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Fatigue & Human Performance

In Transportation Industries

Azlis Sani Jalil, Ph.D, P.Tech.


Industrial & System Engineering Research Group
Department of Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering
Faculty of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Presentation Outline

✓ Fatigue
✓ Human Performance in Transportation
✓ Human performance models
✓ An Integrated Malaysian Train Driver
Performance Model
✓ Other projects
Fatigue
Overview of Fatigue

✓A state of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy that results from prolonged mental
and physical work, extended periods of anxiety, exposure to harsh
environment, or loss of sleep

Prolonged mental & physical work


Tired
Extended period of anxiety
Weary
Exposure to harsh environment
Sleepy
Lost of sleep
Overview of Fatigue

✓Fatigue is a result of prolonged mental or physical exertion; it can affect


people's performance and impair their mental alertness, which leads to
dangerous errors (Health Safety Executive).

Affect people's
Prolonged performance
Leads to
mental or
dangerous errors
physical exertion Impair mental
alertness
Overview of Fatigue

➢ Complex phenomenon

➢ End results of integration multiple factors

➢ Will associated to safety and health


Type of Fatigue

➢ Mental fatigue
Type of Fatigue

➢ Physical fatigue
Effects of Fatigue

➢ Work output
➢ Productivity
➢ Efficiency
➢ Quality

➢ Error
➢ Accidents
➢ Rejects / Non-conformity
Human
Performance
in Transportation
Human interactions

• Human factors / ergonomics (HFE) focuses on interaction of human with


their environment and surroundings.
• 3 main elements consist of interrelationship between human – machine –
environment.
Human

Environment Machine
Introduction
• The traditional concept of HFE has always focused on the interrelationship
between three main elements.
• This concept of HFE is applicable in the evaluation of individuals and daily
work activities, and has been incorporated in assessment of employees in
the industries
• in HFE, other influential factors are used in determining the performance
of employees such as job characteristics, working conditions and the
environments
• Performance of the employee and the system is important in the
transportation industry, especially for public transportations, where high
performance of the organisation would result in increased safety
conditions
Introduction
• Performance is a priority to be achieved either by individual or
organisation (Klein, van Lambalgen, & Treur, 2010)
• Performance of the job are very important dependent variable for
achieving higher quality output and services (Kahya, 2009)
• Through higher performance of the public transportation company, it
consequence better safety condition (Haque, Chin, & Debnath, 2013)
• Ignorance of employee performance may lead to unexpected results such
as devastating accidents with number of injuries & casualty
• Therefore, their performances were highly important to be monitored by
the company.
Temperature Train driver Safety

Comfort Planning

Fatigue
Human Sleepiness

Alertness Services

Handling Quality

Noise Monitoring

Vibration Scheduling

Environment Machine

Workplace Locomotive
Urban lifestyle

Public transport become significant choice for us to move in congested city like Kuala Lumpur.
Accidents
Human Performance Models
• Human performance model is
• an attempt to integrate as much as could consider
• aspects influence the performance of a human.
• The model also becomes the easier and simpler representation of every
item involved in the consideration.
• Will discuss the performance model by Bailey (1996), Baines et al. (2005)
and Chang and Yeh (2010).
Human Performance Models
Bailey et. al (1996) Baines et. al (2005) Chang & Yeh (2010)

Liveware
Human Individual
Liveware - liveware

Liveware - environment
Physical
Context environment
Liveware - hardware

Place, time and


environment of the
particular activity is Liveware - organisation
performed by a human Organisational
environment
Liveware - software

Activity specific job task


Human Performance Models
Bailey et. al (1996) Baines et. al (2005) Chang & Yeh (2010)
Human Individual Liveware
• includes complex system of sensors, brain • ‘g’ (General cognitive ability) • Lifestyle • personal attributes of the
processing and responders • Conscientiousness • Sleep patterns individual controller, including
• sensors - vision and hearing; • Extroversion • Health knowledge and experience,
• brain processing - the ability to think, • Neuroticism • Biorhythms attitude and behaviour, situation
reasoning and decision making • Organizational commitment • Circadian rhythms awareness, decision making
• responders - arms, fingers and a mouth • Job satisfaction • Family status skills, and health.
• Age • Education
• Work-related attitudes, beliefs, • Strength/stamina
values • Attention
• Work ethic • Concentration
• Goals • Ethnicity Liveware – liveware
• Agreeableness • Religion • the relationships between
• Openness • Adaptability workers (controllers) that are
• Gender • Schemas characterised by social
• IQ • Diet psychological aspects of the
• Locus of control • Agility/dexterity team,
• Skills, level, range and • Analytic/creative • including cooperation, teamwork,
experience • Form leadership, and personality
interactions.
Human Performance Models
Bailey et. al (1996) Baines et. al (2005) Chang & Yeh (2010)

