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FABRICATION OF HIGHSPEED RECIPROCATING

HACKSAW MACHINE

PROJECT – 2011 -2012

REG NO: SUBMITTED BY:

10205614 R.S.GOKUL PRASAD

10205615 S.GOKUL

10205616 R.GOVINDARAJ

10205617 S.GOWTHAM

10205618 P.GOWTHAM RAJ

10205619 P.HARISH BABU

GUIDED BY:
Mr.F.ROBERT BELLARMIN.B.E,

LECTURER

SUBMITTED IN PARITIAL FULLFILLMENT


OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DIPLOMA
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. BY THE
STATEBOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU , CHENNAI

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Christ the King Polytechnic College


OTHAKKALMANDAPAM, COIMBATORE-641032
Christ the King Polytechnic College
OTHAKKALMANDAPAM, COIMBATORE-641032

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


PROJECT REPORT-2011-2012

THIS REPORT IS CERTIFIED TO BE THE BONAFIDE


WORKDONE BY SELVAN/SELVI:

REG NO: OF VI-SEMESTER CLASS OF THIS COLLEGE.

SIGNATURE OF SIGNATURE OF
THE GUIDE THE H.O.D

SUBMITTED FOR THE PRATICAL EXAMINATION OF THE


BOARD EXAMINATION, STATEBOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, CHENNAI,
AND TAMIL NADU HELD ON . AT THE CHIRST THE
KING POLYTECNIC COLLEGE, COIMBATORE-641032.

INTERNAL EXTERNAL
EXAMINAR EXAMINAR
DEDICATED TO OUR
BELOVED PARENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere and heartfelt thanks to our beloved chairman


Most Rev. Dr. L.THOMAS AQUINAS, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., for his great
support with blessings

We are immensely grateful to our respected Principal


Mr.A.ANTONY FERANDEZ, M.E., MISTE, for his constant encouragement
and for providing all the facilities for doing the project.

We express our gratitude to Professor and Head,


Mr.E.ANTONY RAJAN, B.E., Department of Mechanical Engineering who
inspired as through his valuable suggestions.

We also express sincere thanks to our respected guide


Mr.F.ROBERT BELLARMIN, B.E.,MISTE,, Lecturer in Mechanical
Engineering Department for his vigorous encouragement and constant help
through out the project.

We also express our sincere thanks to all the teaching and


non teaching staffs in Mechanical Engineering Department of our college for
their advice and encouragement throughout the period of the project.
CONTENTS
CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITTLE PAGE


NO NO

1 INTRODUCTION 2

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3

3 ELEMENT OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 8

4 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

4.1 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER 13

4.2 SOLENOID VALVE 18

5 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN AND DRAWING 22

6 WORKING PRINCIPLE 29

7 MERITS 31

8 DEMERIT 33
TS

9 APPLICATIONS 35

10 LIST OF MATERIALS 37

11 CAUSE OF LEAK 40

12 COST ESTIMATION 41

13 CONCLUSION 44

14 BIBLOGRAPHY 46

15 PHOTOGRAPHY 48
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE
NUMBER TITTLE NO

1 ELEMENT OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 8

2 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER 14

3 SOLENOID-VALUE 19

4 HANDLE 23

5 VICE 24

6 HACKSAW SET 25

7 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER 26

DRAWING FOR FABRICATION OF


8 HIGHSPEED RECIPROCATING 27
HACKSAW MACHINE
SYNOPSIS
SYNOPSIS
The pneumatic has gained a large amount of importance in last few
decades. This importance due to its accuracy and cost. The pneumatic reciprocating high-
speed hacksaw machine has an advantage of working in high pressure the hacksaw used in
this is reciprocate such that required shape can be cutted according to the requirement.
CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION
1
INTRODUCTION
The hacksaw is the metal cutting machine tool designed to cut metal by
applying pneumatic pressure. The machine exclusively intended for mass production and they
represent fasten and more efficient way to cut a metal.

Hacksaws are used to cut thin and soft metals the operation of the unit
is simplified to a few simple operations involving a cylinder block and piston
arrangement.There are numerous systems in hacksaw machine .the main function of
pneumatic hacksaw is to cut thin and soft metals by pneumatic power.

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CHAPTER: 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
3
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1: PNEUMATICS:

The word “pneumatics” originates from greek word (pneuma) which in


turn originates from (pneuma) meaning air organ which in turn comes from (pneuma greek
for air).

