q. Take r, s ∈ Z such that |α − s| ≤ 1/2 and |β − t| ≤ 1/2 and

note that s + ti ∈ Z[i]. Show that

x = y(s + ti) + r

Z[ζ3 ] = Z + Zζ3

√

where ζ3 = (−1 + −3)/2 is a primitive cubic root of unity: ζ3n = 1 if and

only if 3 | n. The norm function is just the square of the usual modulus:

72 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

if every ideal I ⊆ R is principal: I = (a) for some a ∈ I.

suffices to consider the case I 6= 0. Take any a ∈ I \ {0} such the the norm N (a) is

minimum. Then one can check that I = (a).

Example 10.6. (cf. Tutorial) Consider the polynomial ring Z[x]. The ideal

Example 10.7. (cf. [Dummit and Foote, §8.1, the Example after Proposition 1])

√

The quadratic integer ring Z[ −5] is not a P.I.D. Indeed, the ideal

√

I = (3, 2 + −5)

is not principal. Alternatively, one shows that 3 is an irreducible element but not a

prime element in the quadratic integer ring, and use Proposition 11.3

See [Dummit and Foote, §7.1] and Wiki-Quadratic Integers for other examples

of quadratic integer rings which are (or are not) Euclidean domain, or PID, or UFD.

a = bc

written

b | a.

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 73

d = gcd(a, b)

if

(2a)

d | a, and, d | b; and

(2b)

d0 | a, and d0 | b =⇒ d0 | d.

(2c) Inductively, for ai ∈ R \ {0} (1 ≤ i ≤ n), we can define their greatest common

divisor as:

gcd(a1 , . . . , an ) := gcd(gcd(a1 , . . . , an−1 ), an ).

(a, b) = (d)

d = gcd(a, b).

(a1 , . . . , an ) = (d)

d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

74 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

common divisor of a and b if and only if d0 = ud for some unit u.

R. Let d = rn be the last nonzero remainder in the Division Algorithm 10.2. Then

(1)

d = gcd(a, b).

(2)

d = (a, b).

In particular

d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

d ∈ R such that

(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)

d = gcd(a, b).

(2)

d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10) 75

d ∈ R such that

(d) = (a, b).

Then

(1)

d = gcd(a, b).

(2)

d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ R.

Exercise 10.15. More generally, assume that R is a PID. Let ai be nonzero ele-

ments. Let d ∈ R such that

(d) = (a1 , . . . , an ).

Then

(1)

d = gcd(a1 , . . . , an ).

(2)

d = a1 x 1 + · · · + an x n

for some xi ∈ R.

following are equivalent.

76 10 Euclidean domains; PID (Totorial 6; Lecture 10)

Corollary 10.17. Let R be a commutative ring such that the polynomial ring R[x]

is a PID. Then R is a field. [Hint. Consider the quotient ring R[x]/)(x).]

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 77

rial 6; Lecture 11)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring.

main.

(1a) r 6= 0,

(1c)

r = ab =⇒ a or b is a unit in R.

r = ab

(3) A nonzero element p ∈ R is called prime in R if the ideal (p) is a prime ideal,

or equivalently if

p | ab =⇒ p | a, or p | b.

a = ub

always irreducible.

78 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

it is prime.

main (or UFD for short) if every element r ∈ R \ {0} which is not a unit, satisfies:

(1) (Factorisation)

r = p1 . . . pn

r = q 1 . . . qm

qi = ui pi for some units ui (i.e., qi is associate to pi ).

Example 11.5.

it is prime.

Proposition 11.7. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn

where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then

min(e1 ,f1 )

gcd(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmin(en ,fn ) .

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 79

gcd(c, a) = 1, c | ab =⇒ c | b.

Theorem 11.9.

Proof. We remain to show that every PID is UFD. Assume now R is PID · · · .

UFD.

√

Example 11.11. R := Z[ −5] is not a UFD. This is because

√ √

6 = 2 × 3 = (1 + 5)(1 − −5)

are two distinct (even up to associates) factorisations into irreducibles. See [Dummit

- Foote, §8.3, Example (5) and Exercise 8, for details].

nonzero elements. A least common multiple of a and b, denoted as lcm(a, b), is

an element c of R such that

(1)

a | c, b | c, and,

(2)

a | c0 , b | c0 =⇒ c | c0 .

