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Description 612.

01
Page 1 (2) Turbocharger System Edition 22H

L28/32H

P7 P2 M1 P8

Compressed
air inlet

Exhaust gas to TC

Charging air from TC

Lambda
cylinder

P6

Fig 1 Diagram for Turbocharger System

Turbocharger System The charging air cooler is a compact tube-type


cooler with a large cooling surface. The cooling wa-
The turbocharger system of the engine, which is a ter is passed twice through the cooler, the end
constant pressure system, consists of an exhaust covers being designed with partitions which cause
gas receiver, a turbocharger, a charging air cooler the cooling water to turn.
and a charging air receiver, the latter being inte-
grated in the engine frame. The cooling water tubes are fixed to the tube plates
by expansion.
The turbine wheel of the turbocharger is driven by
the engine exhaust gas, and the turbine wheel dri- From the exhaust valves, the exhaust is led through
ves the turbocharger compressor, which is moun- a water cooled intermediate piece to the exhaust gas
ted on the same shaft. The compressor sucks air receiver where the pulsatory pressure from the indi-
from the engine room, through the air filters. vidual exhaust valves is equalized and passed to the
turbocharger as a constant pressure, and further to
Turbocharger, see separate manual. the exhaust outlet and silencer arrangement.

The turbocharger pumps the air through the char- The exhaust gas receiver is made of pipe sections,
ging air cooler to the charging air receiver. From the one for each cylinder, connected to each other, by
charging air receiver, the air flows to each cylinder, means of compensators, to prevent excessive stress
through the inlet valves. in the pipes due to heat expansion.

94.33 - ES2S
612.01 Turbocharger System Description
Edition 22H Page 2 (2)

L28/32H

In the cooled intermediate piece a thermometer for The turbocharger is equipped with a jet system for
reading the exhaust gas temperature is fitted and supply of extra driving torque to the compressor per-
there is also possibility of fitting a sensor for remote formance. with this system the engine can take up a
reading. large momentary load increase.

To avoid excessive thermal loss and to ensure a The system is activated automatically and only
reasonably low surface temperature the exhaust gas when the engine is exposed to a large momentary
receiver is insulated. load increase, see section 609.

94.33 - ES2S
Description Cleaning the Turbocharger In Service 612.05
Page 1 (1) Water Washing of Compressor Edition 07H

General

Compressor Chemical cleaning will not improve the cleaning


process as this primarily is based on the mechanical
Fouling of the airways depends primarily on the effect from the impact of the water droplets.
purity of the inlet air and thus, in turn, on the general
maintenance condition of the machinery, i.e. mainly Certain types of fluid solvents can give formation of
of the gas and oil tightness of the engines and on the deposits on the compressor wheel, and should under
fresh air ventilation system of the engine room. no circumstances be used.

Fouling of air filter, compressor or charging air The intervals between cleaning by injection of water
cooler may be observed as changes in performance should be adjusted after assessing the degree and
parameters: rate of fouling in the particular plant, i.e. based on
observations and experience.
- Decreasing charging air pressure.
- Decreasing turbocharger rotor speed.
- Increasing exhaust gas temperature.
- Severe fouling of airways may even result in
compressor surge.

Regular cleaning during operation by injection of


water before the compressor wheel will reduce the
fouling rate considerably, and consequently prolong
the intervals between dismantling necessary for
mechanical cleaning.

94.01 - ES0U
Description Cleaning the Turbocharger in Service 612.15
Page 1 (1) Water Washing - Turbine Side Edition 02H

General

Description Heavily contaminated turbines, which where not


cleaned periodically from the very beginning or after
The tendency to fouling on the gas side of turbo- an overhaul, cannot be cleaned by this method.
chargers depends on the combustion conditions,
which are a result of the load on and the maintenance If vibration in the turbocharger occur after water-
condition of the engine as well as the quality of the washing has been carried out, the washing should be
fuel oil used. repeated. If unbalance still exists, this is presumably
due to heavy fouling, and the engine must be
Fouling of the gas ways will cause higher exhaust stopped and the turbocharger dismantled and
gas temperatures and higher surface temperatures manually cleaned.
of the combustion chamber components and will
also lead to a lower performance. The washing water should be taken from the fresh
water system and not from the fresh cooling water
Tests and practical experience have shown that system or salt water system. No cleaning agents are
radial-flow turbines can be successfully cleaned by solvents need to be added to the water.
injection water into the inlet pipe of the turbine. The
cleaning effect is based on the water solubility of the To avoid corrosion during standstill, the engine
deposits and on the mechanical action of the im- must, upon completing of water washing run far at
pinging water droplets and the water flow rate. least 1 hour before stop so that all parts are dry.

The necessary water flow is dependent on the gas


flow and the gas temperature. Enough water must Water Washing System
be injected per time unit so that, not the entire flow
will evaporate, but about 0.25 l/min. will flow off The water washing system consists of a pipe system
through the drainage opening in the gas outlet. Thus equipped with a regulating valve, a manoeuvring
ensuring that sufficient water has been injected. valve, a 3-way cock and a drain pipe with a drain
valve from the gas outlet, see illustration on work
Service experience has shown that the above card 612-15.00.
mentioned water flow gives the optimal reduced or
disappear. If the recommended water flow is ex- The water for washing the turbine, is supplied from
ceed, there is a certain risk of a accumulation of the external fresh water system through a flexible
water in the turbine casing, which can result in hose with couplings. The flexible hose must be
damage on the turbocharger. disconnected after water washing.

