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‫ارزﯾﺎﺑﯽ رﻓﺘﺎر دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﮑﯽ ﺳﺘﻮن ﻫﺎی ﭘﻞ ﺑﺘﻨﯽ ﺗﺤﺖ اﺛﺮ اﻧﻔﺠﺎر ﺳﻄﺤﯽ‬

Article · July 2018


DOI: 10.24200/j30.2018.1339

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Behnam Mobaraki
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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(4)
W
TNT |x W T t a @ O =}k jt x x m |oD } [ f 'xv}W}@ Q=Wi Pp 'u; QO xm
Uw}B ? Q

D TNT m t | Y i d m O};|t CUOx@


d ( )
|x]@=Q R= w OQ=O |oDU@
W =!
= R Q xr = x

? Q } [ nwQ =Hi v= =D xr Y=i R' T OB v= t= c 'xQHivt |xO=t uRw W 'u}tR K] U


"3w 2 '1 \=kv s=k |=DU=Q QO |}=Hx@=H "5 pmW xOW x=Q= pwOH x@ O}=@ 4 pwtQi R= xv}W} @ Q=Wi uOQw; C UOx@ |=Q@ "CU= V y=m
x @ xHwD =@ "OQm ?=NDv= =Q Q_ TM58551 | t v
vOQwt l =N w `wHQ x = u} }; QO
|xQ=tW `wv R= | UQ @ OQ t l N 'soil medium l N QO W @ G t
Q w = = | Q w C a QU
Q_ vQO w 3 A} D l =N |=Q@ xOWx=Q= |=yQDt=Q=B Q}O=kt uO=O Q=Qk =@ p=L "CU= 3
"OwW|t xOQw; C UOx@ Q_ vOQwt jt a QO Q=Wi |xv}W}@ Q=Okt 'f =04 uD Q io
=m Q } t; V DQ= u=UOvyt @
| QH D pwtQi } v w |OOa
G =D } v
G =D u} @ |xU}=kt '3 pm W
|xOW T=}kt |xrY=i w Q=Wi ?U TM58551 | t v }; QO
L Q@ xm C U= x = u}

[ "]
"CU= xOW x =Q= soil medium l N |= @ m U= ( d= ) = Q x C
W  !

Q}O=kt Q=Hiv= QF= CLD xR=U |m}t=v}O Q=DiQ |UQQ@ "5

TNT hrDN t
"xR=U pm QO VvD `} RwD w |@=QN R= |}=tv "6 pmW
pB |B R= |QDt 1 |xrY=i QO TNT sQowr}m 500 Q=Hiv= "1"5
'|QDt 3 p Y=wi x@ | = } yu=tr= 'pB | B hrDN t \=kv | =} Hx@=H u=R}t @ } RQ= |=Q@
| =

O=H}= @= N w =yuwDU '=y`tW '|B 'xWQa QO


| Q Vv D `} RwD |xwLv '6 pm W QO \=kv ?} Q D D x@ xm Ov=xOW XNW t p B |xOwr=W |wQ Q=Hiv= R= |QDt 7 w |QDt 5
xOy=Wt "OyO|t u=Wv x} = v F 0 17 u=tR QO } t u=w Q=}at T=U=Q@ =Q
RU = | B QO xOW xR=Ov= v;
=y | =y} v w x} rw= | = } Hx@=H |xwLv w u=R}t w Ov=xOW |Q=Pos=v 3 w 2 '1
Q=Hiv= Q=@ R= | W=v |xOQ=w Qov r p} rO x@ `t W w xWQa |xv=yO \ Uw xm OwW|t Qw]u=ty "CU= xOW xO=O u=Wv 4 pm W QO Qwm Pt \=kv C}a w k t "OwW|t io
xD Q

