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User Manual

The content of this manual has been carefully revised, however the full compliance of its content
with the technical and functional characteristics of the product it is referred to, can not be
assured, as typing or other errors can not be completely ruled out. The information given is
regularly reviewed any necessary correction or additional explanation will be included in future
revisions of this document.

Due to continuous development, the content of this manual can be changed without notice.

We appreciate any correction or improvement suggestion.


PREFACE

Previous note

Throughout the text you may find some references to EFACEC Sistemas de Electrónica, S.A. or its
logotype . This is justified by the fact that this document original version was completed
before the company and logtype has been changed.

Objective

This manual describes the operation, installation, configuration and maintenance of the
TPU TD420, a voltage control and transformers protection terminal unit.

Scope

This manual is destined for protection engineers, specialized personnel responsible for the
installation, configuration and commissioning of the equipment and staff from the energy
transport and distribution companies in charge of its operation.

Application

The information in this manual is valid for the following equipment of EFACEC:
TPU TD420, Edition 1, firmware version 3.x or higher

Safety Instructions

This manual does not cover all safety measures required to operate the equipment because
additional procedures can be necessary in specific circumstances. Yet, all safety instructions
given in this manual must be followed.

Any intervention regarding the equipment’s installation, commissioning or operation must be


carried out by authorized technical personnel.

The equipment should not be used for purposes other than those specified in this document.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

This product complies with the Directive of European Parliament and the Council 2006/95/CE
(Low Voltage Directive), as well as with the European Parliament and the Council 2004/108/CE
(Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive).
The conformity is proved by several actions including tests conducted by EFACEC and by
independent entities, in accordance with the standards EN 61000-6-2 (2005) and
EN 61000-6-4 (2007) concerning the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive and in accordance
with the standards EN60950-1 (2006) + A11 (2009) and EN 60255-5 (2001) concerning the
Low Voltage Directive.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 i
Organization

This manual is organized in chapters so that is easier to find the desired information and is
adjusted to the different target readers it is meant for:
Chapter 1–Introduction: Summary of the unit characteristics and functions;

Chapter 2 - Installation: instructions for the unit correct assembly and the execution of all
necessary connections;

Chapter 3 – Human-Machine Interface: guide for the use of the unit local human-machine
interface and PC interface program;
Chapter 4 – Configuration: description of the base configurations and the customization of
the unit functions;
Chapter 5 - Communications: application of the functions associated with the local area
network communications and its configuration;
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions: description of the operating principle,
configuration and associated logic for each function;
Chapter 7- Operation: instructions for the unit operation when in service;

Chapter 8 - Commissioning: procedures to test the unit functions;

Chapter 9 - Maintenance: indication of corrective and maintenance actions and solution of


frequent problems;
Chapter 10 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: summary of all functional characteristics of
the equipment;
Chapter 11 - Annexes: compilation of the necessary information to configure the
TPU TD420.

This manual contains warnings related to specific aspects of the equipment installation,
configuration or operation with different importance levels:

The failure to comply with the safety instruction may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

The failure to comply with the safety or operational instruction may endanger the correct
operation of the TPU TD420.

Additional information with special interest for an easier protection configuration or operation,
not relevant for personnel and/or equipment safety.

Answer to a frequent question about the equipment’s configuration or operation for quick
problem solving.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 ii
Manual Revisions

Revision Date Changes Comments

1.0 2010-03-16 English translation from Portuguese version


(Initial version)
1.1 2010-12-16 Updates based on 2.1 Portuguese version
2.2.0 2011-12-29 General formatting

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 iii
GLOSSARY

A/D Analogue / Digital


BDM Background Debug Mode
DDB Distributed Database
CPU Central Processing Unit
CT Current Transformer
DNP Distributed Network Protocol
I/O Input / Output
IRIG-B Inter-Range Instrumentation Group
LAN Local Area Network
LCD Liquid Cristal Display
LED Light Emiting Diode
MAC Medium Access Controller
MII Medium Independent Interface
PC Personal Computer
PECL Positive Emitter Coupled Logic
PHY Physical Layer Entities
Inch (’’) An inch is a length unit of the British unit system and it isn’t
embraced by the international system of units (SI). It is sometimes
used throughout this document once it is often used by technicians.
An inch is equal to 2.54 cm or 25.4 mm.
PUR 2.1 Protocol for remote units used on Efacec local area networks
RS232 Serial protocol of Data Transmission by DB9 serial cable
RS485 Protocol of Data Transmission by 485 twisted pair bus
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
STP Shielded Twisted Pair
TPU Terminal Protection Unit from EFACEC
VT Voltage Transformer
UA Acquisition Unit
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UC Central Unit
RTU Remote Telecontrol Unit
URT500 EFACEC Remote Telecontrol Unit
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
μC Microcontroller

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1-1

1.1. APPLICATION..........................................................................................................1-3
1.2. VERSIONS ..............................................................................................................1-4
1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................1-5
1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES.....................................................................................................1-7
1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE.............................................................................................1-10

2. INSTALLATION ........................................................................................... 2-1

2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS .................................................................................2-3


2.1.1. Case .............................................................................................................................2-3
2.1.2. Dimensions..................................................................................................................2-7
2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION...........................................................................................2-8
2.2.1. General Description.....................................................................................................2-8
2.2.2. Boards Description ......................................................................................................2-9
2.2.3. Configuration of the Supply Voltage and Digital I/O .............................................. 2-24
2.3. ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................2-25
2.3.1. Embedded Assembly................................................................................................ 2-25
2.3.2. Assembly in 19’’ rack ............................................................................................... 2-27
2.4. CONNECTIONS......................................................................................................2-29
2.4.1. Connectors description ............................................................................................ 2-31
2.4.2. Description of Connector pin................................................................................... 2-33
2.4.3. Wiring connections diagram .................................................................................... 2-36
2.4.4. Power Supply Connection ........................................................................................ 2-39
2.4.5. Current Connections ................................................................................................ 2-40
2.4.6. Digital input and output connections ...................................................................... 2-47
2.4.7. Local Network Connections ..................................................................................... 2-48
2.4.8. Serial Ports ................................................................................................................ 2-52
2.4.9. Serial Port of the Ethernet communication Board.................................................... 2-54

3. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE ...................................................................... 3-1

3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................3-2


3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION ....................................................................................3-4
3.2.1. Start-up .......................................................................................................................3-4
3.2.2. Keys..............................................................................................................................3-6
3.2.3. Local Interface Modes..................................................................................................3-8
3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION....................................................................................3-9
3.3.1. Changing the Value of a Parameter ............................................................................3-9
3.3.2. Passwords ................................................................................................................. 3-12
3.3.3. Menus Content ......................................................................................................... 3-14
3.3.4. Other Actions in Menus Interface ............................................................................ 3-24
3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND COMMAND INTERFACE ............................................3-28
3.4.1. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 3-28

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 v
3.4.2. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 3-28
3.5. USE OF WINPROT ..................................................................................................3-32
3.6. WEBPROT USE ......................................................................................................3-36

4. CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................ 4-1

4.1. DATE AND TIME ......................................................................................................4-3


4.1.1. Time Synchronization..................................................................................................4-3
4.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-4
4.1.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-7
4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS...................................................................................4-8
4.2.1. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-8
4.2.2. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-9
4.3. MEASURES ...........................................................................................................4-10
4.3.1. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-10
4.3.2. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-13
4.4. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS..................................................................................4-14
4.4.1. Inputs ........................................................................................................................ 4-14
4.4.2. Outputs ..................................................................................................................... 4-16
4.4.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-18
4.4.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-22
4.5. LOCAL INTERFACE..................................................................................................4-24
4.5.1. Display ...................................................................................................................... 4-24
4.5.2. Alarms page.............................................................................................................. 4-24
4.5.3. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 4-25
4.5.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-30
4.5.5. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-32
4.6. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ...........................................................................................4-33
4.6.1. Logical Variables....................................................................................................... 4-33
4.6.2. Logic Inference ......................................................................................................... 4-37
4.6.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-38
4.7. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................4-44
4.7.1. Operation Modes Types ........................................................................................... 4-44
4.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-44
4.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-45
4.8. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................4-51
4.8.1. Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 4-51
4.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-51
4.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-52

5. COMMUNICATIONS..................................................................................... 5-1

5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS .........................................................................................5-2


5.1.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-2
5.1.2. Modem Connection.....................................................................................................5-2
5.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-2
5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION.........................................................................................5-4
5.2.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-4
5.2.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-4

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 vi
5.2.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................5-5
5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS ...............................................................................................5-7
5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................................5-9
5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL ...........................................................................................5-10
5.5.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-10
5.5.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-11
5.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-13
5.5.4. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-17
5.5.5. Lonworks Distributed Database............................................................................... 5-17
5.5.6. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-22
5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL .............................................................................................5-24
5.6.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-24
5.6.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-24
5.6.3. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-25
5.6.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-27
5.6.5. Communication with the WinProt ............................................................................ 5-30
5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL ..............................................................................5-32
5.7.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-32
5.7.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-33
5.7.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-36
5.7.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-39
5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................5-40
5.8.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-40
5.8.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-40
5.8.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-41
5.8.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-45
5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL ..........................................................................................5-46
5.9.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-46
5.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-46
5.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-51
5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL................................................................................................5-52
5.10.1. Architecture ............................................................................................................ 5-52
5.10.2. Operation Principles ............................................................................................... 5-52
5.10.3. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 5-52
5.10.4. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 5-53

6. CONTROL AND PROTECTION FUNCTIONS ....................................................... 6-1

6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................6-4


6.1.1. Function Modular Organization ..................................................................................6-4
6.1.2. Configuration Sets.......................................................................................................6-5
6.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................6-6
6.1.4. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................6-7
6.2. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION ........................................................................................6-9
6.2.1. Operation Method .......................................................................................................6-9
6.2.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-18
6.2.3. Automation logic ...................................................................................................... 6-21
6.3. PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ............................................................................6-23

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 vii
6.3.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-23
6.3.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-30
6.3.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-33
6.4. EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION............................................................................6-37
6.4.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-37
6.4.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-40
6.4.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-43
6.5. RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION ......................................................................6-47
6.5.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-47
6.5.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-50
6.5.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-51
6.6. TRANSFORMER TANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..........................................................6-53
6.6.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-53
6.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-54
6.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-55
6.7. SURVEILLANCE OF THE TRANSFORMER OWN PROTECTIONS.................................................6-57
6.7.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-57
6.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-57
6.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-58
6.8. CIRCUIT-BREAKER CLOSE LOCK .................................................................................6-60
6.8.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-60
6.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-61
6.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-61
6.9. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION ........................................................................6-64
6.9.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-64
6.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-65
6.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-66
6.10. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION ....................................................................6-69
6.10.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-69
6.10.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-71
6.10.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-71
6.11. BLOCKING BY LOGICAL SELECTIVITY ..........................................................................6-74
6.11.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-74
6.11.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-75
6.11.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-75
6.12. CIRCUIT-BREAKER FAILURE ....................................................................................6-76
6.12.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-76
6.12.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-77
6.12.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-78
6.13. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION .....................................................................................6-81
6.13.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-81
6.13.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-82
6.13.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-82
6.14. PROTECTIONS TRIP TRANSFER .................................................................................6-83
6.14.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-83
6.14.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-84

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 viii
6.14.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-84
6.15. CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPERVISION ...............................................................................6-86
6.15.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-86
6.15.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-87
6.15.3. automation Logic ................................................................................................... 6-88
6.16. DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION................................................................................6-100
6.16.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-100
6.16.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-101
6.16.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-102

7. OPERATION ............................................................................................... 7-1

7.1. MEASURES .............................................................................................................7-3