Proposition 11.13. Assume that R is a UFD and a, b are nonzero elements. Then

80 11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11)

a = upe11 · · · penn ,

b = vpf11 · · · pfnn

where pi ’s are prime, u and v are units, and ei ≥ 0, fi ≥ 0. Then

max(e1 ,f1 )

lcm(a, b) = p1 · · · pnmax(en ,fn ) .

Exercise 11.14. Use the fact that a prime ideal of a PID is a maximal ideal, or

otherwise, to show:

(2) The polynomial ring F [x, y] in two variables x, y over a field F , is a UFD, but

is not a PID.

(3) Let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial over a field F . Then the quotient ring

F (x)/(f (x)) is a field if and only if f (x) is an irreducible polynomial in F [x].

see [Dummit - Foote, §8.3, Proposition 18].

Consider the Gaussian integer ring R = Z[i] = Z + Zi, with the norm function

N (a + bi) = a2 + b2 .

U (R) = {±1, ±i}.

number in Z then a + bi is irreducible in R.

In general, if π ∈ R is irreducible then (π) is a prime ideal of R and hence (π) ∩ Z

is also a prime ideal of Z and equal to some p Z with p a prime number in Z. Namely,

(π) ∩ Z = p Z.

11 Unique Factorisation Domains = UFD (Tutorial 6; Lecture 11) 81

It follows that either N (π) = p2 and π 0 is a unit (so that p is prime in R), or

N (π) = p = N (π 0 ). In the latter case, both π and π 0 are irreducible, and if we write

π = ap + bp i then we have

q = a2 + b2 has no solution for a, b integers.

It is known that for other odd prime p, i.e., p = 1 (mod 4), we can write

p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (product of two irreducibles).

Finally, 1 + i and 1 − i are irreducible in R, since their norms are 2 (prime

number). Note also that

2 = (1 + i)(1 − i).

1 ± i, q, ap ± bp i

where prime number q = 3 (mod 4), where prime number p = 1 (mod 4) so that

p = (ap + bp i)(ap − bp i) (the solution (ap , bp ) to the equation (*) above is not unique

for a given p).

Using Chinese remainder theorem for rings and that in a PID, an irreducible

element is a prime element which generates a nonzero prime and hence maximal

ideal, one can show (cf. Tutorial):

R/2R ∼

= (R/(1 + i)R) × (R/(1 − i)R) ∼

= (Z/(2Z) × (Z/2Z),

R/pR ∼

= (R/(ap + bp i)) × (R/(ap − bp i)) ∼

= Z/(p) × Z/(p), and

82 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

ture 12)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

We recall the definition of polynomial ring R[x] and degree of a polynomial below.

Consider

n

X

g(x) = ai xi = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0

i=0

variable x and with coefficients ai ∈ R and with leading coefficient an 6= 0.

By convention, for zero polynomial 0, we define its degree as:

deg 0 = −∞.

g(x) a constant polynomial.

Let

d

X

R[x] := { bj xj | d ≥ 0, bj ∈ R}

j=0

There are natural addition and multiplication operations for polynomials

r

X s

X

g(x) = ai xi , h(x) = bi x i

i=0 i=0

defined as X

g(x) + h(x) = (ai + bi )xi

i≥0

X

g(x)h(x) = ck x k

k≥0

where

X

ck = ai bj = ak b0 + ak−1 b1 + · · · + a1 bk−1 + a0 bk ,

i+j=k

such that

(R[x], +, ×)

12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12) 83

U (R[x]) = U (R).

Proposition 12.2. Let I be an ideal of R and let (I) = I[x] be the ideal of R[x]

generated by I. Then

(1)

R[x]/I[x] ∼

= (R/I)[x].

R[x] generated by aR. Thus

R[x]/aR[x] ∼

= (R/aR)[x].

Example 12.4. Consider the integer ring Z and its ideal nZ. We have

Z[x]/nZ[x] ∼

= (Z/nZ)[x].

element of Z and also of Z[x].

be inductively defined as:

84 12 Polynomial rings again: basics (Tutorial 7; Lecture 12)

is a finite sum of nonzero monomial terms, i.e., a finite sum of elements of the form

axd11 · · · xdnn

where a ∈ R (the coefficient of the term) and the di are nonnegative integers. A

monic term xd11 · · · xdnn is called simply a monomial and is the monomial part of the

term axd11 · · · xdnn . The exponent di is called the degree in xi of the term and the

sum

d = d1 + d2 + · · · + dn

(d1 , d2 , . . . , dn )

largest degree of any of its monomial terms. A polynomial is called homogeneous

or a form if all its terms have the same degree. If f is a nonzero polynomial

in n variables, the sum of all the monomial terms in f of degree k is called the

homogeneous component of f of degree k. If f has degree d then f may be

written uniquely as the sum

f = f0 + f1 + · · · + fd

some fk may be zero).

