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CGE201 – Of Machines and Men

Why digital ethics enables beneficial AI

PUBLIC
Speakers 2018

SAP TechEd Las Vegas Guido Wagner


October 2–5, 2018

SAP TechEd Barcelona Guido Wagner


October 23–25, 2018

SAP TechEd Bangalore Chandramohan Sankaran


November 28–30, 2018

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Agenda

Why we should think about the future of humans and machines

SAP’s step-by-step approach to digital ethics

The future of digital ethics

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“Artificial Intelligence” – comments by visionary minds

“Every time a machine gets smarter,


we get smarter.”
Tom Gruber, co-creator of Siri, in a TED talk 2017

Tom Gruber, * 1959


Source: tomgruber.org

“Success in creating AI would be the biggest event


in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last,
unless we learn how to avoid the risks.“
Stephen Hawking, 2014, in “The Independent”
Stephen Hawking,
1942-2018
Source: youtube

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Identifying “artificial intelligence”

Alan Turing, Raymond Kurzweil,


1912 - 1954 * 1948
Source: www.biography.com Source: Guido Wagner, SXSW 2018

“A computer would deserve “Machines will be passing


to be called intelligent, the Turing test by 2029.”
if it could deceive a human into “Technological Singularity
believing that it was human.” by 2045”

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Options beyond a “technological singularity”?

Machines
Serve
Humans

Machines
Kill
Humans
Sources: pinterest, news.Fordham.edu, youtube,, matrix.wikia.com
Columbus, “The bicentennial man”, 1999, Roddenberry, “Star Trek”, ca. 1968, J. Depp, “Transcendence”, 2014

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Is it thinking or computation?

show
intelligence?

Can a machine be original


be self-aware?
or creative?

have a soul ?

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Charles Darwin
Source: dpa

“It is always advisable


to perceive clearly our ignorance.”
Charles Darwin, the expression of emotion in man and animals

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Increasing complexity –
a “directive principle” made by nature

Time & Self-aware life


Multicellular life
Complexity
Unicellular organisms
Molecules
Atoms
Fundamental particles
Energy

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A second directive principle

+ Game Changing Events

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Will there be more
game changers
in future?

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Resulting from the human initiated game changer
Evolutionarily reasonable case

We can assume the new species will be


• “super-intelligent”
• ? 
We should not assume it must be
• self-aware
• homo sapiens based
• biology based
?
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Just a question

Is there anything “artificial”


in what we call
“artificial intelligence”?

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Is it thinking or computation?

show
intelligence?

be original
Can a machine or creative?
be self-aware?

have a soul?

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“In attempting to construct such machines we should not
be irreverently usurping His power of creating souls, any
more than we are in the procreation of children:
Rather we are, in either case, instruments of His will
providing mansions for the souls that He creates.”

Alan Turing, 1912 - 1954


Source: Wikipedia.org

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Sources: Twitter

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So, has everything been said?

Source: https://www.infochretienne.com/neo-darwinisme-versus-intelligent-design-le-darwinisme-est-il-encore-dactualite/

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Examples of today’s usage of new intelligence

• Personalized advertising and recommendation


• Financial trading
• Cyber security and attacks
• Autonomous weapons

Source: SAP

“To learn, AI needs to know


that winning is something good.”
Demis Hassabis, Co-Founder of DeepMind
Source: mydronelab.com

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What we should ask us in our days:

How can we sustainably ensure (co-)existence

that humans enjoy?

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Agenda

Why we should think about the future of humans and machines

SAP’s step-by-step approach to digital ethics

The future of digital ethics

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Path to implementing digital ethics in business software

Corporate AI business software


responsibility behaving ethically

Guiding Implementation AI lifecycle Practical


principles requirements standards instructions

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SAP guiding principles for AI

Guiding Implementation AI lifecycle Practical


principles requirements standards instructions


First version done by
AI Ethics Steering Committee SAP as an
• Enterprise
• Software provider
!
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Guiding principles

AI Ethics Steering Committee at SAP

SAP Executive Board

AI Ethics Steering Committee


• Chief Design Officer Think cell
AI Ethics Advisory Panel
• Head of Data Protection and Privacy “Corporate
External experts
• Head of Corporate Strategy Responsibility”
• Head of SAP Machine Learning Research Internal & diverse
AI Ethics & Society
• Chief HR Strategy & Digital Transformation group
Working Group
• SVP Machine Learning
Internal experts • Chief Sustainability Officer
• Head of Global Legal

