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H O S T E D BY

Alexandria University

www.elsevier.com/locate/aej

www.sciencedirect.com

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends

Hariram V. a,*, Bharathwaaj R. b

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science, Hindustan University, Chennai, Tamil

Nadu, India

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.A. Engineering college, Chennai, India

KEYWORDS Abstract Biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil seems to be a promising alternate for petro-diesel

Zero-dimensional model; in the present energy scenario. This study analyses the experimental and theoretical effects on the

Combustion; blends of Bee Wax biodiesel with straight diesel on combustion parameters. A zero-dimensional

Heat release; mathematical model is developed to analyse the rise in in-cylinder pressure along with Wiebie’s heat

Rate of pressure rise release correlations, ignition delay, gas dynamics model, heat transfer model and frictional model.

The combustion parameters include in-cylinder pressure rise, net heat release and rate of pressure

rise are investigated and found to be higher for straight diesel and deteriorated with the increase in

blends of BWB. The theoretical simulation also supports the experimental data with constant injec-

tion timing, speed and compression ratio.

Ó 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an

open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

free from nature. Beehives neither demand additional land

Honey and beekeeping have a long history in India with oldest space nor do compete with agriculture or animal husbandry

records in the form of paintings by prehistoric man in the rock for any input. Beekeeping constitutes a resource of sustainable

shelters. With the development of civilization, honey acquired income generation to the rural and tribal farmers providing

a unique status in the lives of human beings. The recent past valuable nutrition in the form of honey, protein rich pollen,

has witnessed a revival of the industry in the rich forest regions brood and beehive wax.

along the sub-Himalayan mountain ranges and the Western During the 1980s, an estimated one million beehives had

Ghats, where it has been practiced in its simplest form. Several been functioning under various schemes of the Khadi and Vil-

natural plant species provide nectar and pollen to honey bees. lage Industries Commission with the development of apicul-

ture using the indigenous bee, Apis cerana, Apis mellifera,

* Corresponding author. which gained popularity in Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Hima-

E-mail address: connect2hariram@gmail.com (V. Hariram). chal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Ben-

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria gal. Wild honey bee colonies of the giant honey bee and the

University. oriental beehive have also been exploited for collection of

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

1110-0168 Ó 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

2 V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj

Nomenclature

Cr compression ratio x mass fraction

Crl connecting rod length ti starting time of injection (in s)

Vswept swept volume (in mm3) tg starting of combustion (in s)

BDC bottom dead centre po stagnation pressure (in bar)

TDC top dead centre k specific heat ratios for gasses

D bore diameter (in mm) hc coefficient of heat transfer (in W/m2)

l stroke length (in mm) t velocity of gasses (in m/s)

DI direct injection Vp mean piston speed (in mm/s)

C–H–O carbon hydrogen oxygen equilibrium system BWB 10 beeswax biodiesel 10% straight diesel 90%

FTT finite temperature thermodynamics model BWB 20 beeswax biodiesel 20% straight diesel 80%

bTDC before top dead centre CA crank angle (in °)

EGT exhaust gas temperature in degree celsius HRR heat release rate (in J/CA)

U internal energy (in joules)

W work done (in kW)

honey. Both natural and cultivated vegetations in India consti- species conservation equation that predicts the heat release

tute an immense potential for development of beekeeping. pattern and pressure of the system. Working fluid undergoes

About 500 flowering plant species have been identified as a continuous change in its thermodynamic state through the

major and minor sources of nectar and pollen. In the recent series of the engine operational cycles which mainly consists

years the exotic honey bee has been introduced representing of constant pressure suction, adiabatic compression, constant

a wide variety of bee fauna that can be utilized for the devel- pressure combustion, isentropic expansion and constant pres-

opment of honey industry in the country. There are several sure exhaust events where the thermodynamic states are to

types of indigenous and traditional hives including logs, clay be computed with the help of programs for diesel operating

pots, wall niches, baskets and boxes of different sizes and cycle.

shapes. India, potentially produces about 120 million bee colo- Many researchers conducted experiments based on mathe-

nies discharging over 1.2 million tons of honey and 15,000 tons matically modelling of engine fuelled with bio-diesel for pre-

of beeswax. Organized collection of forest honey and beeswax dicting the performance and combustion parameters. A few

using improved methods results in an additional production of of them are discussed below. Ramadhas et al. studied the the-

at least 120,000 tons of honey and 10,000 tons of beeswax [22]. oretical model for rubber seed oil methyl ester fuelled engine

Internal combustion engines, mainly compression ignition and analysed effect of relative air fuel ratio and compression

engines are used in transportation industries. They are also ratio on the engine performance for different fuels. They used

used in power production and agricultural applications as well. single zone thermodynamic model for predicting the perfor-

