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Technical Information

EVP 001905 e, April 2006

supersedes EVP 001905 e, November 2005

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®
= registered trademark of ®
BASF Aktiengesellschaft,
unless otherwise indicated
Neozapon
dyes

metal complex dyes for coatings, printing inks and special


applications, free of extenders, with good solubility in alcohols,
glycols, glycol ethers, esters and ketones, practically insoluble
in water

Range

chemical nature Colour Index


part 1 part 2
®
Neozapon Black X51 1:2 Cr Solvent Black 27 –
Neozapon® Black X55 1:2 Cr Solvent Black 29 –
Neozapon® Yellow 081 1:1 Cr Solvent Yellow 79 –
Neozapon® Yellow 141 1:1 Cr Solvent Yellow 81 –
Neozapon® Yellow 157 1:2 Cr Solvent Yellow 82 –
Neozapon® Orange 245 1:1 Cr Solvent Orange 56 –
Neozapon® Orange 251 1:2 Cr Solvent Orange 54 –
Neozapon® Orange 272 1:2 Cr Solvent Orange 99 –
Neozapon® Brown 322 1:2 Cr Solvent Brown 42 –
Neozapon® Red 335 1:2 Cr Solvent Red 122 –
Neozapon® Red 355 1:2 Cr, color salt Solvent Red 119 –
Neozapon® Red 365 1:2 Cr, color salt Solvent Red 160 –
Neozapon® Red 395 1:2 Cr Solvent Red 122 –
Neozapon® Red 471 1:2 Co Solvent Red 118 –
Neozapon® Pink 478 1:1 Cr, color salt Solvent Red 127 –
Neozapon® Blue 807 Cu phthalocyanine Solvent Blue 70 –
Neozapon® Green 975 Cu phthalocyanine + 1:1 Cr Solvent Blue 70 + –
Solvent Yellow 79 –

Physical form powder

Shelf life According to our experience, Neozapon® dyes can be stored for at
least 10 years from the date of delivery when kept in their original,
unopened packaging and under dry conditions. Like most organic
compounds, however, they are combustible, a point to be consid-
ered for storage. Also note that dyes in drums that have been
opened and not resealed may absorb water from atmospheric
humidity.
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 2 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Solutions of Neozapon® dyes stored in tinplate drums or galvanized


containers may cause corrosion and undergo color changes. We
recommend using coated drums or plastic containers.

Properties

Table 1 shows density, bulk volume and pH value while table 2


gives information on the solubility in various solvents. The pH value
was determined on this solution:

0.25 g dye
20 ml ethanol 96 %
5 ml pure water

Table 1: density bulk volume pH


density, bulk volume, pH g/cm³ l/kg
Neozapon® Black X51 1.33 2.70 6.1
Neozapon® Black X55 1.10 2.63 7.4
Neozapon® Yellow 081 1.35 1.29 5.7
Neozapon® Yellow 141 1.36 2.50 5.2
Neozapon® Yellow 157 1.24 2.78 7.2
Neozapon® Orange 245 1.38 2.14 5.3
Neozapon® Orange 251 1.30 2.38 7.3
Neozapon® Orange 272 1.16 6.71 6.8
Neozapon® Brown 322 1.49 1.50 6.8
Neozapon® Red 335 1.22 3.12 6.4
Neozapon® Red 355 1.33 2.27 6.2
Neozapon® Red 365 1.27 1.95 6.6
Neozapon® Red 395 1.38 3.16 7.2
Neozapon® Red 471 1.36 3.70 7.3
Neozapon® Pink 478 1.31 2.00 5.2
Neozapon® Blue 807 1.25 2.70 7.9
Neozapon® Green 975 1.32 2.32 5.4

Solubility Table 2 gives the amount of dye in grams which nearly completely
dissolves in 1 liter of the relevant solvent. Following DIN ISO 757-9,
the dye is added to the solvent in portions and the mixture is
shaken at room temperature (22–25 °C [72–77 °F]) until a significant
amount of dye remains undissolved. Neozapon® dyes, unlike inor-
ganic salts in water, do not form true solutions. Therefore, it is im-
possible to give absolute solubility figures. The values determined
can only serve as a guide, particularly since in practice, almost
always solvent blends or binder solutions are used.