Activity
• Activity being performed by a human Specific job/task which determined earlier Tasks’ performed by workers

Context Physical environment Liveware – environment


• place, time and environment of the • Noise level • the interaction between the controller
particular activity is performed by a • Air temperature and the operating environment in
human • Light level which the tasks are performed
• e.g. : there is a very significant different • Humidity • including workplace design, noise,
when the same activity performed in • Ventilation temperature, lighting, air quality, and
different place and weather • Carbon monoxide relaxation settings.
• Ozone
• Vibration frequency
• and intensity
• Daylight/(full spectrum light
• Carbon dioxide
• Noise frequency
• Oxygen
• Light frequency/colour
• Noise duration
• Lighting/glare
• Lighting/reflections
• Noise predictability/constancy
Human Performance Models
Bailey et. al (1996) Baines et. al (2005) Chang & Yeh (2010)

Context Physical environment Liveware – hardware


• place, time and environment of • Noise level • referred to as the human–machine
the particular activity is • Air temperature interface/ interaction
performed by a human • Light level • interaction between the workers and the
• e.g. : there is a very significant • Humidity physical aspects of the system that are
different when the same activity • Ventilation provided to perform tasks,
performed in different place and • Carbon monoxide • including monitor and control equipment,
weather • Ozone automation facilities, maintenance and
• Vibration frequency recovery facilities, and visual facilities.
• and intensity
• Daylight/(full spectrum light
• Carbon dioxide
• Noise frequency
• Oxygen
• Light frequency/colour
• Noise duration
• Lighting/glare
• Lighting/reflections
• Noise predictability/constancy
Human Performance Models
Bailey et. al (1996) Baines et. al (2005) Chang & Yeh (2010)
Context Organisational environment Liveware – organisation Liveware – software
• place, time and environment of • Shift patterns • the interaction between the • the interaction between the
the particular activity is • Work teams controller and the controller and the non-
performed by a human • Maintenance organisational aspects of physical aspects of the
• e.g. : there is a very significant • Training the system system that are required to
different when the same activity • Job rotation • including workload perform tasks,
performed in different place and • Communication allocation, organisational • including procedures, rules,
weather • Diversity structure, policies and checklists, documentation,
• Hierarchical structure rules, communication, maps and charts, and
• Climate safety culture, and training. computer software.
• Leadership
• Payment systems
• Recruitment/orientation
• Employment security
An Integrated
Malaysian Train
Driver
Performance Model
Development of An Integrated Malaysian Train Driver
Performance Model
Introduction | Problem statement

A development of an integrated performance model for train driver in Malaysia

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Introduction | Objectives

To identify significant factors of human performance

To establish a theoretical framework of train driver


performance

To determine the relationships among significant factors of


train driver performance

To develop an integrated Malaysian train driver performance


model

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Methodology
Review of the literature Objective 1

instrument establishment
Theoretical framework &
To identify significant
To establish theoretical factors of human
To identify significant factors
framework
performance

Objective 2
To establish a
Establish instrument | the questionnaire theoretical
framework of train
Pre-testing Expert validation driver performance
Data collection

Data collection | Survey

Respondents Sample saiz vs population


Data analysis

Preliminary data analysis | SPSS


Reliability analysis
Data Missing data Common Response (Chronbach’s
screening treatment method bias bias alpha)

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Methodology

Factor Analysis | SEM-PLS

Data analysis (SEM)


Objective 3
Data reduction technique Relationship among variables
To determine the
relationships among
significant factors of
Measurement model | SEM-PLS train driver
performance
Composite reliability Convergent validity Discriminant validity

Structural model | SEM-PLS


Model development

Hypothesis testing Objective 4


To develop an
integrated Malaysian
train driver
performance model
The integrated model

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Theoretical Framework
Job demand

Driving task
Occupational stress

Job-related tension

Job satisfaction
has a direct positive effect on the
performance of train drivers in
Fatigue Malaysia

Sleepiness

Working environment

Safety

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Results | Factor analysis

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Hypothesis testing

Occupational
JRT (int conf) stress
Beta 0.148 Beta 0.328
Std error 0.074 H2a H1
Std error 0.074
T-value 1.998 T-value 4.448
Significant Fatigue Significant
Beta -0.085
H4 Std error 0.073
H9a
T-value 1.371
Significant Safety culture
Beta -0.133
Std error 0.065
T-value 2.065
Significant

Working condition
H10 Beta 0.120
Std error 0.062
T-value 1.935
H7 H8a Significant
Working
Driving task environment
Beta 0.141 Beta -0.176
Std error 0.065 Std error 0.073
T-value 2.170 T-value 2.417
Significant Significant
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Integrated model