CI engines operate at relatively higher efficiency when com- mance of compression ignition engine by considering funda-

pared with spark ignition engines, due to their higher compres- mental assumption about cylinder charge, specific heats to

sion ratio. Currently, investigations are carried out to reduce solve energy equation and also Hohenberg equation in heat

the diesel emission and provide cleaner and more efficient transfer [1].

engine systems. Biodiesels will be a key in achieving the above Raut theoretically modelled a compression ignition engine

goal and thermodynamic simulation of the internal combus- depending on the characteristics of fuel using thermodynamic

tion engines providing enhanced knowledge to understand model for predicting the properties of working substance in

and configure new engines technologies. suction, compression, power and exhaust strokes during the

Simulation is the process of creating a virtual system to engine operation. The model predicted the performance of

understand the properties of real time system without physical compression ignition engine in terms of brake power and brake

interventions. The development in the field of computers has thermal efficiency for all fuels and also calculated the volume

opened the doors of computational environment. Diesel engine as a function of crank angle by taking cylinder bore, stroke

simulation models are classified into three categories, namely length of the engine and length of the connecting rod. The

zero-dimensional single zone models, quasi-dimensional multi author used Wiebie heat release model to analyse the heat

zone models and multi-dimensional models in which zero- release pattern of the engine and Pflaum equation to predict

dimensional models provide the essence of thermodynamic the heat transfer coefficient and heat lost to the walls of the

property of a system modelled. On the other hand, the engine [14]. Rakopoulos et al. elaborated the two zone models

multi-dimensional models resolve the space of modelled system for DI diesel engine with the use of mass, energy and state

on a fine grid thus providing special information. However, equations for determining the local temperature and pressure.

computational time and coding constraints keep this model Also, the author applied chemical equilibrium scheme for C–

away from consistently using them in-design optimization pro- H–O system to predict the exhaust gas composition and used

cess. Combustion process of compression ignition engine is a simulation model for various loads and compression ratios

complicated phenomenon based on thermodynamic models along with Annand’s equation for determining the heat trans-

that incorporate the energy equation for closed system and fer coefficient. The authors have also elaborated the use of fuel

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model 3

spray model, air entertainment model for two zone application In this present work, zero dimensional thermodynamic

and sensitivity analysis discussing their procedure [5]. model was developed to analyse the in-cylinder pressure, rate

Gonica et al. reported the effect of engine load and biodie- of heat release and rate of pressure rise to understand the com-

sel concentration on the performance of diesel engine running bustion behaviour of the DI CI engine and the same was val-

with diesel-biodiesel blends using theoretical model based finite idated using biodiesel obtained from wax esters of Apis

temperature thermodynamic (FTT) approach which was based melifera (honey bee).

on temperature dependent variable specific heats. The applica-

tion of FTT was intensely discussed for compression ignition 2. Materials and methods

engine and exhibited a linear increase in power for varying

loads at constant engine operating parameters [11]. Gogoi In the present experimental investigation, bio-diesel was

and Baruah simulated a single zone combustion model for pre- obtained from wax esters of Apis melifera (honey bee). Since

dicting the performance of CI engine fuelled with biodiesel honey bees are grown commercially for the production of

blends. They analysed the effect of compression ratio and honey, the source of raw material is sustainable. In the process

engine speed on BP and BTE with Karanja biodiesel blends. of extracting wax from the beehive, honey bees were not killed

The model prediction resulted in exhibiting similar trend for leaving the ecological balance undisturbed. Commercially,

biodiesel concentration up to 50% and showed better perfor- honey bees are domesticated for honey and wax is obtained

mance with 60% blend ratio [21]. as the by-product of domestication process which makes it

Canakci, experimentally investigated the influence of using more reliable and renewable. The test engine used for this

biodiesel blends on performance, combustion and emission experimental investigation is direct injection compression igni-

characteristics in compression ignition engines in which, the tion Kirloskar 240PE test engine equipped with eddy current

brake specific fuel consumption increased with the addition dynamometer having 87.5 mm and 110 mm as bore and stroke

of biodiesel on comparison with straight diesel [15]. Patil devel- length respectively with capacity of 661 cc that delivers 3.5 kW

oped a thermodynamic model for predicting the performance at 1500 rpm. The schematic diagram of the test rig is shown in

of CI engine fuelled with diesel and POME biodiesel blends Fig. 1 with pressure, temperature, crank angle, airflow and fuel

using MATLAB and studied its empirical simulation [19]. flow measuring instruments and the test engine specification is

Sivalingam et al. validated the combustion and emission given in Table 1. A high speed data acquisition system (DAS)

parameters of direct injection CI engine fuelled with blends is used in the experimental setup to transmit and analyse the

of bio-ethanol emulsion. In-cylinder pressure, ignition delay, data.

