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Reference

There are two senses of reference. And these are as follows.

1. Reference is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the
concrete object or abstraction it represents.
2. Reference is the relationship of one linguistic expression to another, in which
one provides the information necessary to interpret the other.

Example: - Here is an example of reference:

• A pronoun refers to the noun antecedent that is used to interpret it.

Types of reference
There are three kinds of reference.

1. Coreference
2. Endophora
3. Exophora

Coreference: Coreference is the reference in one expression to the same


referent in another expression.

Example: - In the following sentence, both you's have the same referent:

• You said you would come.

Endophora: Endophora is coreference of an expression with another expression


either before it or after it. One expression provides the information necessary to
interpret the other. The endophoric relationship is often spoken of as one expression
“referring to” another.

Example: - Here are some examples about endophora.

• A well-dressed man was speaking; he had a foreign accent.


• If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.

Here are also some kinds of endophora. And these are as follows:

1. Anaphora
2. Cataphora

Anaphora: Anaphora is coreference of one expression with its antecedent. The


antecedent provides the information necessary for the expression’s interpretation.
This is often understood as an expression “referring” back to the antecedent. The
term anaphora is also sometimes used to include both anaphora, as defined here,
and cataphora. When it is used that way, it becomes synonymous with endophora.

Example: - In the following sequence, the relationship of the pronoun he to the


noun phrase a well-dressed man is an example of anaphora:

• A well-dressed man was speaking; he had a foreign accent.

Cataphora: Cataphora is the coreference of one expression with another


expression which follows it. The following expression provides the information
necessary for interpretation of the preceding one. This is often understood as an
expression “referring” forward to another expression.

Example: - In the following sentence, the relationship of one to a towel is an


example of cataphora:

• If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.

Exophora: Exophora is reference of an expression directly to an extralinguistic


referent. The referent does not require another expression for its interpretation.

There are two kinds of exophora:

1. Deixis
2. Homophora

Deixis: Deixis is reference by means of an expression whose interpretation is


relative to the (usually) extralinguistic context of the utterance, such as

• Who is speaking
• The time or place of speaking
• The gestures of the speaker, or
• The current location in the discourse.

Homophora: Homophora is reference that depends on cultural knowledge or


other general knowledge, rather than on specific features of a particular context.

Sample proportion
Suppose we want to know the fraction (or proportion) of individuals in a
population who have a certain quality. We will use the symbol p to denote the
population proportion. Frequently we must use data from a sample to estimate
the population proportion.
Suppose a random sample of size n is obtained from a population in which
each individual either has or does not have a certain characteristic. The sample
proportion, denoted ˆp is
given by

where x is the number of individuals in the sample having the characteristic of


interest. The sample proportion is the statistic that estimates the sample proportion.
Example: -J. In a sample of 60 students, 22 favored the amount budgeted for next
year’s intramural sports competitions. Find the sample proportion of students
favoring the intramural sports budget.
Remark: A different random sample of students may lead to a different sample
proportion.
J. RoberSuppose we take 100 random samples of 60 students in which p = 0.37.

The distribution of sample proportions may resemble:

0.35 0.43 0.42 0.38 0.32 0.37 0.40 0.32 0.32 0.47
0.48 0.38 0.45 0.45 0.50 0.30 0.38 0.30 0.38 0.42
0.33 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.28 0.27 0.40 0.47
0.42 0.38 0.55 0.32 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.28 0.40 0.37
0.37 0.30 0.43 0.33 0.40 0.35 0.35 0.27 0.58 0.30
0.43 0.45 0.37 0.37 0.32 0.38 0.30 0.30 0.45 0.27
0.37 0.37 0.32 0.30 0.47 0.37 0.42 0.37 0.35 0.30
0.35 0.37 0.38 0.43 0.28 0.37 0.27 0.42 0.42 0.37
0.42 0.38 0.25 0.35 0.33 0.42 0.30 0.35 0.43 0.38
0.43 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.37 0.45 0.27 0.42 0.40 0.30

Sampling Distribution of ˆp
Theorem: - For a simple random sample of size n such that n _ 0.05N (that is, the
sample is less than or equal to 5% of the population), the shape of the sampling
distribution of ˆp is approximately normal provided np(1 − p) _ 10, the mean of the
sampling distribution of ˆp is μˆp = p, The standard deviation of the sampling
distribution of ˆp is