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Integrated model

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Other projects
Other projects 1
• Heat stress investigation on laundry workers (2007)
Heat stress is one of the occupational hazards in hot working environment. Hot conditions will
put the body under a lot of stress. This paper will discuss the results on investigation of heat
stress among employees at the selected Dr. Clean laundries around Johor Bahru, Johor. In this
study, heat stress level was determined based on Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT)
and Heat Stress Index (HSI). It was found that level of heat stress as defined by WBGT at one of
the laundries (Dr. Clean Surplus Prisma Sdn Bhd, Bandar Baru Uda) had slightly exceeded
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) limit as 28.78OC; more than 28OC and 28.5OC as recommended by
the ISO 7243 Standard and ACGIH Standard respectively. Whereas, Laundry 2 (Dr Clean Ambang
Elit Sdn Bhd, Bandar Putra Kulai) and 3 (Dr Clean Prisma Ilusi Sdn Bhd, Taman Mutiara Rini) were
recorded as 26.41 and 27.04 respectively. However, the Heat Stress Index of Belding and Hatch
(HSI) value shows possibility of mild to moderate heat strain may occur at all outlets. HSI index
for Laundry 1, 2 and 3 were exceeded range of 0-10 recommended by ISO 7243 as 28.45, 26.81
and 26.01 respectively. In conclusion, Dr Clean outlets in Johor could be considered as hot
working environment since heat stress was determined among laundry workers; but in a very
initial stage.
Other projects 2
• Assessment of Physical Fatigue for Train Drivers (2014)
Research Methodology

START STOP
before driving the train while driving the train after driving the train

NASA Task
Nordic Video
Load Index
questionnaire Observation
(NASA TLX)

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING (FKMP)


Nordic Questionnaire
Consist 3 section Part A : Demography
Part B: Problem with the locomotive organs
Part C: Problem with back pain
Total respondent: 52 person
i. Having trouble pain in the body in the past 12 months
ii. Pain experienced during the past 12 months prevented
from doing the work either at home or outside the home
NASA-Task Load Index

NASA-TLX interface

NASA-TLX method has been widely used to study workload experienced by employees in the course of
their work and have been proven as well as has high validity compared with the measurement of other
workloads.

Respondents will be evaluated using an application on the website and will have results in quick time

A total of 4 respondents were assessed using this method. Evaluators will assess respondents after
completion of driving train.

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING (FKMP)


Video Observation R R
E E
R S S R
E P P E
The number of respondents involved in video observation is 4. S O O S
P N N P
O D D O
Recording duration for each respondent estimated that within N E E N
D N N D
30 minutes. Analysis of the work done within the duration of
E T T E
10 minutes for each respondent.
N N
T 4 2 T
abbreviation for type of relative motion between the driver 3
used k-tkd (control-push front), k-tkb (control-pull back), k-tb 1
(control-press button) and k-pcb (control-rear view mirror)

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING (FKMP)


FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING (FKMP)
Conclusion
the effects of physical fatigue that goes over the train driver is like a pain in the
neck, shoulders and lower back.

main causes of physical fatigue that goes over the train driver is not getting
enough sleep, the seats are uncomfortable, repetitive movements and other
factors such as vibration.

the driver will be limited activity in the home or outside the home because of
fatigue experienced

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING (FKMP)


Other projects 3
• Evaluation of Whole Body Vibration and Back Pain Problem Among Light Rapid Transit (LRT)
Drivers (2015)
THEORETICAL REVIEW

❑Back pain is common disorder experienced by occupational


drivers (i.e. bus, taxi, train, truck)
❑Back pain occur in a variety of factor, one of factor is expose
in continuous vibration.
❑Train driver are expose to whole body vibration in long
duration of driving time
❑Continuous vibration is one of risk factor and may affect
health of body of bus drivers

INTRODUCTION / THEORETICAL REVIEW


OBJECTIVES

To determine exposure level of whole body vibration among


LRT drivers

To identify the back pain problem due to whole body


vibration exposure among bus driver

OBJECTIVE
METHODOLOGY
Method

Survey Measurement

Standardised Nordic HVM 100 Larson Davis


questionnsires for the analysis
of musculoskeletal symptoms (whole body vibration)

METHODOLOGY
Route
Summary of Result
From the analysis in this chapter, summary of the results as follow:
i. High number of respondent have back pain problem which 43 respondents represent 82.7%.
ii. All 8 light rail transit contain daily exposure vibration value more than exposure limit value
(1.15m/s2).
iii. Strong correlation between back pain and daily vibration exposure, A(8) which is 0.709 (>
0.7) and significant value 0.049 (p<0.05).
iv. Positive correlation between back pain and daily working hours (working duration time) but
have weak correlation which is 0.169 (<0.3).
Therefore, it was found that the back pain problem was caused by daily working duration and
high daily vibration exposure, A(8) which over the exposure limit value.
CONCLUSION
This study has been successfully achieved objective and come
out with analysis
• Measurement of exposure of whole body vibration based on ISO 2631-1
show a high daily vibration exposure and all LRT contain exposure more then
ELV.