NOx and smoke were determined and compared with mathe- Many ways have been devised to extract, refine and lighten

matically simulated results at all loads. The results exhibited the colour of beeswax. A widely preferred method is pressur-

a marginal 5% variation between the experimental and theo- ized extraction method in which the beeswax is maintained

retical data with diesel fuel and 3% variation with biodiesel at 90 °C under water at pressurized condition to melt the

operations.

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

4 V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj

Description Specifications Composition of beeswax In %

Make Kirloskar Acid esters 4

Model 240PE/four stroke Di-esters 6

Bore diameter 87.5 mm Tri-esters 3

Stroke length 110 mm Free alcohols 1

Rated power 3.5 kW@1500 rpm Cerotic acid 4.4

Injection timing 23°bTDC Lacceryl palmitate 2

Connecting rod length 230 mm Lignoric acid 1

Capacity 661 cc Melissic acid 2

Speed 1500 rpm Montanic acid 2.6

Compression ratio 17.5:1 Myricyl palmitate 23

Loading type Eddy current dynamometer Myricyl cerotate 12

Load cell 0–50 kg, stain gauge type Myricyl hypogaeate 12

Pressure sensor 0–350 bar Psyllic acid 1.5

Temperature sensor K Type, PT 100, RTD thermocouple Hydrocarbons 13.5

wax into liquid form. Acidic medium was prepared by adding Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis and by employ-

5% sulphuric acid to water containing processed beeswax to ing the Iodine Value and Saponification value relations

P 254DXAi P 560Ai

lighten the colour and increase the yield of liquid beeswax and respectively, where D is the number

MWi MWi

called slumgum. 5% of hydrogen peroxide was mixed to the of double bond, Ai is mass composition from GC/MS result

slumgum to avoid bleaching action and later recovered. and MWi is the molecular weight. Cetane number of the

The biodiesel from beeswax was obtained by two stage BWB was found to be 48 whereas the value for the straight die-

trans-esterification process. The primary stage comprises of sel lies between 46 and 53. When the BWB was blended with

acid catalysed esterification with the molar ratio of 1:2:0.04 diesel, the Cetane number was found to be lying between 50

of wax, methanol and concentrated hydrochloric acid for and 49 for BWB10 and BWB20 respectively. The cloud and

reducing the free fatty acid content from 14.5% to >2%. Base pour point of beeswax biodiesel was found to be 12 °C and

catalysed esterification with methanol and sodium hydroxide 15 °C which was lower on comparison with straight diesel.

was followed with treated wax ester. The yield of biodiesel At lower temperature, especially in northern parts of India,

was 85% at molar ratio of 1:0.25, reaction temperature of clogging of fuel filter and fuel injector takes place which can

60 °C, for NaOH concentration of 0.02% by weight. The prop- be overcome by installing fuel line heaters as well as by adding

erties of biodiesel were studied with respect to diesel and tab- pour point additive such as ethylene glycol up to 1.5% of the

ulated in Table 2 and the composition of Beeswax biodiesel biodiesel by volume.

is given in Table 3. BWB showed higher kinematic viscosity

at 40 °C, which was determined to be 3.5 mm2/s whereas for 2.1. Mathematical modelling

straight diesel, the kinematic viscosity was noticed to be

2.6 mm2/s. However, BWB-Diesel blends showed an increase

2.1.1. Engine kinematics model

in kinematic viscosity (i.e.) BWB10 and BWB20 exhibited

2.69 mm2/s and 2.78 mm2/s respectively. The fundamental geometry of reciprocating piston engine is

The calorific value of BWB, BWB10 and BWB20 also shown in Fig. 2. Using the engine kinematics model volume

showed a similar trend with variations between 44.8 MJ/kg every crank angle can be calculated by solving [20]

2 ﬃ3

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

s

and 44.1 MJ/kg for blends of BWB. Density at 15 °C of the 2

Cr 1 cos 2h 1 Crl

BWB was found to be 880 kg/m3 which is higher by 2.3% than VðhÞ ¼ Vswept 4 þ 2 sin h5ð1Þ