Theorem 12.7. Let F be a field. Then the polynomial ring F [x] is a Euclidean

domain with the norm function N : F [x] → Z≥0 given as: N (f ) = deg f .

Corollary 12.8. The polynomial ring F [x] over a field F is a PID and also UFD.

13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 85

mas (Tutorial 7)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field.

so that c(f ) ∈ R \ {0} and gcd of coefficients of f1 (x) is 1. This c(f ) is unique

up to a unit factor of R, and called the content of f .

R. We say c(f ) = 1 in this case.

such that c(g) ∈ F × and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] is a primitive prolynomial. This c(g) is

unique up to a unit factor of R, and also called the content of g.

Remark 13.2. Let R be a UFD and F = Q(R) its fraction field. For nonconstant

g(x) ∈ F [x], as above, write

g(x) = c(g)g1 (x)

with c(g) ∈ F the content of g(x), and g1 (x) ∈ R[x] a primitive polynomial. Then

g(x) ∈ R[x] if and only if the content c(g) ∈ R.

Proposition 13.3. (Gauss lemma 1) Let R be a UFD and f (x), g(x) ∈ R[x]

primitive polynomials. Then f (x) g(x) ∈ R[x] is still a primitive polynomial.

86 13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7)

Corollary 13.4. (Contents relation) Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its frac-

tion field, and f (x), g(x) ∈ F [x] nonconstant polynomials. Then we have contents

relation:

c(f g) = c(f ) c(g).

Exercise 13.5. Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field. Let f (x) ∈ R[x]

be a noncontant monic polynomial such that f (x) = g(x) h(x) for some nonconstant

monic polynomials g, h ∈ F [x]. Show that g, h ∈ R[x].

Exercise 13.6. Let f (x), g(x) ∈ Q[x] such that the product f g ∈ Z[x]. Show that

the product of any coefficient of g with any coefficient of f is an integer.

Corollary 13.7. (Gauss lemma 2) Assume R is UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction

field and f (x) ∈ R[x]. If f (x) is reducible in F [x] then f (x) is reducible in R[x].

More precisely, if

f (x) = g(x)h(x)

for some nonconstant polynomials g(x), h(x) ∈ F [x], and write g(x) = c(g) g1 (x), h(x) =

c(h) h1 (x) then c(g) c(h) = c(f ) ∈ R and

Corollary 13.8. (Gauss lemma 3) Let R be a UFD with F its fraction field and

let p(x) ∈ R[x]. Then

(1) Suppose p(x) is a primitive polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and

only if it is irreducible in F [x].

(2) Suppose p(x) is a monic polynomial. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and

only if it is irreducible in F [x].

Theorem 13.9. The ring R is a UFD if and only if the polynomial ring R[x] is a

UFD.

13 Polynomial rings which are UFD; Gauss lemmas (Tutorial 7) 87

Corollary 13.10. Assume that R is a UFD. Then the polynomial ring R[x1 , . . . , xn ]

is also a UFD for any n ≥ 1.

Example 13.12. The polynomial ring F [x1 , . . . , xn ] over a field F is a UFD for any

n ≥ 1.

88 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

Lecture 13)

Throughout this section, assume R is a commutative ring with 1 6= 0.

Proposition 14.1. Let F be a field and f ∈ F [x]. Then f has a factor of degree 1

in F [x] if and only if f has a root in F (i.e., there is an α ∈ F such that f (α) = 0).

Suppose f ∈ F [x] has deg f = 2 or 3. Then f is reducible in F [x] if and only if f

has a root in F .

Proposition 14.3. Assume f (x) = an xn +an−1 xn−1 +· · ·+a0 ∈ Z[x] has deg f = n.

Assume r/s (with r, s ∈ Z co-prime) is a rational root of f (x). Then

r | a0 , s | an .

In particular, if f (x) ∈ Z[x] is a monic polynomial and f (d) 6= 0 for all integers

d dividing the constant term of f (x), then f (x) has no roots in Q.