x @ p B | B 'OwW|t xOy=Wt xm Qw]u=ty "OvDUy |Q}PB?}U; ZQat QO QDW} @ OQwNQ@ p} rO x@ x} rw= C=_Lr QO 3 w '2 '1 \=kv 'OwW|t x_ L qt 5 pm W QO xm
|=DU=Q Y| =DU=Q QO QDt 3 5 w  pB r ] |=DU=Q
| w X| =D U=Q QO QD t 2 u=R}t u=R}t x@ ?} QD D x@ s=k O=ODt= QO x} rw= | =} Hx@=H Q=JO Q=Hiv= R= | W=v |Q=Wi G=wt=
|QDt 4 `=iDQ= =D `t W QO Qwm Pt | Q @= N |x}L=v w xOW @= N Q=JO pB
| Q | [Qa pm WQ}}eD w p B R= |Q=Wi G=wt= Qw@a p} rO x@ C =y} vQO w t
QD |r} t 1 w 3 4 '5 8
[ #]
"CU= 0 1 w 1 7 '3 7 u=R}t x@ | =y } v | = } Hx@=H Q=JO ?} QD D x@ uD @ QO xO=ONQ |Q}tN
'12 '7 '2 |=y `=iDQ= QO | ]=kv  k |=DU=Q QO
s = } Hx@=H '7
| = pm W QO | = } Hx@=H u=R}t QO V y=m ?} Q D D x@ '1 |x]kv =@ } t =@ xm 'OvwW|t
xU =k t
QD |r} t
x m OwW|t xOy=Wt "OyO|t u=Wv =Q l =N jt a QO p B `t W R= |QDt 23 w 17 "OwW|t xOy=Wt 97 w 54 u=R}t x@ 3 w 2 |=yx]kv QO | =y } v

!$
1/2 |xQ=tW '342 |xQwO '1397 Q=y@ h} QW u=Qta |UOvyt

"pB |xWQa QO |UQQ@ OQwt |=yu=tr= C}akwt R= |}=tv "9 pmW

" p

?}DQD x@ u}tR K]U R= |QDt 23 w 17 '12 '7 '2 C=a=iDQ= QO `tW |=yu=tr=
QO xm E w A \=kv "Ov=xOW Q=JO =Q |}=Hx@=H u=R}t u} QDW}@ D |x]kv xv=yO xm Ov=xOW QDt|r}t 6 4 w 6 2 '5 7 '4 7 '4 u=R}t x@ x}rw= |=y|}=Hx@=H Q=JO
A |x]kv ,=Da}@] |rw 'Ov=xOW |}=Hx@=H u=R}t l} Q=JO ,=@} QkD 'OvQ=O Q=Qk =yDv= wO `tW \=kv |x}rw= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t QO V}=Ri= ?}DQD x@ |QDt 2 jta =@ xU}=kt =@
Qm P |=yxU}=kt "CU= xOW =Hx@=H QDW}@ |tm 'Q=Hiv= RmQt x@ uOw@ l}ORv p}rO x@
'42 5 '17 5 u=R}t x@ s=k |=DU=Q QO |QDt 23 w 17 '12 '7 C=a=iDQ= QO
10 pmW x@ xHwD =@ xm CU= Q_vOQwt \=kv QO x}rw= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t OQwt QO 'xOW
Q=JO hqDN= |tm OYQO =@ jwi \=kv 'C}=yvQO w OwW|t xOy=Wt 60 w 55
QiY CtU x@ C}=yv QO jwi \=kv s=k |=DU=Q QO |}=Hx@=H xm OwW|t xOy=Wt
"Ov=xOW QDt|r}t 2 u=R}t x@ |}=yv |}=Hx@=H
|]NQ}e |xrLQt x@ uOWv OQ=w w pB |xWQa |]N Q=DiQ u; Cra xm Ovvm|t p}t
17 '12 '7 '2 |=y`=iDQ= QO |]=kv |@v=H |=DU=Q QO |}=Hx@=H '8 pmW QO
|QDt 1 |xrY=i QO TNT sQowr}m 500 Q=Hiv= =@ xm CU= Qm P p@=k =Pr "CU= QO `tW \=kv u; j@=]t xm OwW|t xOy=Wt l =N jta QO pB `tW R= |QDt 23 w
Q=JO =y`tW w |B \ki w ODi=|tv j=iD= pB |xWQa QO |@=QN xvwoI}y 'pB |B R=
|=y|}=Hx@=H Q=JO ?}DQD x@ u}tR K]U R= |QDt 23 w 17 '12 '7 '2 C=a=iDQ=
"OvwW|t |oO}O?}U;
=@ xU}=kt =@ xm Ov=xOW QDt|r}t 0 4 w 0 9 '3 6 '16 '26 5 u=R}t x@ x}rw= |@v=H