2

ual increase in density of the fuel. Cetane number of the bio- p

diesel was determined using molecular weight from Gas Vswept ¼ D2 l ð2Þ

4

Property ASTM standards Diesel BWB BWB 10 BWB20

Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (mm /s)2

3.5–5 2.6 3.5 2.69 2.78

Cetane number – 51 48 50.7 50.4

Calorific value (MJ/kg) – 45.5 38.5 44.8 44.1

Density at 15 °C (kg/m3) 860–900 860 880 862 864

Flash point (°C) – 45 110 57 63

Carbon residue (%) – 0.17 0.04 – –

Acid value, mg KOH <0.8 0.35 0.4 – –

Iodine value – – 121 – –

Cloud point (°C) – 34 12 31 29

Pour point (°C) – 40 15 37 35

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model 5

In this present study, the combustion model was developed

based on equally distributed heat release phenomena (i.e. heat

is liberated evenly from all the areas of the combustion cham-

ber). Since single zone combustion model predominantly give

the accurate results in case of constant pressure combustion,

Wiebie’s function was employed to determine the mass frac-

tion of the fuel burnt and which in turn applied for finding

Figure 2 Engine kinematics.

the heat release rate due to combustion of fuel.

Wiebie co-relation for predicting heat release rate is

where Vswept is volume displaced by engine when piston moves expressed as [13]

from BDC to TDC in mm3, D represents cylinder bore diam- " mþ1 #

eter in mm, while l is stroke length of the engine in mm, Crl is h ho

xb ðhÞ ¼ 1 exp a ð6Þ

length of connecting rod in mm. Cr represents the compression Dh

ratio, Crl represents the length of connecting rod in mm and h

is crank angle in radians. where xb denotes mass fraction of fuel burnt at given crank

The first derivative of Eq. (1) gives the change in cylinder angle h, Dh represents the duration of combustion, ‘‘a” is a

volume for change in crank angle. parameter that symbolizes the completion of combustion. Wie-

2 3 bie assumed xmax as 0.99; hence, value of ‘‘a” is taken as 6.908.

dV Vswept 61 sin 2h 7 ‘‘m” is the parameter that delineates the rate of combustion.

¼ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ sin h5 ð3Þ When Eq. (6) is differentiated once with respect to x and mul-

dh 2 2 Crl 2

2 l sin h 2

tiplied with QDhav , gives the relation for determining the heat

release rate as [16]

2.1.2. Zero dimensional combustion model m " mþ1 #

dQc Qav h ho h ho

The thermodynamic or fluid dynamic model was developed ¼ aðm þ 1Þ exp a ð7Þ

dh Dh Dh Dh

based on energy conservation or complete analysis of fluid

motion in the cylinder predicting the performance and com- Here Qav is average heat release rate.

bustion characteristics of the engine. Zero dimensional model

predicts and analyses the characteristics of thermodynamic 2.1.4. Ignition delay model

properties of the engine solving energy equations whereas

Ignition delay is termed as the time difference between start of

multi-dimensional momentum conservation equations allow

injection of fuel and start of combustion. Physical delay and

to visualize the gas flow and combustion products. Therefore,

chemical delay are two broad classifications of delay period

Zero dimensional model is suitable for observing the effects of

that occurs in CI combustion. Ignition delay was calculated

variation in heat release rate and in-cylinder pressure parame-

as a function of air fuel mixture temperature, pressure that

ters of engine operation.

accounts for physical delay and air-fuel equivalence ratio, fuel

The zero-dimensional model [2,19] used in the study was

properties that characterize the chemical delay. In actual com-

based on the first law of thermodynamics applied to a closed

bustion, ignition delay plays a major role in heat release rates.

cycle for duration when both the inlet and exhaust valves are

The empirical correlation developed by Wolfer [3,17] given in

closed (i.e. for the period of combustion). The energy equation

Eq. (8) is integrated by Runge-Kutta method to determine

for above process is written as

ignition delay period.

dQc dQh dU dW

¼ þ ð4Þ Z tg Z tg

dh dh dh dh dt 1 dt

¼ ¼ 1 ð8Þ

dðp; TÞ Kti a A

where dQdh

c

denotes the heat generated by the fuel due to com- ti ti pðtÞ exp RTðtÞ

dQh

bustion, dh represents heat transferred to walls by the means

The constant values relevant for direct injection diesel

of in cylinder gasses. dU

dh

describes the change in internal energy engine are K = 2272, a = 1.19, A/R = 4650. Where ti is time

of the system while dWdh

gives the rate of work transferred from when injection starts, tg time when combustion starts. K is

the system. thermal conductivity, A is activation energy of fuel and R is

The above equation signifies the net heat release rate which universal gas constant.