Exercise 14.4.

to show f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. Then we apply Proposition 14.2.

irreducible in Q[x]. Indeed, just apply Proposition 14.2.

Proposition 14.2. In fact, x2 + 1 = (x + 1)2 , since char Z/(2) = 2; see Exercise

8.10.

tegral domain, I ⊂ R a proper ideal and f (x) ∈ R[x] a non-constant polynomial.

Suppose that the image of f (x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two

polynomials of smaller positive degrees. Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].

14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 89

applying Proposition 14.2. Hence f (x) is irreducible in Z[x] by Proposition 14.5,

and also irreducible in Q[x] by a Gauss lemma.

a prime ideal, and

ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

Remark 14.8. (Eisenstein criterion over UFD) The same proof as in Proposi-

tion 14.7 shows:

Let R be a UFD with F = Q(R) its fraction field, P a prime ideal of R and

an 6∈ P, ai ∈ P (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), a0 6∈ P 2 .

Corollary 14.9. (Eisenstein criterion for Z[x]) Let p be a prime in Z and let

p | ai (0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1), p2 6 | a0 .

90 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

Example 14.10. Let p ∈ Z be any prime number and let integer n ≥ 2. Then the

polynomial

f (x) = xn − p

√

is irreducible in Q[x] and hence p

n is not a rational number.

Indeed, by a Gauss lemma, equivalently, we need to show the irreducibility claim

of f (x) in Z[x]. For the latter claim, just apply Eisenstein criterion.

Proposition 14.11. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a

non-constant polynomial. Then the following are equivalent.

Proof. This follows from Propositions 10.16 and 11.3 and Corollary 12.8.

Proposition 14.12. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and g(x) a

non-constant polynomial such that

where c is a nonzero constant, the fi are distinct irreducible polynomials in F [x] and

the ni ≥ 1. Then

F [x]/(g) ∼ n

= (F [x]/(f1n1 )) × · · · × (F [x]/(fk k )).

Proof. This follows from Chinese remainder theorem for rings. Indeed, note that,

for i 6= j, we have

n n

1 = gcd(fini , fj j ) = h1 fini + h2 fj j

n

for some h1 , h2 ∈ F [x], by Propositions 10.14 and 11.13. So (fini )+(fj j ) = F [x].

14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 91

Definition 14.13. (Multiplicity of a root) Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over

a field F and f (x) a non-constant polynomial. Recall that α ∈ F is a root of f (x)

(i.e., f (α) = 0) if and only if

(x − α) | f (x).

Proposition 14.14. Let F [x] be the polynomial ring over a field F and f (x) a non-

constant polynomial such that αi ∈ F (1 ≤ i ≤ k) are all the distinct roots of f (x)

of multiplicity mi ≥ 1. Then

Pk

for some q(x) ∈ F [x]. In particular, i=1 mi ≤ deg f (x), and f (x) has at most

deg f (x) of roots in F , even counted with multiplicity.

(2) If F is a field of characteristic p, say some over field of Z/(p), and a ∈ F , then

whenever β ∈ F is a root of f (x) (so that 0 = f (β) = β p − a) it is a multiple

root of multiplicity p. Indeed, we have (cf. Exercise 8.10)

Proposition 14.16.

G is cyclic.

92 14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13)

multiplicative group of order p − 1.

Exercise 14.18. (cf. [Dummit-Foote, §9.5, Corollary 20]) Factor n ≥ 2 into product

of prime powers:

n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k

(1)

U (Z/(n)) ∼ α

= U (Z/(pα1 1 )) × U (Z/(pk k )).

(2) U (Z/(2α )) is the product of a cyclic group of order 2 and cyclic group of order

2α−2 , for all α ≥ 2.

(3) U (Z/(pα )) is a cyclic group of order pα−1 (p − 1), for all odd prime p.

F with a 6= 0. Let f (x) ∈ F [x] be a nonconstant polynomial. Then

(1)

ϕ: F → F

x 7→ ax + b

is a bijection with its inverse given by

ψ: F → F

x 7→ (x − b)/a.

(2) Suppose deg f (x) = n ≥ 1 and let h(x) = xn f (x−1 ) which is called the reverse

of f (x), and which is a polynomial in F [x] with deg h(x) ≤ n. We can recover

f (x) from its reverse via:

f (x) = xn h(x−1 ).

Further, f (x) is irreducible in F [x] if and only if its reverse h(x) is irreducible.