Neozapon® dyes are technical-grade products which may contain


small proportions of insoluble impurities. These can be removed by
filtering or decanting the dye solution.
2
1
Table 2:
solubility
(g/l)

ethylglycol acetate

isopropanol
ethoxy propanol
benzyl alcohol

ethanol 99.5%
ethoxypropyl acetate
methylethyl ketone
acetone
methyl isobutyl ketone

methanol

Solvenon® PM
butyl acetate 85 %2
cyclohexanone
butyl glycol
solvent blend1

ethyl acetate
methoxypropyl acetate
dipropylene glycol

ethanol 96%
phenyl glycol
EVP 001905 e, April 2006

Black X51 < 10 < 10 < 10 150 > 500 100 < 30 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 400 400 100 > 500 400 200 250 < 30

Black X55 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 50 150 100 300 300 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Yellow 081 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 10 < 10 > 500 < 10 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500

85 parts butyl acetate mixed with 15 parts n-butanol


Yellow 141 > 500 100 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 100 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Yellow 157 > 500 80 < 10 > 500 100 > 500 400 < 30 < 50 100 < 30 < 30 200 300 < 30 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Orange 245 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 350
Page 3 of 13

solvent blend: 60 parts ethanol, 30 parts toluene, 10 parts ethyl acetate


Orange 251 > 500 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 300 250 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 300

Orange 272 > 500 100 150 > 500 > 500 > 500 60 50 100 100 100 50 > 500 > 500 250 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Brown 322 < 10 < 30 < 10 > 500 > 500 350 > 500 < 10 > 500 < 10 400 < 10 > 500 > 500 100 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 100

Red 335 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 250 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Red 355 < 10 < 10 < 10 100 > 500 > 500 < 10 < 10 50 < 10 100 < 10 200 140 < 30 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 100

Red 365 > 500 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Red 395 100 100 40 > 500 > 500 > 500 400 100 > 500 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 200

Red 471 200 200 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 400 < 10 80 < 10 150 < 10 > 500 > 500 < 50 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Pink 478 200 200 < 10 < 10 400 > 500 > 500 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 400 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500

Blue 807 100 < 10 200 400 > 500 > 500 < 10 200 100 400 100 200 > 500 > 500 400 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500

Green 975 150 < 10 300 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 10 300 250 > 500 < 10 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500 > 500 < 10 > 500 > 500 > 500
Neozapon® dyes
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 4 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Neozapon® dyes dissolve very rapidly. Photometric measurements


have shown that they dissolve at the same rate in alcohols, glycol
ethers, esters, and ketones, regardless of their concentration and
the stirrer speed (100–200 rpm). Even high-speed stirrers do not
significantly increase the dissolving rate.

To ensure the dye dissolves as rapidly as possible, it must be thor-


oughly wetted by the solvent and kept agitated in the stirring ves-
sel. Lumps and sediments can be avoided by strewing the powder
into the solvent while it is being stirred.

Adhesion (table 3) Printing or coating aluminum foil requires good adhesion. The sim-
plest way of determining this property is the adhesive tape pull-off
test: A piece of adhesive tape of specified length and width is
pressed to the printed or coated foil and then pulled off rapidly.
The test is repeated a number of times and the mean value is de-
termined. A poorly adhering film will be completely detached from
the foil.

Adhesion depends on a number of factors. The main ones are the


binder, its concentration and the solvents and plasticizers contain-
ed in the binder system. The processing conditions, e. g., the dry-
ing temperature and duration, are significant, too.

The aluminum foil itself can have a considerable influence on adhe-


sion. The pores of the foil may absorb traces of the oil sprayed
onto it during rolling. The oil, usually a mixture of high-boiling pe-
troleum fractions, gradually migrates to the surface and can impair
adhesion.

Aside from these general considerations, the chemical constitution


and the concentration of the dye can affect the film’s adhesion.

Adhesion problems with colored binder systems for printing or


coating aluminum foil can be considerably reduced by precoating
the foil in a separate process with an uncolored binder such as
cellulose nitrate or a VC copolymer. Uncolored films generally ad-
here better to aluminum foil than colored films do, even if there is
no direct interaction between the dye and the binder.