7.1.1. Consult Measures........................................................................................................7-3
7.1.2. Clear Measures ............................................................................................................7-5
7.1.3. Remote Access ............................................................................................................7-6
7.1.4. Export ..........................................................................................................................7-7
7.2. EVENT LOGGING......................................................................................................7-9
7.2.1. Consult Logs................................................................................................................7-9
7.2.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-10
7.2.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-10
7.2.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-12
7.3. LOAD DIAGRAM ....................................................................................................7-13
7.3.1. Consult Logs............................................................................................................. 7-13
7.3.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-13
7.3.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-14
7.3.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-15
7.4. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................7-17
7.4.1. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-18
7.4.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-19
7.5. HARDWARE INFORMATION........................................................................................7-21
7.5.1. Consult Logs............................................................................................................. 7-22
7.5.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-23
7.6. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................7-24
7.7. MIMIC ................................................................................................................7-25
7.7.1. Apparatus ................................................................................................................. 7-25
7.7.2. Commands ............................................................................................................... 7-26
7.7.3. Measures................................................................................................................... 7-26
7.7.4. Parameters ................................................................................................................ 7-27
7.8. SCREENSAVER .......................................................................................................7-28

8. COMMISSIONING ........................................................................................ 8-1

8.1. INITIAL CHECKS.......................................................................................................8-3


8.2. ANALOGUE INPUTS...................................................................................................8-6
8.2.1. Connections.................................................................................................................8-6
8.2.2. Measures Values..........................................................................................................8-6
8.3. DIGITAL INPUTS.......................................................................................................8-7
8.4. DIGITAL OUTPUTS ...................................................................................................8-9

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8.5. ALARMS PAGE ......................................................................................................8-10
8.6. INTERFACE WITH LOCAL AREA NETWORK......................................................................8-11
8.7. PROTECTION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS......................................................................8-13
8.8. PUT INTO SERVICE..................................................................................................8-14

9. MAINTENANCE........................................................................................... 9-1

9.1. ROUTINE CHECKS ....................................................................................................9-3


9.1.1. Torque .........................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.2. Logs .............................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.3. System Menu ...............................................................................................................9-4
9.2. FIRMWARE UPDATE ................................................................................................9-13
9.3. TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................9-15
9.3.1. Hardware .................................................................................................................. 9-15
9.3.2. Software.................................................................................................................... 9-26
9.3.3. Calibration ................................................................................................................ 9-27
9.4. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ................................................................................9-32

10. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................... 10-1

11. ANNEXES................................................................................................. 11-1

ANNEXE A. ORDERING FORM...........................................................................................11-2


ANNEXE B. MEASUREMENTS TABLE....................................................................................11-4
ANNEXE C. INPUTS OPTIONS TABLE...................................................................................11-8
ANNEXE D. OUTPUTS OPTIONS TABLE .............................................................................11-13
ANNEXE E. ALARM OPTIONS TABLE .................................................................................11-18

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 x
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1.1. TPU TD420 HARDWARE STRUCTURE. ..................................................................1-10


FIGURE 1.2. SAMPLING AND FILTERING OF ANALOGUE DIGITAL SIGNALS. ..........................................1-11

FIGURE 2.1. TPU TD420 FRONT VIEW. ..................................................................................2-4


FIGURE 2.2. BACK VIEW OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTORS ARRANGEMENT –LAN LONWORKS VERSION). 2-5
FIGURE 2.3. BACK VIEW OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT –LAN ETHERNET VERSION). ...2-6
FIGURE 2.4. EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS AND FIXATION SCREWS OF THE TPU TD420................................2-7
FIGURE 2.5. INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOARDS.................................................................2-8
FIGURE 2.6. BACK VIEW OF THE CT & VT BOARD OF TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ........2-10
FIGURE 2.7. BACK VIEW OF THE LONWORKS COMMUNICATIONS BOARD OF TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-11
FIGURE 2.8. BACK VIEW OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD OF TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-12
FIGURE 2.9. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-13
FIGURE 2.10. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPUI) OF THE TPU TD420 WITH PIGGY-BACKS FOR
PLASTIC OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ..................................................2-14
FIGURE 2.11. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU TD420 WITH PIGGY-BACK FOR
GLASS OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ....................................................2-15
FIGURE 2.12. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPUI) OF THE TPU TD420 WITH PIGGY-BACK FOR
RS485 INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ....................................................................2-16
FIGURE 2.13. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU TD420 WITH PIGGY-BACKS FOR
RS232 INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ....................................................................2-17
FIGURE 2.14. BACK VIEW OF THE I/O BOARD + POWER SUPPLY OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-18
FIGURE2.15. BACK VIEW OF EXPANSION BOARD 1 OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ..2-19
FIGURE 2.16. BACK VIEW OF THE EXPANSION BOARD 2 OF THE TPU TD420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT).2-
20
FIGURE 2.17. PLACEMENT OF THE BOARDS IN THE TPU TD420. .................................................2-22
FIGURE 2.18. PLACEMENT OF THE BOARDS ON THE TPU TD420. ................................................2-23
FIGURE 2.19. CUT TO MAKE EMBEDDED ASSEMBLY....................................................................2-26
FIGURE 2.20. ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. .................................................................................2-27
FIGURE 2.21. 7U FRONT PLANE FOR ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. ......................................................2-28
FIGURE 2.22. 7U FRONT PLANE FOR ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. ......................................................2-28
FIGURE 2.23. CONNECTORS IN THE BACK OF THE TPU TD420 (LAN LONWORKS VERSION)................2-29
FIGURE 2.24. CONNECTORS IN THE BACK OF THE TPU TD420 (LAN ETHERNET VERSION)..................2-30
FIGURE 2.25. GENERAL WIRING CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM OF THE TPU TD420, BASE CONFIGURATION. ...2-37
FIGURE 2.26. WIRING CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM OF THE TPU TD420, EXPANSION MODULES (OPTIONAL). 2-38
FIGURE 2.27. POWER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS OF TPU TD420. ....................................................2-39
FIGURE 2.28. CURRENT CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM FOR TWO-WINDING TRANSFORMERS. .......................2-41
FIGURE 2.29. CURRENT CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM FOR THREE-WINDING TRANSFORMERS – 1ST CASE.........2-43