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Guiding principles

SAP guiding principles for AI (1/2)

1. We are driven by our values


 SAP Human Rights Commitment Statement, UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
 SAP AI Ethics Steering Committee

2. We design for people


 Human centered user experiences, leverage AI to support people in maximizing their potential.
 Design our systems closely with users in multidisciplinary and demographically diverse environment

3. We enable business beyond bias


 Technical teams must gain a deep understanding of the business problems
 Investigate new technical methods for mitigating biases
 Support our customers in building even more diverse businesses

4. We strive for transparency and integrity in all that we do


 Our products capabilities and limitations will be communicated clearly to our customers
 Our customers will always remain, in control of the deployment of our products.

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Guiding principles

SAP guiding principles for AI (2/2)

5. We uphold quality and safety standards


 Our AI systems are subject to our quality assurance process
 Thorough testing under real world scenarios to firmly validate AI is fit for purpose

6. We place data protection and privacy at our core


 We communicate clearly how, why, where and when customer and anonymized user data are used in
our AI systems
 Research with leading academic institutions to develop the next generation of privacy enhancing
methodologies

7. We engage with the wider societal challenges of AI


 Discuss across industries: Economic impact, social impact, normative questions

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Guiding principles

Example

Scenario:
Personal business Assistant
helping with
• workflows
• collaboration
Purchasing
• …
We do not want to use vendors with a negative
or unclear status about child labor.

We want Fair Trade for 30% of all purchases.

We want to purchase 25 % of all goods from


local vendors.

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What we need to consider

Guiding Implementation AI lifecycle Practical


principles requirements standards instructions

Gather individual need


• Customer feedback
• Academic discussions
• Product workshops
Technological
constraints !
• Checklists
• …

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Implementation requirements

Challenge: Transparency

How does AI
calculate ?

Degree of transparency
in calculations may
depend on technology

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Implementation requirements

Challenge: Bias

Known examples
• Interactive bias: Tay the racist Microsoft chatbot – Watson using human slang
• Data-driven bias (machine bias): recidivism rates of parolees
• Emergent bias: Facebook algorithms deciding what we want to see ( similarity bias)

“The real safety question, if you want to call it that, is that


if we give these systems biased data, they will be biased.”
John Giannandrea, former Google AI Chief, now with Apple, MIT Technology Review, Oct. 2017

Source: technologyreview.com

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Implementation requirements

Challenge: Management of societal changes

Social & economic impact


• “Future of work”– need to upskill people
• What motivates humans in the future?
• Economic redistribution
• Collaboration with AI – definition of rights and liabilities of AI

Ethical dilemmas like


• Autonomous cars having accident, robots serving elderly people
 not in SAP focus
• Profit maximization vs. people security or environmental
sustainability

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Implementation requirements

Gathering requirements - example

https://www.digitalistmag.com/future-of-work/2018/07/16/checklist-of-ethical-design-challenges-for-business-ai-06178662
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Implementation requirements

Purchasing example - implementation requirements

Need to check vendors about


• known child labor status
• local production
No vendors with a • sustainability efforts
negative or unclear
status about child Need interaction designs to
labor etc. • ask user to use different vendor – or to explicitly confirm
• review data quality status and level of bias
• inform management about system proposals and
potential impact on business model
• review system behavior
Just examples

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Setting the stage for digital ethics implementation

Guiding Implementation AI lifecycle Practical


principles requirements standards instructions

To be realized e.g.
• Development standard
• Implementation standard

Innovation speed
! • Operations standard
• AI audit standard
• Trainings

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Lifecycle standards

The “unavoidable” future of AI

Source: medicalfuturist.com

Source: Tesla
Multi-context AI
Source: SAP
Decision
Simple AI making AI
as advisor

Time

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Lifecycle standards

Challenge: Broadness of context

[2018 AD]
“Dinosaur on a surfboard”

Source: Twitter

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Lifecycle standards

Future of AI ?

(Almost)
human
equivalent

Source: Columbus,
“The bicentennial man”, 1999

Source: medicalfuturist.com
Source: Tesla
Source: SAP Multi-context AI
Decision
Simple AI making AI
as advisor

Time

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Lifecycle standards

AI is not human

AI – a stranger “Companionship
does not compute.”
• Completely different environment
• Immortality Self-aware car “KITT”,
TV series “Knight Rider” (1982)
• Ability to clone
• No family or leisure activities
• No physical experiences (?)
• Concepts of emotions and intuition?

