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HGG250 Masyarakat, Ruang dan

Alam Sekitar

KULIAH 4
Coevolution and Coadaptation of Human
Social Systems and Ecosystems

 Coevolution (evolusi bersama)


 Changing together

 Coadaptation (penyesuaian bersama)


 Fitting together

 Human social systems adapt to their environment, the


ecosystem, and ecosystems adapt to human social
systems
 Coadaptation in traditional social systems
 Coadaptation of people and mosquitoes
 Controlled burning of forest

 Coevolution of the social system and ecosystem from


traditional to modern agriculture
 Ecosystems adapt to human social systems in 2 ways
 Ecosystems reorganize themselves in response to human actions
 People change ecosystems to fit their social system
• Interaction of the social system
with agricultural ecosystems
after the industrial revolution

http://gerrymarten.com/human-ecology/images/07-03-english.gif
Soalan:

 Bagaimana untuk jelaskan hubungan interaksi sistem


sosial dan ekosistem melalui mekanisma maklum
balas?
 Apakah contoh peristiwa luar jangkaan dan kenapa ia
berlaku?
 Interaksi sistem sosial dan ekosistem
 Interaksi sistem sosial dan ekosistem – pemusnahan
haiwan marin melalui penangkapan ikan komersil
 Kesan penggunaan drift nets
 Kesan Fish hooks
 what’s next?
 Cooking fuels and deforestation in India
The Ragweed Problem

A problem from the 1950s.

Rachael Carson 1962 Silent Spring, page 80.

“Ragweed, the bane of hay fever sufferers, offers


an interesting example of the way that efforts to
control nature sometimes boomerang.”

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The Ragweed Problem

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The Ragweed Problem

But, this action leads to more ragweed next


year. Why? 13
The Ragweed Problem

Prevalence
+ of allergies

B +
Extent of infestation Extent of spraying
by Annual Ragweed - with broad-spectrum
(Ambrosia artemisiifolia) herbicides
+ R
Extent of -
Area of bare
ground perennial
vegetation
- cover
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Soalan:

 Bagaimana untuk jelaskan hubungan interaksi sistem


sosial dan ekosistem melalui mekanisma maklum
balas?
 Apakah contoh peristiwa luar jangkaan dan kenapa ia
berlaku?