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Original Title: Application of Wavelet Synchrosqueezing Transform

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R.Uma Maheswari1,2 R.Umamaheswari1

1.Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai 1. Department of EEE,

2.Department of ECE, Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Velammal Engineering College,

Chennai, India Chennai, India.

uma.bhuvan@gmail.com umavijay.iitm@gmail.com

Abstract— In Wind turbine condition monitoring systems , the employed to facilitate the synchrosqueezing of Time-

vibration signal analysis is used as the effective tool for fault Frequency representation [1].Closed spaced instantaneous

diagnosis. Gear transmission systems are complex and expensive frequency profiles leads to the interference .To address this

among the drive train components. Faults developed in the issue iterative generalized synchrosqueezing transform is

gearbox will lead to unscheduled down time of wind turbine.

Vibration signals are non stationary in nature and the usual

proposed [2].Synchrosqueezed transform with SVM is

spectral analysis tools are not sufficient for the effective fault proposed as the diagnostic tool for ball bearing faults[3].To

diagnosis. In this paper, A novel joint time- frequency Wavelet reduce the diffusion of curved Instantaneous frequency(IF)

synchrosqueezing transform (WSST) is proposed for the effective profile matching Demodulation transform is proposed [4] .In

intrinsic modes extraction. WSST provides fine Time-Frequency this paper the wavelet synchrosqueezing transform is applied

resolution. To improve the performance of WSST towards noise to vibration signature to extract the intrinsic mode functions

sensitivity, Wavelet Denoising with soft thresholding is employed. effectively.

The efficacy of the proposed methodology is tested with the

NERL GRC Wind Turbine condition monitoring benchmark II. PREPOSED METHOD

datasets. From the simulation results, it has been shown that the

proposed method extracts the intrinsic mode functions with more The vibration signals are preprocessed by using the wavelet

precise time frequency resolution. denoising technique. The wavelet synchrosqueezing transform

(WSST) is applied on the denoised signal.

Representation, Wavelet, Non Stationary. A. Wavelet Denoising

The measurement noise is corrupting the vibration and the

transmission system may pass the vibration to the case of the

I. INTRODUCTION machining when it reaches the accelerometer sensor the signal

strength will be very low .To improve the SNR of the signal,

World’s energy deficit inflates. To meet up the increasing

Wavelet denoising technique is employed[5] . The noisy

demand for energy, in recent times the alternate energy is

signal is in the model of

focused that includes the wind energy. Cost of wind energy

x(n ) = y (n ) + σ w (n ) (1)

proportional to the operation and maintenance cost of the wind

turbine. Wind drive train components failure causes Where x(n) is the corrupted signal y(n) is the signal

unscheduled down time which affects the production of wind component , σ is noise power w(n) is the noise. The denoising

energy. Early assessment of components deterioration helps in suppresses the noise and retrieve the signal part y. The

prognostic maintenance. Condition monitoring is the major denoising algorithm based on the inhomogeneous function that

element in predictive maintenance. The operating parameters means the energy are concentrated on the small subset of the

are monitored to indentify the significant changes in the space. All wavelet coefficients are equally contaminated by

operating conditions that may lead to the machinery failures. noise[6].The empirical wavelet coefficient is defined as

Vibration analysis is key component in condition based w i, j= ω i, j + v i, j (2)

maintenance. Accelerometer sensors are mounted at different

locations on the drive train to measure the vibration signal. where v is the white noise , ω is the wavelet transform. The

Vibration signatures reveal the defects at the incipient stages. following steps describes the threshold wavelet denoising

Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) are used in earlier days to process.

analysis the vibration spectrum.FFT algorithms are well suited • The signal is decomposed to obtain the empirical

for the stationary signal analysis. Since wind turbines are non wavelet coefficients.

linear systems the vibration signals obtained from them are • Threshold level is selected and soft thresholding is

non stationary. Instantaneous Frequency profile is recovered

applied on the coefficients. The signal part y(n) is

from the concentrated TFR. Generalized synchrosqueezing is

2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

reconstructed by translating all wavelet coefficients Synchrosqueezing algorithm is described by the following

by an amount 2 log n • σ steps.

n • Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is applied

• Soft threshold non linearity on the multi component amplitude modulated and

ξ t ( z ) = sgn( z )( z − t ) + (3) frequency modulated input signal.