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xi
FIGURE 2.30. CURRENT CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM FOR THREE WINDINGS TRANSFORMERS – 2ND CASE. .......2-44
FIGURE 2.31. CURRENT CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM FOR THREE-WINDING TRANSFORMERS – 3RD CASE. .......2-45
FIGURE 2.32. DIGITAL INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS OF TPU TD420 (BASE BOARD)...................2-48
FIGURE 2.33.POWER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD.............................2-49
FIGURE 2.34. CONNECTIONS OF THE ETHERNET NETWORK BOARD ................................................2-50
FIGURE 2.35. SERIAL PORT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE. ..........................................................2-52
FIGURE 2.36. SERIAL PORT FOR RS485 INTERFACE...................................................................2-53
FIGURE 2.37.SERIAL PORT FOR RS232 INTERFACE....................................................................2-54

FIGURE 3.1. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE WHEN THE TPU TD420 IS NOT ENERGIZED. ...........................3-2
FIGURE 3.2. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE DURING THE TPU TD420 STARTING. ...................................3-5
FIGURE 3.3. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE WHEN THE TPU TD420 IS STARTED-UP................................3-6
FIGURE 3.4. MENUS INTERFACE – MAIN MENU APPEARANCE..........................................................3-9
FIGURE 3.5. PARAMETERS CHANGE PROCESS............................................................................3-11
FIGURE 3.6. ENTERING PASSWORD PROCESS. ...........................................................................3-13
FIGURE 3.7. PASSWORD CHANGING PROCESS. ..........................................................................3-14
FIGURE 3.8. MAIN MENU...................................................................................................3-15
FIGURE 3.9. MEASUREMENTS MENU. .....................................................................................3-15
FIGURE 3.10. ACCESS MEASUREMENTS MENU. ........................................................................3-16
FIGURE 3.11. EVENT LOGGING MENU. ..................................................................................3-16
FIGURE 3.12. SEE EVENT LOGGING MENU. .............................................................................3-17
FIGURE 3.13. LOAD DIAGRAM MENU....................................................................................3-17
FIGURE 3.14. POWER DIAGRAM MENU. .................................................................................3-18
FIGURE 3.15. APPARATUS SUPERVISION MENU.........................................................................3-18
FIGURE 3.16. CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION MENU. ................................................................3-19
FIGURE 3.17. INFORMATION MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER)..............................................................3-19
FIGURE 3.18. DELETE INFORMATION MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER)....................................................3-19
FIGURE 3.19. HV INSULATION DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION MENU. .............................................3-20
FIGURE 3.20. INFORMATION MENU (HV INSULATION DISCONNECTOR)...........................................3-20
FIGURE 3.21. PROTECTION FUNCTIONS MENU.........................................................................3-21
FIGURE 3.22. PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MENU............................................................3-21
FIGURE 3.23. AUTOMATION MENU. .....................................................................................3-21
FIGURE 3.24. PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MENU. ...................................................................3-22
FIGURE 3.25. INPUTS AND OUTPUTS MENU. ...........................................................................3-22
FIGURE 3.26. COMMUNICATIONS MENU. ...............................................................................3-22
FIGURE 3.27. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE MENU. .................................................................3-23
FIGURE 3.28. SET DATE AND TIME MENU. .............................................................................3-23
FIGURE 3.29. INFORMATION MENU. .....................................................................................3-24
FIGURE 3.30. COMMAND EXECUTION PROCESS. .......................................................................3-25
FIGURE 3.31. DATE CHANGE PROCESS..................................................................................3-27
FIGURE 3.32. APPEARANCE OF THE DISPLAY WITH THE SAMPLE MIMIC. ............................................3-29
FIGURE 3.33. SEL KEY USING..............................................................................................3-31

