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This guide was developed by Carol Ann Tomlinson, Associate Professor of Educational

Leadership, Foundations, and Policy at The Curry School of Education, University of


Virginia; and Leslie J. Kiernan, Video Producer and Program Manager, ASCD.

The video program was produced by ASCD.


We gratefully acknowledge the support and participation of the Fairfax County Public
Schools, Fairfax, Virginia; the Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville,
Maryland; and the Scottsdale Unified School District, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Leslie J. Kiernan, Producer


Sally Chapman, Development Team Member
Marge Scherer, Development Team Member

Gary Bloom, Director, Design and Production Services


Terrey Hatcher Quindlen, Manager, Editorial Services
Georgia McDonald, Senior Graphic Designer
Valerie Sprague, Desktop Publishing Specialist
Vivian Coss, Production Coordinator

ASCD, a community of educators, advocating sound policies and sharing best practices
to achieve the success of each learner.
ASCD publications present a variety of viewpoints. The views expressed or implied in
the video program and manual should not be interpreted as official positions of the
Association.

Copyright © 2001 by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,


1703 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311-1714 USA. All rights reserved.
Materials in the “Handouts and Overheads” and “Resources and Readings” sections of
this manual are intended for use in face-to-face workshops designed as part of this
video staff development program. For this purpose, materials in these sections of the
guide may be reproduced. Any other use of these materials is prohibited, unless written
permission is granted by ASCD.

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development


Telephone: 800-933-2723, or 703-578-9600
Fax: 703-575-5871
E-mail: member@ascd.org
Internet: www.ascd.org

ASCD Stock Nos.: Entire Series, 401071; Facilitator’s Guide, 401071LG; Tape 1,
401072; Tape 2, 401073; Tape 3, 401074; DVD, 601071

ISBN 0-87120-459-2, At Work in the Differentiated Classroom Series; ISBN


0-87120-487-8, Facilitator’s Guide; ISBN 0-87120-460-6, Tape 1: Planning
Curriculum and Instruction; ISBN 0-87120-461-4, Tape 2: Managing the Classroom;
ISBN 0-87120-462-2, Tape 3: Teaching for Learner Success; ISBN 1-4166-0209-7,
At Work in the Differentiated Classroom Series DVD

07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Differentiation as a Journey Toward Professional Expertise . . . . . . . . . 3
Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Purpose of the Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
About the Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Series Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Role of the Workshop Facilitator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Preface to Workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Special Note About Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Workshop 1: Planning Curriculum and Instruction (Overview) . . . . . . . 15
Workshop 2: Planning Curriculum and Instruction
(Interactive Workshop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Workshop 3: Managing the Classroom (Overview) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Workshop 4: Managing the Classroom (Interactive Workshop) . . . . . . . 28
Workshop 5: Teaching for Learner Success (Overview) . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Workshop 6: Teaching for Learner Success (Interactive Workshop) . . . . 40

Handout 1 Top Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


Handout 2 What Is Differentiation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Handout 3 Some Underlying Assumptions of
Differentiated Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Handout 4 Challenges and Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Handout 5 Jigsaw Base Group Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Handout 6 Jigsaw Specialty Group Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Handout 7 Can It Be Done? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Handout 8 Goal Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Handout 9 Management Hot Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Handout 10 Plus—Minus—Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Handout 11 RAFT Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Handout 12 Self-Assessment on Classroom
Management for Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Handout 13 Getting Started: A Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Handout 14 Specialty Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Handout 15 Ideas for Future Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Handout 16 Goal Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Handout 17 Role of the Teacher in a
Differentiated Classroom (Part I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Handout 18 Reflecting on the Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Handout 19 Analyzing the Role of the Teacher
in a Differentiated Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Handout 20 Thinking About the Deep Structures of School . . . . . . . 91
Handout 21 Double-Entry Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Handout 22 A Cooperative Controversy on Grading . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Handout 23 Guidelines Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Handout 24 Role of the Teacher in a Differentiated
Classroom (Part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Overhead 1 Objectives of the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Overhead 2 What Is Differentiation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Overhead 3 Some Categories of Interest in a
Differentiated Classroom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Overhead 4 Ideas for Effective Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Overhead 5 Objectives of Today’s Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Overhead 6 What Is Differentiation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Overhead 7 One More Way of Thinking About Differentiation . . . . 113
Overhead 8 Challenges and Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Overhead 9 3-Minute Buzz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Overhead 10 Ahas and Affirmations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Overhead 11 Works/Quirks/Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Overhead 12 Jigsaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Overhead 13 One-Liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Overhead 14 Objectives of the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Overhead 15 Plus—Minus—Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Overhead 16 Objectives of the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Overhead 17 From the Mouths of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Overhead 18 Learning with Forced Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Overhead 19 RAFT Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Overhead 20 3-Minute Buzz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Overhead 21 Selecting Specialty Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Overhead 22 Learning from Extended Metaphors . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Overhead 23 Objectives of the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Overhead 24 Objectives of the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Overhead 25 Analyzing the Role of the Teacher
in a Differentiated Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Overhead 26 Growing as a Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Overhead 27 3-Minute Buzz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Overhead 28 The Need for Continual Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Overhead 29 A Mobile of Elements in a Differentiated Classroom . . . 157
Overhead 30 A Cooperative Controversy on Grading
in a Differentiated Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Overhead 31 One-Sentence Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Overhead 32 Guideline Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Overhead 33 Teacher Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Overhead 34 Short-Term Goal Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Reading 1 “Teach Me, Teach My Brain: A Call for Differentiated
Classrooms,” by Carol Ann Tomlinson and
M. Layne Kalbfleisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Reading 2 “Mapping a Route Toward Differentiated Instruction,”
by Carol Ann Tomlinson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Reading 3 “On the Road to Differentiated Practice,”
by Kim L. Pettig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Reading 4 “Reconcilable Differences? Standards-Based Teaching
and Differentiation,” by Carol Ann Tomlinson. . . . . . . 183
Reading 5 “Grading for Success,” by Carol Ann Tomlinson . . . . . 187
Reading 6 “How Reggio Emelia Encourages Inclusion,”
by Rebecca K. Edmiaston and Linda May Fitzgerald . . . 190
Reading 7 “Shifting into High Gear,” by Evelyn Schneider . . . . . . 193
I n my first year as a teacher, I came to understand that there were strug-
gling kids in my class, and I felt badly for them. I also realized there
Differentiation
were smart kids in my class. I liked that. It made me feel successful. My as a Journey
first year of teaching coincided with the desegregation of schools in the
state where I taught, and I was introduced for the first time in a personal
Toward
way to educational inequities. I also realized in an undefined sort of way Professional
that culture plays a role in shaping who we are. I learned similar lessons
from students whose lives were sculpted, in part, by poverty. I felt the Expertise
impact of those insights deeply but had little sense of what to do with
them. In that year, in fact, it really didn’t occur to me that my actions
affected my students’ learning. It certainly didn’t occur to me that I might
see them as individuals who needed me to teach them in different ways.

That lesson first became clear in my third year of teaching when I met
Golden, a 15-year-old 7th grader who did not know the whole alphabet.
Unseasoned as I still was in teaching, I did at least know that my teach-
the-whole-class approach was unsatisfactory for him. In April, I realized
that Jonathan, who sat at the table with Golden, was in trouble too. I had
deemed him a success in my class because he made As and laughed at
my attempts at subtle humor. In the spring, I realized I had not taught
him a thing during the year, but rather my curriculum and instruction had
caused him to march in place academically, if not to backslide—and I
celebrated that with As. I had no idea what to do about Jonathan and
Golden (and other students who, I began to realize, had similar needs).
I just knew I had to try to learn to teach in a different way.

In time, kids like Repp and David helped me understand what it meant
to have a learning disability and how, together, we could make the class-
room work for them. Kids like Michelle and Donna and Jason taught me
about cultural similarities and differences and how I could be a partner in
helping them chart a journey toward dreams that seemed out of reach
when they stood alone. Kids like Tevin and Micah taught me about dis-
abilities, coping, and how to acknowledge challenges without succumb-
ing to them. Susan taught me about a world filled with ghosts and the
desire to emerge from it. Lisa taught me about living in a home that no
child should ever have to suffer. Even as I began to teach adults, Lori
taught me about entering with her into a world without sound; Miriam
and Yu Chu taught me of the courage it takes to speak up in a language
not one’s own.

3
With the help of these students and legions like them, I came to under-
stand that a teacher’s job is to teach individual human beings who share
remarkable similarities and are profoundly different. I want each of those
students to achieve a sense of immense possibility unfolding before
them. I want each of them to earn a sense of self-efficacy with the sub-
jects I teach—and to get a kick out of them as well. It was clear to me a
few years into teaching that I could not accomplish those things for the
menagerie of learners who came my way daily by teaching in a uniform
way. Developing a philosophy that supports attending to learner variance
wasn’t so hard. It has taken me a career to figure out routines, processes,
and strategies to translate that philosophy into action. (In the process, of
course, the philosophy has matured as well.)

What I know now, 30-plus years into an educational career, is that if I


taught for another 30 years, I would still have more to learn about how to
develop a classroom where everyone belongs, where everyone is
expected to work like crazy and has the right to expect support for suc-
cess on her own terms, where there’s always another way to approach
teaching if I just keep searching a bit longer. What I know now is that
teaching effectively in academically diverse classrooms is a career-long
process. I can chart my growth as an educator with milestones along that
journey. And the road has no end.

Teaching well is about teaching everyone well, and I cannot do that by


treating all learners as though they are essentially alike. Teaching every-
body well requires an openness that is discomforting and a humility
acquired through uncertainty. The mass nature of schooling responds to
the idea of teaching individuals as a body responds to a germ.

Nonetheless, Golden and Jonathan and Tevin and Repp and Yu Chu and
Michelle and all the others continue to come to school in greater numbers
than ever before. There are more of them to fail if we persist in looking
past what learners bring to school with them as though it were of little
significance in the classroom. For that reason, many teachers are willing
to fight the bondage of old habits and think about new ways to acknowl-
edge and address human variance in the classroom. We hope this set of
videos, the facilitator’s guide, and especially the conversation they gener-
ate among professional educators assist with that quest.

4
This program is based on the following assumptions:

1. Students differ as learners. Most contemporary classrooms—even


those designated as more homogeneous in nature—are composed of
students who bring to school differences shaped by experience, ability,
interest, mode of learning, expectations about themselves as learners,
culture, language, and gender.

2. To learn well, each student needs appropriate challenge, success,


and learning experiences. We learn best when tasks are just a little too
hard for us and when someone supports us in bridging that “difficulty
gap.” Our learning is also more successful if we are interested in what we
learn and see a purpose for it, and if learning conditions match our learn-
ing needs.

3. It’s unlikely that we will achieve challenge, success, and instruc-


tional fit for each learner by ignoring student differences. To achieve
appropriate challenge for a full range of learners in a classroom, materi-
als and tasks cannot always be at the same level of difficulty and pacing
cannot always be uniform. To construct learning experiences that tap and
extend interests of all learners, tasks will have to allow exploration of a
range of interests. To ensure the best results, classrooms will need to
offer multiple ways of learning and expressing learning.

4. Effective attention to academic diversity needs to take place in an


environment of mutual respect and safety with emphasis on growth
and shared responsibility for learning. A sense of community within a
classroom occurs when a teacher actively helps students recognize the
value in both the commonalities and the differences in its members. Fur-
ther, the classroom must be a place where students feel safe being who
they are—whether that means having unusual ideas, being extra smart,
struggling to read, battling emotions, speaking a language other than
English, having a physical disability, being tall or short, and so on. That
sort of community and safety, in many ways, runs counter to human
nature and therefore requires a teacher with the desire and determination
to be a leader in achieving it. The classroom also needs to be a place
where the emphasis is more on individual growth than on competitive
standing. Finally, settings in which individual needs are met will be ones
in which students and teachers share responsibility for a classroom that
works effectively and efficiently for everyone.

5. Attending to student differences requires a flexible approach to


teaching. For many of us as teachers, the greatest challenge to address-
ing academic diversity is coming to understand how to lead a classroom

5
that is flexible in its orientation to teaching and learning. To achieve that
flexibility we must craft routines that enhance student independence and
free us as teachers to work some of the time with individuals and small
groups. The routines must become comfortable and familiar to students
and teacher alike.

6. Successful attention to student differences must be rooted in solid


curriculum and instruction. A classroom where students are active,
involved learners and where curriculum is based on important ideas that
are organized to be meaningful, memorable, and useful is not only the
best environment for differentiation; it’s also a better classroom overall.
Differentiation takes work, so it makes sense to be sure that we are dif-
ferentiating powerful curriculum and effective instruction.

7. There are many routes to achieving high-quality curriculum


taught in ways that attend to student differences and build commu-
nity. Although there are certainly principles that govern effective differ-
entiation, there’s no single “recipe” for achieving it. Teachers with
differing personalities, teaching at different grade levels, and teaching
different subjects can find many ways to meet students where they are
and move them along, providing a sense of personal achievement and
satisfaction for teacher and students alike.

8. Developing differentiated classrooms calls on us not so much to


develop a bag of tricks as to rethink teaching and learning. Differen-
tiation isn’t a strategy to use occasionally but rather is a way of thinking
about teaching and learning. It’s not just a matter of teachers learning
what to do in the classroom to effectively teach the maximum number of
learners, but also of coming to understand why it matters to do those
things.