is defined as difference between heat generated by the fuel due

to combustion and heat that is convicted to the cylinder walls 2.1.5. Gas exchange modelling

due to in cylinder gasses. Eq. (4) is rearranged as It is equally necessary to model the intake and exhaust process

dQc dQh dT dV to push the results towards the actual values. So, intake and

¼ MCv þp ð5Þ

dh dh dh dh exhaust processes are considered as a function of cylinder pres-

sure and mass flow rate in and out of the engine. By consider-

The rate of change of internal energy of the system is a

ing the gas as ideal and applying the energy equation for

function of temperature. Here, M, Cv, T, p and V are in-

exhaust process,

cylinder instantaneous mass, specific heat of gases at constant

volume, instantaneous temperature, in-cylinder pressure at the

dp 1 dN 1 dV

given instant of crank angle and instantaneous volume ¼ kp p ð9Þ

dt N dt V dt e

respectively.

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

6 V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj

Hohenberg equation: hc ¼ ð18Þ

dp 1 dN 1 dV T0:5 V0:06

¼ kr ð10Þ

dt N dt V dt i pﬃﬃﬃ

Pflaum equation: hc ¼ pT fðvp Þ ð19Þ

dN

Here is mass flow rate through the valves which is

dt

selected by knowing the critical pressure ratio which is the fðvp Þ ¼ 3 2:57½1 eð1:50:416Vp Þ ð20Þ

function of specific heat ratios (k) of the gasses alone. It is The above equation is considered as positive when Vp is

given by Eq. (11). greater than 3.6 m/s. If Vp is less than 3.6 m/s, the equation

k

k þ 1 ðk1Þ becomes negative.

pc ¼ ð11Þ

2

2.1.7. FMEP model

Case (i): when pressure ratio p/po is less than pc, the flow is Due to frictional losses, there is a considerable decrease in the

subsonic and the mass flow rate is given by indicated power of the engine due to frictional losses so brake

power is dependent on frictional power. In general nine fric-

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

" k1 # tional mean effective pressure (FMEP) losses are considered

u k1

dN u k 2 p k [20,10].

t

k

¼ Av p 1 ð12Þ Mean effective pressure lost to overcome friction due to gas

dt RTðk 1Þ k þ 1 po

pressure.

l

Case (ii): when pressure ratio p/po is greater than pc, the FMEP1 ¼ 0:42ðpa pinf Þ 2 0:088Cr1:330:39Vp=100 10 ð21Þ

D

flow is supersonic for this criteria mass flow rate is given by

where pinf is intake manifold vacuum.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ MEP absorbed by piston rings.

k1

kþ1

dN k 2 0:377 l npr

¼ Av p ð13Þ FMEP2 ¼ 10 ð22Þ

dt RT k þ 1 D2

Here ‘‘k” is specific heat ratios and subscripts p and r where npr is number of piston rings present.

denote products and reactants respectively when applied for MEP lost due to piston.

either cases of inlet and exhaust process. Av is effective valve

Psl 100 Vp

flow area which depends on the valve lift profile of an engine. FMEP3 ¼ 12:85 ð23Þ

po is stagnation pressure for that particular temperature and p Dl 1000

is static pressure in the manifold [7–9]. where Psl is piston skirt length in mm.

Blow by losses.

2.1.6. Heat transfer model FMEP4

" 1:185 #

Since considerable amount of heat is transferred to the atmo- pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ N

sphere by exhaust gases and cooling water by means of convec- ¼ pa pinf 0:121Cr ð0:0345 þ 0:001055CrÞ

0:4

1000

tion, net work done by the working fluid for entire cycle is

I ð24Þ

Dp

Wn ¼ pþ DV ð14Þ

2 where Cr is compression ratio and N is speed.

where Wn indicates the net work output of the engine, DV is MEP lost by throttling.

p

change in volume and Dp is change in pressure due to heat FMEP5 ¼ e þ pinf ð25Þ

transfer process and it is given by [12] 2:75

MEP lost in valve gear.

Dp hc As ðTs Tf Þ

¼ DT ð15Þ

p mf Cv Tf 4N GH1:75

FMEP6 ¼ 0:226 30 ð26Þ

where As is surface area of engine, Ts is surface temperature,

1000 D2 l

Tf, mf, and Cv are temperature, mass and specific heat ratio where G is number of valves and H is intake valve diameter.

of working fluid respectively, and hc is heat transfer coefficient Pumping loss.

and is determined by any of the following methods. 1:5

N

0:3D0:2 p0:8 #0:8 FMEP7 ¼ 0:0275 ð27Þ

Ashley-Campbell equation: hc ¼ ð16Þ 1000

T0:5

MEP lost in bearing friction.

where D is bore diameter, p is pressure, # is velocity of gasses

and T is temperature. D N

FMEP8 ¼ 0:0564 ð28Þ

l 1000

p0:7 V0:8

hc ¼ 0:014ð1 þ bÞ 0:5 V

p

Sitkei and Ramanaiah equation: MEP lost in combustion chamber.