The best cleaning effect is obtained by cleaning at By activating the manoeuvring valve and the regu-
low engine load approx. 20% MCR. Cleaning at low lating valve, water is led through the 3-way cock to
load will also reduce temperature shocks. the exhaust pipe intermediate flange, equipped with
a channel to lead the water to the gas inlet of the
Experience has shown, that washing at regular turbocharger.
intervals is essential to successful cleaning, as
excessive fouling is thus avoided. Washing at inter- The water which is not evaporated, is led out through
vals of 100 hours is therefore recommended. De- the drain pipe in the gas outlet.
pending on the fuel quality these intervals can be
shorter or longer. However, the turbine must be
washed at the latest when the exhaust gas tempe-
rature upstream of the turbine has risen about 20° C
above the normal temperature.

92.01 - ES0U
Descnpbon Evaluation of Readings Regarding 602.02
- Page 1 (1)
Combustion Condition Editton 07H

General

f
PRESSURE DROP '
INCREASING

PRESSURE DROP

-
INCREASING

cooler fouled
1

Exhaust temp lnaeaslng


Alr system fouled
(Air f~llerblower-cooler)
Exhaust system fouled

Alr cooler fouled

creasrng Fuel valve Decreas~ngair amount


needs overhaul Fouled turbocharger
Compression too low
owlng to leakage of
exhaust valve or plston

too low Leaky combust~onchamber.


chargmg alr pressure too low

Pma too low


I Seealso:

too low, Ignition too late Engine Performance


-0
and condition 601.O1
I

Descnpt~on
Condensate Amount 602.05
Page 1 (2) 08H
Ed~t~on
I
General

Ambtent alr temperalure (1 b a r )

10 20 30 40 50

a ~ rhum~dity 30 40 50 70 ('C)

Charge air temperature aner moler


Air temperature In lank

Fig I. Nomogram lor calwlat~on01 condensate amount

General Condensation of water in the engine's charge alr


receiver is consequently dependent on the humidity
There is always a certain amount of water in air. and the temperature of the ambient air. To find out if
When the air is saturated with aqueous vapour, the condensation in the charge air receiver will occur the
humidity is said to be 100% and there is as much d~agramcan be used
water in the air as it can absorb without condensing.
The amount of water in k g k g air can be found from Example:
thediagram. The ability to absorb the waterdepends
on the pressure and temperature of the air. 6L28/32H, 720 rpm (P)
Ambient air condition-
air temperature 35 OC
Amount of Condensation Water in The Charge relative air humidity 90 O/O

Air Receiver Charge air temperature 50 "C


Charge alr pressure 2.6 bar
Both higher pressure and lower temperature reduce
the ability to absorb water. A turbocharged diesel As a puidance, an air consumption of 8.2 kg/kWh
enginetakes airfromoutside, compresses and cools (Le) at full load car1 he used for MAN B&W Diesel A/
the air. Then, normally, the air cannot absorb the S, Holeby engines
same amount of water as before.
602.05 Condensate Amount
Doscnpl~on
Ed~bonOBH Page 2 (2)
1

General
Solutron according lo d~agram- Amount of Condensate Water in Air Tanks.
Water content of air (I) 0.033 k g k g The volumeof condensate in the a~rtankisdeterrnin-
Max. water cont. of a ~ (11)
r 0 021 k g k g ed b y means of the curve at the bottom to the right
of the diagram, representing an operating pressure
Amount of condensate in charge alr reccelver of 30 bar.

= (I - II) x le x P Example:
= (0.033 - 0.021) x 8.2 x 1260 = 123 ks/h
Amount of condensate In air tank

Draining of Condensation Water. Volumetric capacity of tank(V) 4000 dm3


Temperature in tank (T) 40 "C=313K
This phenomenon w~lloccur on all turbocharged Internal press of tank (p) 30 bar
engines For MAN B&W Holeby 4-stroke engine, = 31 x l o 5 N/m2(abs)
there IS no risk with a small amount of water tn the Gas constant for air (R) 287 Nmlkg K
charge alr receiver But ~f the charge alr recelver is Amb~entair temperature 35 "C
filled with water there is a r~skof getting water Into Relative air hum~d~ty 90 %
thecyltnder Th~swater have to be drarned away As Weight of alr in tank
standard a valve IS mounted on the charge arr
rece~ver/cooleron the englne Thrs valve IS to be
used for draining of the water If there is a great
amount, the valve can be left half-open If the
amount is small, the charge air receiver can be
dra~nedperiodcally Solution acc. to above diagram:

Water content of air (I) 0.033 k g k g


Max. water cont. of air (111) 0.0015 kgkg

Amount of condensate in air tank

= (I - Ill) x m.
= (0 033 - 0.0015) x 138 = 4.35 ka.