A t Work in the Differentiated Classroom is designed to help teachers


(1) develop additional images of how classrooms function when they
have a goal of flexible teaching and learning with the purpose of reaching
every learner, (2) reflect on the “big picture” of differentiation in order to
develop a sharper sense of how teachers plan for academic diversity over
time and how students work in a differentiated classroom over time,
(3) develop a broader repertoire of management strategies for guiding a
flexible and differentiated classroom, (4) reflect on the role of the teacher
in a student-centered and differentiated classroom, and (5) reflect on their
own beliefs and practices related to academically diverse learners.

6
The workshops are designed to stimulate thought and provide an oppor-
tunity for shared reflection among educators. They also include opportu-
nities for teachers to set personal goals for classroom implementation of
ideas and insights that prompt continued growth in teaching learners for
whom one-size-fits-all curriculum and instruction are a misfit.

T his video-based professional development series consists of three


videotapes and a facilitator’s guide. Tape 1 examines planning
curriculum and instruction in a differentiated classroom. Tape 2 provides
information on managing a differentiated classroom. Tape 3 focuses on
the teacher in a differentiated classroom. This guide includes detailed
agendas and activities for workshops, as well as handouts, overheads,
and additional readings and resources.

Two workshop formats are provided for each videotape. The first work-
shop format is a short session designed to give participants an opportu-
nity to view the video program in its entirety and to reflect on and share
broad reactions to and perspectives about the issues addressed. The sec-
ond workshop format is a full-day session with activities designed to
deepen participants’ understanding of specific issues and strategies
related to differentiation and how to apply them in the classroom.

The facilitator’s guide is designed to help you get the greatest possible
benefits from this video series. The workshop activities and discussion
questions included here can serve as a starting point. However, the facili-
tator’s choices of activities and questions should certainly not be limited
to those contained in this guide. Indeed, the facilitator should encourage
participants to raise their own questions based on the particular needs or
concerns of their school, district, or community.

This guide is organized in four sections:

· Introduction. This section presents an overview of the philosophy,


principles, and research findings pertaining to teaching in a differen-
tiated classroom, as well as a description of the video programs and
workshop formats.

· Workshops. This section provides agendas, materials, and informa-


tion needed for the facilitator to plan and conduct two different work-
shops for each videotape in the series.

· Handouts and Overheads. This section consists of the materials to


be duplicated and distributed to participants in each workshop. The

7
materials include camera-ready masters for overhead transparencies
that are incorporated within the various workshop sessions.

· Resources and Readings. This section includes a list of resources


on differentiating instruction and managing the differentiated class-
room. It also contains a select collection of readings that may be
duplicated and distributed to workshop participants. Readings 1–5
are incorporated into the workshop formats. Although Readings 6
and 7 are not specifically referenced in the workshops, they may be
distributed as useful supplementary materials.

A fter viewing the three videotapes and participating in the workshops,


participants should be able to

· Articulate and discuss key elements in a teacher’s planning for differ-


entiation over time.

· Analyze and pose solutions to problems and issues inherent in differ-


entiated classrooms.

· Describe and develop routines and procedures for effective leader-


ship in a flexible classroom.

· Describe roles of a teacher in a differentiated classroom.

· Reflect on their own growth in addressing academic diversity in the


classroom.

· Generate goals and plans for professional growth and leadership in


differentiating curriculum and instruction in their classrooms.

W hether you decide to simply show the videotapes to a group or to


conduct the workshops outlined in the next section, your prepara-
tion for the sessions and your openness to discussion will enable you to
help your group benefit from this program. It is important that you view
the videotapes and read through this manual before the workshops. Your
background, knowledge, and outside reading will provide you with a
strong base for discussion. As a facilitator, you have several major
responsibilities:

8
Read and View the Materials

· Read the facilitator’s guide and other reference materials.

· View the videotapes. As you preview the tapes, you may want to
record the tape counter numbers for the beginning of each section or
example to use as a reference during the workshops.

Prepare the Program Activities

· Select the workshop format that is most appropriate for your


audience.

· Select the workshop activities you will use and modify them, if nec-
essary, to meet the needs of your audience.

· Plan agendas for your workshops, including workshop objectives.


Note specific allotments of time, including time for breaks. (Sug-
gested agendas and objectives are included in this guide.)

· Arrange for refreshments.

Check the Room and the Seating

· Reserve a room large enough to arrange seats in a way that is condu-


cive to group discussion and watching the video.

· Arrange for an adequate number of comfortable seats.

Arrange for Equipment

· Arrange for the use of a VCR and monitor. (A 23- or 25-inch moni-
tor will suffice for up to 25 participants.) Check the video equipment
to ensure that it is in good working condition. Check the electrical
outlets in the room to make sure they are in working order. Be sure
you have any necessary extension cords or adapters.

· Arrange for the use of an overhead projector, a screen, and a writing


surface (e.g., blank transparencies, flip chart, or chalkboard). Make
sure you have the right kind of pens or markers for the surfaces you
choose.

Prepare Materials

· Duplicate any handouts and readings from this guide that you intend
to distribute to participants. If you plan to distribute other materials,
make sure you comply with all copyright policies.

9
· Make transparencies from the overhead masters and copy them if
you want to use them as additional handouts.

· Gather chart paper, masking tape for posting chart paper on the
walls, and several felt-tip markers.

Announce the Workshops

· Publish a flyer that specifies the time, day, date, and location for the
workshop.

· Contact everyone who will be involved in the workshop. If appropri-


ate to your situation, invite parents, community leaders, and
businesspeople.

10
E ach of the three videotapes in this series is accompanied by two
workshops—a short session lasting 80 to 90 minutes and a long ses-
sion lasting 6½ to 7 hours. The short sessions (Workshops 1, 3, and 5)
are designed for viewing an entire videotape and considering a few gen-
eral questions to guide reflection on the tape and to elicit reactions and
responses. These sessions may be useful in providing an overview of the
topics for a group of educators. The long sessions (Workshops 2, 4, and
6) are intended for more in-depth exploration of topics. They are more
interactive in nature and are well suited to being presented in full-day
sessions or two half-day sessions. It is also possible to develop a full-day
workshop that uses two of the videotapes and a portion of the materials
in the facilitator’s guide related to each of the tapes. This might be par-
ticularly helpful if you have limited staff development time and need
participants to see both the larger picture of differentiation presented in
Tape 1 and some of the easily applicable suggestions presented in Tapes
2 and 3. The sequence of videotapes and workshops is as follows.

Workshop 1: (85–90 minutes) An overview of Tape 1: Planning Curricu-


lum and Instruction

Workshop 2: (6½–7 hours) An interactive workshop on Planning


Curriculum and Instruction

Workshop 3: (85–90 minutes) An overview of Tape 2: Managing the


Classroom

Workshop 4: (6½–7 hours) An interactive workshop on Managing the


Classroom

Workshop 5: (80–85 minutes) An overview of Tape 3: Teaching for


Learner Success

Workshop 6: (6½–7 hours) An interactive workshop on Teaching for


Learner Success

T his series may also be used for self-study. If you use the materials in
this way, follow the same sequence of activities and reference the
same materials used in the workshops. Substitute journal entries for the
group discussions and activities; take some time to reflect on the question
or issue that is raised and record your thoughts. Conclude each workshop
with an entry on any new insights you have gained or questions you have
on teaching in a differentiated classroom.

13
T he workshops are designed to have participants work on activities in
a variety of groupings. At times the groups are based on like teaching
assignments, at other times on varied teaching assignments; sometimes
the groups are random. The workshops also provide opportunities to
work alone. In the longer workshops, tasks draw on varied approaches to
learning. It is important, however, for you as the workshop facilitator to
invite participants to let you know when alternatives would be more
effective for them and for you to anticipate and plan for such alternatives
when possible. For example, if you know you have teachers in a work-
shop who already practice differentiation effectively, you might want to
group them together at some points to share ideas at a more advanced
level or to provide more advanced readings on topics in the workshops.
You can offer participants the chance to work alone at any point rather
than with a group if that’s more effective for them. Be sure to let partici-
pants know that the sessions are designed to accommodate their various
needs and to invite them to help you do that even more effectively.

14
This session explores how teachers plan curriculum and instruction over
time in differentiated classrooms. It invites participants to consider issues
and develop insights about five key elements of most classrooms that
successfully address varied learner needs. Use the following agenda for
this session, or vary it to suit your specific needs.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 25
View Tape 1: Planning Curriculum and Instruction 40
Reflection 15
Wrap-Up 5–10

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 85–90 minutes

For this workshop, you will need copies of Handout 1 and Overheads 1
and 2 for each participant. You will also need Overheads 1–4 for your Providing folders with all mate-
own use. You will find these in the Handouts and Overheads section of rials inside is an efficient way to
distribute handouts and other re-
this guide. You may also wish to provide copies of some of the readings
sources. You may also wish to
suggested in the Resources and Readings section. Although the readings provide name tags. Before par-
are intended for the longer workshops, they can be used as follow-up ticipants arrive, write the objec-
material for this workshop. Other materials needed for this workshop tives for the session on flip chart
include chart paper, masking tape, and markers to record participant paper, or use Overhead 1, Ob-
jectives of the Workshop.
observations—or you may prefer to use marking pens to record observa-
tions on an overhead.

1. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

2. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants


know each other, you may want to include time for participants to
introduce themselves individually.

15
3. Present the objectives for this overview workshop as written on the
flip chart or on Overhead 1.

4. Depending on the group’s level of experience with the concept of


differentiation, you may wish to provide them with some definitions
of differentiation (Overhead 2, What Is Differentiation?) or your
school/district rationale for encouraging teachers to become more
skilled and comfortable in working with academically diverse
learners.

5. Ask participants to use Handout 1, Top Three, to help them draw on


their own ideas and experiences about teaching in academically
diverse classrooms in order to establish a context for viewing the
video. Begin the Top Three exercise by asking each participant to use
the first matrix on the handout to list three key challenges related to
each of five elements, or categories, that are generally important in
differentiated classrooms. Allow about 10 minutes for participants to
work alone on Part 1 of the Top Three activity.

6. Next, ask participants to form groups of three or four to discuss their


ideas. It would be useful to have the groups include representatives
of differing grade levels, subjects, and lengths of teaching experi-
ence, rather than, for example, having a group composed of all math
teachers or all 7th grade teachers or all beginning teachers. Ask par-
ticipants to use the second matrix on Handout 1 to add to or revise
their top three questions or issues as they talk with colleagues. Allow
about 10 minutes for Part 2 of the Top Three activity.

Planning Curriculum and Instruction

1. Suggest that participants view the video with the categories (effective
curriculum, flexible teaching, shared responsibility, building commu-
nity, and emphasis on individual growth) in mind, as well as their
own questions and issues. You may want to use Overhead 3, Some
Categories of Interest in a Differentiated Classroom, to remind them
of the categories. Suggest that it should be interesting to see whether
the teachers in the video seem to consider these categories in their
work and to see how the thinking of the teachers in the video is simi-
lar to and different from that of the participants.

2. Note that the video shows teachers thinking about differentiating


curriculum and instruction over an extended period of time in their
classrooms. This gives viewers a chance to see how teachers plan for

16
differentiation as well as how students experience differentiation
throughout a unit.

3. Show Tape 1, Planning Curriculum and Instruction.

1. Ask participants to use the third matrix on Handout 1, Top Three, to


reflect on the video. It asks them to note insights they had or beliefs
they had affirmed related to the categories as a result of watching the
video. Ask participants to work alone on the matrix and to be pre-
pared to share with colleagues one idea they could apply in their
teaching to respond more effectively to a variety of learner needs.
Allow 10 minutes for completing the matrix.

2. Ask participants to share one idea they could apply in their teaching
to more effectively respond to a variety of learner needs and how
they would use that idea. Ask participants to share with the whole
group so that you can list their ideas on chart paper or on Overhead
4, Ideas for Effective Differentiation.

3. Return to Overhead 1, Objectives of the Workshop. Ask participants


if they feel the objectives were addressed.

4. Thank participants for their attendance and contributions to the


workshop.

17
This workshop is designed for use with Tape 1, to guide participants in

· Reviewing or establishing an overview of what differentiated instruc-


tion is.

· Examining assumptions related to differentiation.

· Identifying issues or challenges related to teaching in a differentiated


classroom.

· Proposing solutions to those challenges.

· Reflecting on their own practice and goals related to teaching aca-


demically diverse students.

The following agenda includes the times required for viewing the video
and completing the workshop activities. You may wish to adjust the time
schedule, modify some activities, or delete an activity to meet the needs
and interests of your group.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 15
What Is Differentiation? 25
Assumptions About Differentiation 40
Wrap-Up 5
Break 15
Challenges and Suggestions (Part 1) 25
View Tape 1: Planning Curriculum and Instruction 50
Challenges and Suggestions (Part 2) 20
Lunch 60
Article Jigsaw 75
Break 15
Can We Meet the Needs? 20
Wrap-Up 25

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 6 hours, 30 minutes

18
For this workshop, you will need copies of Handouts 2–8 and Readings
1–4 for each participant. You will also need Overheads 5–13. Masters for Providing folders with all mate-
these materials are in the Handouts and Overheads and the Resources and rials inside is an efficient way to
distribute handouts and other
Readings sections of this guide. If you wish to substitute or add readings, resources. You may also wish to
you will need copies for each participant. You will also need chart paper, provide name tags. Before par-
markers, and masking tape for participants to use in the Article Jigsaw ticipants arrive, write the objec-
activity, marking pens for you to use in recording participant observa- tives for the workshop on the flip
chart or use Overhead 5, Objec-
tions during wrap-ups, and marking pens for participants to use in the
tives of Today’s Workshop.
What Is Differentiation? activity.