The Neozapon® dyes were tested in a cellulose nitrate finish and in


a finish based on a vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer modified
with maleic acid and having the following composition:

20 parts VC-VAC copolymer


80 parts 80:20 blend of methylethyl ketone and ethyl acetate

In each case, the dye concentration was 5 % in terms of the


amount of finish. The finishes were drawn down with a 24 µm spiral
applicator.
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 5 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Fastness properties of coatings

The fastness ratings give an indication of the performance of the


Neozapon® dyes. Note that they represent the properties of the
coating system as a whole, they cannot be assumed to apply to
the dye alone. Users of our dyes are advised to check fastness
ratings by testing under plant conditions.

Fastness to overcoating (table 3) Dyes may tend to bleed when oversprayed with a top coat con-
taining a solvent they are soluble in. This is tested by overcoating
with a white finish based on the same binder/solvent system as the
colored coat, and assessing the coloration of the white coat. Tests
were conducted on an alkyd-melamine coating. Finishes were
baked for 30 minutes at 120 °C (248 °F), oversprayed with the
white finish and baked for another 30 minutes at 180 °C (356 °F).
Migration of the dye into the white film was assessed and is ex-
pressed in ratings from 1 to 5:

rating fastness shade change or bleeding


1 poor pronounced
2 moderate significant
3 quite good somewhat
4 good a trace
5 very good none

Heat stability (table 3) The heat stability of a dye depends largely on the binder and the
duration of the exposure to heat. Neozapon® dyes are tested in an
alkyd-melamine system with a dye concentration of 0.5 %. The
finish was applied to an aluminum sheet, flashed off and baked for
30 minutes. A coating dried at 120 °C (248 °F) served as a com-
parison. Different dye concentrations can lead to a higher or lower
heat stability.
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 6 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

table 3: adhesion to aluminum foil3 fastness to heat stability


adhesion, fastness to overcoating, 2 min./130 °C, air-dried overcoating [°C]4
heat stability VC-VAC cellulose
copolymer nitrate
Neozapon® Black X51 1 1 3–4 220
Neozapon® Black X55 1 1 –5 –4
Neozapon® Yellow 081 1 1 –4 –4
Neozapon® Yellow 141 2 2 5 160
Neozapon® Yellow 157 1 1 3–4 220
Neozapon® Orange 245 2 2 4–5 140
Neozapon® Orange 251 1 1 3 200
Neozapon® Orange 272 1 2 4 160
Neozapon® Brown 322 1 1 –4 –4
Neozapon® Red 335 1 1 3 200
Neozapon® Red 355 2 1 –4 –4
Neozapon® Red 365 1 1 –4 –4
Neozapon® Red 395 1 1 5 250
Neozapon® Red 471 2 1 5 200
Neozapon® Pink 478 2 1 –4 –4
Neozapon® Blue 807 2 1 3 220
Neozapon® Green 975 2 2 3–4 200

Fastness properties of printing inks

The fastness ratings give an indication of the performance of the


Neozapon® dyes. Note that they represent the properties of the
printing ink as a whole, they cannot be assumed to apply to the
dye alone. Users of our dyes are advised to check fastness ratings
by testing under plant conditions.

The fastness ratings for the Neozapon® dyes were determined in


two different binder systems:

PVC copolymer
combination of cellulose nitrate and a polymer plasticizer

The printing inks were applied to aluminum foil that had been
primed with a PVC binder to a wet-film thickness of 24 µm.

See Guideline recipes below for the recipes.

The fastness properties were rated in accordance with ISO 105-


A02 (assessment of change in shade) and ISO 105-A03 (assess-
ment of bleeding).

3
1 = very good to good adhesion, 2 = quite good to moderate adhesion
4
Celsius to Fahrenheit conversion: 140 °C = 284 °F, 160 °C = 320 °F, 200 °C = 392 °F, 220 °C = 428 °F, 250 °C = 482 °F
5
not tested
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 7 of 13 Neozapon® dyes
table 4:
fastness properties

curd cheese

water
soap 1 %
sterilization

alkali 1 %
butter
oil
light

paraffin

lactic acid 10 %

NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC

PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
PVC
EVP 001905 e, April 2006

Neozapon® Black X51 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3–4 6 6

Neozapon® Black X55 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4–5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3–4 2–3 6 6

Neozapon® Yellow 081 4–5 4–5 5 5 4–5 5 5 4–5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3–4 4 7 5

Neozapon® Yellow 141 5 4–5 5 4–5 5 5 5 4 5 4–5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3–4 3–4