C=a=iDQ= QO `tW \=kv |x}rw= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t QO Vy=m ?}DQD x@ |QDt 2 jta

pB |B R= |QDt 1 |xrY=i QO TNT sQowr}m 1000 Q=Hiv= "2"5 98 w 96 '86 '40 u=R}t x@ |@v=H |=DU=Q QO |QDt 23 w 17 '12 '7

5 '|QDt 3 pY=wi x@ |}=yu=tr= 'pB |B hrDNt \=kv |}=Hx@=H u=R}t |@=} RQ= |=Q@ x@ |@v=H O=ODt= QO s=O |}=Hx@=H Q=JO ?}DQD x@ Qwm Pt \=kv "OwW|t xOy=Wt

|=yx]kv ?}DQD x@ xm Ov=xOW XNWt pB |xOwr=W |wQ Q=Hiv= R= |QDt 7 w |QDt |t=O u=mtQ}}eD O=H}= u; Cra xm Ov=xOW QDt|r}t 3 w 1 7 '6 3 '12 '21 u=R}t

xOW xDiQo xR=Ov= =yu; |}=yv w x}rw= |}=Hx@=H |xwLv w u=R}t w |Q=Pos=v 3 w 2 '1 "CU= pB `tW QO xO=ONQ |Q}tN pmWQ}}eD w

"CU= xOW xO=O u=Wv 4 pmW QO Qwm Pt \=kv C}akwt "CU= xWQa hrDNt \=kv QO |}=yu=tr= 'pB |xWQa |m}t=v}O Q=DiQ |xOy=Wt |=Q@

x@ x}rw= C=_Lr QO 3 w 2 '1 |=yx]kv xm OwW|t xOy=Wt 11 pmW QO B 'A \=kv "CU= xOt; CUOx@ s=k |=DU=Q QO =yu; |}=Hx@=H w xOW XNWt
'

x@ s=k O=ODt= QO x}rw= |}=Hx@=H Q=JO 'Q=Hiv= R= |W=v |Q=Wi G=wt= OQwNQ@ p}rO 3 4 '1 2 xv=yO \Uw QO 'xv=yO 1 4 QO 'xv=yO |=OD@= QO ?}DQD x@ E w D 'C

R= |Q=Wi G=wt= Qw@a p}rO x@ C}=yvQO w QDt|r}t 6 w 17 '29 u=R}t x@ ?}DQD C}akwt "OvQ=O Q=Qk |QDt 36 |xrY=i QO |va} 'Q=Hiv= RmQt R= pB |=yDv= QO w xv=yO

u=R}t x@ |}=yv |}=Hx@=H Q=JO ?}DQD x@ uD@ QO xO=ONQ |Q}tN pmWQ}}eD w pB \Uw QO '10 pmW j@=]t u}vJty "CU= xOW xO=O u=Wv 9 pmW QO Qwm Pt \=kv

QO Vy=m ?}DQD x@ '1 |x]kv =@ xU}=kt =@ xm Ov=xOW QDt|r}t 0 2 w 5 6 '11 |WtN Qovr uOw@ xv}W}@ 'u; Cra w xO=Di= j=iD= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t u} QDW}@ xv=yO

"OwW|t xOy=Wt 98 w 49 u=R}t x@ 3 w 2 |=yx]kv QO |}=yv |}=Hx@=H u=R}t 3 4 w  B |x]kv xv=yO 1 4 pY=wi ?}DQD x@ u; R= TB "CU= xv=yO \Uw QO

!%
@ } RQ=
|vD p = wD |m} =v =D | =
iQ
}O Q
t
U
B | yu
@
"""
"3w 2 '1 |=yx]kv s=k |=DU=Q QO |}=Hx@=H "11 pmW

0 48 w 0 18 |=yu=tR QO pB <=RH= QO |@=QN w Vv D `} RwD |xwLv "13 pm W


"x}v=F

0 019 w 0 009 |=yu=tR QO pB <=RH= QO |@=QN w VvD `} RwD |xwLv "12 pmW
"x}v=F
"|B <=RH= QO |@=QN w VvD `} RwD |xwLv "14 pmW
s o m 500 Q v= r L QO 3 w 2 '1 | y v } H @ H u= t | } t @
Q wr} =Hi C = = x]k | = x = R} xU =k =