1. At the door, have a sign-in sheet for participants to record their


names, addresses, and phone numbers.

2. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

3. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants


know each other, you may want to include time for participants to
introduce themselves individually or in small groups. You may also
ask them to state why they are interested in learning about teaching
in a differentiated classroom and to describe briefly the extent to
which they are familiar with differentiation as a result of their own
practice, reading, learning from colleagues, or some other way.

4. Briefly review the objectives of the workshop as listed on Overhead


5, Objectives of Today’s Workshop, or on flip chart paper.

1. Tell participants it is helpful for the group to have a shared sense of


what differentiation means as they begin the workshop. For that rea-
son, you will ask them to work in groups of three or four to generate
ideas, examples, and a definition of differentiation. Ask participants
to try to work with colleagues who teach in similar grades (for exam-
ple, all primary, elementary, middle school, or high school). Distrib-
ute Handout 2, What Is Differentiation? Remind participants to
complete the handout with their best insights, not necessarily their
first responses. You may want to have several copies of the handout
on overhead transparencies (Overhead 6, What Is Differentiation?)
that you can distribute with marking pens to a few of the groups so

19
that they can share their responses with the whole group on the
overhead projector. Allow about 15 minutes for this portion of
the activity.

2. Have representatives of a few groups share their thinking with the


whole group. You may then want to use Overhead 7, One More Way
of Thinking About Differentiation, to show the group an additional
way of thinking about what differentiation is. Remind the group that
there are many appropriate ways of completing the organizer. The
purpose of the task is not to narrow thinking but to establish some
common ground before you proceed. Allow about 10 minutes for this
portion of the activity.

1. Remind participants that differentiation is more a philosophy of


teaching than a set of strategies or a bag of tricks. For that reason, it’s
important to consider beliefs as well as actions related to teaching in
academically diverse classrooms. Ask participants to again form
groups of three or four, but this time the groups should be composed
of people from varied grade levels (for example, a mix of primary,
middle, and high school teachers). Distribute Handout 3, Some
Underlying Assumptions of Differentiated Instruction. The handout
lists 12 assumptions. Ask each group to appoint a discussion leader
and a timekeeper to help them stay focused as they discuss the
assumptions. They should be able to discuss their views on most
of the assumptions before you call time. Allow 35 minutes for the
discussions.

2. Ask participants to share with the group assumptions about which


they had strong agreements or disagreements. Remind the group that
teachers vary as much in their experiences and perspectives as stu-
dents do. The goal of the discussions has been to evoke varied view-
points on a complex topic. The workshop is not designed to provide
“right answers” but to encourage thinking. Allow 5 minutes for this
portion of the activity.

1. Share with the group some interesting observations you’ve made as


you’ve listened to them during the session so far, some insights they
have prompted you to have, or some questions they have raised in
your mind. Remind participants that examination of definitions and
assumptions about complex teaching practices provides an important

20
foundation for thinking about why we do what we do in the
classroom.

2. Tell participants that after a break, they will begin to examine spe-
cific elements of teaching in a differentiated classroom.

1. Remind participants that virtually every element of classroom prac-


tice is challenged when we begin to think about doing what it takes
to help every student grow as much as possible. Curriculum can no
longer be exactly the same for everyone all the time. Instruction has
to become more flexible. “Fair” can no longer mean treating every-
one exactly alike.

2. Distribute Handout 4, Challenges and Suggestions. Ask participants


to work in pairs with partners whose teaching assignments are simi-
lar to theirs to complete the first two columns in the Challenges and
Suggestions handout. The task calls on them to note some challenges
that a differentiated classroom might present in six categories of
classroom elements and then to propose their own suggestions for
how these challenges might be addressed in a differentiated class-
room. You may wish to use Overhead 8, Challenges and Suggestions,
to model an example or two of what you mean by challenges and
suggestions.

1. Tell participants the following:

◆ The video you’ll be watching shows teachers at work in dif-


ferentiated classrooms. It is designed to help you see how
some teachers deal with curriculum, assessment, building
community while honoring individuality, the need for flexi-
bility, establishing shared responsibility for the classroom,
grouping students, and other elements. I’ll stop the video
about halfway through to give you time to share your re-
sponses with your partners.

2. Show Tape 1, Planning Curriculum and Instruction, stopping at


about the halfway point.

21
3. Use Overhead 9, 3-Minute Buzz, to give directions to participants for
discussing their reactions thus far. Allow 3 minutes for this portion of
the activity.

4. Use Overhead 10, Ahas and Affirmations, to record a few observa-


tions from the group. Ahas are things participants didn’t expect to
see in these classrooms but that seem interesting. Affirmations are
things they’ve seen that affirm their thinking and suggestions. Allow
3 minutes for this portion of the activity.

5. Show the remainder of Tape 1.

1. Ask participants to continue working with their partners to complete


the Challenges and Suggestions activity. This time, they should write
in the third column of the matrix ways in which teachers in the video
seemed to handle challenges in the six categories. Allow 15 minutes
for this portion of the activity.

2. Ask participants to share with the whole group positive practices


from the video or their own experience that seem helpful in address-
ing academic diversity, practices from the video or their own experi-
ence they feel uncertain or negative about, and questions about
addressing academic diversity that they still have. Use Overhead 11,
Works/Quirks/Questions, to record responses. Allow 5 minutes for
this portion of the activity.

3. Thank participants for their contributions to the activities to this


point and tell them that after lunch, they will deal in greater depth
with some areas that provide particular challenges in creating a dif-
ferentiated classroom.

Depending on the size and


nature of your group, you may
wish to substitute topics and
articles or add topics and arti-
cles to the ones suggested here.
Feel free to make substitutions or 1. Welcome participants back from lunch and tell them the afternoon
additions using materials par- will begin with an opportunity to focus a bit more in depth on some
ticularly relevant to your work-
challenging areas of creating a differentiated curriculum.
shop participants. Some of the
materials listed in the Resources
2. Ask participants to work on a Jigsaw activity to reflect on the topics
and Readings section of the
facilitator’s guide are excellent
of why the human brain needs differentiation, curriculum in a differ-
sources for additional materials entiated classroom, getting started with differentiation, and
on differentiation. standards-based instruction and differentiation.

22
3. Use Overhead 12, Jigsaw, to give the group directions for the activity.
Uncover the steps on the overhead only as you are ready for partici-
pants to follow them. First have participants select one of the four
topics (The Brain and Differentiation, Curriculum and Differentia-
tion, Getting Started in a Differentiated Classroom, Standards and
Differentiation) of interest to them. As participants select a topic,
have them gather in an area of the room you designate for the topic.
These specialty groups should be roughly equal in size.

4. Now form base groups by having one person from each of the four
topics sit together. Distribute Handout 5, Jigsaw Base Group Instruc-
tions, to each participant. Allow 10 minutes for base groups to meet
and complete Part 1 of the instructions.

5. Ask participants to reconfigure themselves in their specialty groups,


where they will read materials on the topic of their choice, discuss
the reading with other group members, and complete specialty group
instructions. Specialty groups can consist of three to six members.
Distribute Readings 1–4 (and/or others of your choice) by topic to
the specialty groups. Also distribute Handout 6, Jigsaw Specialty
Group Instructions, to each participant. Allow 30 minutes for partici-
pants to read articles and work in the specialty groups.

6. Ask participants to return to their base groups and complete Part 2 of


their instructions. Allow 30 minutes for this portion of the activity.

7. Thank participants for their work and invite them to take a break.

1. Tell participants that it is no doubt clear to them that addressing the


needs of academically diverse student populations is both important
and difficult.

2. Ask participants to complete a Think-Pair-Share-Square activity that


invites them to look at both the necessity and the complexity of
becoming more effective in teaching a range of learners. Distribute
Handout 7, Can It Be Done?

3. To guide participants in this activity, first ask them to work by them-


selves and jot down in the left-hand column reasons they believe it’s
feasible and important to address the varied needs of learners in regu-
lar education classrooms, and in the right-hand column reasons they

23
feel it is unlikely we can do so. Allow about 3 minutes for this por-
tion of the activity. Then ask each person to partner with another to
discuss their responses. Allow about 5 minutes for this portion of the
activity. Next, ask each pair to join another pair to examine both sets
of responses. Allow about 5 minutes for this portion of the activity.
Finally, pose the following question to the whole group and record
some of their ideas on flipchart paper.

· Is it realistic to think we can successfully teach the range of stu-


dents in today’s academically diverse classrooms?

Allow about 5 minutes for this exchange.

1. Ask participants to work with you on a One-Liner statement that


reflects their insights from the workshop. Use Overhead 13, One-
Liners, for directions. Allow about 12 minutes for this portion of the
wrap-up.

2. Remind participants that one of the day’s goals is having them reflect
on steps they may take in their own classrooms to become more
skilled and comfortable in working with academically diverse learn-
ers. Ask participants to generate one or two professional goals
related to differentiation. Tell them you would like them to write
down these goals and leave them with you to help you understand
what participants are reflecting on in their growth toward differentia-
tion. Distribute Handout 8, Goal Setting. Allow about 8 minutes for
goal setting.

3. Show participants Overhead 5, Objectives of Today’s Workshops.


Ask them to tell you whether they feel the objectives were addressed
by the workshop. Thank participants for their cooperation and col-
laboration during the workshop. Encourage them to continue to
reflect on their own practices that are most effective in teaching aca-
demically diverse populations and to continue learning about other
ways they can develop the skills needed to work effectively with all
their students.

24
This session explores how teachers manage differentiated classrooms.
It is designed to help participants reflect as they respond to varied learner
needs and to add to their strategies for effective management of differen-
tiated classrooms. Use the following agenda for this session or vary it to
suit your specific needs.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 25
View Tape 2: Managing the Classroom 35
Reflection 20
Wrap-Up 5–10

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 85–90 minutes

For this workshop, you will need copies of Handouts 9 and 10 for partici-
pants and Overheads 2, 14, and 15 for your own use. You will find these Providing folders with all mate-
in the Handouts and Overheads section of this guide. You may also wish rials inside is an efficient way to
distribute handouts and other
to provide copies of some of the readings suggested in the Resources and
resources. You may also wish to
Readings section. Although the readings are intended for the longer provide name tags. Before the
workshops, they can be used as follow-up material for this workshop. workshop begins, write objec-
Other materials needed for this session include chart paper, masking tives for the workshop on flip
tape, and markers to record participant observations—or you may prefer chart paper, or use Overhead 14,
to use marking pens to record observations on an overhead.

1. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

2. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants


know each other, you may want to include time for participants to
introduce themselves individually.

3. Present the workshop objectives as listed on the flip chart or on


Overhead 14.

25
4. Depending on the group’s level of experience with the concept of dif-
ferentiation, you may wish to provide them with a definition (Over-
head 2, What Is Differentiation) or your school/district rationale for
encouraging teachers to become more skilled and comfortable in
working with academically diverse learners.

5. Distribute Handout 9, Management Hot Spots. Ask participants to


work alone to list in the first column some of the “hot spot” areas
they encounter in managing a classroom where students are engaged
in multiple activities or groups. Allow 5 minutes for this portion of
the activity.

6. Now ask participants to partner with one or two other teachers to


compare their lists and to share suggestions about how they have
tried to handle these management challenges in their teaching. (It
may be useful to have teachers of varying grade levels and subjects
work together for this portion of the activity.) Ask participants to use
column 2 of Handout 9 to jot down ideas they would like to keep.
Allow 10 minutes for this portion of the activity.

7. Thank participants for their work.

1. Suggest that participants continue to use Handout 9 to guide their


thinking as they view the video. They may wish to add additional
management issues that occur to them in the left-hand column of the
handout and continue to gather ideas for dealing with the various
management issues in the right-hand column.

2. Show Tape 2, Managing the Classroom.

1. Ask participants to work with two or three colleagues who teach


similar grade levels or subjects to complete a Plus—Minus—Ques-
tions reflection on the videotape. Tell them you will ask them to
share some of their thinking with the whole group as the workshop
ends. Distribute Handout 10, Plus—Minus—Questions. Allow 10
minutes for this activity.

2. Ask participants to share a few items they placed in each of the three
columns of Handout 10. You can record these on chart paper or on
Overhead 15, Plus-Minus-Questions. Allow 5 minutes for this por-
tion of the activity.

26
3. Ask participants to look at the right-hand column on Handout 9 and
to star strategies they feel they can use in their classrooms. Ask a few
participants to tell the group about ideas they plan to take back to
their classrooms. Allow 5 minutes for this portion of the activity.

1. Review the workshop objectives listed on Overhead 14 or the chart


paper. Ask participants if they feel the objectives were addressed.

2. Thank participants for their attendance and contributions to the


workshop. Encourage them to use some of the ideas they’ve gener-
ated today.

27
This workshop is designed to guide participants in

· Establishing or extending an understanding of what differentiated


instruction is.

· Identifying specific challenges in effective management of a differen-


tiated classroom.

· Developing practical approaches to those challenges.