Pneumatic is a huge topic of science and engineering dealing with the


mechanical properties of air and the therotical foundation for pneumatics which focuses on
engineering uses of air properties, pneumatic topics range through. It is a branch of
technology, which deals with the study and application of pressurized gas to effect
mechanical motion. Pneumatic systems are extensively used in industry, where factories are
commonly plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. This is because a
centrally located and electrically powered compressor that powers cylinders and other
pneumatic devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a
cheaper, safer, more flexible, and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors
and actuators. Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other
areas.

Pneumatic systems are widely used systems in industry. While they are
used widely in the industry, the system components like pumps, valves, cylinders are always
became investigation topics in the history. Pneumatic cylinders are one of the most common
components of the pneumatic systems used in many engineering applications like; automatic
manufacturing and montage lines, heavy construction equipments, control systems, sensitive
measurement and test systems. They are used for producing linear motion in the pneumatic
systems and they convert pneumatic energy to mechanical energy.

Most science and engineering disciplines and cover concepts such as


pipe flow dam design air and air control, computional fluids called dynamics.flow
measurment ,river channel ,behaviour and erosion ,however if used incorrectly ,pneumatic
instrument can result in weird occurrences because of the nature of high pressured air .

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2.2: PNEUMATIC POWER:

Pneumatic pressurised airs are a large group of air used as the motive
medium in pneumatic machinery. Air types include synthetic compounds of air and the
mixtures .The air are found in machinery and equipment.to back holes , pneumatic systems
are very common in aircraft flight control systems air is medium of power transmission in a
pneumatic systems.

2.3: SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS:


Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual
effort by mechanical power. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for low cost
mechanization particularly for sequential (or) repetitive operations. Many factories and
plants already have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing the power
(or) energy requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control
systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power).
The main advantage of an all pneumatic system are usually
economic and simplicity the later reducing maintenance to a low level. It can also have
out standing advantages in terms of safety.

2.4: OXIDATION STABILITY:


Oxidation is taken place due to chemical action between oil and
oxygen when oxidation of air take place impurities like dusts, moistures, dirts, etc.oxidation
stability is defined as the air is ability to resist oxidation.complete preventation of oxidation is
impossible but it can be reduced.

2.5: PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSEDAIR:

Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which


must be made available, in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the
system. However it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air
supply.

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The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means
using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a
certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.Compressor capacity is the actual
quantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of the air
at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.

2.6: REST AND CORROSION PREVENTION:

The moisture entering into the system along with air produces rusting
the rust if passed through the precession components like values pump.

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CHAPTER: 3

ELEMENT OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM


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ELEMENT OF THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
Figure no: 1

Compressor: a pump which compresses air, raising it to a higher pressure, and delivers it
to the pneumatic system (sometimes, can also be used to generate a vacuum).

Control valve: one-way valve that allows pressurized air to enter the pneumatic system,
but prevents backflow (and loss of pressure) into the compressor when it is stopped.

Solenoid value: controls the flow of pressurized air from the source to the selected port.
Some valves permit free exhaust from the port not selected. These valves can be actuated
either manually or electrically (the valves typically provided in the FIRST kits use dual
solenoids to change the direction of the valve, based on input signals from the control
system).

Actuator: converts energy stored in the compressed air into mechanical motion. A Linear
piston is shown. Alternate tools include rotary actuators, air tools, expanding bladders, etc.

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COMPRESSOR:

The compressor feeds air into a main tank, the main tank's pressure is
higher than the pressure required by any single pneumatic animatronic. The main tank outlet
should have an adjustable regulator, which reduces the tank's pressure to that required by the
rest of the pneumatic system. On the regulator are two gauges used to read both tank pressure
and the output pressure of the regulator.

The compressor's output line should be coupled with a filter/drier trap


unit which is designed to remove oil and any foreign particles that may have been introduced
by the compressor. It is also intended to collect any water which condenses out of the air as it
passes through. (As the pressure and temperature of the air drops when passing into this
larger enclosure, water vapor passes into its liquid state.) Water and debris - including tiny
metal particles shed by the compressor's mechanism - contribute to rust, corrosion and wear,
while oil causes deterioration in rubber parts and seals. Thus, a filter can be important for
reliable system operation. These devices consist of a perforated cylindrical, housed inside a
glass or plastic cup which is often covered with a mesh or cage to prevent injury to the
operator in case the enclosure shatters. At the bottom of the glass is a tap valve, which may
be opened during operation to

The trap/filter are typically rated for pressures between 100 to 200 P.
S. I. The unit should be checked regularly, and the excess water must be bled off before it
reaches the level of the filter. In humid climates, this can occur frequently if the trap is
small.As air hoses run to multiple applications, they branch by means of splitters and valves
from the main line. The valves allow any single animatronic be shut off.