FIGURE 4.1. PARAMETERS MENU (SET DATE AND TIME). ..............................................................4-5


FIGURE 4.2. MEASUREMENT CONVERTERS MENU........................................................................4-9

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xii
FIGURE 4.3. PARAMETERS MENU (MEASURE). ..........................................................................4-10
FIGURE 4.4. MEASURE 1 MENU (PARAMETERS - MEASURE). ........................................................4-11
FIGURE 4.5. GENERIC MEASUREMENT 1 MENU (PARAMETERS - MEASUREMENT)................................4-11
FIGURE 4.6. LINEAR CONVERSION FUNCTION CONFIGURATION.....................................................4-12
FIGURE 4.7. PIECEWISE LINEAR CONVERSION FUNCTION CONFIGURATION........................................4-12
FIGURE 4.8. DIGITAL INPUTS FILTERING (EXAMPLE: CONFIRMATIONS NR. EQUAL TO 5)..........................4-15
FIGURE 4.9. DIGITAL INPUTS VALIDATION (EXAMPLE: MAXIMUM NR. OF STATE CHANGES PER SECOND EQUAL TO
5) ...............................................................................................................................4-15
FIGURE 4.10. COMPLEMENTARY INPUTS VALIDATION. ................................................................4-16
FIGURE 4.11. OUTPUTS OPERATION MODES. ...........................................................................4-17
FIGURE 4.12. PARAMETERS MENU (BASE I/O BOARD). ..............................................................4-18
FIGURE 4.13. INPUTS RELATED MENUS...................................................................................4-19
FIGURE 4.14. INPUTS RELATED MENUS...................................................................................4-20
FIGURE 4.15. DOUBLE INPUTS PARAMETERS MENU. ..................................................................4-20
FIGURE 4.16. LCD VISUALIZATION MODES. ............................................................................4-24
FIGURE 4.17. ALARMS OPERATION MODES..............................................................................4-25
FIGURE 4.18. APPARATUS TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION. ..........................................................4-26
FIGURE 4.19. COMMAND TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION............................................................4-28
FIGURE 4.20. PARAMETER TYPE OBJECT CONFIGURATION. ...........................................................4-29
FIGURE 4.21. MEASUREMENT TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION.......................................................4-30
FIGURE 4.22. DISPLAY CONFIGURATION MENU........................................................................4-31
FIGURE 4.23. ALARMS PAGE CONFIGURATION MENU. ...............................................................4-31
FIGURE 4.24. AUTOMATION LOGIC ORGANIZATION...................................................................4-34
FIGURE 4.25. MODULAR ORGANIZATION OF THE AUTOMATION LOGIC. ...........................................4-35
FIGURE 4.26. DELAY LOGICAL VARIABLE TYPES. ......................................................................4-35
FIGURE 4.27. TIMER AND PULSE LOGICAL VARIABLE TYPES........................................................4-36
FIGURE 4.28. LOGICAL VARIABLE CONSTITUTION. .....................................................................4-36
FIGURE 4.29. EXAMPLE OF LOGIC INFERENCE SCHEME.................................................................4-38
FIGURE 4.30. AUTOMATION LOGIC CONFIGURATION WITH WINLOGIC. ...........................................4-39
FIGURE 4.31. LOOP EXAMPLE..............................................................................................4-40
FIGURE 4.32. INITIALIZATION OF GATES INPUTS WITH AND TYPE VARIABLES .....................................4-40
FIGURE 4.33. INITIALIZATION OF GATES INPUTS WITH DENIED OUTPUTS. ..........................................4-41
FIGURE 4.34. DESCRIPTIONS CONFIGURATION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES WITH WINLOGIC. .................4-41
FIGURE 4.35. OPERATION MODES MENU. ..............................................................................4-45
FIGURE 4.36. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 1). ..................................4-48
FIGURE 4.37. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 2). ..................................4-49
FIGURE 4.38. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 3). ..................................4-50
FIGURE 4.39. PARAMETERS MENU (OSCILLOGRAPHY). ...............................................................4-52
FIGURE 4.40. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE OSCILLOGRAPHY MODULE. ..............................................4-53

FIGURE 5.1. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE SERIAL COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS .............................5-3


FIGURE 5.2. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS .........................5-5
FIGURE 5.3. TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEM................................5-7
FIGURE 5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE. ..................................................................5-9
FIGURE 5.5. LONWORKS COMMUNICATION MENU WITH DEBUG INFORMATION..................................5-13

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xiii
FIGURE 5.6. LOCATION STRING CONFIGURATION MODE..............................................................5-14
FIGURE 5.7. SEND SERVICE PIN AND RESET NEURON CHIP COMMANDS ACCESS MENU .........................5-14
FIGURE 5.8. DATA STRUCTURE OF THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE. ..................................................5-18
FIGURE 5.9. EXAMPLE OF DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONFIGURATION. ...............................................5-21
FIGURE 5.10. DNP 3.0 COMMUNICATION INFORMATION MENU WITH DEBUG INFORMATION. ...............5-27
FIGURE 5.11. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS..............................5-27
FIGURE 5.12. IEC104 COMMUNICATION INFORMATION MENU WITH DEBUD INFORMATION. ................5-35
FIGURE 5.13. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE IEC60870-5-104 PROTOCOL................................5-36
FIGURE 5.14. TIME SCHEMATIC OF SENDING THE DDB TO THE NETWORK.........................................5-42
FIGURE 5.15. EXAMPLE OF THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONFIGURATION. .......................................5-44
FIGURE 5.16. CONFIGURATION WINDOW OF A DATASET.............................................................5-47
FIGURE 5.17. CHOOSING WINDOW OF THE PUBLISHED. ...............................................................5-48
FIGURE 5.18. CONFIGURATION WINDOW OF AN INPUT DATASET. ..................................................5-49

FIGURE 6.1. FUNCTION MODULAR STRUCTURE. ..........................................................................6-5


FIGURE 6.2. SET CONFIGURATION MENU (HV PHASE OVERCURRENT). .............................................6-6
FIGURE 6.3. LOGIC DIAGRAM COMMON TO THE DIFFERENT MODULES. ..............................................6-7
FIGURE 6.4. LOGIC OF SIMULTANEOUS CHANGE OF ACTIVE SET IN MORE THAN ONE FUNCTION. ................6-8
FIGURE 6.5. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION PRINCIPLE......................................................................6-9
FIGURE 6.6. REFERENCE DIRECTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT CALCULATION. ...............................6-10
FIGURE 6.7. HOMOPOLAR COMPONENT IN A YOD TRANSFORMER. .................................................6-11
FIGURE 6.8. HOMOPOLAR COMPONENT IN A YYOD TRANSFORMER. ...............................................6-11
FIGURE 6.9. HOMOPOLAR COMPONENT IN A YD TRANSFORMER WITH NEUTRAL REACTANCE..................6-12
FIGURE 6.10. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF UNRESTRAINED DIFFERENTIAL STAGE. .......................6-15
FIGURE 6.11. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RESTRICTED DIFFERENTIAL STAGE. ...........................6-16
FIGURE 6.12. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION...................................6-17
FIGURE 6.13. PARAMETERS MENU (TRANSFORMER). .................................................................6-19
FIGURE 6.14. SET 1 MENU (TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL). ........................................................6-19
FIGURE 6.15. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION MODULE.....................................6-22
FIGURE 6.16. TRIPPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION WITH INVERSE TIME.........6-26
FIGURE 6.17.PROTECTION DYNAMIC RESET CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INVERSE TIME. ..........................6-29
FIGURE 6.18. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION............................6-30
FIGURE 6.19. SET 1 MENU (HV PHASE OVERCURRENT). ............................................................6-31
FIGURE 6.20. SET 1 MENU (MV PHASE OVERCURRENT). ............................................................6-32
FIGURE 6.21. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE (PRIMARY).....6-35
FIGURE 6.22. D LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE (SECONDARY). 6-
36
FIGURE 6.23. EARTH FAULTS IN A WINDING WITH NEUTRAL ISOLATED FROM EARTH.............................6-37
FIGURE 6.24. EARTH FAULTS IN A WINDING WITH NEUTRAL CONNECTED TO EARTH.............................6-38
FIGURE 6.25. PHASE-TO-EARTH CURRENT IN A STAR-WINDING. ..................................................6-39
FIGURE 6.26. PHASE-TO-EARTH CURRENT IN A DELTA-WINDING..................................................6-39
FIGURE 6.27. SET 1 MENU (HV EARTH OVERCURRENT). ............................................................6-41
FIGURE 6.28. SET 1 MENU (MV EARTH OVERCURRENT). ...........................................................6-42
FIGURE 6.29. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE (PRIMARY). .................6-45
FIGURE 6.30. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE (SECONDARY). .............6-46