· Reflecting on their own practice and goals related to teaching aca-


demically diverse students.

The following agenda includes the times required for viewing the video
and suggested times for completing the workshop activities. You may
want to adjust the time schedule, modify some activities, or delete an
activity to meet the needs and interests of your group.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 10
Quotations Warm-Up 15
Definition Review 10
Forced Analogy 10
RAFT Exercise 40
Self-Assessment 10
Break 15
Scenario Analysis 30
View Tape 2: Managing the Classroom 40
Group Response 20
Lunch 60
Specialty Groups 60
Break 15
Learning from Metaphors 30
Goal Setting 15
Wrap-Up 10

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 6 hours, 30 minutes

28
Providing folders with all mate-
For this workshop, you will need copies of Handouts 11–16 for each rials inside is an efficient way to
participant. You will also need Overheads 2, 10, and 16–22 for your own distribute handouts and other
use. Masters for these are in the Handouts and Overheads section of this resources. You may also wish to
provide name tags. Before par-
guide. You may also wish to provide copies of some of the readings sug-
ticipants arrive, write the objec-
gested in the Readings and Resources section or copies of overheads tives for the workshop on chart
from the Handouts and Overheads section. Other materials needed for paper, or use Overhead 16,
this workshop include chart paper, markers, and masking tape for partici- Objectives of the Workshop.
pants to use in the Definition Review and the specialty groups activity,
marking pens for you to use in recording participant observations during
wrap-ups, and a blank transparency for you to use in the Definition
Review.

1. At the door, have a sign-in sheet for participants to record their


names, addresses, and phone numbers.

2. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

3. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants


know each other, you may want to include time for them to introduce
themselves individually or in small groups. You might also ask the
participants to state why they are interested in learning about teach-
ing in a differentiated classroom and to describe briefly the extent to
which they are familiar with differentiation as a result of their own
practice, reading, learning from colleagues, or some other way.

4. Briefly review the objectives of the workshop as listed on flip chart


paper or on Overhead 16.

1. Remind participants that trying to differentiate instruction or attend


to the diverse needs of learners in a single classroom challenges both
our thinking and our practice. Tell them that during today’s work-
shop, you hope to extend both their thinking about academic diver-
sity in the classroom and their repertoire of practical ideas for
managing a multitask classroom.

2. Display Overhead 17, From the Mouths of . . . . Tell participants that


these are quotes from practitioners who respond in very different

29
ways to the idea of teaching with learner variability in mind. Leave
the overhead up and ask participants to arrange themselves in groups
of four to discuss their own responses to the words of these teachers.
If feasible, have participants organize themselves so that each group
includes teachers from a wide range of grade levels. Allow 8–10
minutes for this part of the activity.

3. Ask the whole group to share with you a couple of responses to each
of the quotes. Note again that if we all agreed on the importance of
teaching with needs of different learners in mind or on how to
accomplish it, we’d probably all be a lot better in differentiating
instruction than we are now. Invite participants to continue reflecting
on their own beliefs and practices throughout the workshop.

1. Remind participants that it is helpful to make sure we all have similar


definitions of differentiation if we are going to invest a day in think-
ing about how to improve it in our classrooms. Ask participants to jot
down their own working definition of differentiation on a piece of
scratch paper or on chart paper that you’ve previously placed on their
tables. Allow 5 minutes for this portion of the activity.

2. As participants work, walk around the room and record a few of their
definitions on a blank overhead transparency.

3. Share the participant definitions you recorded and/or definitions from


Overhead 2, What Is Differentiation? Point out some common ele-
ments in the definitions. Remind the group that there are multiple
ways to express what differentiation means.

1. Tell participants that when we try to rethink how we do things, an


important habit is to prompt ourselves to look at familiar things in
new ways. It helps us think outside the box. One strategy that helps
us do this is making analogies and metaphors. Tell participants that
you’ll be asking them to work with analogies and metaphors twice
today.

2. With Column A covered up, display Overhead 18, Learning with


Forced Analogies. Explain that the idea behind forced analogies is
not to find a right answer, but rather to make some unexpected con-
nections. Ask participants to identify for you some things they enjoy
doing outside of work. (You might get responses such as cooking,

30
listening to music, sleeping, rock climbing, shopping, traveling,
and so on.) List about 10 responses in Column B of the overhead.

3. Uncover Column A. Ask participants to make analogies as you call


out an item in Column A and one in Column B. (For example, you
might ask, “How is managing time in a differentiated classroom like
rock climbing?” or “How is giving directions in a differentiated
classroom like listening to music?”)

4. Encourage participants to try forced analogies with their students


when they want students to think more flexibly about ideas for writ-
ing, solving problems, interpreting events, and so on.

1. Tell participants you’d now like them to continue thinking about


managing a differentiated classroom from various perspectives. To
do that, you’re going to ask them to engage in a RAFT activity. Dis-
play Overhead 19, RAFT Activity, and distribute Handout 11, RAFT
Activity. A RAFT asks learners to play a particular Role, with a par-
ticular Audience in mind, to work in a specified Format, on a particu-
lar Topic.

2. Tell participants you’d like each of them to select one of the rows in
the matrix that’s interesting to them and to do what that row asks
them to do. Let them know they’ll be sharing their work in about 15
minutes. Get a show of hands of who is going to do each row, with
the goal of trying to get about the same number of participants work-
ing on each row. Allow 15 minutes for this portion of the activity.

3. Ask participants to group themselves in clusters of four, with each of


the four RAFT rows represented in the cluster. Ask each person in
the cluster to share what he or she created with the cluster. In addi-
tion, ask the group to generate a list of insights or conclusions they
derive from the work and the sharing. Allow about 15 minutes for
this portion of the activity.

4. Ask each cluster to share with the whole group one or two of the
insights or conclusions they generated, trying not to repeat what
other groups have said. You may wish to record these on chart paper
that you keep on display for the rest of the day.

31
1. Tell participants they will shortly be viewing a videotape in which
teachers share their strategies for managing a differentiated class-
room. Before that, it would be helpful for each participant to think
about degrees of comfort they experience in the classroom when try-
ing to make sure that activities proceed smoothly and students work
effectively.

2. Distribute Handout 12, Self-Assessment on Classroom Manage-


ment for Differentiation. Ask each participant to complete the self-
assessment and to list on the bottom of the handout the areas in
which they feel the greatest comfort and greatest discomfort from
among the categories in the assessment. Tell them the assessments
are only for their own reflection. They won’t be shared or collected.

3. Thank participants for their work and contributions and invite them
to take a break.

1. Distribute Handout 13, Getting Started: A Scenario. Ask participants


to silently read the directions and the scenario.

2. Ask participants to group themselves in clusters of four to six, this


time trying to work with partners whose teaching assignments are
similar in grade level (primary, elementary, middle, high). Their task
is to give the teacher in the scenario their best practical advice for
how to handle her management problems. Allow 20 minutes for this
activity.

3. As participants work on this activity, walk among the groups and lis-
ten to their ideas. Select and jot down some of their ideas on chart
paper. When you stop the activity, share with the whole group a few
of the ideas you gleaned from listening to their work.

1. Show Tape 2: Managing the Classroom, stopping at about the half-


way point.

2. Use Overhead 20, 3-Minute Buzz, to give directions to participants


for discussing their reactions thus far. Allow 3 minutes for this por-
tion of the activity.

32
3. Use Overhead 10, Ahas and Affirmations, to record some reactions
from the group to the first part of the video. Ahas are things partici-
pants didn’t expect to see in the classrooms shown in the video.
Affirmations are things they’ve seen that affirm their thinking and
suggestions. Use 2 minutes for this portion of the activity.

4. Show the remainder of Tape 2.

Group Response (20 Minutes)


1. Lead the whole group in a discussion of the video. Some questions
you may wish to ask include the following:

· What are some of the strategies used or discussed by teachers in


the video that you found helpful (and explain why)?

· Do you find these classrooms more flexible or less flexible than


the ones you’re most accustomed to (and in what ways)?

· What insights from the RAFT activity seem to be affirmed or


contradicted by the video? (You’ll need to have the RAFT activity
chart paper with participant responses visible to the group.)

· How do you think teachers in the video would describe their role
in the classroom? In what ways is that similar to and different
from the way most of us would describe the role of the teacher?

· At what points do you think the job of the teacher in this sort of
flexible or student-centered classroom is easier than in a more
traditional classroom? At what points does it appear to be
harder? (In both instances, why do you say so?)

· What specific responses do you think the students in Ms. Creigh-


ton’s class would have to the classes in the video?

· What sorts of opportunities do the classes in the video give


teachers to know students better than might be the case in more
traditional classes?

· How do you think the teachers in these classes developed the de-
gree of management skill they seem to have? How long do you
suppose it takes to develop this sort of proficiency of manage-
ment?

· Why do you think the teachers in the video go to the trouble of


doing battle with management dilemmas?

33
2. Thank participants for their contributions and dismiss them for lunch.

1. Remind participants that a goal for today’s workshop is developing


strategies for more comfortable and effective management of differ-
entiated classrooms. To that end, you are going to ask participants to
work on topics of interest to them related to managing a differenti-
ated classroom. Their goal will be to generate a list of practical sug-
gestions for success in orchestrating a differentiated classroom in the
topic area they select. Use Overhead 21, Selecting Specialty Groups,
to introduce the topic groups. Ask participants to select a topic of
interest and then to gather in a specified part of the room with others
who share the same interest. Ask everyone to give you their attention
again as soon as they assemble in their designated spot.

2. Ask participants to divide themselves into working groups of four or


five who selected the same topic and who teach at a similar grade
level (for example, four or five primary teachers working together,
four or five elementary teachers working together, and so on).

3. Once the working groups have formed, distribute Handout 14, Spe-
cialty Groups, and ask participants to use the instructions on the
handout as their work plan. Tell them they will have about 25 min-
utes to work together.

4. At the end of 25 minutes, ask two groups who worked on the same
topic to join and share their suggestions, compiling them into one list
on an overhead or chart paper. Allow 20 minutes for this portion of
the activity.

5. Have each combined specialty group share with the whole group
their topic and suggestions. Encourage participants to jot down ideas
that might be helpful to them. Distribute Handout 15, Ideas for
Future Reference, for participant note taking. If you have a few ideas
to add to the lists, feel free to do so. You might also want to play the
role of noting particular kinds of students who would be served well
by specific suggestions (for example, “The use of icons you’ve sug-
gested for a primary class could also be useful to visual learners who
are older, or to students for whom English is a second language.”)
Allow about 10 minutes for this portion of the activity.

6. Thank participants for their work and invite them to take a break.

34
1. Remind participants that you told them earlier in the workshop you’d
ask them twice today to develop analogies or metaphors for differen-
tiated classrooms. Earlier, the group worked with forced analogies.
Now that they’ve thought more deeply about what it means to man-
age a differentiated classroom, you’re going to ask them to develop
extended metaphors for managing a differentiated classroom. Use
Overhead 22, Learning from Extended Metaphors, to introduce the
idea.

2. Ask each participant to develop an extended metaphor for effective


and comfortable management of a differentiated classroom and one
for their own stage of development. If a participant is comfortable
with managing a differentiated classroom, he or she should use the
time to develop one extended metaphor. Tell participants that it’s fine
to write their metaphors (like the one shown on Overhead 22). On the
other hand, if some participants are more comfortable with develop-
ing visual metaphors or even kinesthetic ones (through movement or
body sculpture), that’s great too. Tell participants you’ll ask them to
share their metaphors. Allow 15 minutes for this portion of the
activity.

3. Develop metaphors of your own while participants are working on


theirs.

4. Invite participants to share their metaphors. If they are reluctant to


start, begin by sharing your metaphors. As participants share their
ideas, reflect on insights or ideas they evoke in you. Invite the group
to respond as well. Allow 10 minutes for this portion of the activity.

1. Remind participants that an objective of the workshop is to assist


them in developing additional approaches to managing a differenti-
ated classroom so that they can, in turn, apply those in their work
with students.

2. Distribute Handout 16, Goal Setting. Ask participants to jot down


management strategies they plan to use in their classrooms to help
them teach students whose learning needs differ. They do not need to
place something in every box on the handout, but rather should
record strategies they actually plan to use. There is also a box where

35
they can note areas in which they still feel the need for assistance.
(You may tell participants you’ll collect the handouts to help you
know which strategies are proving most useful to them and to help
you with further staff development planning. If you do collect the
sheets, remind participants that they do not need to put their names
on the papers.) Allow about 10 minutes for this portion of
the activity.

3. Ask a few participants to share with you the most useful idea they’ve
encountered today. You may want to share new ideas you’ve gained
as well.

1. Review the workshop objectives listed on Overhead 16. Ask partici-


pants if they feel the objectives were addressed.

2. Encourage participants to use the ideas they have gained today and to
continue to think about other ways they can make their classrooms
both more flexible and more comfortable for themselves and their
students. Also encourage them to share ideas with one another.

3. Thank participants for their attendance and contributions to the


workshop.