Y | U=Q QO t 6 w X | U=Q QO t 3 @= N | L v p ] u; @ t m 'O W t


=D QD =D QD | Q x} = w j =] x w | 80 u= t @ rw= } H @ H u= t QO D D @ 'TNT s o m 1000 @ TNT
R} x x} | = x = R} ?} Q x Q wr} =

'TNTs o m 1000 Q v= D m W x y t 13 w 12 | y W QO " U=


Q wr} =Hi CL x O O =W = pm C V y m u= t }= "O W t x y t y m 3 | v QO 83 w 2 w 1 | y v QO
= R} u w | O =W V = x]k = x]k

v o y w x W } D t m Q ] @ Q v= t @ }O v | yu U w y W
x w I} O ? QN p = w x =Hi pL x l R = wD = `t " U= 50 w 70 '66 D D @ Q m t \ v QO } v } H @ H QO
C ?} Q x w P =k | =y | = x =

p B m U= i m O N }= w U= x v OQ=w Qw t | v yO | y W @ U;
x C | = w u C OW =H x = = `t x |@} QO @= N w B
| Q p t <= H= QO D } R D |x v '13 w 12 | y W QO
hrDN R Vv ` w wL = pm

" @ Q m R= w m v O N uRw F= D ODi} = Ov CUW w Q CL Q v= | rw= C r QO '12 W @ t "O W t x y t


=Hi x} =_L t | yu tR
pm j =] w | O =W hrDN = =

`k=w \ v |O= D 'Y [ a | U=Q QO B t }O Q iQ UQ @ Q t @


=k Oa | Q =D p |m} =v =D | Q w_v x v F 0 01 W o R= B w U= | t 4 ` DQ= D W QO @= N  v F 0 009
x} = C P T C QD =i = `t | Q x} =

" v=x W i o xR= v= yu; Z  k | U=Q QO } H @ H w ? v= B B |wQ @


O O xD Q O = s = =D | = x = =ND p | Q x W } D u U 2 } R QO k=w W 3 w xO m = B }= i= | t 6 5 ` DQ= @
O ? QN wD Q ` `t Q O} V R QD =i x

'3 '1 Y= i QO D D @ ' v=x W |Q= os v O w G '? ' r= \ v m Q m t \ v


p w ?} Q x O O P = h =k x w P =k w B QO @= N R= m | W '13 W " v=xO=O UO R= =Q O N | @ Q @ u= D w
| | Q |r =t pm O C w Q = w

" v=x W xO=O u v 15 W QO w vQ=O Q= k B |= @= R= | t 7 w 5


O O =W pm O Q p OD QD 1000 Q v= D =Q xR U oO i=Q m R= } vQO w yu r= iQ @ R= ' yu U
=Hi CL = | =D = C =y = =t |oD u} = wD

h r= }= @= \ v 'O W D
| OD =k k wO @ B B o = '16 W @ t
w s}Uk CtU x p | Q pm j =] " yO t u v u U= v i R= | t 1 | Y i QO TNT s o m
O | =W w} O w QD xr = Q wr}

} H @ H Q JO O w G } v= \ v w t | U=Q QO } H @ H Q JO ? w
| = x = = | =yD =k C@F =D | = x = = x y t y W w B t QO @= N w D } R D |x v '14 W QO
O =W = `t | `]k | Q Vv ` w wL pm