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xiv
FIGURE 6.31. APPLICATION OF THE RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT.....................................................6-48
FIGURE 6.32. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ............6-49
FIGURE 6.33.CURRENTS DIRECTION FOR AN EARTH EXTERNAL FAULT..............................................6-49
FIGURE 6.34. CURRENTS DIRECTION FOR NA EARTH INTERNAL FAULT. ............................................6-50
FIGURE 6.35. DIRECTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ..................6-50
FIGURE 6.36. SET 1 MENU (MV RESTRICTED DIFFERENTIAL). ......................................................6-51
FIGURE 6.37. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION MODULE. .........................6-52
FIGURE 6.38. TRANSFORMER TANK CONNECTION TO EARTH........................................................6-53
FIGURE 6.39. SET 1 MENU (TANK OVERCURRENT). ..................................................................6-54
FIGURE 6.40. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE TANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. ..........................6-56
FIGURE 6.41. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF SURVEILLANCE OF THE TRANSFORMER OWN PROTECTIONS MODULE.....6-59
FIGURE 6.42. INFORMATION MENU (TRANSFORMER CLOSE BLOCKING)...........................................6-60
FIGURE 6.43. SET 1 MENU (TRANSFORMER CLOSE BLOCKING).....................................................6-61
FIGURE 6.44. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT-BREAKER CLOSE BLOCKING MODULE..........................6-63
FIGURE 6.45. VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION FUNCTIONING ..............................................6-64
FIGURE 6.46. OPERATION SEQUENCE OF LOAD SHEDDING AND VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION....6-65
FIGURE 6.47.SET 1 MENU (LOAD SHEDDING/VOLTAGE RESTORATION)..........................................6-66
FIGURE 6.48. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION. .................................6-68
FIGURE 6.49. FREQUENCY CENTRALISED RESTORATION FUNCTIONING. ..........................................6-69
FIGURE 6.50. OPERATION SEQUENCE OF THE LOAD SHEDDING AND FREQUENCY CENTRALISED RESTORATION.
..................................................................................................................................6-70
FIGURE 6.51. SET 1 MENU (LOAD SHEDDING/FREQUENCY RESTORATION). .....................................6-71
FIGURE 6.52. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION. ..............................6-73
FIGURE 6.53. FAULT ELIMINATION ON THE BUS-BAR..................................................................6-74
FIGURE 6.54. FAULT ELIMINATION ON AN OUTPUT (LOGIC SELECTIVITY)..........................................6-75
FIGURE 6.55. TIME DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE OPERATION..........................................6-76
FIGURE 6.56. PARAMETERS MENU (PRIMARY CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE).........................................6-77
FIGURE 6.57. PARAMETERS MENU (SECONDARY CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE). ...................................6-77
FIGURE 6.58. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT-BREAKER FAILURE MODULE (PRIMARY)..............................6-79
FIGURE 6.59. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE MODULE (SECONDARY).................6-80
FIGURE 6.60. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION. ..............................................................................6-81
FIGURE 6.61. TIME DIAGRAM OF THE TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION OPERATION....................................6-81
FIGURE 6.62. SUBSTATION TOPOLOGY WITH BYPASS. .................................................................6-83
FIGURE 6.63.SET 1 MENU (PRIMARY PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER). ..............................................6-84
FIGURE 6.64. SET 1 MENU (SECONDARY PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER)..........................................6-84
FIGURE 6.65. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MODULE (PRIMARY)......................6-85
FIGURE 6.66. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MODULE (SECONDARY). ................6-85
FIGURE 6.67. TIME DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION OPERATION. ....................................6-86
FIGURE 6.68. TIME DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER SPRING SUPERVISION OPERATION. .....................6-87
FIGURE 6.69. SET 1MENU (HV CIRCUIT-BREAKER)...................................................................6-88
FIGURE 6.70. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (OPENING COMMANDS). ......6-92
FIGURE 6.71. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (STATUS).........................6-93
FIGURE 6.72. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (POSITION).......................6-94
FIGURE 6.73. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (CLOSING COMMANDS)........6-95
FIGURE 6.74. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (OPENING COMMANDS). ..6-96

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xv
FIGURE 6.75. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (STATUS). ...................6-97
FIGURE 6.76. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (POSITION). .................6-98
FIGURE 6.77. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (CLOSING COMMANDS). ..6-99
FIGURE 6.78. LINE BAY CONFIGURATION. .............................................................................6-100
FIGURE 6.79. TIME DIAGRAM OF DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION OPERATION. ...................................6-101
FIGURE 6.80. PARAMETERS MENU (HV INSULATION DISCONNECTOR). .........................................6-101
FIGURE 6.81. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY EARTH DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS).......6-104
FIGURE 6.82. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY EARTH DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS).............6-105
FIGURE 6.83. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY INSULATION DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). .6-
106
FIGURE 6.84. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY INSULATION DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATE)....6-107
FIGURE 6.85. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). .....6-108
FIGURE 6.86. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PRIMARY BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS). ...........6-109
FIGURE 6.87. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS)..6-110
FIGURE 6.88. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SECONDARY BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS)........6-111
FIGURE 6.89. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). ................6-112
FIGURE 6.90. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS).......................6-113
FIGURE 6.91. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR 1 DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). .............6-114
FIGURE 6.92. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR 1 DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS). ...................6-115
FIGURE 6.93. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR 2 DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). .............6-116
FIGURE 6.94. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR 2 DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATUS). ...................6-117