36
This session explores the role of the teacher in differentiated classrooms.
It is designed to help participants reflect on their own responses to varied
learner needs and to add to their strategies for effective instruction in dif-
ferentiated classrooms. Use the following agenda for this session or vary
it to suit your specific needs.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 20
View Tape 3: Teaching for Learner Success 35
Reflection 20
Wrap-Up 5–10

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 80–85 minutes

For this workshop, you will need copies of Handouts 17 and 18 for par-
ticipants and Overheads 2 and 23 for your own use. You will find these in Providing folders with all mate-
rials inside is an efficient way to
the Handouts and Overheads section of this guide. You may also wish to
distribute handouts and other
provide copies of some of the readings suggested in the Resources and resources. You may also wish to
Readings section. Although the readings are intended for the longer provide name tags. Before par-
workshops, they can be used as follow-up material for this workshop. ticipants arrive, write the objec-
Other materials needed for this session include chart paper, masking tives for the workshop on flip
chart paper, or use Overhead 23,
tape, and markers to record participant observations—or you may prefer
Objectives of the Workshop.
to use marking pens to record observations on an overhead.

1. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

2. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants


know each other, you may want to set aside time for participants to
introduce themselves individually.

3. Present the objectives for this overview workshop as listed on the flip
chart or on Overhead 23.

37
4. Depending on the group’s level of experience with the concept of dif-
ferentiation, you may wish to provide them with a definition of dif-
ferentiation (Overhead 2, What Is Differentiation?) or your school/
district rationale for encouraging teachers to become more skilled
and comfortable in working with academically diverse learners.

5. Distribute Handout 17, Role of the Teacher in a Differentiated Class-


room (Part 1). Tell participants the following:

◆ You’ll be viewing a video that examines the role of the


teacher in a differentiated classroom. Because differentiated
classrooms put a strong focus on a variety of student learning
needs, the primary role of the teacher shifts from the pur-
veyor of information to something more like that of a coach
or orchestra conductor.

Ask participants to work alone or in pairs to complete the organizer.


It’s designed to introduce them to topics in the video and to help
them link their own ideas and experiences with those they’ll see in
the video. Allow 10 minutes for this portion of the activity.

6. Ask participants to join with one or two other individuals or groups


to compare their responses. Allow 5 minutes for this portion of the
activity.

7. Thank participants for their work.

1. Suggest that as participants watch the video they look for ways in
which the teachers’ roles match, expand, or challenge the principles
and practices they predicted. Suggest that they jot down on Handout
17 practices and principles from the video that add to their ideas.

2. Show Tape 3, Teaching for Learner Success.

1. Distribute Handout 18, Reflection on the Video. Ask participants to


work in groups of three or four to discuss the questions posed in the
handout. Allow about 15 minutes for this portion of the activity.

2. Invite participants to raise additional questions that they would like


the whole group to respond to. Have participants offer their ideas
about these topics. You may want to have in mind a couple of ques-
tions you’d like to hear responses to as well—for example:

38
· What are some factors in your classrooms that you could change
to give you more freedom to work with individuals and small
groups?

· What are some features of schooling outside your control that


you’d like to see changed so that you could work more effec-
tively with individuals and small groups?

· To what degree are the external factors roadblocks to us as teach-


ers, and to what degree can we work around those constraints?

Allow about 5 minutes for this portion of the activity.

1. Review the workshop objectives listed on the flip chart or on Over-


head 23. Ask participants if they feel the objectives were addressed.

2. Thank participants for their attendance and contributions to the


workshop. Encourage them to use some of the ideas they’ve gener-
ated today and to continue to reflect on possible roles teachers can
play to ensure success for each learner.

39
This workshop is designed to guide participants in

· Establishing or extending an understanding of what differentiated


instruction is.

· Analyzing the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom.

· Developing practical strategies for making their role in the classroom


more student-focused.

· Reflecting on the implications of differentiation for grading


practices.

The following agenda includes the times required for viewing Tape 3 and
suggested times for completing the workshop activities. You may want to
adjust the time schedule, modify some activities, or delete an activity to
meet the needs and interests of your group.

Activity Minutes

Introduction 10
Role of the Teacher: Part 1 25
Deep Structures of Schooling 30
Double-Entry Journal: Part 1 20
Break 15
View Tape 3: Teaching for Learner Success 40
Double-Entry Journal: Part 2 20
Mobile Analysis 20
Lunch 60
Cooperative Controversy on Grading 60
Break 15
Guidelines Groups 35
Role of the Teacher: Part 2 20
Goal Setting and Wrap-Up 15

Total Approximate Workshop Time: 6 hours, 25 minutes

40
For this workshop, you will need copies of Handouts 19–24 for each
participant and Overheads 2, 10, and 24–33 for your own use. You will Providing folders with all mate-
also need copies of Reading 5 for each participant. Masters for these are rials inside is an efficient way to
distribute handouts and other
in the Handouts and Overheads and Readings and Resources sections of resources. You may also wish to
this guide. You may also wish to provide copies of some of the other provide name tags. Before par-
readings suggested in the Readings and Resources section or copies of ticipants arrive, write the objec-
overheads from the Handouts and Overheads section. Other materials tives for the workshop on flip
chart paper, or use Overhead 24,
needed for this workshop include marking pens for you to use in record-
Objectives of the Workshop.
ing participant observations during the Mobile Analysis; chart paper,
markers, and masking tape for participants to use in the Guidelines
Groups activity; and an index card for each participant to use at the end
of Part 2 of the Role of the Teacher activity.

1. At the door, have a sign-in sheet for participants to record their


names, addresses, and phone numbers.

2. Welcome all participants. Introduce yourself and explain your role as


workshop facilitator. As the facilitator, you guide the group through
the workshop to help them meet the workshop objectives.

3. Depending on the size of the group and whether the participants of


the workshop know each other, you may want to include time for
them to introduce themselves individually or in small groups. You
may also ask the participants to state why they are interested in learn-
ing about teaching in a differentiated classroom and to describe
briefly the extent to which they are familiar with differentiation as a
result of their own practice, reading, learning from colleagues, or
some other way.

4. Briefly review the objectives of the workshop as listed on Overhead


24 or on the flip chart.

5. Depending on the group’s level of experience with the concept of


differentiation, you may wish to provide them with a definition
of differentiation. Use Overhead 2, What Is Differentiation? or
your school/district rationale for encouraging teachers to become
more skilled and comfortable in working with academically diverse
learners.

41
1. Tell participants that today’s workshop focuses on the way a differ-
entiated classroom shapes the role of the teacher. Note that some of
them will find the teacher’s role in this sort of classroom more famil-
iar than others will. Distribute Handout 19, Analyzing the Role of the
Teacher in a Differentiated Curriculum. Ask participants to begin
thinking about teachers’ roles by working alone to complete the
handout based on their current experiences. Allow 10 minutes for
this part of the activity.

2. Ask participants to form groups of four, with members from varying


grade levels (for example, one primary teacher, one elementary
teacher, and two middle school teachers), to share their responses on
the Role of a Teacher handout. Allow 10 minutes for this part of the
activity.

3. Ask participants to quickly share with you key descriptors for each
of the categories they addressed in their analysis of the role of the
teacher. Record a few of the responses on Overhead 25, Analyzing
the Role of the Teacher in a Differentiated Classroom. (As an alter-
native, you may walk among participants while they are sharing their
work and record some responses on the overhead based on what you
hear. You can then share those with the group to bring closure to this
part of the activity.)

4. Note that images of the role of a teacher vary in the group, based per-
haps on length of teaching experience, grade or subject taught, and
philosophy of teaching. The goal of the workshop today is not to find
a single set of descriptors of the role of a teacher, but to help partici-
pants examine their own images and practices. Tell participants they
will return to this activity later in the day.

1. Tell participants that our lives as teachers are often so full of “doing”
that we find little time to examine what we do. As a result, we can
develop habits of teaching that may not really reflect what we believe
about teaching. As the group prepares to look at a video that exam-
ines the reflections and roles of teachers in differentiated classrooms,
it would be useful to examine some ways we often “do school” to see
what beliefs they reflect.

2. Distribute Handout 20, Thinking About the Deep Structures of


School. Ask participants to remain in the same multilevel groups

42
they formed for the previous exercise and to discuss with the group
the points raised in the Deep Structures handout. Allow 20 minutes
for this portion of the activity.

3. Lead the group in a brief discussion of the activity, using questions


of your own or ones like these:

· To what degree do you think the descriptors of schools in this


activity are accurate?

· To what degree do you think the descriptors are inevitable (or


can we change our practice so that they would no longer be
accurate)?

· In what ways are the descriptors interconnected? (In other words,


do they predict one another?)

· When the descriptors are accurate, how well are schools likely to
serve a wide range of learners?

Allow 10 minutes for this part of the activity.

4. Thank participants for their contributions.

1. Tell participants you’d now like them to move from thinking about
teaching in general to their own teaching. Distribute Handout 21,
Double-Entry Journal. Ask participants to work alone to complete
Part 1. Allow 15 minutes for this portion of the activity.

2. Display Overhead 26, Growing as a Teacher. Ask participants to read


it and give you a response. Remind the group that great teachers
struggle with the role of teaching virtually every day of their careers.
It is the struggle that encourages us to reinvent ourselves. Thank
them for their willingness to be reflective about their work. Allow 5
minutes for this portion of the activity. Invite the group to take a
break.

1. Play Tape 3: Teaching for Learner Success, stopping at about the


halfway point.

43
2. Use Overhead 27, 3-Minute Buzz, to give directions to participants
for a discussion of their reactions thus far. Allow 3 minutes for this
portion of the activity.

3. Use Overhead 10, Ahas and Affirmations, to record a few ahas and
affirmations from the group. Ahas are things participants didn’t
expect to see in the classrooms in the video. Affirmations are things
they’ve seen that affirm their thinking and suggestions. Allow 2 min-
utes for this portion of the activity.

4. Play the remainder of Tape 3.

1. Ask participants to follow the directions for Part 2 of Handout 21,


Double-Entry Journal. Allow 15 minutes for this portion of the
activity.

2. Display Overhead 28, The Need for Continual Growth. Tell partici-
pants that one of the challenges of teaching is seeking growth in our
images of ourselves and our classrooms. It seems safer to find some-
thing that works and to cling to it. When we do that, however, we try
to celebrate yesterday’s successes, and that seldom leads to real
growth.

1. Display Overhead 29, A Mobile of Elements in a Differentiated


Classroom. Tell participants that this graphic represents a mobile like
the kind we might hang in classrooms. Its elements are some of the
things teachers must grapple with as they develop and refine their
roles as teachers. Ask participants to work with you to describe how
a teacher could achieve these elements in a differentiated classroom.
Some possible descriptors are evident in the video, and some will
come from teachers’ own experiences. Record their descriptors on
the overhead. Among descriptors participants might use are the
following:

Flexibility

· Altering plans as needed.

· Following student interests and questions.

· Providing different lengths of time for task completion.

44
· Using varied approaches to teaching and learning.

· Providing a range of resources for students.

· Allowing flexible room arrangement.

Effective Curriculum and Instruction

· Developing tasks and products focused on essential ideas and skills.

· Ensuring that all students work with important ideas and skills.

· Developing tasks and products based on different student interests.

· Developing tasks and products at different levels of complexity.

· Providing different ways of learning.

· Providing different ways of assessing learning.

Sense of Community

· Respecting individual differences.

· Developing classroom rules and procedures that support respect.

· Understanding ways we’re all alike.

· Balancing whole-class and small-group and individual time.

· Developing tasks that draw on everyone’s strengths.

Shared Responsibility for Learning

· Ensuring a shared vision for the classroom.

· Teaching routines that promote student independence.

· Helping students learn to collaborate effectively.

· Developing roles for everyone to play in keeping the classroom


organized.

· Encouraging students to keep track of their own learning progress.

· Engaging in shared problem solving.

45
A Growth Orientation

· Emphasizing individual growth rather than competition.

· Celebrating everyone’s successes.

· Developing both common and individual goals.

· Charting each student’s growth toward common and individual goals.

· Working to have materials, tasks, and products at appropriate chal-


lenge levels.

· Giving clear feedback on work.

2. Thank participants for their contributions. Dismiss them for lunch.

1. Tell participants that a big dilemma for many teachers in differenti-


ated classrooms is how to grade students. Part of the reason for the
dilemma goes back to the earlier discussion of habitual ways we “do
school.” It’s likely that we spend far more time in faculty meetings
talking about how to keep computer grade books, when report cards
are due, and how they will be distributed than about why we grade as
we do. Tell participants the next activity is designed to give them
time to reflect on the meaning and messages of grading—especially
in light of learner variance in our schools and in light of the philoso-
phy of differentiating instruction.

2. Distribute Handout 22, A Cooperative Controversy on Grading, and


Reading 5, “Grading for Success.” Ask participants to arrange them-
selves in groups of eight, preferably including teachers from various
grade levels (primary, elementary, middle, and high school). Once
the groups are formed, go over the directions for the Cooperative
Controversy and make certain participants understand how the activ-
ity works. Use Overhead 30 to review directions for the Cooperative
Controversy. Allow 5 minutes to form groups and go over instruc-
tions.

3. Ask participants to silently read Reading 5. Allow 15 minutes for the


reading. Remind participants to move quickly into groups of three or
four, as indicated in the directions for the Cooperative Controversy.

46
4. Allow 15 minutes for the groups of three or four to develop argu-
ments for or against competitive grading. Then remind them to move
into the debate phase of the activity.

5. Allow 10 minutes for the first debate cycle, and then give a signal for
participants to move to the second debate cycle.