!&
1/2 |xQ=tW '342 |xQwO '1397 Q=y@ h} QW u=Qta |UOvyt

pmW QO xm Qw]u=ty "OvQ=O Q=Qk |QDt 36 |xrY=i QO |va} 'Q=Hiv= RmQt R= pB


w xO=Di= j=iD= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t u} QDW}@ xv=yO \Uw QO 'OwW|t xOy=Wt 17
?}DQD x@ u; R= TB "CU= xv=yO \Uw QO |WtN Qovr uOw@ xv}W}@ 'u; Cra
|}=Hx@=H u=R}t u} QDW}@ 'xv=yO C |x]kv 3 4 w B |x]kv 1 4 pY=wi
u=R}t l} Q=JO ,=@} QkD 'OvQ=O Q=Qk =yDv= wO QO xm E w A \=kv "Ov=xOW Q=JO =Q
'Q=Hiv= RmQt x@ uOw@ l}ORv p}rO x@ A |x]kv ,=Da}@] |rw 'Ov=xOW |}=Hx@=H
x@E w D 'C 'B 'A\=kv |x}rw= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t "CU= xOW =Hx@=H QDW}@ |tm
u=R}t OQwt QO xOW QmP |=yxU}=kt "CU= QDt|r}t 5 w 32 '50 '35 '6 ?}DQD
OwW|t xOy=Wt 17 pmW x@ xHwD =@ xm CU= Q_vOQwt \=kv QO x}rw= |}=Hx@=H
Cra xm &Ovvm|t p}t QiY x@ C}=yv QO Qwm Pt \=kv s=k |=DU=Q QO |}=Hx@=H xm
p@=k =Pr "CU= |]NQ}e |xrLQt x@ uOWv OQ=w w pB |xWQa |]N Q=DiQ QO u;
'pB |B R= |QDt 1 |xrY=i QOTNT sQowr}m 1000 Q=Hiv= =@ xm CU= QmP "O w G '? ' h =k C}a w
r= \ v k t "15 pm W

|oO}O?}U; Q=JO =y`tW w |B \ki w ODi=|tv j=iD= pB |xWQa QO |@=QN xvwoI}y


"OvwW|t

pB |B R= |QDt 1 |xrY=i QO TNT sQowr}m 1630 Q=Hiv= "3"5


hrDNt |=yu=tR QO |@=QN w `tW QO |Q=Wi G=wt= `} RwD |xwLv '18 pmW QO
|@=QN 'x}v=F 0 009 Q=Hiv= |x}rw= C=_Lr QO u; j@=]t xm OwW|t xOy=Wt
|QDt 8 `=iDQ= x@ x}v=F 0 01 CWPo R= TB w CU= |QDt 4 `=iDQ= =D `tW QO
|Q@ Q=@ u=wD w xOW ?} QND uwDU 2 Q} R QO `k=w `tW 3 w CU= xOQm =O}B V}=Ri=
umttQ}e u; |wQ Ot; w CiQ w Ovm|t CUWv pB ,=a]k w Ov=xO=O CUO R= =Q OwN
"OwW|t
19 pmW pB `tW |m}t=v}O Q=DiQ QO xQHivt |xO=t uRw QF= |UQQ@ Qw_vt x@ s = =D
"  k | U=Q QO O w G '? ' h = x]k | = x =
r= %| y v } H @ H |x wL
v "16 pm
W

's=k O=ODt= QO `tW |=yu=tr= |x}rw= |}=Hx@=H C=Q}}eD u; QO xm CU= xOW x=Q=
'500 Q=Hiv= QF= CLD u}tR K]U R= |QDt 23 w 17 '12 '7 '2 |=yjta QO `k=w
'OwW|t xOy=Wt xm Qw]u=ty "CU= xOW xO=O u=Wv TNT sQowr}m 630 w 1000
?}W w `tW hrDNt \=kv |}=Hx@=H C=Q}}eD 'TNT sQowr}m 500 Q=Hiv= QF= CLD
C=Q}}eD 'TNT sQowr}m 1630 w 1000 Q=Hiv= QF= CLD =t= &CU= sm Q=}U@ Q=Owtv
'CU= O=} R Q=Owtv ?}W w Q}osWJ |QDt 12 `=iDQ= =D `tW hrDNt \=kv |}=Hx@=H
l =N uOw@ Qo =Q}t C}Y=N p}rO x@ 'u}tR K]U R= QDt 23 =D QDt 12 jta R= |rw
Q=Owtv ?}W w |}=Hx@=H C=Q}}eD 'QDu}}=B j=ta= QO |Q=Wi G=wt= COW Vy=m w
"CU= sm