T A

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1:7

ð17Þ pimep N

FMEP9 ¼ 0:0915 ð29Þ

11:45 1000

where b = 0.05–0.10, Vp is mean piston speed, and A is area of

bore. where pimep is intake manifold pressure.

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model 7

2.2. Combustion chemistry where Dp is pressure drop across the nozzle, t is time after the

start of injection and dn is nozzle diameter (see Table 4).

When a chemical reaction occurs, the bonds within the mole- The simulation was carried out using of MATLAB which

cules of reactants are broken, and atoms and electrons rear- divided into four major subroutines such as Ideal cycle simula-

range to form products. In combustion reactions, rapid tion, Fuel cycle simulation, Progressive combustion simulation

oxidation of the fuel results in energy release with the forma- and Actual cycle simulation. Initially, in Ideal cycle simulation

tion of combustion products. Considering fuel as CaHbOc (ICS), air is considered to be working medium to analyse the

which is oxidized to form products, the combustion equation pressure at different state points by using basic thermodynamic

is given by relations. ICS was followed by Fuel Cycle Simulation (FCS) in

which fuel properties and adiabatic flame temperature are

Ca Hb Oc þ xðO2 þ 3:77N2 Þ!dCO2 þ eH2 O þ fN2 ð30Þ determined to identify the amount of heat generated by the

The atomic balance of each species in the above C–H–O is fuel during the combustion process. The FCS is further modi-

given as C: a = d, H: b = 2d, O: 2x = 2d + e. fied by considering actual combustion where zero dimensional

Stoichiometric air fuel ratio is the amount of air required to combustion model incorporates the ignition delay equation

completely combust one mole of fuel. The molecular formula and Wiebie’s heat release correlation to study the pressure

of the fuel is determined as C18H35O2 and therefore, equation and heat released in the Progressive cycle simulation (PCS).

for the combustion of the fuel is written as Finally Actual cycle simulation is carried out to eliminate the

assumptions made by considering the pressure loss due to heat

C18 H35 O2 þ aðO2 þ 3:77N2 Þ!18CO2 þ 17:5H2 O þ a 3:77N2 transfer with the surroundings, pressure lost due to gas

ð31Þ exchange process and frictional losses to obtain pressure-

crank angle curves. The pressure data thus obtained are simu-

Hereby considering the oxygen balance 2 + 2 * a = 18 * 2

lated for heat release rate with the equation obtained by apply-

+ 17.5.

ing first law of thermodynamics to closed system [21]. The

Solving the above equation gives ‘‘a” as 12.875 (i.e.)

details of molecular weight, carbon presence, oxygen and

12.875 mol of air is required to completely burn 1 mol of fuel.

hydrogen content were obtained from the molecular formula

The above equation is rewritten as

derived from the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

C18 H35 O2 þ 12:875ðO2 þ 3:77N2 Þ!18CO2 þ 17:5H2 O þ 48:53N2 result of beeswax biodiesel along with other thermodynamic

ð32Þ constants [4].

Specific heat is the factor that is dependent upon tempera- 3. Results and discussion

ture of the combustion chamber. The following relations are be

used to determine the specific heat of the in cylinder gases 3.1. In-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release

For 400 6 T 6 1600; CpðTÞ ¼ BL þ CL=T ð33Þ

The simulation was carried out using programs coded in latest

For 1600 6 T 6 6000; CpðTÞ ¼ BH þ CH=T ð34Þ version MATLABÒ software where the thermodynamic equa-

tions are solved to predict the in-cylinder pressure, net heat

X

n

release rate and rate of pressure rise for given fuel properties

Cp ¼ Cpk Nk ð35Þ

k¼1 and various engine loads. The experiments were conducted

at 0%, 50% and 100% load conditions. Fig. 3 shows the vari-

where BL, BH, CL, and CH are constants depending upon the ation between in-cylinder pressure and net heat release for

species ‘‘k” is number of product species present. actual and mathematical model running with straight diesel,

BWB10 and BWB20 as fuel at 0% load condition. The simu-

2.3. Fuel spray model (fuel atomization and spray penetration lated results showed higher value than the actual output from

model) the engine. This may be due to static error in the instrument,

ambiguity in the calibration of the equipment and due to

The fuel jet that emerges out of the nozzle generally forms a

cone-shaped spray at the tip of the nozzle known as atomiza-

tion breakup regime, where the fuel is fragmented into smaller

droplets size less then nozzle diameter. For jets in the atomiza- Table 4 Simulation data for fuel and air.