6. Allow 10 minutes for the second debate cycle.

7. Ask participants in their groups of eight to do a one-sentence recap,


in which each member of the group states one sentence that reflects a
thought on grading and student diversity. Use Overhead 31, One-
Sentence Recap, to give directions.

8. Thank participants for their work. Encourage them to look for ways
to use grading to enhance the learning of the students in their class-
rooms. Invite participants to take a break.

1. Display Overhead 32, Guidelines Groups, and ask participants to


select a topic that should bring together their own teaching strengths
with ideas from the video and the workshop. Then ask participants
who have selected the same topic to form groups of five or six.

2. When the groups have formed, distribute Handout 23, Guidelines


Groups, and ask participants to follow the instructions for the topic
group they have selected. Allow 10 minutes for this portion of the
task.

3. Ask groups that worked on the same topic to meet together and
merge their guidelines lists into one list that reflects all the ideas of
their groups. They should write their guidelines lists on chart paper
and be prepared to share them with the whole group. Allow 10 min-
utes for this portion of the task.

4. Ask a spokesperson for each topic to share the list of guidelines their
groups generated. Encourage participants to note ideas that they
could potentially use in their classrooms. Allow 15 minutes for this
portion of the activity.

47
1. Remind participants that earlier in the day, you told them you’d ask
them to reanalyze the role of the teacher. Distribute Handout 24,
Role of the Teacher in a Differentiated Classroom (Part 2). Ask par-
ticipants to work alone on the task, following the directions on the
handout. While participants are working, distribute an index card to
each person. Allow 10–12 minutes for this portion of the activity.

2. Now ask participants to compare their two descriptions on Handouts


17 and 24 and to write a statement on the index card, following the
format on Overhead 33, Teacher Role. Tell them you will collect the
cards to get a sense of their thinking. Tell them they do not need to
put their names on the cards. Allow 5 minutes for this portion of the
activity. Collect the cards.

1. Ask participants to select a partner with whom they have not worked
today. Display Overhead 34, Short-Term Goal Setting. Ask partici-
pants to tell their partners ideas in one or more of the categories on
the overhead that they plan to try in their classrooms that should help
them continue their growth in effectively teaching academically
diverse student populations.

2. Review the workshop objectives listed on Overhead 24 or on the flip


chart. Ask participants if they feel the objectives were addressed.

3. Encourage participants to use the ideas they have gained today and
to continue to think about ways in which their role as teacher can
evolve to make their classrooms both more flexible and more effec-
tive for a wide range of learners.

4. Thank participants for their attendance and contributions to the


workshop.

48
HANDOUT 1

Under each category in the matrix below, write what you consider to be
the top three challenges confronted by a teacher in a differentiated class-
room. An example is provided to jump-start your thinking.

Shared
Responsibility An Emphasis
Effective Flexible for Learning Building on Individual
Curriculum Teaching and Teaching Community Growth

How do I decide What do I do when How do I make sure How do I make sure What if some stu-
what’s most essential students finish work students are on task? everyone feels dents feel their
Example for all to learn? at different times? valued? work is harder or
easier than the other
students?

Association for Supervision


and Curriculum Development

51
Handout 1—Continued

After you share your thinking with other colleagues, revise or add to your
top three challenges.

Shared
Responsibility for An Emphasis
Effective Flexible Learning and Building on Individual
Curriculum Teaching Teaching Community Growth

52
Handout 1—Continued

Now that you’ve viewed the video, use the matrix below to note some
insights you’ve had (or beliefs you’ve had affirmed) related to these
categories in a differentiated classroom. Again, an example is provided
to jump-start your thinking.

Shared
Responsibility for An Emphasis
Effective Flexible Learning and Building on Individual
Curriculum Teaching Teaching Community Growth

I have to be really I need to find time I have to teach I need to talk with It helps to have stu-
clear about learning to teach or reteach in routines that help students about dents set and chart
Example
goals. small groups. students be more reasons for some of their own
independent. differentiation. goals.

Be prepared to share with colleagues one of these ideas you could apply
in your teaching and illustrate how you would use it.

53
HANDOUT 2

Definition:

Group Members:

Association for Supervision


and Curriculum Development

55
HANDOUT 3

B elow are some assumptions that some may consider underpinnings of


the approach to teaching we call “differentiation.” With your group,
discuss your responses to these assertions. Your goal is not complete
agreement but rather exploration of a range of thoughts on these assump-
tions. Appointing a discussion leader and timekeeper should help you
explore most of the assumptions in the time allotted for your discussion.

1. Differentiation is planning to accommodate multiple and varied learn-


ing needs (social as well as cognitive) within regular units of instruction,
rather than primarily attempting to accommodate those needs apart from
the regular curriculum or attempting to accommodate them after student
frustration or failure.

2. Effective differentiation requires creation and maintenance of a class-


room community where students feel safe and valued as they are; at the
same time each student is supported in maximizing his or her potential.

3. In an effectively differentiated classroom, the teacher interacts with


each student with positive regard and positive expectations.

4. Teachers successful with differentiation see the whole learner and


emphasize the student’s strengths rather than accentuating labels, defi-
cits, or differences.

5. Teachers effective with differentiation do not call attention to the dif-


ferentiation, but rather help students appreciate varied ways in which all
of them can find personal success with important goals.

6. Differentiation requires use of multiple and alternative forms of assess-


ment at all stages of student learning in order to uncover and address a
full range of learning needs and strengths.

Association for Supervision


and Curriculum Development

57
Handout 3—Continued

7. Differentiation calls on teachers to develop knowledge about human


learning so that they can know their students well enough to identify and
address varied readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles.

8. A central goal of differentiation is successful student achievement of


meaningful and powerful ideas, information, and skills—not reduction in
standards, watered-down curriculum, or busy work.

9. Differentiation calls on teachers to use multiple methods to engage


students in active learning. Although whole-class instruction is a compo-
nent of differentiation, differentiation does not take place during whole-
class instruction.

10. Effective differentiation calls on a teacher to develop complex man-


agement skills that allow (1) multiple tasks to proceed smoothly in the
classroom, (2) students to take increasing responsibility for their learn-
ing, and (3) the teacher to monitor student activity and coach for student
growth and quality work.

11. A teacher skilled in differentiation does not expect students to assume


the major responsibility for differentiating their own work or making
tasks a good fit for other students.

12. To differentiate successfully, teachers must accept responsibility for


successful teaching and learning of each student in the class while work-
ing collaboratively with specialists to ensure success of individuals and
the class as a whole.

—Based on the work of Stephanie Corrigan, Utah Valley State College;


used with permission

58
HANDOUT 4

C omplete this task in two parts. Complete Columns 1 and 2 before you
watch the videotape on planning curriculum and instruction for a dif-
ferentiated classroom. In Column 1, note some challenges teachers might
face in a differentiated classroom in each of the six categories on the
matrix. In Column 2, suggest approaches you feel would help teachers
successfully address the challenges. After you watch the videotape, com-
plete Column 3 with approaches presented in the video (or approaches
that occurred to you as you watched the video).

Category Challenges Our Suggestions Insights from the


Video

Curriculum

Assessment

Flexible Teaching

Association for Supervision


and Curriculum Development

59
Handout 4—Continued

Category Challenges Our Suggestions Insights from the


Video

Grouping of
Students

Shared Responsibility
for Learning and
Teaching

Establishing
Community

60
HANDOUT 5

For the next 10 minutes, generate questions you would like more infor-
mation about in each of the specialty areas selected by participants. Your
goal is to send each base group participant to a specialty group with a
sense of information about the specialty topic that would be useful to
base group members. The workshop facilitator will tell you when it’s
time to go to your specialty group.

You have about 25 minutes for each member of your group to report to
the base group. The goal of presentations is to provide information,
insights, and suggestions related to the specialty topics represented in
your base group. Jot down ideas you find interesting, so you can refer to
them after the workshop ends. Also be sure to ask questions and add
additional suggestions as each base group member presents. Appoint a
timekeeper who will ensure that all members have about the same
amount of time to share their work.

Association for Supervision


and Curriculum Development

61
HANDOUT 6

E veryone in your specialty group is working with the same topic. Your
job in the next 25 minutes is to generate practical suggestions on your
Jigsaw
specialty topic that you will take back to your base group. Specialty
To begin, silently read the material on your topic provided by the work- Group
shop facilitator. If you finish reading before others in your group, begin
to jot down ideas related to your topic that you think might be helpful to
Instructions
other educators.

Once everyone in your group has finished reading the materials, work
together to develop ideas on your topic that might be of use to you and
members of your base group in developing classrooms that are respon-
sive to academically diverse student populations.

You may want to work in the following way:

1. Identify issues or questions related to your topic that come from


workshop interactions up to this point, the video, your own experi-
ences, and questions from your base group.
2. Brainstorm classroom ideas related to your specialty topic. At this
point, they do not have to be direct responses to the questions in Step
1. The idea of brainstorming is to be fluent, not organized.
3. Now look back at the questions in Step 1 and see if your Step 2
responses address most of them. If not, you may want to add ideas
that address those questions.
4. Think about ways to organize your ideas so that they will be accessi-
ble and memorable to your base group.
5. Develop a way to express your points to the base group. It is not nec-
essary that every specialty group member do this in the same way.
Some of you may prefer to diagram, chart, or draw your ideas. Oth-
ers may prefer to make notes for oral summary. Others may develop
a scenario or story that makes the points. At this juncture, decide
whether to work alone, in smaller subsets of the specialty group, or
as a whole.
6. As you prepare to present to your base group, make sure your infor-
mation provides practical suggestions based on your topic for how to
teach academically diverse learners effectively.

The workshop facilitator will tell you when it’s time to return to your
base group.
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HANDOUT 7

T he workshop facilitator will lead you in a Think-Pair-Share-Square


sequence for this activity.

Reasons Reasons

Question

Can we meet the needs


Yes of academically diverse No
because learners in today's because
classrooms?

Conclusions

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HANDOUT 8

P lease remember these two difficult truths of teaching.


1) No matter how much you do, you’ll feel it’s not enough.
2) Just because you can only do a little is not excuse to do nothing.
—Susan Ohanian (1999)

A goal of today’s workshop is to help you reflect on actions you can take
in your classroom to become more skilled and comfortable in working
with academically diverse learners. It’s not an easy goal, nor one that’s
achieved quickly. Nonetheless, it is achievable if we consistently reflect
on our practice and use what we learn to grow professionally.

Please write below one action (or more) you plan to take in your class-
room as part of your professional growth in working with a range of
learners. The group facilitator may collect your ideas to get a sense of the
thinking of the group and for use in planning additional staff develop-
ment. If so, you do not need to put your name on the paper.

Reference: Ohanian, S. (1999). One size fits few: The folly of educational standards. Portsmouth,
Association for Supervision
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HANDOUT 9

Step 1 Management
Working alone, in Column 1 list some problematic areas you think about
when you plan for multiple tasks in the classroom.
Hot Spots

Working with colleagues, in Column 2 pose solutions or strategies to


address the Hot Spots you listed in Column 1.

As you view the video, jot down additional ideas in Columns 1 or 2.

Hot Spot Possible Solutions

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HANDOUT 10

I n the first column of the matrix, list ideas or approaches you saw in the
video that seemed positive or promising to you. In the second column,
list ideas or approaches that seemed negative to you. In the third column,
list questions you still have about managing a differentiated classroom.

+ – ?

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HANDOUT 11

S elect one of the Roles below to portray; then write to the Audience
specified, in the Format provided, and on the Topic in that row.
You’ll be asked to share your work with colleagues.

Role Audience Format Topic

Hard-to-reach Teachers Advice column How to reach


student me

Parent of a My child’s Note Here’s what I


struggling teacher want for my
learner child

Teacher who Administrators Formal request Is anybody out


works to create and there listening?
a differentiated policymakers
classroom

Parent of an Teachers Letter What I want


advanced everywhere for my child
learner

New teacher Peers and Plea Help me get


administrators to know my
students

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HANDOUT 12

A s you reflect on your own growth as a teacher in managing


or leading students in the classroom, assess your comfort
Self-Assessment
with the skills below. on Classroom
Management for
Differentiation

Do this
Seldom Sometimes often and Absolutely
or never do this but often comfortable
do this not smoothly smoothly with this

Giving directions for multiple tasks

Explaining/teaching classroom
routines

Assigning students to work groups

Ensuring smooth work of small


groups

Helping students understand


and appreciate their differences

Helping students understand


and appreciate their similarities

Keeping track of student work


and progress with multiple tasks
ongoing

Handling classroom noise

Using classroom space in a flexible


way

Using varied materials for different


groups

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HANDOUT 13

P lease read the scenario below and then work with colleagues who
teach at a similar grade level to yours to give the teacher in the sce-
nario some advice.

Ms. Creighton likes teaching, likes her students, and isn’t afraid of modi-
fying what she does in the classroom when she believes the changes will
make her teaching more effective for more of her learners. However, it’s
often hard for her to know just what will work in her classroom and what
won’t. It’s like that with a lesson she’s planning for next week. She
hasn’t tried giving different tasks to different groups before, but she has
such a wide variety of readiness levels in her class that it seems like a
good idea.

When her students come to class on Monday, she’s going to tell them
they’ll be working on several different activities. Right now, Ms. Creigh-
ton is not quite sure who will be in which group. Maybe she’ll let the stu-
dents make the choice.