The master air storage tank at the compressor holds a surplus of air as a
buffer. At each pneumatic animatronic location a small inline reservoir tank is installed
nearby (within 10 feet or so). This way air does not need to travel a long distance through a
restricted conduit to reach the pneumatic animatronic. Air flow is slowed when it must travel
through a long hose. Without reservoirs, the pneumatic animatronic might work slowly and
unpredictably, especially if they are triggered often, or if several devices are triggered at once
a secondary regulator is required at this point. The pneumatic animatronic feed pressure must
be limited to a lower pressure than the reservoir tank feed pressure, as this is a usually higher
than the pneumatic animatronic
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requires or can safely handle. Spooky pneumatic animatronics work on ultra low air pressures
for safety, efficiency and slightly quitter operation compared to pneumatic animatics sold
elsewhere.

Buy an electrically powered air compressor as gas powered


compressors are often much too noisy and the fumes and the fuel are hazardous. We suggest
getting an oil-less and direct drive (not a belt drive) unit. Oil-less compressors are more or
less maintenance free and you do not have to worry about keeping the compressor level or
about leaking oil. The following suggested parameters are based on spooky animatronics.
Pneumatic animatronics from other companies consume for more air and you should contact
them for their recommendations.

Just to run the one of our animatronics, you will need a compressor
with at least a 2 gallon tank or bigger. 1/4 horse power or more and 1.5 cfm of air flow or
more.Double these if you plan on 2 of our animatronics triple.
We have very air efficient designs. Other companies’ animatronics require even more. If you
are running 3 or 4 pneumatic animatronics on a periodic basses (as most home haunters do) a
3/4 horsepower compressor with a 10 gallon main tank should work fine and you probably
will not need to use reservoir tanks. If you are running 5 to 10 on a periodic basses you may
need to use reservoir tanks. If you are operating a large haunted house with 300 to 700 people
a night and 4 or more pneumatic animatronics you will need at least a 1 horsepower
compressor with a 10 gallon main tank and reservoir tanks for each animatronic unit.

When comparing compressors it is best to use the air delivery rate as


basics of comparison. In higher the cfm rating is better. Be aware that the cfm (cubic feet per
minute) will vary depending on the regulated pressure as which it is operating. For example,
a compressor that delivers 6.0 cfm when set at 40 psi might only produce 4.8 cfm at 90psi so
when comparing ratings make sure the ratings are given for the same air pressure reading.

Don’t use electric compressors with extension cords. Instead, use a


longer air hose. Compressors use a high amount of amperage and can put too much of a strain
on long extension cords.

Empty the water from the tank after each day of use. This is to prevent
the tank from rusting.
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Dangers in a pneumatic system can come from:

o Poorly maintained compressor with a faulty relief valve

o Devices operated at excessive pressures which may cause them to


explode

o High pressure systems with bad connections or fittings, which could allow. A
hose to spring loose, jump around and hit a nearby person.

o Electrically related heat from power cables or from too little air circulating
around the compressor.

CONTROL UNIT:

It is used control the solenoid by ON and OFF valve. To the requirement of air flow
in further way to in and out for the working of pneumatic cylinder.

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CHAPTER: 4

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
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DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS
4.1. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER

CYLINDER TECHNICAL DATA

Piston Rod:
M.S. hard Chrome plated
Seals:
Nitrile (Buna – N) Elastomer
End Covers:
Cast iron graded fine grained from 25mm to 300mm
Piston:
Aluminium
Media:
Air
TemperatureRange:
0oc to 85oc
Parts of Pneumatic Cylinder:
Piston:

The piston is a cylindrical member of certain length which reciprocates


inside the cylinder. The diameter of the piston is slightly less than that of the cylinder bore
diameter and it is fitted to the top of the piston rod. It is one of the important parts which
convert the pressure energy into mechanical power.

The piston is equipped with a ring suitably proportioned and it is


relatively soft rubber which is capable of providing good sealing with low friction at the
operating pressure. The purpose of piston is to provide means of conveying the pressure of
air inside the cylinder to the piston of the oil cylinder.

Generally piston is made up of


 Aluminium alloy-light and medium work.
 Brass or bronze or CI-Heavy duty.