tion regime, the spray angle h is given by

Simulation data Values

1=2 pﬃﬃﬃ

h 1 qg 3 Molecular weight 283

tan ¼ 4p ð36Þ

2 A ql 6 No of carbon present in fuel 18

No of hydrogen present in fuel 35

where qg and ql are gas and liquid density of fuel, and A is con- No of oxygen present in fuel 2

stant for given geometry which is normally taken as 4.9. Universal gas constant (kJ/kg K) 0.287

The speed at which the fuel penetrates into the combustion Ratio of specific heats (for air) 1.4

chamber also plays a major role in the mixing of fuel droplets Specific heat at constant pressure (for air) (kJ/kg K) 1.005

with air. The spray penetration speed is given as Specific heat at constant volume (for air) (kJ/kg K) 0.718

1=4 1=4 Ambient temperature (in K) 300

Dp 1=2 294 Ambient pressure (in bar) 1.03

S ¼ 3:07 ðtdn Þ ð37Þ

qg Tg

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

8 V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj

human errors while obtaining the results from the equipment vaporizes quickly forming combustible air fuel mixture and

which are un-avoidable. The variations in simulated and exper- instantly burns by absorbing the heat from the premixed com-

imental may be also due to assumptions such as air as ideal gas bustion phase. Due to better fuel atomization, enhanced com-

with constant Cp and Cv values but in real-time scenario, speci- bustion of fuel leads to maximum heat release of 20.32 J/CA

fic heat is the function of temperature. Under simulation study, for diesel, 19.78 J/CA for BWB10 and 18.97 J/CA for

the rate of combustion was considered to be uniform through- BWB20 blends.

out the combustion duration, but actually rate of combustion Fig. 4 depicts the comparison of combustion parameters for

depends on concentration of reactants [18]. experimental and predicted results of straight diesel, BWB10

It is clearly seen from Fig. 3, that the peak pressure for and BWB20 at 50% load operation which exhibits similar

straight diesel fuel operating at 0% load was around 48 bar trend to that of 0% load operation. It can be noticed from

whereas the simulated results show the peak pressure of the Fig. 4 which shows the increase in pressure from

52.9 bar which accounts to 8% deviation between simulated 48.08 bar to 60.14 bar for straight diesel, from 45 bar to

and experimental results. Similarly, for BWB 10 and BWB 57.29 bar for BWB10 and 45 to 66.15 bars for BWB20 which

20, experimental peak pressure was found to be 45.9 bar and may be due to Ignition delay depending in-cylinder pressure,

44.8 bar respectively whereas the simulated peak pressure temperature and spray atomization. The increase in in-

was 47.2 bar and 49.6 bar showing the error of 7% and 11% cylinder pressure results in reduction in physical period of igni-

respectively. It was also noticed that peak pressure during sim- tion resulting in maximum fuel burning in the pre-mixed com-

ulation is shifted away from TDC by 1–2°CAD whereas exper- bustion phase. This effect raises the overall temperature of the

imentally, it comes closer to TDC. combustion chamber and leads to steady state heat release dur-

In compression ignition engine, pressure is mainly depen- ing the diffused combustion phase. Another reason being

dent upon the amount of fuel burnt during pre-mixed combus- higher calorific value of straight diesel compared to BWB10

tion phase. If more fuel is burnt in this phase, then the peak and BWB20 resulting in better rate of heat release. In case of

cylinder pressure would be high. In normal case, amount of 50% load and 0% load operation of the engine, the heat

fuel burning in premixed phase basically depends upon the release rate of BWB10 shows a slight increase than that of die-

ignition delay period. If ignition delay is more, then premixed sel which also may be due to additional oxygen content in the

combustion phase is reduced and hence only less amount of BWB10 blend and increase in ignition delay for lower loads.

fuel is burned in this phase. This in turn reduces the peak pres- Fig. 5 shows the variations in the experimental and simu-

sure inside the cylinder. Ignition delay is characteristics of lated results of in-cylinder pressure and net heat release rates

combustion that can vary with respect to Cetane number of for straight diesel, BWB10 and BWB20 operating at 100%

the fuel. Here in this case, the Cetane number of straight diesel load. At this operating condition, the pressure was found to

was more than that of BWB10 and BWB20 and hence the be increased up to 69 bar for diesel and 67 bar for BWB10

curve shows an increased pressure for diesel as 48 bar whereas and 65 bar for BWB20 blends which may be due to increase