She’s going to describe all of the activities to the whole class so they will
understand the directions and what’s going on in other groups. At that
point, she’s planning to call out names of students to let them know what
group to work with so they can find one another and find a place to work
together. Every student has to complete the group’s assigned task, but she
wants the students to collaborate on the work.

She’ll ask the group to send someone to pick up the written directions for
their work. The directions tell them to be sure to get materials that will
help them with their learning goals. If students need her, they can come
ask her for help. When students finish their work, they will bring it to
her. She will grade it overnight so they can see how they did. If a student
or group doesn’t finish the work, they will have to turn it in unfinished.

As a group, analyze Ms. Creighton’s plans step-by-step. On the reverse


side of this sheet, jot down advice you think will facilitate her manage-
ment of the class she’s planning. Think about various needs of students
who may be in her class, as well as needs of the class as a whole.

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Handout 13—Continued

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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HANDOUT 14

Y ou will be working on a topic of your choice with colleagues who


have selected the same topic.

Your goal is to develop practical strategies related to your topic that


should be of help to other teachers in effectively managing a differenti-
ated classroom.

Work with a small group of colleagues to develop specific, clear, and


practical ideas for effective classroom management that relate to the
topic area you have selected. Base your ideas on your own experience,
exchanges with colleagues during the workshop today, and what you saw
in the video. Once you have a useful list of suggestions, review it to make
sure it is well organized and clearly expressed. The workshop facilitator
will give you a signal when this portion of the activity should end.

Your specialty group should now combine with one or two other spe-
cialty groups that worked on the same topic. Have someone from each
group review the group’s list of suggestions. Discuss any suggestions that
seem to be in conflict. Ultimately you should merge the sets of ideas so
that you have one representative set to report out to the whole group. The
workshop facilitator will give you chart paper or overhead transparencies.

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HANDOUT 15

U se the grid below to note ideas that might be of help in effective


management of a differentiated classroom.

Assessing Learning Helping Students Master Giving Directions for Tasks


Classroom Routines

Managing Materials, Assigning Students Using Time Flexibly


Noise, and Space to Groups

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HANDOUT 16

I n one or more of the boxes below, write strategies you plan to use to
support differentiated instruction. In the box at the bottom of the page,
note areas related to managing a differentiated classroom in which you’d
like more information. The workshop facilitator may collect this sheet as
a way of understanding group thinking and to plan additional staff devel-
opment. If so, you need not put your name on the paper.

Assessing Learning Helping Students Master Giving Directions for Tasks


Classroom Routines

Managing Materials, Noise, Assigning Students to Groups Using Time Flexibly


and Space

I’d like more information or ideas about—

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HANDOUT 17

U se the analysis map below to help you think about the role of a
teacher in a differentiated classroom. Each spoke is labeled with a
teacher role. At the end of the spoke, write phrases you feel accurately
describe the role. In some instances, an example is listed to start your
thinking. On the blank spoke, add a role you feel has been omitted and
descriptors to go with that role. Remember, your focus is the teacher’s
role in a classroom with a goal of addressing varied learner needs.

Providing

Teaching for individual growth


clear

wth
directions

gro
C
dif omm

ual
fer un
en i c

ivid
tia ati
tio ng

ind
n wi
th

for
pa
ren
ing
ts
ab ach
ou
t
Co

Balancing whole-class and The Role of the Teacher in a Helping groups work
small-group instruction Differentiated Classroom
n Gr
t i at i o ad
Char

f eren ing
dif
udents for fo
ng st
ting i

ri re
Prepa xc
ell
e
ndivi

nc
ea
nd
dual

eq
uit
y
grow
th

Must be clear
about learning goals

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HANDOUT 18

U se the questions below to guide your discussion of the video and the
role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom.

1. What are some ways in which the video confirmed the ideas you had
in the analysis exercise before viewing the video? What are some
ways in which the video differed from your analysis?

2. What do you think are some basic principles that underlie the work
of the teachers in the video?

3. In what ways are those principles similar to and different from prin-
ciples that support teaching in a classroom that does not actively
address learner variance?

4. How do you see assessment shaping the role of the teacher in a dif-
ferentiated classroom?

5. What do you believe are the greatest challenges of effective small-


group functioning in a differentiated classroom? What solutions
would you offer to address those challenges?

6. What specific strategies have members of your group used to help


students accept more responsibility for their own learning?

7. How do the following elements interrelate in a differentiated class-


room?
• Assessment
• Coaching for individual success
• Patterns of teaching
• Communicating with students and parents
• Helping groups work effectively

8. In what ways do you suppose grading is handled in a differentiated


classroom?

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HANDOUT 19

U se the grid below to help you reflect on your thoughts about and
experience with the role of the teacher in a classroom where teaching
in response to learner needs is key.

General Purpose and Guiding Principles Characteristics of a Teacher in a


of the Role Differentiated Classroom

Role of the Teacher in a


Differentiated Classroom
Examples of Things a Teacher Examples of Things a Teacher
Would Do in a Differentiated Would Not Do in a Differentiated
Classroom Classroom

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HANDOUT 20

M ost of us who are teachers have been a part of schools for so long
that we take for granted the way we “do school.” But those quiet
assumptions can powerfully affect our classroom practice—and not
always in ways that benefit the full range of learners. Below are some
“deep structures” of schooling. We may not articulate these images as
our beliefs. In fact, we may even disavow them. Our classroom practice,
however, may make it appear as though we believe them. With your
group, discuss (1) the degree to which you believe these images and
(2) the degree to which our practice suggests we believe them.

1. Teacher as teller

2. Teaching as telling

3. Student as absorber

4. Curriculum as coverage of facts and skills

5. Students as dependent

6. Lessons loosely linked with learning goals

7. Instructional strategies as a “bag of tricks”

8. Assessment as what comes at the end to “see who got it”

9. Classroom management as a synonym for control

10. Fair as treating everyone alike

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HANDOUT 21

Double-Entry
Journal
Part 1 Part 2
In Column 1 and on the back of the page if After viewing the video, use Column 2 and
necessary, write your reflections on the questions the back of the page if necessary to write your
below. reflections on the questions below.

Column 1 Column 2

• In what ways are you best at building a sense of • What ideas does the video give you about build-
community among your students? ing community?

• What is your “compass” as a teacher to ensure • In what ways is your sense of quality curriculum
that your curriculum and instruction are of very and instruction like or different from what you saw
high quality? in the video?

• What are your strongest points in helping • What suggestions from the video might you use
students assume responsibility for effective to build shared responsibility in the classroom?
teaching and learning in the classroom?

• How do you help students gain a clear sense • In what ways might you make your classroom
of and responsibility for their own growth? more growth centered?

• In what ways are you most flexible in your • What’s your response to the level of flexibility in
teaching? teaching shown in the video?

• In which of these areas would you like to • When you look at your classroom in light of the
continue your professional growth? Why? video, what do you like best about it? What might
you want to modify? Why?

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Handout 21—Continued

Column 1 Column 2

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HANDOUT 22

T he purpose of this debate-like activity is to help you reflect on your


position on grading in academically diverse classrooms. Please fol-
A Cooperative
low the format below. Controversy
1. Form groups of 6–8 members. on Grading
2. Individually, read material on grading in a differentiated classroom.
The workshop facilitator will tell you when it’s time to wrap up the read-
ing. If you finish reading early, begin making notes of your own thoughts
about the purpose of grading.

3. Divide the groups in half, with half the members preparing an argu-
ment in favor of more traditional, norm-centered grading practices in dif-
ferentiated classrooms and half preparing an argument in favor of more
growth-centered or individual-centered grading practices in differentiated
classrooms.

4. Work in the smaller groups to prepare your arguments. The workshop


facilitator will give you a signal at the end of this preparation period.

5. Have each side present its arguments to the other half of the group.
Everyone in the presentation group should contribute.

6. Listeners should take notes while the other side presents.

7. When both sides have presented their arguments, divide into the two
groups again, and this time prepare arguments for the position you did
not support in the first round. Be sure to add your own insights and
beliefs to the new argument rather than only repeating what the first pre-
senters said. The workshop facilitator will give you a signal at the end of
this part of your work.

8. Present both positions again, with everyone taking part.

9. Take a few minutes in the group of 6–8 to review the pros and cons of
the two positions. Be sure to highlight any new perspectives you may
have gained.

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HANDOUT 23

Y our job is to work with colleagues to develop a list of what you


consider to be important and practical guidelines for teachers in a
differentiated classroom related to the topics you selected.

Working with a small group of teachers who selected the same topic you
did, generate a list of guidelines. When you have developed a substantial
list, pare it down to those guidelines you feel are most important and use-
ful. Appoint a spokesperson who will represent your group in Step 2.
You will have about 10 minutes for this portion of your work. The work-
shop facilitator will let you know when to move to Step 2.

Meet with other groups who developed guidelines on the same topic as
your group. Review the lists from each group. Condense the lists so they
reflect the most important and useful ideas from each group. Try to limit
your lists to five or six guidelines. Put your new list on chart paper and
be prepared to share the list with the whole workshop group. You will
have about 10 minutes for this portion of your work. The workshop
facilitator will let you know when to move to Step 3.

A spokesperson from each Step 2 group should share guidelines on your


topic with the whole workshop group. Jot down ideas on other topics that
you feel may be of use to you in your classroom.

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HANDOUT 24

A s you return to this analysis task, complete it this time with descrip-
tors of what you would like your own teaching to become in each
category. Remember the focus of the analysis is describing your practice
in response to the needs of varied learners.

Providing

Teaching for individual growth


clear

wth
directions

gro
C
dif omm

ual
fer un
en i c

ivid
tia ati
tio ng

ind
n wi
th

for
pa
ren
ing
ts
ab ach
ou
t
Co

Balancing whole-class and The Role of the Teacher in a Helping groups work
small-group instruction Differentiated Classroom
n Gr
t i at i o ad
Char

f eren ing
dif
udents for fo
ng st
ting i

ri re
Prepa xc
ell
e
ndivi

nc
ea
nd
dual

eq
uit
y
grow
th

Must be clear
about learning goals

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OVERHEAD 1

By the end of today’s session you should be better


able to

1. Articulate and discuss key elements in a


teacher’s planning for differentiation over time.

2. Analyze and pose solutions to problems and


issues inherent in differentiated classrooms.

3. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

4. Generate goals and plans for professional


growth and leadership in differentiating
curriculum and instruction in your classroom.

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OVERHEAD 2

1. Differentiation can be defined as a way of


teaching in which teachers proactively modify
curriculum, teaching methods, resources, learning
activities, and student products to address the
needs of individual students and/or small groups
of students to maximize the learning opportunity
for each student in the classroom.
—Tomlinson, et al., (in press)

2. Differentiation is a way of thinking about teaching


and learning that seeks to recognize, learn about,
and address the particular learning needs of each
student. To that end, teachers use varied approaches
to curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

3. Differentiation adapts what we teach, how we


teach and how students learn, and how students
show what they have learned based on the
readiness levels, interests, and preferred learning
modes of students.

4. Differentiation means starting where the kids are!


Reference: Tomlinson, C., Brighton, C., Brimijoin, K., Callahan, C., Hertberg, H., Moon, T., Conover,
L., and Reynolds, T. (submitted for review). Differentiating instruction in academically diverse
classrooms: A literature review of definitions, rationales, and underpinnings.

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OVERHEAD 3

1. What constitutes effective curriculum?

2. How do we teach flexibly?

3. How do we promote shared responsibility for


learning?

4. How do we build a sense of community in which


individual differences are honored?

5. How do we emphasize individual growth rather


than competition only?

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OVERHEAD 4

For Ensuring Effective Curriculum as a Base


for Differentiation

For Flexible Teaching

For Promoting Shared Responsibility for Learning


and Teaching

For Building a Sense of Community Where Individual


Differences Are Honored

For Emphasizing Individual Growth Rather Than


Competition Only

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OVERHEAD 5

By the end of today’s session, you should be able to

1. Articulate and discuss key elements in a teacher’s


planning for differentiation over time.

2. Analyze and pose solutions to problems and issues


inherent in differentiated classrooms.

3. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

4. Generate goals and plans for professional growth


and leadership in differentiating curriculum and
instruction in your classroom.

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OVERHEAD 6

Definition:

Group Members:

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OVERHEAD 7

Differentiation is classroom practice that looks


eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ,
and the most effective teachers do whatever it
takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning.

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OVERHEAD 8

Our Insights from


Category Challenges Suggestions the Video
Curriculum • How do I work with • We could use books
poor readers? at different levels.
• •
• •

Assessment • How do I know what • Important to specify


to assess? learning goals.
• •
• •

Flexible • How do I know what • Could use learning


Teaching everyone is doing? contracts to keep
• track.
• •
• •

Grouping of • How do I know the • Important to link


Students best group for a with assessment
student? some of the time.
• •
• •

Shared • How do I keep the • Might have


Responsibility room from being a designated time
for Learning mess? to straighten up.
and Teaching • •
• •

Establishing • How do I keep from • Can emphasize


Community having winners and personal goals.
losers? •
• •

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OVERHEAD 9

With your partners—

• Discuss what you have seen in the video so far.

• How does what you have seen what you


had predicted in the challenges and suggestions
categories?

• How does it differ from what you expected?

• What will you be looking for as the video


continues?