14 Polynomial irreducibility criteria (Tutorial 8; Lecture 13) 93

Remark 14.19, it suffices to show that

Eisenstein criterion readily implies the required irreducibility of g(x) in Z[x].

polynomial

irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Q[x], or equivalently in Z[x] by a Gauss lemma. For

the irreducibility of Φp (x + 1) in Z[x], apply Eisenstein criterion.

94 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

15)

In this section, a ring may not be commutative ring nor with 1.

a nonempty set M together with

R×M → M

(r, m) 7→ rm

satisfying

(rs)m = r(sm), ∀ r, s ∈ R; ∀ m ∈ M.

1R m = m, ∀ m ∈ M.

(2) A left R-module is called unital if R has 1 and axiom (2c) holds.

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 95

module by defining

m r := r m, ∀ r ∈ R, m ∈ M.

(4) When R is field (or a division ring), a left module over R is just a vector space

over R.

(5) Due to the similarity, in the sequel, we will mainly consider left R-

modules.

be unital.

Exercise 15.3. Let R be a ring with 1 and M a (unital) left R-module. Show that

0R m = 0M , (−1R ) m = −m, ∀ m ∈ M.

Z×M → M

(n, m) 7→ nm.

−((−n) m) when integer n < 0.

Thus Z-modules are just (additive) abelian groups.

is naturally a left R-module via the natural multiplication:

R × M → M,

(r, m) 7→ rm.

(Left R-submodules (to be defined below) of M = R are just left ideals of R.)

Similarly, M = R is naturally a right R-module.

A nonempty subset N ⊆ M is a left R-submodule of M if

96 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

r ∈ R, n ∈ N =⇒ r n ∈ N.

itself is a left R-module under the addition + : N × N → N and the action

R × N → N as the restrictions of the addition + : M × M → M and action

R × M → M , respectively.

subspace.

Then define and denote

s

X

IM := { ai mi | ai ∈ I, mi ∈ M, s ≥ 1}

i=1

Rn := {(a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ R}.

Define addition

+ : Rn × Rn → Rn ,

Define R-action :

R × Rn → Rn ,

.

(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yn )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryn ).

Then Rn is a left R-module, and called the free left module of rank n over R.

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 97

Example 15.10. Let Rn be the free left R-module of rank n over R as defined in

Example 15.9.

I1 × · · · × In := (a1 , . . . , an ) | ai ∈ I}

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

(2)

n

X

{(x1 , . . . , xn ) | xi ∈ R, xi = 0}

i=1

is a left R-submodule of Rn .

Fix a linear transformation

T : V → V.

Indeed, recall that for linear transformations Ti : V → V (i = 1, 2, . . . ) and

scalars αi ∈ F , the linear combination

α1 T1 + α2 T2 : V → V

α1 T1 + · · · + αk Tk

For a polynomial

n

X

f (x) = ai xi ∈ F [x]

i=0

we define

n

X

f (T ) = ai T i = a0 IV + a1 T + · · · + an T n ,

i=0

98 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Here

T 0 = IV : V → V

v 7→ IV (v) := v

is the identity map, and the compositions below are linear transformations:

T 2 := T ◦ T ; T 3 = T ◦ T ◦ T ; . . . ; T n = T ◦ · · · ◦ T (n times)

F [x] × V → V

One can check that the action makes V a left F [x]-module, depending on the linear

transformation T : V → V .

So a given vector space V over F may have many different left F [x]-module

structures.

If W ⊆ V is a T -invariant subspace, i.e.

T (W ) ⊆ W

R-module. Let N ⊆ M be a nonempty subset. Then the following are equivalent.

(2)

∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x, y ∈ N =⇒ x + ry ∈ N.

intersection

∩α∈Σ Nα

is a left R-submodule of M .

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 99

(2) Let

N1 ⊆ N2 ⊆ · · ·

∪∞

i=1 Ni

is a left R-submodule of M .

module?

module is a torsion element if

rm = 0

then Tor(M ) is an R-submodule of M , called the torsion submodule of M .

field F . For each k, let

but is not a right R-submodule of M := R regarded as a natural right R-module.

Definition 15.17. (Centre of a ring) Let R be a ring. The centre Z(R) of the

ring R is defined and denoted as

Z(R) := {z ∈ R | z r = r z, ∀ r ∈ R}.

