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v THE STATEMENTS OF THEOLOGIANS: KALAM Muslims bave often prefered to do without theology slogsther hee ism orthodoxy Islam —sher isnot ever a word for itm Arabi once theology has always came after the Law aed wyticien inn portance, All that ones obliged to belie i the there i mo god ut ‘God and that Muhammad isthe Messenger of God. What one bees ‘has never boon <0 importa as what one does: ortboprasy bas been what Muslin were concemed with, and tha of course hata Arabic term: sar From the ne of Aimad b, Hanbal, who reproved any discussion of ‘matters of fat, fandamentaiss have tended to hold that fat needs tn rational interpretation or discussion. fbn Hanbal wa reoting 0 the lively discussion of faith among the fret gonerations of Muslims, particularly the circle of Hasan a-Baart fonportane i beoogy as toe as early figh and Sion) at Basra. Both te Lane and theology twereinclued i the term ov insight, with gh Ri eight in comect knowledge) wsed forthe Law and Sqh 6d night in rol ion) used for theological docrine. “The word for religions discussion, kalim, is she Musi name for sheology. Some of the carlist exponents of seem 1 have been among the Ibid Khris se chapor 6), and there were also those twho began by trying to withdraw (aia from politcal quarrel, “These Mu tila also engaged inte rational dfenc of Islan gaint otMuslo (often Cristian) entcioms. They are ncualy credited with beng the ist theological school of Islam, yt tere wore ther ‘theological postions 40 {THE STATEMENTS OF THEOLOGIANS: KALAM Abi Hania | Hassaond used by the early Hanafi, states tha ight m mates of elon superior to sight im mates of kuowledge—tha ath ust take precedence over works. ‘Sch a eeedal stazement Islam i not like a Christian ered, tended tobe binding on the whole Community of Faiths sinply staes what «group holds forts. ul, his “ered” echeus pos thos eld by other Muslins whic ae fl 0 be wrong. ‘The Figh Akbar 1 1 We do nos hold anyone to be an infidel on account of sin, and we donor deny thei fit. (Thiss agains the poston ofthe Kh hat those wo comic rave sn cease to be Muslims, fs We enjoin what e good and forbid shat x wrong, (This rej | gsi: exping til athe face of wrong] 3. What reaches you could not have mised yo, and what ses you onl no hae reached you. [This seems o afm predestination, but not ying that one has 0 onsel over one’s own actions only that one hat ao control over the things tht befall one.) |G We do not disavow any of che Companions of the Messenger of Gad, and we do not adhere to one rater than another. [This agaist __ the Shi, who exalted ‘A aswell as the Khris, who held both “Ueh- ‘man and Alito have committed infidel (ce chapter 6] 5. We lave the question of ‘Uthman and ‘AI t0 God, who knows things scree and iden. [This is very close co he position of he extly | Murtala: one must withdraw from the potical quarrels ofthe sdher- ‘ents of ‘Uthman and “Ali and leave the matter to God. The followers of [Nba Hanif ncaded many Murtala 6. Insight in matters of religion is beter than insight in maces of knowledge and law. 7 Dillerence of cpinion in the Comansity sign of Gods mex [Muslims have been generally very tolerant of difence of opinion, Tong asi dacs nor lead co wrong acta] 8: Whoever blicws al thar they are supposed zo believe, excep that they say, “I do not know whether Motes or Jeus (peace be upon them) weee messengers of Gos or nos,” san infidel. [Such a position would contradic evelation and clearly put one ouside the Abrahamic veaion a THE WORD OF SLAM 9. Whoever belictes al that they are supposed so believe, excep thar they sy “I do not know whether God i in Heaven or on the earth” an infill. [The positon of she Maz later was that God is otto be localized. The Ka'ba is His “house,” and He is “established on the ‘Throne above the heaves,” but Hef not contsned) 10. I anyone says, “I'do not know about the punishment in the tomb,” they belong to the ste of the Jbmiys, which will goto bel {Headibs sate that, although the dead wil sep in thei graves mt hg ay of Judgnen, inners wil e tormented there by burning, presute and evil dreams. This san unusually trong anathema, and leary ie Jluniya ate not acceprable Muslims athe eyes of thse Hanafi) Since ath takes precedence over works and only God knows what is Jn one's secret hear, Aba Hast bld that one nostra rom say. ling on the basis of thei actions that other Muslin have aportaized. Extreme proponents of this doctrine of postponing judgment (mat ‘sm held hat all who professed Ila would be saved. Abs Hani’ piste to “Ushi al-Bat makes the point that moabing was mor er ‘ibe than the sar of the Prophets Companions, bt who shall jade them except Godt We shall never know al the truth about the matter Inthe same way, isnot just orks ofthe Law tat make one a Ma imi fat The Epistle of Ab Hani to‘Uthmina-Bactt From Aba Hanif ‘Uthman aia, Fece be upon yoo. tel to ou God: there ino go bt le, A for what flows, Leoni fa Goa and obeiience © Hi: He i sucess Reconet ands Case, pens. Yourleterhas ache me, and Ihave understood ys adios {nic You say that you were moved to we by my carer ee 0 ‘reserve you in good and give you counsel You mension ha as reached you that Iam of the Ma and bold that one ft th tay et that this dseesses vos, snd that thee is wo exci song rend of God fos thing that cee ene apa fom Gols hee shin for our gage 3 what mre hua crete ad ins, tha the mperate so be found in whi he Quran brought snd ‘what Muhanad prschel and he Companions aed ot le ‘eopl flim dso and snyhing beyond is hua ean Ind nner, Now udestand what am wring to you Be prude in yous api ions, and ake ear lest Satan ete, May God preserve bth abe 142 ‘THE STATEMENTS OF THEOLOGIANS: KALAN. iene co