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OVERHEAD 10

Ahas Affirmations
Interesting points from the video What we saw in the video that
that we hadn’t anticipated affirmed our beliefs or approaches

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OVERHEAD 11

Works Quirks Questions


Positive practices in Practices in addressing Questions you still
addressing academic academic diversity about have about teaching in a
diversity—your own or which you have doubts differentiated classroom
from the video

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OVERHEAD 12

1. Select one of the following topics related to


effective differentiation:
• The Brain and Differentiation
• Curriculum and Differentiation
• Getting Started in a Differentiated Classroom
• Standards and Differentiation

2. Go to the area of the room designated for that


topic.

3. Form four-person base groups, consisting of


representatives from all four topics.

4. Work with Part 1 of the printed instructions for


base groups.

5. Move to specialty groups of three to six people


who selected the same topic.

6. Work with the printed instructions and materials


for specialty groups.

7. Return to your base groups and work with Part 2


of the printed instructions for base groups.

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OVERHEAD 13

1. Take a minute and reflect on some ideas you’ve


gathered or insights you’ve developed today.

2. Develop a one-sentence statement that


encapsulates an idea or insight you feel is
important.

3. Share your one-liner with the group.

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OVERHEAD 14

As a result of today’s workshop, you should be better


able to

1. Describe and develop routines and procedures for


effective leadership in a flexible classroom.

2. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

3. Generate goals and plans for your own professional


growth and leadership in managing a differentiated
classroom.

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OVERHEAD 15

+ – ?

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OVERHEAD 16

As a result of the workshop today, you should be


better able to

1. Identify and analyze problems inherent in


managing a differentiated classroom.

2. Pose solutions to management dilemmas in a


differentiated classroom.

3. Describe and develop routines and procedures for


effective leadership in a differentiated classroom.

4. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

5. Generate goals and plans for professional growth


and leadership in managing a differentiated
classroom.

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OVERHEAD 17

These are comments about differentiation made by teachers of


different grades and subjects, with different lengths of classroom
experience, and from different parts of the country.

I couldn’t go back to the old way I taught any more. I feel much more
creative as a teacher now, more energized, and I know my students
are learning better. I can’t exactly remember a day when I decided to
stop covering curriculum and start helping kids learn. I guess it was
evolutionary in my teaching instead of revolutionary. I just know it’s
better teaching.

I was hired to teach 7th grade math. Nobody told me to teach


different things to different kids. They certainly didn’t give me
different textbooks that would match everybody. And what good
does it do to cater to kids? The world isn’t like that. I was hired to
teach 7th grade math, and that’s what I’m going to do.

I go home at night worried about kids I’ve lost because they’re


confused or they’ve given up. I worry, too, about kids I know I’m
boring. I don’t know what to do to make school better for everyone.
If somebody could show me, I’d be happy to try almost anything.

When I plan the differentiated lessons with my colleagues, I get


really excited about the possibilities. I really can see why this way
of teaching would be a lot better for a lot more students. But I have
to tell you that after 25 years of teaching, the management issues
still scare me to death and make me feel like a beginner all over
again.

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OVERHEAD 18

Column A Column B

Managing time

Getting students in and out


of groups

Giving directions

Controlling noise

Using space flexibly

Getting the right materials


to the right students

Organizing materials

Monitoring student work

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OVERHEAD 19

Role Audience Format Topic


Hard-to-reach Teachers Advice column How to reach me
student
Parent of a My child’s Note Here’s what I
struggling teacher want for my
learner child
Teacher who Administrators Formal request Is anybody out
works to create and policymakers there listening?
a differentiated
classroom
Parent of an Teachers Letter What I want
advanced everywhere for my child
learner
New teacher Peers and Plea Help me get
administrators to know my
students

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OVERHEAD 20

With some colleagues, spend the next 3 minutes


noting the following:

1. Something you’ve seen in the first part of the


video that affirms your thinking.

2. An idea that’s new to you.

3. Something you’re uncertain about.

4. Something you’re hoping to see in the remainder


of the video.

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OVERHEAD 21

Below are some categories useful for thinking about


managing a differentiated classroom. Select one in
which you have some experience and interest. You’ll
work with that category to generate practical
classroom management ideas to share with
colleagues.

1. Using varied means of assessing student learning.

2. Helping students learn and use classroom routines.

3. Giving directions for multiple tasks to students


with varying needs.

4. Managing materials, noise, and space in a


differentiated classroom.

5. Assigning students to work groups in varied ways


and for varied purposes.

6. Using time flexibly in a differentiated classroom.

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OVERHEAD 22

Metaphors compare two things that, at first, don’t seem alike, but
actually have interesting things in common. Thinking metaphorically
is a great way to get fresh images of something familiar or to
sharpen thinking. Below is an extended metaphor for a
differentiated classroom.

Being a teacher in an effective differentiated classroom is a lot like


being a conductor of an orchestra. You have to—

• Know the music well.


• Help others interpret (find meaning) in the score.
• Keep time so that people playing different instruments stay
together.
• Hear many parts at once.
• Build on individual strengths, tastes, and preferences.
• Help individuals refine their skills, understandings, and
techniques.
• Challenge individuals of varied levels of proficiency to grow.
• Work with individuals, parts, and the whole toward common
and personal goals.
• Prepare for real events.
• Energize and lead.
• Build a group endeavor from individual contributions.
• Build a sense of community among very different people.
• Have both individual and group goals for quality.

Try writing your own extended metaphor for a differentiated


classroom.

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OVERHEAD 23

As a result of the workshop today, you should be


better able to

1. Analyze the role of a teacher in a differentiated


classroom.

2. Describe and develop routines and procedures for


effective leadership in a differentiated classroom.

3. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

4. Generate goals and plans for professional growth


and leadership in managing a differentiated
classroom.

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 24

As a result of the workshop today, you should be


better able to

1. Analyze the role of a teacher in a differentiated


classroom.

2. Articulate and support rationales for a


differentiated classroom.

3. Describe and develop routines and procedures for


effective leadership in a differentiated classroom.

4. Reflect on your own growth in addressing


academic diversity in the classroom.

5. Generate goals and plans for professional growth


and leadership in managing a differentiated
classroom.

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 25

General Purpose and Guiding Characteristics of a Teacher


Principles of the Role in a Differentiated Classroom

Role of the Teacher


in a Differentiated
Examples of Things Classroom Examples of Things a
a Teacher Would Do in a Teacher Would Not Do
Differentiated Classroom in a Differentiated
Classroom

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OVERHEAD 26

Teaching is first and foremost learning, and


egocentric as it may sound, the teacher’s chief
area of study is herself or himself.

Only as I discover my own prejudices, face my


own fears, give play to my own strengths, and
compensate for my deficits rather than denying
them can I help my students do the same.

It is both the blessing and the curse of teaching


that the learning never ends.

Every day, I must confront what I am as a teacher


and what I hope to be.

To do less is to be less of a teacher.

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OVERHEAD 27

With some colleagues, spend the next 3 minutes


noting the following:

1. Something you’ve seen in the first part of the


video that affirms your thinking about the role
of the teacher in a differentiated classroom.

2. An idea that’s new to you.

3. Something you’re uncertain about.

4. Something you’re hoping to have clarified


or expanded in the remainder of the video.

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OVERHEAD 28

The Need for Continual Growth

The process of growth is the very definition of life


itself.

The mandate of nature as we observe it is the same


on every hand,

Grow or die!

Growth, after all, is an irreversible phenomenon—and


undeniable.

Dangerous is our attempt to repeat our successes.

Today’s successes become tomorrow’s failures.

Not to grow is to die.

—Edwin Herbert Land, physicist, inventor,


and founder of Polaroid Corporation

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OVERHEAD 29

Effective A Growth
F Curriculum Orientation
l and
e Instruction
x
i Shared
b Responsibility
i for
l Learning
i
t
y
Sense of
Community

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OVERHEAD 30

The purpose of this debate-like activity is to help you reflect on your


position on grading in academically diverse classrooms.

1. Form groups of 6–8 members.

2. Read materials on grading in a differentiated classroom.

3. Divide the group in half, with half of the members preparing an


argument in favor of more traditional, norm-centered grading
practices in differentiated classrooms and half preparing an
argument in favor of more growth-centered or individual-centered
grading practices in differentiated classrooms.

4. Work as a group of 3–4 to prepare your arguments.

5. Have each side present its arguments to the other half of the
group. Everyone in the presentation group should contribute to
the presentation.

6. Listeners should take notes while the other side presents.

7. When both sides have presented their arguments, separate again


into the two smaller groups, this time to prepare an argument for
the position you did not support in the first round of presentations.

8. Present both positions again.

9. Take a few minutes in the group of 6–8 to review the pros and
cons of the two positions. Highlight any new perspectives you
may have gained.

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 31

Spend about 1 minute to develop a one-sentence


statement that reflects one of your key thoughts on
grading and academically diverse school populations.
The workshop facilitator will give you a signal at the
end of the allotted time.

Have each person in your working group share his or


her one-sentence recap with the group.

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 32

Select one of the following groups that allows you


to bring together your own teaching interests and
strengths with ideas you have gained from the video
and workshop today. You will work to create
guidelines for teachers who want to become more
effective in differentiating curriculum and
instruction.

• Varying patterns of teaching.

• Assessing student growth.

• Coaching an advanced learner for growth and


success.

• Coaching a struggling learner for growth and


success.

• Helping groups work effectively.

• Communicating with students and parents.

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 33

Please complete these statements on the index card


you received. The workshop facilitator will collect the
cards to get a sense of your thinking and to help with
planning additional staff development. You do not
need to put your name on the card.

In my teaching of academically diverse learners

My role as a teacher is

I’d like my role to be

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and Curriculum Development

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OVERHEAD 34

Tell a partner one or two ideas you plan to use in


your classroom in the near future to continue your
development in working with academically diverse
learners. The ideas may come from the categories
below, or from other areas you’re thinking about.

• Assessing learner need and growth.

• Coaching for individual success.

• Varying patterns of teaching.

• Helping groups work effectively.

• Communicating with students and parents.

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and Curriculum Development

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www.hottlinx@virginia.edu
Web site containing differentiated lessons, units, and products.

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Action Research: Inquiry, Reflection, and Decision Making Meaning: Integrated Language Arts Series
Making (4-tape series) (5-tape series)
Adult Conflict Resolution Managing Today’s Classroom (3-tape series)
Alternative Scheduling (3-tape series) Mentoring the New Teacher (9-tape series)
Another Set of Eyes (5-tape series) Mentoring to Improve Schools (2-tape series)
Techniques for Classroom Observation Motivation to Learn (2-tape series)
Conferencing Skills Multiage Classrooms (2-tape series)
Assessment in Elementary Science (3-tape series) Multicultural Education
Books in Action Multiple Intelligences (3-tape series)
Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School Opening Doors: An Introduction to Peer Coaching
Guiding School Improvement with Action (2-tape series)
Research Planning Integrated Units: A Concept-Based
The Brain and Early Childhood (2-tape series) Approach
The Brain and Learning (4-tape series) Principal Series (7-tape series)
The Brain and Mathematics (2-tape series) Problem-Based Learning (2-tape series)
The Brain and Reading (3-tape series) Raising Achievement Through Standards
Building Support for Public Schools (2-tape series) (3-tape series)
Catch Them Being Good: Reinforcement in the Redesigning Assessment (3-tape series)
Classroom (3-tape series) Reporting Student Progress
Challenging the Gifted in the Regular Classroom Restructuring America’s Schools
Classroom Management: A Proactive Approach to Restructuring the High School: A Case Study
Creating an Effective Learning Environment A Safe Place to Learn: Crisis Response & School
Constructivism (2-tape series) Safety Planning
Cooperative Learning (5-tape series) Schools as Communities (2-tape series)
Curriculum Mapping: Charting the Course for Con- Science Standards: Making Them Work for You
tent (2-tape series) (3-tape series)
Developing Performance Assessments Shared Decision Making (2-tape series)
Differentiating Instruction (2-tape series) The Teacher Series (6-tape series)
Dimensions of Learning Training Program and Teacher Portfolios (2-tape series)
Video Package Teaching and Learning with Technology
Early Childhood Education: Classroom Manage- Teaching and Learning with the Internet
ment—Curriculum Organization (2-tape series)
Educating Everybody’s Children (6-tape series) Teaching Strategies Library (9-tape series)
Effective Schools for Children at Risk Teaching to Learning Styles
Helping Students Acquire and Integrate Knowledge Technology Planning (2-tape series)
(5-tape series)
Understanding by Design (3-tape series)
How To (multitape series)
Using Standards to Improve Teaching and Learning
Implementing Performance-Based Education (3-tape series)
Inclusion (3-tape series) Video Library of Teaching Episodes (30 tapes)
Integrating the Curriculum (2-tape series) What’s New in School — Parts I and II (7 tapes)
Involving Parents in Education
Learning About Learning For information on these programs, call ASCD’s
The Lesson Collection (multitape series) Service Center at 800-933-2723, or 703-578-9600.
Kay A. Musgrove (President), Peyton Williams Jr. (President-Elect), LeRoy E. Hay (Immediate Past
President), Pat Ashcraft, Martha Bruckner, Mary Ellen Freeley, Richard L. Hanzelka, Douglas E. Harris,
Mildred Huey, Susan Kerns, Robert Nicely Jr., James Tayler, Andrew Tolbert, Sandra K. Wegner,
Jill Dorler Wilson
ASCD’s Executive Director is Gene R. Carter.