FIGURE 7.1. DISPLAY MEASURES MENU....................................................................................7-3


FIGURE 7.2. INFORMATION MENU – PRIMARY CIRCUIT BREAKER......................................................7-4
FIGURE 7.3. INFORMATION MENU – INSULATION DISCONNECTOR. ..................................................7-5
FIGURE 7.4. MEASURES MENU...............................................................................................7-5
FIGURE 7.5. CLEAR INFORMATION MENU – CIRCUIT BREAKER. .......................................................7-6
FIGURE 7.6. CLEAN INFORMATION MENU– INSULATION DISCONNECTOR. ..........................................7-6
FIGURE 7.7. WINREPORTS – MEASURES WINDOW........................................................................7-7
FIGURE 7.8. WINREPORTS – MEASURES CHANGE WINDOW. ...........................................................7-7
FIGURE 7.9. FILE EXPORTED FROM MEASURES LOG ......................................................................7-8
FIGURE 7.10. VISUALIZATION OF EVENT LOGGING. .....................................................................7-9
FIGURE 7.11. WINREPORTS – LIST OF EVENT LOGS. ..................................................................7-10
FIGURE 7.12. WINREPORTS – VISUALISATION OF THE EVENT LOGS. ...............................................7-11
FIGURE 7.13. WINREPORTS – CLEAR LOAD LOGS. ....................................................................7-11
FIGURE 7.14. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE EVENT LOG..................................................................7-12
FIGURE 7.15. VISUALIZATION OF THE LOAD DIAGRAM IN THE LOCAL INTERFACE. ..............................7-13
FIGURE 7.16. WINREPORTS – LOAD DIAGRAMS LIST. ................................................................7-14
FIGURE 7.17. WINREPORTS – VISUALIZATION OF THE LOAD DIAGRAMS. .........................................7-15
FIGURE 7.18. WINREPORTS – CLEAR LOAD DIAGRAMS. .............................................................7-15
FIGURE 7.19. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE LOAD DIAGRAM LOG......................................................7-16
FIGURE 7.20. WINREPORTS – OSCILLOGRAPHIES LIST. ...............................................................7-18
FIGURE 7.21. WINREPORTS – VISUALIZATION OF OSCILLOGRAPHIES...............................................7-19
FIGURE 7.22. WINREPORTS – CLEAR OSCILLOGRAPHIES. ............................................................7-19
FIGURE 7.23. FILES EXPORTED IN COMTRADE FORMAT FROM THE OSCILLOGRAPHY LOG ...................7-20

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xvi
FIGURE 7.24. HARDWARE INFORMATION LOG INTERFACE............................................................7-22
FIGURE 7.25. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE HARDWARE INFORMATION LOG .........................................7-23
FIGURE 7.26. POSSIBLE ASPECT OF THE LOCAL MODE/REMOTE MODE LEDS. ..................................7-24
FIGURE 7.27. POSSIBLE ASPECT OF THE MANUAL MODE/AUTOMATIC MODE LEDS............................7-24
FIGURE 7.28. EXAMPLE MIMIC. ...........................................................................................7-25
FIGURE 7.29. CIRCUIT-BREAKER STATE ASPECTS: OPEN/CLOSED/UNDEFINED..................................7-25
FIGURE 7.30. CIRCUIT BREAKER POSITION ASPECTS: EXTRACTED/INSERTED/UNDEFINED POSITION. ........7-25
FIGURE 7.31. DISCONNECTOR STATE ASPECTS: OPEN/CLOSED/UNDEFINED. ...................................7-26
FIGURE 7.32. COMMAND STATE ASPECTS: STATE 0 / STATE 1.....................................................7-26
FIGURE 7.33. MEASURE ASPECT. .........................................................................................7-26
FIGURE 7.34. PARAMETER STATE ASPECTS IN VISUALIZE MODE......................................................7-27
FIGURE 7.35. PARAMETER STATE ASPECT IN CHANGE MODE.. ......................................................7-27

FIGURE 8.1. WINLOGIC – LOGICAL COMMANDS. ........................................................................8-7

FIGURE 9.1. SYSTEM MENU. .................................................................................................9-4


FIGURE 9.2. SYSTEM INFORMATION MENU................................................................................9-4
FIGURE 9.3. MASTER INFORMATION MENU. ..............................................................................9-5
FIGURE 9.4. EXCEPTION INFORMATION MENU – MASTER. .............................................................9-6
FIGURE 9.5. FRAME 1 MENU...............................................................................................9-7
FIGURE 9.6. INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS STATUS. ....................................................................9-7
FIGURE 9.7. CLEAR MEMORY REGISTERS MENU..........................................................................9-8
FIGURE 9.8. RESTORE DEFAULT PARAMETERS MENU....................................................................9-9
FIGURE 9.9. HARDWARE TEST MENU. ...................................................................................9-10
FIGURE 9.10. INPUTS TEST MENU. .......................................................................................9-10
FIGURE 9.11. CALIBRATION MENU. ......................................................................................9-11
FIGURE 9.12. LOCATION OF FUSE (FU1) IN THE I/O+ POWER SUPPLY BASE BOARD. ...........................9-17
FIGURE 9.13. LOCATION OF FUSE (FU1) IN THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. .....................................9-18
FIGURE 9.14. LOCATION OF THE DIP-SWITCH (INT1) IN THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD......................9-19
FIGURE 9.15.LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD........................9-22
FIGURE 9.16. LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE PROCESSING BOARD.............................................9-24
FIGURE 9.17. LOCATION OF THE JUMPER IN THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE. .......9-25
FIGURE 9.18. LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE PIGGY-BACK FOR RS485 INTERFACE (REVISION A). ......9-26
FIGURE 9.19. PHASE OVERCURRENT MENU – DEFAULT VALUES....................................................9-27
FIGURE 9.20. CONFIGURATION OF THE INPUTS/OUTPUTS BASE BOARD FOR CALIBRATION....................9-28
FIGURE 9.21. PHASES CALIBRATION. ....................................................................................9-29
FIGURE 9.22. NEUTRAL CALIBRATION. ..................................................................................9-30
FIGURE 9.23. CALIBRATION MENU – DEFAULT CALIBRATION RESTORE. ..........................................9-30