Him; we ask the belp of is mere for us both would inform you that the [Arab people were idolator before God set them Mu: ammad, on whom be blessing and peace. Then He sen them Mua ‘nad to call chem to slam, soe called ther to testify that there en god buc God, the Unique, without associate and to profess what be Brought them from God. ‘One who entezed Islam became belive, eof idoatey, with ood and possessions inviolate, and was ened to the rights of a Maslin land the protection of other Meshime. One who rejected Islash when Summoned to it became an inde, devoid of faith, wth possessions and ‘ood! lawl to the Mesims, from shom nothing could be acted ‘xcept entry into Islan deat, except forthe People ofthe Book, ‘whom God explicitly exempted, ed who were to pay tbe. “Then the laws were tevealed after this for the people who had af firmed lela, ad adoption of the laws became a work of fuith. Thus God says in the Quen, “Thase who have faith, aed do good works,” and “One who has faith in God and does good works,” nd siralar ‘expressions, Thus logs aro works doesnot invelve los of faith, and faith may be artained without any other acts. Ia loss as eo works in- ‘volved the Ios of faith one would be taken bya losin work fom the name of faith and its preservation jus as those who lose faith are taken hy is los fom the name of faith and is presrvstin and cruth and rever to thes former state of lat. ‘One of he ways that ths maybe Known the disagreement benween sct and faith, People do not disagree in faith and do noe excel each othe, but hey do excel each other m act and heirlaws fai ier aswell; ye the religion of those who go to Paraseand te religion of ‘he prophets do aot dle. Thus God ray, "We have prescribed for yo as ligon what was enjoined on Noah, and what We have revealed t0 you, and what We enjoined on Abraham and Moses and jesus” (Qua Beol Te aware that guidance in faith in God and His props is ot ike guidance in whats legslted as 0 works. How does this wouble you? You call people “iithfal” for the faith they have, and God calls hem +0 in His Book; but you call people “ignorant” for what they do not [now ofthe laws. One needs ony o learn that of which one is ino nt. Shall one who ers in knowlege of God and His prophets be like fone who errs about what people lem when they already have faith? ‘God saysin His teaching shout the Laws “God explains for yo for you may errand God is knowing of all things” [43176], and “If one M3 ces the other will remember” (2:282], and “I [Moses] did it then, sven I was among she erring” (26:20), that i among the ignorant, ‘The proof from the Book of God and the sunnd for believing this na ‘martes too clear and to obrious o pose any problem for a an Uke yourself. Do you not say “a wicked believe” “a sinfl beliwer” “wespasing believer,” "sere! believer"? Shall ne be rightly guided in ‘wickedness and tespas as one i sghly guided in faith? ‘Or take the speech ofthe sons of Jacob to thir prope, their father, “By God, you ae in your old eror” (13:95 Do you think they mens “You ae in your old indlity"? God forbid that you shonld vo ac stand it who are learned in the Quran. “Alt was calle “Commander ofthe Faithfull” and ‘Umar as wel Commander of she Faithful. Now, would you say that meant “Com, ‘mander of Those Who Obey Allthe Laws"? ‘Al referred othe Masliny of Syia with whom he was at wae as “people of faihin writing about it Were they rightly guided when he fought chem? The Companions of the Messenger of God fought each othe, so both groups could mot have been rightly guided in thei acs. According to you, who were the ‘wrongdoer? As God is our Witness, I know of 0 sin that People ofthe Qikla Ithose who face Mecca in prayer) could commit that would be preter than fighting and shedding the blood of Mubsmmad's Companions, ‘may God bless him and give him peace. So what do you call the ‘wo factions? They were oe both rightly guid if you ase that you are guley of innorason. If you asert they were both in cron you have innovated. Ifyou say one wa eighty guided, then what ‘was the other? But if you sy, “God knows bes” then you have hit the mark ‘Understand well what Ihave wetten and know that Lsay the People ofthe Qiblaare people of faith, nd aor ast act cannot remove hers from thei sth, One who obeys God in ll the laws, secon 0 9 10 Paradise. One who leaves both faith and works isan infidel, ‘ho will go tothe feof Hell, Bur one who has faith and is ply of some breach ofthe laws isa believing sinner, nd God will do as He Wishes abous sacha one: punish chem i He wills, and forgive them i He wile, And say about che quarrels ofthe Companions ofthe Messenger of God, “God knows best” Ido not think thse any dle from your ‘wn opinion about the People ofthe Qibl, fr ther mater sus like that of the Companions of he Prophet: thing that hs been desided by wadition and insight’ wt “TE STATEMENTS OF THEOLOGIANS: KALAM abet tac wo ae mation le tom a Tati he Fpl tee ts nd Un os pt | necessitated free will and moral choice, since if God as some Muslims ‘Sipe sme to and he pote tom fort Heo ie cance tencpere ag tee selena puree fa tirpater eter mts pees acetate Cee ee tats a met ee eats es ring acoerramceea emer eerie ls era eeie ees at ra Fear ttortpersepeepereer peer oa pa tert pert rmiens eee lee et ase eae erate ta epee ea oe A eroetesite ease aieteaoa esa ie eget ase ee anaurae ea see a ip aae Sear cetae eeal stoee tong hep ig ad ar rele i ee cere SE en raf a ee ee a ee sis re Ac ire ales a anaes eee ee ane et ertare oe fae an oat elie ssadt need cencinel icra tena lade cnet ae taeeie ee Cairne ens served among the Hanafis of Central Asia and India until modern gest ated ca eetermsecrg me eg ee petra as ee ea dear ee geet ear arama cee i esere rceeetegaa eerie 145