"p x Q hrDN =k s = =D
B | W a t \ v  k | U=Q QO |= x=
} H @ H "17 pm
W

|Q}oxH}Dv "6 xOt; OwHwx@ Q=Hiv= QF= QO xm OQm u=}@ u=wD|t xvwou}= "OvwW|t |ivt |=DU=Q QO
R= |QDt 1 |xrY=i QO TNT sQowr}m 500 Q=Hiv= 'OwOLt u=tr= pOt QO "1 u; Cra w OyO|t MQ pB |x}=B QO |oOWOvr@ l} 'pB x@ |Q=Wi G=wt= OQwNQ@ w
|xWQa QO |@=QN xvwoI}y xm OvyO|t u=Wv G}=Dv "CU= xOW s=Hv= pB |x}=B \=kv xm CU= ?r]t u}= Qou=}@ '16 pmW "CU= Q=Hiv= Q=@ CLD xOt; OwHwx@ Qovr
w pB |rw] |=DU=Q X |=DU=Q QO QDt 2 u=R}t x@ pB |B w xO=Di}v j=iD= pB hqNQO |rw 'Ov=xOW =Hx@=H u=R}t l} x@ ,=@} QkD O w hr= |B |}=yDv= w |}=OD@=
|@=QN |x}L=v w xOW |@=QN Q=JO pB |[Qa |=DU=Q Y |=DU=Q QO QDt 3 5 Q=DiQ uOW OwOLt sy u; xm 'OvQ=O lQDWt xHw l} \=kv s=tD "OvDUy sy CyH
"CU= xOw@ |QDt 4 `=iDQ= =D `tW QO Qwm Pt "CU= |]NQ}e |xrLQt x@ uOWv OQ=w w |]N |x}L=v QO =yu;
TNT sQowr}m 1000 Q=Hiv= QF= CLD Qwm Pt |xR=U |m}t=v}O Q=DiQ |UQQ@ "2 xWQa hrDNt \=kv QO |}=yu=tr= 'pB |xWQa |m}t=v}O Q=DiQ |xOy=Wt |=Q@
QO QDt 6 w X |=DU=Q QO QDt 3 '|@=QN |x}L=v pw] xm OW xOy=Wt w s=Hv= C}akwt CU= xOt; CUOx@ s=k |=DU=Q QO =yu; |}=Hx@=H w xOW XNWt
xR=Ov= pB |B hrDNt \=kv s=k O=ODt= QO |}=Hx@=H u=R}t "CU= Y |=DU=Q ?}DQD x@E w D 'C 'B 'A \=kv "CU= xOW xO=O u=Wv 9 pmW QO =yu;
QO |}=Hx@=H Q=JO ? w hr= |}=OD@= \=kv xm OvO=O u=Wv G}=Dv w OW xDiQo |=yDv= QO w xv=yO 3 4 '1 2 xv=yO \Uw QO 'xv=yO 1 4 QO 'xv=yO |=OD@= QO

!'
@ } RQ=
|vD p = wD |m} =v =D | =
iQ
}O Q
t
U
B | yu
@
"""
" hrDN = =
t | yu tR QO = `t
y W QO |Q @= N w |Q =W w ` w wL
i G= t= } R D |x v "18 pm
W

sQowr}m 500 Q=Hiv= Cr=L QO 3 w 2 '1 |=yx]kv |}=Hx@=H u=R}t |xU}=kt =@ "3
u=R}t x@ x}rw= |}=Hx@=H u=R}t QO ?}DQD x@ '  sQowr}m 1000 =@ 
u}= "OwW|t xOy=Wt Vy=m 3 |x]kv QO 83 w 2 w 1 |=yx]kv QO 80
50 w 70 '66 ?}DQD x@ Qwm Pt \=kv QO |}=yv |}=Hx@=H QO Vy=m u=R}t
"CU=

OW xOy=Wt |vD@ pB |=yuwDU Q@  sQowr}m 1630 Q=Hiv= QF= |@=} RQ= =@ "4
|QDt 4 `=iDQ= =D `tW QO |@=QN 'x}v=F 0 009 Q=Hiv= |x}rw= C=_Lr QO xm
3w Ovm|t =O}B V}=Ri= |QDt 8 `=iDQ= x@ x}v=F 0 01 C WP o R= TB w CU=

Ov=xO=O CUO R= =Q OwN |Q@ Q=@ u=wD w xOW ?} QND uwDU 2 Q} R QO `k=w `tW

"OwW|t umttQ}e pB |wQ Ot; w CiQ w Ovm|t CUWv pB ,=a]k w


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