BWB10 and BWB20 exhibited 45.9 bar and 44.5 bar in the engine load to the maximum extent which draws higher

respectively. power accordingly. During this period, the in-cylinder temper-

Fig. 3 also shows the net heat release rate for all the three ature and exhaust gas temperature rise to a considerable extent

fuel blends used. It can be seen that the heat release for diesel reducing the chemical delay phase of the ignition delay period

is higher than other two blends which may be due to marginal and hence early pre-mixed combustion occurs which shows the

increase in density influencing fuel droplet atomization and drastic rise in pressure and heat release of the engine. At 100%

higher latent heat of vaporization of bio fuels and hence it

Figure 3 In-cylinder pressure and net heat release comparison Figure 4 In-cylinder pressure and net heat release comparison

for experimental and simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10 for experimental and simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10

and BWB20 blend ratios at 0% load. and BWB20 blend ratios at 50% load.

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model 9

negligible effect which may be due to increase in in-cylinder

temperature leading to formation of mono-atomic oxygen hav-

ing tendency to oxidize with carbon and nitrogen molecules

present in the air fuel mixture leading to the formation

carbon-monoxide and oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust across

all biodiesel blends. Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is a phe-

nomenon which describes the extent of combustion inside the

combustion chamber. High EGT signifies complete oxidization

of air–fuel mixture along with emission such as oxides of car-

bon and nitrogen. In the present scenario, EGT of diesel is

higher when compared with the other blends of BWB10 and

BWB20 which may be due better combustible and high

flammability properties of straight diesel on comparison with

BWB10 and BWB20 blend ratios.

Figure 6 Rate of pressure rise comparison for experimental and

3.2. Rate of pressure rise simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10 and BWB20 blend

ratios at 0% load.

Fig. 6 shows the rate of pressure rise for experimental and sim-

ulated values of engine fuelled with straight diesel, BWB10 and

BWB20 at 0% load condition, where the rate of pressure rise

was found to be 1.1 bar for diesel and 0.8 bar for BWB10

and 1.1 bar for BWB20 when compared with theoretical data

which show 1.21 bar, 1 bar, and 1.16 bar for straight diesel,

BWB10 and BWB20 respectively with an average of 7–9%

variation in experimental and theoretical results. Fig. 7 depicts

the changes in rate of pressure rise for modelled and experi-

mental results for straight diesel, and BWB10 and BWB20 at

50% load operation which shows a significant increase on

BWB20 for both simulated and experimental results on com-

parison with 0% load condition which may be due higher

latent heat of vaporization and lower combustion duration.

Fig. 8 shows the comparison between rate of pressure rise

for straight diesel, BWB10 and BWB20 for experimental and

simulated model at 100% load operations which exhibits a

Figure 7 Rate of pressure rise comparison for experimental and

higher value of 6.4 bar, 5.68 bar and 5.53 bar for straight die-

simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10 and BWB20 blend

sel, BWB10 and BWB20 blend ratio. It can be seen that the

ratios at 50% load.

rate of pressure rise lies very close between BWB10 and

BWB20 due to their marginal variation in density which leads

simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10 and BWB20 blend

ratios at 100% load.

Figure 5 In-cylinder pressure and net heat release comparison to better atomization of the fuel particles in the combustion

for experimental and simulated models of straight diesel, BWB10 chamber [6]. It can be also noted that the rate of pressure rise

and BWB20 blend ratios at 100% load. is more when the fuel is complete atomized. Since the increase

Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

10 V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj

in latent heat of vaporization and relatively lower density of [6] C.D. Rakopoulos, K.A. Antonopoulos, D.C. Rakopoulos,

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[7] Dulari Hansdah, S. Murugan, L.M. Das, Experimental studies

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[10] Y.L. Ge, L.G. Chen, F.R. Sun, C. Wu, Performance of diesel

study, thermodynamic approach was used to predict the in- cycle with heat transfer, friction and variable specific heats of

cylinder pressure, and Wiebie’s and Wolfer’s relation are working fluids, J. Energy Inst. 80 (2007) 239–242.

applied to analyse heat release correlations and ignition delay [11] Guven Gonca, Erinc Dobrucali, Theoretical and experimental

respectively along with gas dynamics, heat transfer and FMEP study on the performance of a diesel engine fueled with diesel–

equations. At 0% load, the cylinder pressure for straight diesel biodiesel blends, Renew. Energy 93 (2016) 658–666.

was found to be 48.09 bar and 52.9 bar for experimental and [12] J.H. Helock, D.E. Winterbone, Thermodynamics and Gas

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Please cite this article in press as: V. Hariram, R. Bharathwaaj, Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI

engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends, Alexandria Eng. J. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.021

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