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Figure No: 2

The piston is single acting spring returned type. The piston moves forward when the high-
pressure air is turned from the right side of cylinder. The piston moves backward when the
solenoid valve is in OFF condition. The piston should be as strong and rigid as possible. The
efficiency and economy of the machine primarily depends on the working of the piston. It
must operate in the cylinder with a minimum of friction and should be able to withstand the
high compressor force developed in the cylinder and also the shock load during operation.

The piston should possess the following qualities.


a. The movement of the piston not creates much noise.
b. It should be frictionless.
c. It should withstand high pressure.

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Piston Rod

The piston rod is circular in cross section. It connects piston with


piston of other cylinder. The piston rod is made of mild steel ground and polished. A high
finish is essential on the outer rod surface to minimize wear on the rod seals. The piston rod
is connected to the piston by mechanical fastening. The piston and the piston rod can be
separated if necessary.

One end of the piston rod is connected to the bottom of the piston. The
other end of the piston rod is connected to the other piston rod by means of coupling. The
piston transmits the working force to the oil cylinder through the piston rod. The piston rod
is designed to withstand the high compressive force. It should avoid bending and withstand

Shock loads caused by the cutting force. The piston moves inside the
rod seal fixed in the bottom cover plate of the cylinder. The sealing arrangements prevent the
leakage of air from the bottom of the cylinder while the rod reciprocates through it.

Cylinder Cover Plates

The cylinder should be enclosed to get the applied pressure from the
compressor and act on the pinion. The cylinder is thus closed by the cover plates on both the
ends such that there is no leakage of air. An inlet port is provided on the top cover plate and
an outlet ports on the bottom cover plate. There is also a hole drilled for the movement of the
piston.

The cylinder cover plate protects the cylinder from dust and other
particle and maintains the same pressure that is taken from the compressor. The flange has to
hold the piston in both of its extreme positions. he piston hits the top plat during the return
stroke and hits the bottom plate during end of forward stroke. So the cover plates must be
strong enough to withstand the load.

WORKING:
A pneumatic system is one in which power is transmitted from one
place to another place through the medium of an compressible air. Usually pneumatic system
have found versatile application in machine tool engineering .power transmission, by using
an air as medium is called by a name pneumatic.

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it is more compact and elimintes the mechanical complicated linkages like gears, came and
levers .It does not require any lubrication as aresult wear and tear of the moving components
are considerably reduced .

The Pneumatic system components are connected by pipe


lines .It provides flexibilty in locating the components at any desired place .by varying. The
quantity of air flow by means of a value any amount of step less speed can easily be obtained
.The air used in system, provides cushoning effect for the shock loads. The life of the
component is increased. Very large forces can easily be obtained and force multiplication is
also possible with the minimum changes and losses. Whenever the pneumatic systems are
over loaded the pressure’s immediately relieved. Thus the system components are protected
against the breakages and overstrain.

The pneumatic air is compressible the system is very sensitive for


instant operations. Thus backlashes in mechanical system will exist in pneumatic system.
This system requires very simple maintence cares. The heat generated in the bearings and
moving parts are carried away by the air itself. Thus the system does not require any cooling
arrangements. The system provides quick return motion of the components with the simple
arrangements. Thus idle times of machining operations are reduced. The pneumatic system
provides very high degree of dependability.

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CHAPTER: 4.2

SOLENOID VALVE
17
4.2. SOLENOID VALVE

Technical Data:
Size : 5/2”

Pressure : 0 to 10 kg / cm2

Media : Air

Purpose:

This valve is used to speed up the piston movement and also it acts as a
one – way restriction valve which means that the air can pass through only one way and it
can’t return back.By using this valve the time consumption is reduced because of the faster
movement of the piston.

The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic


system commonly known as DCV. This value is used to control the direction of air flow in
the pneumatic system; the directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal
movable parts.

This value was selected for speeedy operation and to reduce the
manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automobile machine by
means of using a solenoid value

A solenoid is an eletrical device that converts electrical energy into


straight line motion and force. These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in
turn operates the valve mechanism. Solenoid is one which the plunger is pulled when the
solenoid is energized.

The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they
can be recognised when called upon to make repairs, to do service work or to install them.

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Figure no: 3

PARTS OF A SOLENOID VALVE:


1. COIL
The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. The layers of wire are
seprated by insulating layer.The entire solenoid coil is covered with a varnish that is not
affected by solenoid moisture. Cutting oil or often fluids.coils are rated in various voltages
such as 115 volts AC, 230volts AC, 460volts AC,575volts AC. 6volts DC,12volts DC,24
volts DC,115volts DC & 230 volts DC. They are designed for such frequencies as 50Hz to 60
Hz.