Neozapon® Yellow 157 5 4–5 5 5 5 4–5 5 4–5 5 4 5 5 5 4–5 4 4 3 2 7 5–6

Neozapon® Orange 245 4–5 4–5 5 5 4–5 5 5 4–5 5 4–5 5 5 5 4–5 5 5 4 3 7 5–6
Page 8 of 13

Neozapon® Orange 251 5 4–5 5 5 5 5 4–5 4–5 5 4 5 5 5 4–5 5 5 3 2 7 3–4

Neozapon® Orange 272 5 5 5 5 5 4–5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 5–6 5

Neozapon® Brown 322 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3–4 3 7 3–4

Neozapon® Red 335 5 4–5 5 5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 5 5 5 4–5 5 5 3–4 2–3 6 3

Neozapon® Red 355 –6 4–5 –5 5 –5 4–5 –5 4–5 –5 2–3 –5 5 –5 4–5 –5 5 –5 4 –5 2

Neozapon® Red 365 5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 5 4–5 4–5 4 2–3 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 2–3 4 2

Neozapon® Red 395 5 4–5 5 5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 2–3 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 2 5–6 3–4

Neozapon® Red 471 4–5 5 3–4 5 4 5 4 5 4–5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 2 4 5 4

Neozapon® Pink 478 –5 4 3–4 5 3 4–5 5 5 4 4–5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3–4 4 2 1

Neozapon® Blue 807 5 5 4–5 5 3–4 4 4 4 2 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 6–7 6

Neozapon® Green 975 4–5 4–5 4–5 5 3–4 5 4–5 5 2 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4–5 7 6–7
Neozapon® dyes
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 9 of 13 Neozapon® dyes
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 10 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Application in coatings

The information below relates only to the general application of


Neozapon® dyes because binder systems and processing are of
great influence. Trials under conditions used in practice should
always be carried out.

Furniture stains The suitability of Neozapon® dyes for solvent-based furniture stains
depends on their solubility. For water-based stains we recommend
our Basantol® range and the Basantol® U range for stains based on
water/solvent mixes.

Air-drying coatings The suitability of Neozapon® dyes for coatings based on binders
soluble in alcohols or esters depends on their solubility.

Acid-curable coatings Neozapon® dyes except Neozapon® Blue 807 are stable when dis-
solved in a urea resin finish of the following composition:

75 parts Plastopal® BTB


8 parts Plastopal® EBS 100 B
17 parts Solvenon® PM
100 parts

+ 0.5 parts Neozapon® dye


+ 10 parts hardener solution of this composition:
72 parts ethanol
28 parts concentrated hydrochloric acid

See table 3 for fastness information on furniture stains based on


Neozapon® dyes which are to be overcoated with an acid-curable
finish.

Amine-curing coatings All Neozapon® dyes are suitable for use in coatings based on
Epikote®7 and Laromin® A 327 as the hardener component.

Baking finishes Heat stability tests have shown that nearly all Neozapon® dyes are
suitable for baking finishes cured at temperatures up to 160 °C
(320 °F). However we recommend tests in the binder system and
under application/drying conditions to be used.

In general, Neozapon® dyes are not suitable for applications re-


quiring temperatures above 220 °C (420 °F).

Polyurethane coatings The Neozapon® dyes were tested in a finish based on


Desmophen®8 650 MPA and an aliphatic polyisocyanate as hard-
ener. All dyes are suitable.

Cellulose nitrate finishes All Neozapon® dyes are suitable.


EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 11 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Effect finishes Combining Neozapon® dyes with Paliocrom® effect pigments, alu-
minum or pearlescent pigments opens up a wide range of design
possibilities. The main fields of application are coatings for plastics
as well as motorcycles and bicycles. Note, however, that dyes
generally have limited fastness to light and weathering. For appli-
cations requiring resistance to weathering for 1 year or longer, we
only recommend transparent pigments form the Paliogen®,
Heliogen® and Sicotrans® ranges.

Application in flexographic and gravure printing inks

Neozapon® dyes are suitable for printing inks based on ethanol,


esters and ketones. Dye concentrations of 5–10 % are recom-
mended for printing packaging materials such as aluminum foil,
cellophane, glassine etc.

Some of the fastness properties (e. g., to water) of inks containing


polyamide resins are somewhat poorer than those of inks contain-
ing cellulose nitrate.

Note that Neozapon® Red 355 and Neozapon® Red 365 contain
rhodamine. Both dyes will tend to migrate through printed polyeth-
ylene film.