• The instantaneous frequency (IF) profile is extracted

from the CWT output.

B. Wavelet Synchro Squeezing Transform • The regions where the phase of instantaneous

Wavelet synchrosqueezing transform is the time-frequency frequency are constant are squeezed.

representation that used to extract the intrinsic mode functions • The IF frequency is reallocated to the centric

from the multi component AM-FM modulated signal. position of the time-frequency plane. The intrinsic

Synchrosqueezing transform sharpens the time frequency mode functions are well separated in the time-

representation by reallocating to a different concentrated frequency plane.

point. The mathematical modeling for synchrosqueezing Figure 1 explains the proposed methodology.

described in [7] is adapted. For the signal

x(t ) = A cos ωt (4) Vibration Signal Acquisition

where A is the amplitude and ω is the frequency of the by using Accelerometer

signal. The continuous wavelet transform x to ψ is defined as Sensors

A 1/ 2

W x ( k , h) = k ψ (kω )e ihω (5) Preprocessing-Wavelet

4π Denoising (Improves SNR)

candidate instantaneous frequency for the signal x is described

in the equation (6)[8] .

∂

ωx (k, h) = −i(Wx (k, h)−1 Wx (k, h) (6) Instantaneous Frequency

∂h

Extraction by using Continuous

The information from the time scale plane is mapped in to the Wavelet Transform

time –frequency plane. Point (h,k) is mapped into

(h, ω x (k , h) .The synchrosqueezing transform is explained

as in equation (7). Squeezing in Time Frequency

Tx (ωl , h) = (Δω)−1 Wx (ai , h)ai−3 / 2 (Δa)k

Δω

(7) Representation (TFR) Plane.

Constant Phase points

ai : ω(ai , h) −ωl ≤

2 reallocated to some other points

WSST decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode in TFR

functions(IMF). IMF are simple circular harmonic functions

oscillating around zero .IMF can be defined as [7] Figure 1: Proposed Methodology

I f (t ) = X k (t ) cos(ω k (t )) (8)

where I f (t ) is IMF , X k (t ) is the Amplitude modulated III. EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Vibration data used in this paper, is obtained from NREL

component. Each intrinsic mode function is very slowly Wind Turbine Gearbox Vibration Condition Monitoring

varying sinusoidal harmonic motions. Further the derivative of Benchmarking Datasets. The GRC test Wind turbine is stall

the frequency ω k (t ) is finite. Each IMF should satisfy the

'

controlled, three bladed upwind turbine with rated power

following conditions. 750KW. National instrument PXI-4472B high speed data

acquisition system. Vibration signals are acquired at 40 KHz

1. Where X k (t ) >0 is the continuously differentiable function

per channel. Eight Accelerometer sensors are mounted at

that means dX k (t )

≠ 0 various places in the wind turbine drive train. Those measure

dt the vibration data .The dataset consists of ten one minute data

2. ω k (t ) is a two times continuously differentiable measured at 50 % rated power and 1800 rpm nominal high

function[9]. speed shaft. The corresponding main shaft speed is 22.09 rpm.

The Experimental setup consists of two gear box with overall

2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

planetary stage and two parallel stages [10]. Table I:Signal Properties

IV. INTRINSIC MODE FUNCTION EXTRACTION Signal Properties

USING WSST Denoised

Signal Values Raw Vibration

Vibration

Wavelet denoising suppresses the noise level and retrieves the SNR -10.1395 --5.8780

signal information. Figure (2) illustrates the raw vibration

Peak2rms 4.7401 4.6442

signal measured by accelerometer sensor and the denoised

signal is illustrated in Figure (3).Table I describes the Peak2Peak 35.2558 10.3628

properties of the raw vibration and denoised vibration. The

SNR is improved in the wavelet denoising. Figure (4) shows

the Time Frequency plane of the synchrosqueezing signal. The

mode shapes in the AM-FM modulated components are not

clearly visible in the figure(4). Figure (5) illustrates the AM-

FM modulated components in TFR plane. To extract the mode

shapes the contour plot is drawn .These mode shapes can be

reconstructed by using the inverse wavelet synchrosqueezing.