100 15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15)

Remark 15.18.

z M := {z m | m ∈ M }

is a left R-submodule of M .

together with a ring homomorphism

f: R → A

such that

f (1R ) = 1A , and

f (R) ⊆ Z(A).

r a := f (r) a.

We have

r a = a r; r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b) = a (b r) = (a b) r, ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

respectively as:

R×A → A

(r, a) 7→ r a;

A×R → A

(a, r) 7→ a r = r a.

15 Module theory: basics (Tutorial 8; Lecture 14-15) 101

homomorphism

ϕ: A → B

such that

ϕ(1A ) = 1B , and

ϕ(r a) = r ϕ(a), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ a ∈ A.

which is bijective. In this case, the inverse ϕ−1 : B → A is also an R-algebra

isomorphism.

left R-module satisfying:

(∗) r (a b) = (r a) b = a (r b), ∀ r ∈ R; ∀ a, b ∈ A.

a (unital) left R-module satisfying the condition (∗) above, then A is an R-algebra

by defining

f : R → A,

r 7→ r 1A .

Sometimes, we use the condition (*) as defining axiom for A to be an R-algebra.

102 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

torial 9; Lecture 16)

Throughout this section, a ring is assumed to have 1.

age) Let R be a ring, and M, N left R-modules.

(1) A map

ϕ : M 7→ N

M and N , i.e.,

(1a)

ϕ(x + y) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y), ∀ x, y ∈ M, and

(1b)

ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x), ∀ r ∈ R, ∀ x ∈ M.

if it is bijective. In this case, we say M and N are isomorphic, and denote

∼

ϕ : M → N, or

M∼

= N, or M ' N.

of ϕ as

Ker ϕ = ϕ−1 (0N ) = {m ∈ M | ϕ(m) = 0}

16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 103

of the left R-module M . We denote

a left R-submodule of N while the image ϕ(M ) is a left R-submodule of N .

More generally, for any left R-submodule M1 of M , the image ϕ(M1 ) is a left

R-submodule of N .

the inclusion map

ι: N → M

n 7→ n

is a homomorphism of left R-modules.

momorphisms) Let R be a ring with 1. Let M, N, L be left R-modules.

(1) A map

ϕ:M →N

α1 ϕ1 + α2 ϕ2 : M → N,

104 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

In particular,

(ϕ1 , ϕ2 ) 7→ ϕ1 + ϕ2

R × HomR (M, N ) → HomR (M, N )

(α, ϕ) 7→ αϕ

we get a left R-module structure on the additive group (HomR (M, N ), +).

ψ ◦ ϕ ∈ HomR (L, N ).

(HomR (M, M ), +, ◦)

on the set HomR (M, M ), where the addition + is as defined above, and ◦ is

the composition (Caution: ϕ ◦ ψ is not ϕ × ψ). The identity map

IM : M → M

m 7→ IM (m) := m.

module M .

αIM : M → M

m 7→ αm.

16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16) 105

The map

f : R → HomR (M, M ),

α 7→ αIM

is a ring homomorphism with

N a left R-submodule and M/N the quotient additive abelian group.

R × (M/N ) → M/N

(r, m = m + N ) 7→ rm

is well defined and makes M/N into a left R-module, called the quotient left

R-module of M by N .

γ : M → M/N,

m 7→ m = m + N

is a left R-module surjective homomorphism with

Ker γ = N.

(or sum, but not union!)

A + B := {a + b | a ∈ A, b ∈ B}.

Xn

A1 + · · · + An := { ai | ai ∈ Ai }.

i=1

106 16 Quotient modules; Module homomorphisms (Tutorial 9; Lecture 16)

the addition N1 + · · · + Nk is a left R-submodule of M , and is the smallest among

all left R-submodules of M containing all Ni .

ϕ: M → N

M/(Ker ϕ) ∼

= ϕ(M ).

module M . Then

A/(A ∩ B) ∼

= (A + B)/B.

left R-submodules of M with A ⊆ B. Then

M/B ∼

= (M/A)/(M/B).

left R-module M . There is a bijection between the left R-submodules of M which

contain N and the left R-submodules of M/N . The correspondence is given by

A ←→ A/N

for all A ⊇ N .

This correspondence commutes with the processes of taking additions and inter-

sections.