• New questions
• How to enable further development (evolution)?
• What motivates AI ? Source: knight-rider.wikia.com

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Lifecycle standards

Example generic high-level standards


of sustainable AI lifecycle (extract)

Human centered AI design Self-controlled AI providers


1. AI results must comply with human values and needs. 1. Enterprises providing AI based products and services
2. Humans must stay “in the loop” of AI activities. need rules of self-regulation and monitoring.
3. Humans must not be influenced without their 2. Operations of AI systems must be secured and
approval. monitored.
4. … 3. …

Transparent AI models
1. Calculations, proposals & decisions must be as transparent and reproduceable as possible
2. Rules for learn and forget must exist and be transparent to the user.
3. Level & impact of bias and the risk of error must be calculated and visualized on demand.
4. Rules to be not compliant with rules may exist but must be transparent to the user.
5. …

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Lifecycle standards

Example – standardizing ethical behavior

Purchasing – Example AI based vendor selection process


Standard procedure: System check of “vendor choice”

1. Get vendor proposal from user


2. Review supplier evaluation incl. data quality & bias index
3. Evaluate historic vendor usage
4. Use customer defined calculation schema for proposal evaluation
5. Present calculation result to user & how to overrule
6. If required: Ask for choice of different vendor
7. If required: Involve human decision maker
8. Write AI log-files for audit
Just examples

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Execution of eigital ethics

Guiding Implementation AI lifecycle Practical


principles requirements standards instructions

Executable instructions for


humans managing AI lifecycle
• Development
• Implementation
• Monitoring
• Audit
• End of life
Source: SAP

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Practical instructions

Practical instructions for development,


implementation & monitoring of AI

Patterns how to Customization parameters to fulfill


interact with user in specific cultural requirements
specific situations

Procedures to overrule AI
(if reasonable and secure)

Monitoring of automated
controls comparable to
Seamless combination of
!
procedures in GRC
legal and ethical compliance

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Practical instructions

Example – developing ethical behavior

Controls and interaction pattern

Controls
• Supplier evaluation done in last 6 months
Example: • Data quality index > 80%
AI based vendor selection • Bias index < 10 %
process Interaction design
• User must confirm selection of vendor using a
certain UI element
• User sees the known level of bias & data quality
• User can stop AI by a certain UI element
• Workflow … to be triggered
Just examples

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Agenda

Why we should think about the future of humans and machines

SAP’s step-by-step approach to eigital ethics

The future of digital ethics

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SAP is engaged

Sources: SAP Portal


Source: partnershiponai.org

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Amara’s law

Roy Charles Amara


1925-2007
Source: Institute of the future

“We tend to
overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run
and underestimate the effect in the long run.”

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What else can be done

Driven by industry
• Coordinated “Ethics Committee” structures in all AI developing and consuming companies
• Worth thinking about: Establish an “Digital Ethics Quality Seal”
• Self-regulation: Rules comparable to those for genetic research

Driven by society
• Digital ethics Management – like digital rights management
• Maybe: Global agreement comparable to the Geneva Convention
• Spread easy to understand knowledge about AI

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What can we do?

Let’s think about how to engage & collaborate

Always center on people

Start having the mindset of a parent or teacher


• What should a new intelligence learn first?
• What’s the right time to let the kid go?

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Further information

Related Blogs
Why digital ethics matter
http://www.digitalistmag.com/digital-economy/2018/02/12/why-digital-ethics-matter-05868631

How digital ethics Enables Trust in Business AI


https://www.digitalistmag.com/digital-economy/2018/07/09/how-digital-ethics-enables-trust-in-business-ai-06178376

Public SAP Web sites


SAP Community: www.sap.com/community
SAP products: www.sap.com/products

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Thanks for attending this session.
Want to get more food for thought? See
www.experience.sap.com/skillup/why-digital-ethics-matter
www.digitalistmag.com/digital-economy/2018/07/09/how-digital-ethics-enables-trust-in-business-ai-06178376

Feedback Contact for further topic inquiries

Please complete your session Guido Wagner

evaluation for 62461 SAP Design Frontrunner Lab


guido.wagner@sap.com

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