2. FRAME
The Solenoid Frames Serves several purposes. Since it is made of
laminated sheets, it magnetized when the current passes through the coil. The magnetized
coils attract the metal plunger to move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting
they are usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for receviers the
plunger. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame. And are made of materials such
as metal or imaginated less fiber cloth.

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3. SOLENOID PLUNGER
The solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. The
plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure, so that
there will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. At the top of the
plunger a pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. The solenoid plunger is
moved by a magnetic force in one direction and it’s usually returned by spring action.

Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover either the
solenoid or the entire valve. It protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter, and
protects the actuator also. In many applications it is necessary to use explosation proof
solenoids.

WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE:


The solenoid valve has 5 openings. These ensure easy exhausting of
5/2 valve. The spool of the 5/2 valve slide inside the main bore according to spool position
the port get connected and disconected.

The working principle as follows:

POSITION -1

When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port ‘P’ gets
connected to’B’ and ‘S’ remains closed while ‘A’ gets closed to ‘R’.

POSITION -2

When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port ‘P’ and ‘A’ gets
connected to each other and ‘B’ to ‘S’ while port ‘R’ remains closed.

3. CONNECTORS, REDUCER AND HOSECOLLAR:

In our pneumatic system there are two types of connectors used; one is
the hose connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an
adapter (connector) hose nipple and cap nut. These types of connectors are made up of brass
or Aluminium or hardened steel. Reducers are used to provide inter connection between two
pipes or hoses of different sizes. They may be fitted straight “L” or other configuration

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CHAPTER: 5

SPECIFICATION AND

DESIGN AND DRAWING


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SPECIFICATION
AND
DESIGN AND DRAWING
Pneumatic Components Specification
The pneumatic m a n u a l f e e d h i g h s p e e d hacksaw m a c h i n e
consists of t h e f o l l o w i n g components to full fill the requirements of complete operation
of the machine.

1. Flow control Valve


2. Connectors
3. Hoses
4. Pneumatic cylinder

TechnicalData
1. Solenoid Valve
Port size : 0.635 x 10 ²m
Pressure : 0-8 x 10 ⁵ N/m²
Media : Air

2. Connectors
Max working pressure : 10 x 10 ⁵ N/m²
Temperature : 0-100 º
Fluid media : Air
Material : Plastic

3. Hoses
Max pressure : 10 x 10 ⁵ N/m²
Outer diameter : 6 mm = 6 x 10 ˉ ³m
Inner diameter : 3.5 mm = 3.5 x 10 ˉ ³m

4. Pneumatic cylinder
Max pressure : 12 x 10 ⁵ N/m²
Size : 40 x 75 mm
Inner diameter : 10 mm = 10 x 10 ˉ ³m
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DESIGN AND DRAWING

1. HANDLE

Figure no: 4

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2. VICE

Figure no: 5

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3. Hacksaw Set

Figure no: 6

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4. CYLINDER

Figure no: 7

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DRAWING FOR PNEUMATIC RECIPROCATING
HIGHSPEED HACKSAW MACHINE

Figure no: 8

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CHAPTER: 6

WORKING PRINCIPLE
28
WORKING PRINCIPLE
The compressed air from the compressor reaches the solenoid valve.
The solenoid valve changes the direction of flow according to the signals from the timing
device. The compressed air passes through the solenoid valve and it is admitted into the front
end of the cylinder block.The air pushes the piston for the cutting stroke. At the end of the
cutting stroke air from the solenoid valve reaches the rear end of the cylinder block.

The pressure remains the same but the area is less due to the presence
of piston rod. This exerts greater pressure on the piston, pushing it at a faster rate thus
enabling faster return stroke. The weight attached at the end of the hacksaw frame gives
constant loads which lower the hacksaw to enable continous cutting of the work. The stroke
length of the piston can be changed by making suitable adjustment in the timer.

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CHAPTER: 7

MERITS
30
ADVANTAGES:

 The cutting speed can be varied according to our needs by adjusting the
timer.
 It is portable.
 It does not have any prime mover like eletric motor.
 Simple in construction than mechanical hacksaw.
 It is compact one.
 Less maintenance.

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CHAPTER: 8

DEMERITS
32
LIMITATION:

 Only smaller size and soft metal can be cut.