In inks based on VC copolymers containing carboxyl groups, the


dyes may sometimes cause the binder system to gel. Our tests
have shown that this phenomenon exclusively occurs with 1:1
metal complex dyes. 1:2 metal complex dyes and soluble copper
phthalocyanine dyes do not generally cause gelling. Gelling mainly
depends on dye and binder concentration and the pH value. Gel-
ling is distinctly accelerated at dye concentrations above 2 5,
binder concentrations above 15 % and a pH value above 6.

Gelling, which involves the formation of dye/binder structures, is


reversible and can be counteracted by the addition of organic ac-
ids such as tartaric acid.

Guideline recipes cellulose nitrate/polymer plasticizer

5 parts dye
95 parts binder of this composition
18 parts cellulose nitrate A400 isopropanol
moist
6 parts Acronal® 4 F
20 parts ethyl acetate
51 parts ethanol
5 parts Solvenon® PM
EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 12 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

VC copolymer

5 parts dye
95 parts binder of this composition
12 parts UCAR™9 VMCH
44 parts ethyl acetate
4 parts methylethyl ketone

Application in Specialty Industries

We particularly recommend these dyes:

Neozapon® Yellow 157


Neozapon® Red 355
Neozapon® Red 365
Neozapon® Blue 807
Neozapon® Black X51
Neozapon® Black X55

Ballpoint ink pastes Because of their solubility in phenyl glycol and benzyl alcohol, the
dyes listed above are suitable for ballpoint ink pastes, both as a
sole dye and for tinting.

Felt- and fiber tip pens All dyes from the Neozapon® range are suitable for alcohol-based
inks (permanent markers, OHP markers etc.). The relatively neutral
pH of the Neozapon® dyes considerably reduces the risk of corro-
sion of aluminum pen bodies. The possible corrosion effect of the
resin component should be considered.

Combination with Basonyl® dyes is possible. However, we recom-


mend preliminary trials to determine optimum compatibility and
stability.

Ink-jet inks Neozapon® dyes are suitable to formulate solvent inks based on
alcohol or methylethyl ketone, e. g., for the continuous jet process
in industrial ink-jet.

Due to their solubility, Neozapon® Red 365 and Neozapon® Black


X55 are particularly suitable. Storage tests lasting several months
and at low temperatures have shown, that, e. g., Neozapon® Black
X55 shows very good stability in inks based on ethanol as well as
in those based on methylethyl ketone. This stability was unaffected
by the binders such as cellulose nitrate, acidic or neutral (ketone)
resins.

Marking of security papers Neozapon® dyes can be used to mark papers.


EVP 001905 e, April 2006 Page 13 of 13 Neozapon® dyes

Special applications Neozapon® Red 335 and Neozapon® Red 355 are suitable for col-
oring masking films used in the graphics industry.

The metal ions of metal complex dyes are firmly bound into the dye
molecule and are usually not released by 0.07 mol hydrochloric
acid. More information on the suitability of Neozapon® dyes for
coloring children’s toys (European Standard 71, part 3) can be
taken from the Technical Information bulletin Directives and regula-
tions on the use of colorants in food-contact applications and toys
and the brochure Pigments, pigment preparations, soluble dyes,
binders, crosslinkers, light stabilizers, process chemicals for coat-
ings, plastics coloration and stabilizing, graphic arts and specialty
industries. Both documents are available from our sales force or
from the Internet.

Safety

When handling these products, advice and information given in the


safety data sheet must be complied with. Further, protective and
workplace hygiene measures adequate for handling chemicals
must be observed.

Note

The data contained in this publication are based on our current


knowledge and experience. In view of the many factors that may
affect processing and application of our product, these data do not
relieve processors from carrying out their own investigations and
tests; neither do these data imply any guarantee of certain proper-
ties, nor the suitability of the product for a specific purpose. Any
descriptions, drawings, photographs, data, proportions, weights,
etc. given herein may change without prior information and do not
constitute the agreed contractual quality of the product. It is the
responsibility of the recipient of our products to ensure that any
proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed.

BASF Aktiengesellschaft
Performance Chemicals for
Coatings, Plastics and Specialties
67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany
www.basf.com/pigments
www.basf.com/resins
20060421_evp001905_e_gls_ti_neozapon_range.doc / EVP 001905-0604 E www.basf.com/lightstabilizers