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 107

ules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Throughout this section, assume R is a ring with 1 6= 0.

let N1 , . . . , Nn be left R-submodules of M .

n

X

N1 + · · · + Nn = { ai | ai ∈ Ni }

i=1

s

X

RA := { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, s ≥ 1}.

i=1

of M containing A. We call the RA the submodule of M generated by A.

Xt

RA = Ra1 + · · · + Rat = { ri ai | ri ∈ R}.

i=1

A a set of generators or generating set for N ; and we say N is generated

by A.

some finite subset A of M such that N = RA, that is, if N is generated by

some finite subset.

element a ∈ M such that N = Ra, that is, if N is generated by one element:

N = Ra = {ra | r ∈ R}.

108 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Example 17.2.

(1) Let R = Z and M any R-module, i.e., any additive abelian group. If a ∈ M ,

then Ra is just the subgroup of M generated by a. If A ⊆ M , then RA is just

the subgroup of M generated by A.

(2) Let R be a ring. Then M = R is naturally a left R-module (cf. Example 15.5).

(3) Let R be a ring with 1 and M = Rn the free left module of rank n over R as

defined in Example 15.9. Let

Then

M = Re1 + · · · + Ren

R-modules. The product

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) | mi ∈ Mi }

+ : M × M → M,

Define R-action :

R × M → M,

.

(r, Y = (y1 , . . . , yk )) 7→ rY := (ry1 , . . . , ryk ).

M1 , . . . , Mk .

More generally, one can define the direct product

Y

Mα

α∈Σ

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 109

countable). See Tutorial 9.

the following are equivalent.

π : N1 × · · · × Nk → N1 + · · · + Nk ,

(a1 , . . . , ak ) 7→ a1 + · · · + ak

is an isomorphism (of left R-modules). Namely,

N1 × · · · × Nk ∼

= N1 + · · · + Nk .

(2)

Nj ∩ (N1 + · · · + Nj−1 + Nj+1 + · · · + Nk ) = 0, (∀ 1 ≤ j ≤ k).

r = a1 + · · · + ak

with ai ∈ Ni .

Nk is the sum of left R-submodules N1 , . . . , Nk satisfying the equivalent conditions

in Proposition 17.4, then M is said to be the (internal) direct sum of N1 , . . . , Nk ,

and denoted as

M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nk .

M := M1 × · · · × Mk := {(m1 , . . . , mk ) |, mi ∈ Mi }

110 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

Then Mi ∼

= Ni (as left R-module) and

M = N1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Nn .

M = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn .

M = M1 × · · · × Mn

M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn

with 1 and Ai ideals of R which are pair wise comaximal (i.e., Ai + Aj = R, ∀i 6= j).

Then

A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak = A1 · · · Ak

and

M/(A1 . . . Ak )M ∼

= (M/(A1 M ) × · · · × (M/(Ak M ).

free on the subset A of F if for every nonzero x ∈ F , there exist unique nonzero

elements

r1 , . . . , rn ∈ R

and unique

a1 , . . . , a n ∈ A

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 111

such that

x = r1 a1 + · · · + rn an .

If R is a commutative ring, the rank of F is defined as |A|, the cardinality of A.

Theorem 17.9.

(1) For any set A there is a free left R-module F (A) on the set A and F (A)

satisfies the universal property:

ϕ:A→M

Φ : F (A) → M

such that

ϕ=Φ◦ι

where

ι : A → F (A)

= Rn

Corollary 17.10.

(1) If F1 , F2 are free left R-modules on the same set A, then there is a unique

isomorphism

ϕ : F1 → F2

112 17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17)

ϕ|A

idA : A → A

a 7→ idA (a) = a.

F ∼

= F (A)

does in Theorem 17.9.

ϕ0 : A1 → A2

ϕ : F (A1 ) → F (A2 )

such that

ϕ|A1 = ϕ0 .

M1 + · · · + Mn = M1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Mn is a direct sum and each Mi is a free left R-module

with a basis Ai , then M1 + · · · + Mn is a free left R-module with a basis ni=1 Ai (a

`

disjoint union).

Remark 17.13.

(1) If F is a free left R-module with basis A, we shall often define left R-module

homomorphism

ϕ:F →N

17 Generation of modules; Direct sums; Free modules (Tut 9; Lect 17) 113

from F into other left R-module N by simply specifying their ϕ-values on the

elements of A and then saying “extend by linearity” (applying Theorem 17.9

to F = F (A)).