 It is costiler than the mechanical hacksaw because of compressor unit.
 Less efficiency when compressor to mechanical device.
 Leakage of air affects the working of the unit.

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CHAPTER: 9

APPLICATIONS
34
APPLICATION:

 It is used in small scale industries and in large scale industries.

 It useful when materials need to be cut in hazardous areas such as oil &
gas refineries, chemical factories or oil rigs as well as dusty and wet
environments where electric tools are not effective.

 It is valuable tools in production environments such as pallet repair,


shipbuilding or fiberglass workshops, because they will last longer than
electric tools.

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CHAPTER: 10

LIST OF MATERIALS
36
LIST OF MATERIALS
FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS

The various factors which determine the choice of materials are discussed below

1. PROPERTIES

The materials selected must posses the necessary properties for the
proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied.Can be weight, surfacefinish,
rigidity, ability to with stand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability,
etc...

The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively


affect their selection

 PHYSICAL
 MECHANICAL
 FROM MANUFACTURING POINT OF VIEW
 CHEMICAL

The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal


conductivity, specific heat, co-efficent of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical
conductivity, magnetic purposes, etc…

The various mechanical properties concerned are strength in tensile


load, compressive shear, bending, and torsion, and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact
of elasticity, hardness, wear resistence and sliding properties.

The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are,

 Castability
 Weldability
 Surface properties
 Shrinkage
 Deep drawing, etc...

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2. MANUFACTURING CASE

Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or


surface qualities obtained by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the
use of special materials.

3. QUALITY REQUIRED

This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately


thematerial. For example: it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of
components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging
the steel.

4. AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL

Some materials may be scare or in short supply it then becomes


obligatory for the designer to use some other materials which through may not be a perfect
substitute for the materials designed. The delivery of materials and the delivery of materials
and the delivery date of the products should be kept in mind.

5. SPACE CONSIDERATION

Some times high strength materials have to be selected because the


forces involved are high and space limitation are there.

6. COST

As in any other problem, in selection of material cost of material plays


an important part and should not be ignored. Some times factors like scrap utilization,
appearance, and non-maintence of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper
materials.

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CHAPTER: 11

CAUSE OF LEAK
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CAUSE OF LEAK:
Almost all pneumatic system leaks occuring after extended service from three
conditions:

 Loosening of fittings and connectors by shock and vibrations.

 Wear of dynamic seals and mating parts especially in pneumatic cylinders.

 Support allpipe lines with damped mountings to absorb both shock and vibrations.

 Reduce shock with low-shock valves or accumulators.

 Use pressure controls with low override and strategically placed to protect all parts of
the system.

 Use a minimum number of fitting and connectors. Use weld joints wherever pratical.

 Use parallel thread connectors, tees and elbows in place of tapered pipe threads.

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CHAPTER: 12

COST ESTIMATION
41
COST OF ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST : 3000

2. LABOUR COST : 600

3. MACHINING COST : 600

4. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost”

Manufacuring cost = Material cost + Labour cost

= 3000 + 600 + 600

= 4200

Overhead charges = 2% of manufacturing cost

5. TOTAL COST :

TOTAL COST =Material cost + Labour cost + overhead charges

= 3000 + 600 + 92

= 4292

TOTAL COST FOR THIS PROJECT =


Rs. 4292

42
CHAPTER: 13

CONCLUSION
43
CONCLUSION
Today, buyers are demanding quiet machines because of their concern
about meeting in dusty’s noise limits. Vickers is helping to meet this demand by
supplying quiet pneumatic components. Sound levels of some pumps today, for example,
there are fifty percentage of lower than the same model pumps of a few years ago. In the
pneumatic the one major problem is leakage. In future we can avoid this leakage by
taking proper activities.

44
CHAPTER: 14

BIBLOGRAPHY
45
BIBLOGRAPHY

1. Material selection : Myer kutz

2. Materials and design of art and science : Michael F. Ashby, Kara Johnson

3. Compressor and principle ,pratices : Tony Giampaolo

4. Pratical pneumatics : Chris Stacey

5. Machine shop practice: Volume 1 : Karl Hans Moltrecht

6. Machine Shop Tools & Operations : Rex miller, Mark richard miller

7. Popular Mechanics : LH Houck

8. Basic machine technology : C. Thomas Olivo

9. We thank our college library for giving refrence book of our old projects.

10. We thank our lab assistants for giving ideas and for there helps.

11.We have refered some detail by help of internet source.

46
CHAPTER: 15

PHOTOGRAPHY
47
THANK YOU