High prevalence of back pain problem among LRT driver

• Employer should take serious action to reduce daily exposure expose to LRT
drivers
Other projects 4 & 5
• Preliminary Investigation of Workload on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers (2016)
• Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers (2016)
High Mental
Processes

Justification
Level of
for Further
Workload
Research

Problem
Statement Impact of
Little studies
excessive
done
workload

(Traffic Control (light rail transit)


Room) Reduces Knowledge on
human error nature of Work
Objectives
1. To identify the level of workload on intrastate bus traffic controller.
2. To conduct task analysis on the intrastate bus traffic controller.
3. To provide recommendations based on the level of workload and
task analysis developed.
Research Flowchart

Objective 1 Objective 2
To identify the level of 000 To conduct task analysis
workload on intrastate bus on intrastate bus traffic
traffic controllers. controllers.

Objective 3
Provide recommendations
based on the level of
worklaod and HTA
(Traffic Control (light rail transit) generated.
Room)
METHODOLOGY

Workload
Task analysis
Measurement

NASA TLX Observation

Graphical
Interview
Representation

HTA Approach
Observation

(Traffic Control (light rail transit)


Room)
Interview

(Traffic Control (light rail transit)


Room)
Overall Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA)

HTA of Bus Traffic


Controller

Plan 0 : Do 1-2 in order. Do 3 on 9am and 5pm.


For night shift, do 4. Do 5 when necessary

3. Monitor the daily


2. Observation on bus by operation of bus through 4. Last Bus Report for
1. Check the Trunk Radio 5. Immediate Issue
monitoring the alarm Fleet Tracking System each route
(FTS)

Plan 1 : Do 1, 2, 3 when necessary. Plan 2 : Do 1, 2, 3, 4 when necessary.

2. Helpline and
1. Out of 2. Exceed Speed 3. Bus Return to 4. Route
3. Idle Bus 1. Accident Customer
Geofence Limit Depot (RTD) Disruption
Feedback
Conclusion

➢ The level of workload on Bus Traffic Controllers was identified


➢ Task analysis of the Bus Traffic Controllers was conducted
➢ Recommendations based on the level of workload and task analysis
generated on Bus Traffic Controllers .
Other projects 6 & 7
• Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver (2017)
• Investigation of Source of Distraction among the intrastate bus driver: Focus Group Interview
(2018)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

➢ Conducted at
Kompleks Rapid

➢ Collaboration Bus Cheras Selatan

with Rapid Bus ➢ Research at 7

Sdn Bhd depots of Rapid Bus


Sdn Bhd

Picture of the participants for this research


OBJECTIVE OF THE
RESEARCH
OBEJCTIVE 1

To IDENTIFY the internal and external sources of distraction


among intrastate bus driver.

OBJECTIVE 2

To INVESTIGATE the CATEGORIES OF DISTRACTON among the


intrastate bus driver.

OBJECTIVE 3

To DEVELOP the DISTRACTION RISK INDEX (DRI) among the


intrastate bus driver.
SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

Intrastate bus driver


only

Adapting Hampton
Respondent from
University
prominent intrastate
Transportation
bus company in Kuala
Centre Bus
Lumpur, Malaysia
Distraction Survey
DISTRACTION RISK INDEX
(DRI)
Risk Zone Type of Risk Source of Distraction Average Percentage (%)
Condition of Bus 81
1 Very High Risk Traffic Congestion 80
(more than 75.7%) Driver’s Welfare 78
Driver’s Health 76
Distracted Passenger Behavior 75
Others Road User 74
Driver’s Salary 73
Smell from the Passenger 72
2
High Risk Systematicity of the Management System 72
(more than 70.5 and up to 75.7)
Comfortability of the Driver’s Seat 71
Identifying Bus Stop 71
Less Experienced Driver 71
The effectiveness of the working schedule 71
Changing the Route 69
Driver Behavior 69
3
Moderate Open Trunked Radio 68
(more than 65.3 and up to 70.5)
Risk Communication between Passenger and the Driver. 67
Troubled Passenger 66
Under-age Passenger 65
Personal Issue 65
4
Low Risk Recorded equipment in the bus 64
(Less than or equal to 65.3)
Advertising video on the screen in the bus. 63
Advertising along the roadside 63
Mean 70.5
Standard Deviation 5.2
DISTRACTION RISK INDEX
(DRI)
Conclusion
Prolonged mental & physical work
Tired
Extended period of anxiety
Weary
Exposure to harsh environment
Sleepy
Lost of sleep

Affect people's
Prolonged performance
Leads to
mental or
dangerous errors
physical exertion Impair mental
alertness
Thank you