(2) When R = Z, the free module on a set A is called the free abelian group

on A. If |A| = n, we call F (A) the free abelian group of rank n; we have

F (A) ∼

= Z × · · · × Z (n times).

114 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

19)

Definition 18.1. (Noetherian module/ring) Let R be a ring and M a left R-

module.

Ascending Chain Condition on submodules (or ACC on submodules) if there

are no infinite ascending chains of submodules, i.e., whenever

M1 ⊆ M2 ⊆ M3 ⊆ · · ·

integer m such that

Mm = Mm+1 = Mm+2 = · · ·

itself, i.e., if there are no infinite ascending chains of left ideals in R.

Theorem 18.2. Let R be a ring and M a left R-module. Then the following are

equivalent.

(2) Every nonempty set of submodules of M contains a maximal element under in-

clusion.

n < ∞. Then any n + 1 elements of M are R-linearly dependent, i.e., for any

y1 , . . . , yn+1 ∈ M there are elements r1 , . . . , rn+1 ∈ R, not all zero, such that

r1 y1 + · · · + rn+1 yn+1 = 0.

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 115

R-module.

elements of M . So it is either a finite number or infinity.

the R-submodule

Xn

RA = { ri ai | ri ∈ R, ai ∈ A, n ≥ 1}

i=1

Thus, if M has rank r ∈ Z>0 then M contains an R-submodule isomorphic to

Rr .

R-submodule of M . Then

{y1 , . . . , yn }

of M such that

{a1 y1 , . . . , am ym }

relations

a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

In this case, the surjective homomorphism

γ: R → C

r 7→ ra

116 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

induces an isomorphism

R/ Ker γ ∼

= C.

Conversely, for every left ideal I of R, the quotient ring R/I is a cyclic left

R-module since R/I = R 1R with 1R = 1R + I ∈ R/I.

Definition 18.9. (cf. Tutorial) (Torsion module; Torsion free module) Let M

be a left R-module.

element r ∈ R.

Denote by

(4) If R is an integral domain, then one can show that Tor(M ) is a left R-

submodule of M .

Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

(1)

M∼

= Rr ⊕ R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am )

R and which satisfy the divisibility relations:

a1 | a2 | · · · | am .

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 117

Tor(M ) ∼

= R/(a1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(am ).

am M = 0.

18.10 is called the free rank or the Betti number of M and the elements

a1 , . . . , a m ∈ R

Form) Let R be a PID and M a finitely generated R-module. Then

M∼

= Rr ⊕ R/(pα1 1 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ R/(pαt t )

where r ≥ 0 is an integer and pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t are positive powers of (not necessarily

distinct or non-associate) primes in R.

erated R-module as in Theorem 18.12. The prime powers

pα1 1 , . . . , pαt t

M.

(1) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if

they have the same free rank and the same list of invariant factors.

(2) Two finitely generated R-modules M1 and M2 are isomorphic if and only if

they have the same free rank and the same list of elementary divisors.

118 18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19)

Applying Theorem 18.10, 18.12 and 18.14 to R = Z and finitely generated abelian

group G (as R-module) we get the two theorems below.

Groups) Let G be a finitely generated abelian group. Then

(1)

G∼

= Zr × Z/(n1 ) × · · · × Z/(nu )

n1 | n2 | · · · | nu .

G∼

= Zt × Z/(m1 ) × · · · × Z/(mv )

(∀ i).

Definition 18.16. (Free rank; Invariant factor for f.g. abelian group) The

integer r in Theorem 18.15 is called the free rank or Betti number of G and the

integers n1 , . . . , nu are called the invariant factors of G. The description of G in

Theorem 18.15 is called the invariant factor decomposition of G.

Theorem 18.17. Let G be an abelian group of order n > 1 and let the unique

factorization of n into distinct prime powers be

n = pα1 1 · · · pαk k .

Then

(1)

G∼

= A1 × · · · × Ak

18 Modules over PID (Tutorial 10; Lecture 18-19) 119

A∼

= Z/(pβ1 ) × · · · × Z/(pβt )

with

1 ≤ β1 ≤ · · · ≤ βt

and

β1 + · · · + βt = α

G∼

= B1 × · · · × B`

= Ai and Bi and Ai have the same invariant

factors.

Definition 18.18. (Elementary divisors for f.g. abelian group) The inte-

gers integers pβj described in Theorem 18.17 are called the elementary divisors

of G. The description of G in Theorem 18.17 is called the elementary divisor

decomposition of G.

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