This is the advantage of the proposed method over the other

time frequency reassignment techniques.

synchrosqueezing wavelets. From Figure 6, it is evident that

the three modes of oscillations are isolated in the three ridges.

These from concentrated ridges IMF are extracted by applying

inverse wavelet synchrosqueezing. The extracted IMF are time

domain information which indicates the fault signatures. From

Figure 3: Denoised Vibration signal the simulation results, it is evident that the proposed method

2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

extracts the IMF in sharper Time-Frequency plane effectively. proposed WSST technique restrain the time frequency smudge

The proposed WSST improves the frequency resolution by while preserving the good time resolution and fine frequency

keeping fine time resolution. resolution. The proposed method is particularly suited to

enhance the readability of the time –frequency representation

thus it increases the effectiveness of the gear box fault

diagnosis under time varying conditions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We extend our gratitude to NERL for providing the Wind

Turbine Gearbox Vibration Condition Monitoring

Benchmarking Datasets.

REFERENCES

[1] C. Li and M. Liang, “Time – frequency signal analysis

for gearbox fault diagnosis using a generalized

synchrosqueezing transform,” Mech. Syst. Signal

Process., vol. 26, pp. 205–217, 2012.

[2] Z. Feng, X. Chen, and M. Liang, “Iterative generalized

Figure 6: Highest Energy Ridges

synchrosqueezing transform for fault diagnosis of

wind turbine planetary gearbox under nonstationary

The intrinsic mode functions ( IMF) are reconstructed in time conditions,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., pp. 1–16,

domain. Figure 7 shows the sensitive intrinsic mode functions 2014.

that reveals gear faulty signatures. The spectral analysis of the [3] W. L. Juan Wen, Hongli Gao, Shichao Li, Li Zhang,

isolated IMF revels that the damage in the ring gears. Xiang He, “Fault Diagnosis of Ball Bearings Using

Synchrosqueezed Wavelet Transforms and SVM,” in

Prognostics and System Health Management

Conference (PHM), 2015, no. 51275426.

[4] S. Wang, X. Chen, G. Cai, B. Chen, X. Li, and Z. He,

“Matching Demodulation Transform and

SynchroSqueezing in Time-Frequency Analysis,”

IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 69–84,

2014.

[5] P. C. Ching, H. C. So, and S. Q. Wu, “On Wavelet

Denoising and its Applications to Time Delay

Estimation,” IEEE Trans. SIGNAL Process., vol. 47,

no. 10, pp. 2879–2882, 1999.

[6] B. Y. D. L. Donh and I. M. Johnstone, “Ideal spatial

adaptation by wavelet shrinkage,” Biometrika, vol. 81,

no. 3, pp. 425–55, 1994.

[7] I. Daubechies, J. Lu, and H. Wu, “Synchrosqueezed

wavelet transforms : An empirical mode

decomposition-like tool,” Appl. Comput. Harmon.

Anal., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 243–261, 2011.

[8] X. J. Songtao Xi,Hongrui Cao,Xuefeng Chen,Xingwu

Zhang, “A Frequency-shift Synchrosqueezing Method

Figure 7: Reconstructed Intrinsic Mode Functions. for Instantaneous Speed Estimation of Rotating

Machinery,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol. 137(3), no. c,

V. CONCLUSION 2015.

[9] P. Flandrin, Y. Lin, and S. Mclaughlin, “Time-

In this paper, gear fault diagnostic method based on wavelet Frequency Reassignment and Synchrosqueezing,”

synchrosqueezing transform is presented. The proposed IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, no. november, pp.

method decomposes the time varying non stationary vibration 32–41, 2013.

signals with sharpen time and frequency resolution. The [10] S. S. Sheng, “Wind Turbine Gearbox Vibration

performance and effectiveness of the proposed technique is Condition Monitoring Benchmarking Datasets,” pp.

evaluated in real time with NERL Wind Turbine Gearbox 1–8, 2013.

Vibration Condition Monitoring Benchmarking Datasets.

From the simulation results it has been observed that the

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