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 xvii
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 2.1. CONNECTORS DESCRIPTION. ..................................................................................2-5


TABLE 2.2. CONNECTORS DESCRIPTION. ..................................................................................2-6
TABLE 2.3. TYPES OF EXPANSION BOARDS...............................................................................2-20
TABLE 2.4. SOME CONFIGURATIONS FOR I/O BOARDS...............................................................2-21
TABLE 2.5. RANGES OF OPERATING VOLTAGES FOR THE POWER SUPPLY. ..........................................2-24
TABLE 2.6. OPERATING VOLTAGES AND OPERATION SETS OF DIGITAL INPUTS.....................................2-24
TABLE 2.7. COMMAND BUTTONS OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD.........................................2-50
TABLE 2.8. LED OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD. ............................................................2-50
TABLE 2.9. LED OF THE ETHERNET NETWORK BOARD. ..............................................................2-51
TABLE 2.10. PIN ALLOCATION TO RS485 SERIAL PORTS. ...........................................................2-53
TABLE 2.11. PIN ALLOCATION TO RS232 SERIAL PORT..............................................................2-53
TABLE 2.12. PIN ALLOCATION TO SERIAL PORTS. ......................................................................2-54

TABLE 4.1. TIME PARAMETERS...............................................................................................4-6


TABLE 4.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TIME MODULE LOGICAL VARIABLES. ................................................4-7
TABLE 4.3. MEASUREMENT CONVERTERS PARAMETERS. ................................................................4-9
TABLE 4.4. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE MEASURES MODULE. .............................4-13
TABLE 4.5. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS PARAMETERS (BASE BOARD). ..........................................4-21
TABLE 4.6. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS PARAMETERS (EXPANSION BOARDS 1 AND 2). .....................4-21
TABLE 4.7. COMPLEMENTARY INPUTS PARAMETERS. ..................................................................4-22
TABLE 4.8. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE BASE BOARD MODULE. ......................................4-22
TABLE 4.9. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANSION BOARD 1 MODULE. ...........................4-22
TABLE 4.10. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANSION BOARD 2 MODULE. .........................4-23
TABLE 4.11. DISPLAY PARAMETERS. .....................................................................................4-32
TABLE 4.12. ALARMS PAGE PARAMETERS. ..............................................................................4-32
TABLE 4.13. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE ALARMS MODULE. ........................................4-32
TABLE 4.14. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE AUXILIARY LOGIC MODULE 1. ..........................4-43
TABLE 4.15. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE AUXILIARY LOGIC MODULE 2. ..........................4-43
TABLE 4.16. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE TIME DELAY MODULE.....................................4-43
TABLE 4.17. OPERATION MODES PARAMETERS.........................................................................4-45
TABLE 4.18. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE. ..........................4-46
TABLE 4.19. OSCILLOGRAPHY PARAMETERS. ...........................................................................4-52
TABLE 4.20. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE OSCILLOGRAPHY MODULE...............................4-52

TABLE 5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS. ....................................................................5-3


TABLE 5.2. ETHERNET PARAMETERS........................................................................................5-5
TABLE 5.3. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES IN THE ETHERNET MODULE. ................................5-6
TABLE 5.4. CAUSES LIST....................................................................................................5-11
TABLE 5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL PARAMETERS......................................................................5-16
TABLE 5.6. PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE.........................................5-21
TABLE 5.7. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE LONWORKS MODULE. ............................5-22

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TABLE 5.8. DNP 3.0. PROTOCOL PARAMETERS .......................................................................5-30
TABLE 5.9. LIST OF CAUSES. ...............................................................................................5-32
TABLE 5.10. IEC60870-5-104 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. ......................................................5-38
TABLE 5.11. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE IEC104 MODULE. .......................................5-39
TABLE 5.12. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE PARAMETERS. .....................................................5-43
TABLE 5.13. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE LONWORKS MODULE...........................5-45
TABLE 5.14. IEC61850 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. ..................................................................5-49
TABLE 5.15. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE IEC61850 MODULE. ...................................5-51
TABLE 5.16. CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE OF THE SNTP PROTOCOL. ...............................................5-53
TABLE 5.17. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE ETHERNET MODULE ASSOCIATED WITH THE SNTP
PROTOCOL.....................................................................................................................5-53

TABLE 6.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES COMMON TO THE DIFFERENT MODULES. .................6-7
TABLE 6.2. CURRENT COMPENSATION FOR TRANSFORMERS WITH STAR-STAR CONNECTIONS.................6-12
TABLE 6.3. CURRENT COMPENSATION FOR TRANSFORMERS WITH STAR-DELTA CONNECTIONS. ..............6-13
TABLE 6.4. CURRENT COMPENSATION FOR TRANSFORMERS WITH DELTA-STAR CONNECTIONS. ..............6-13
TABLE 6.5. CURRENTS COMPENSATION FOR TRANSFORMERS WITH DELTA-DELTA CONNECTIONS. ...........6-14
TABLE 6.6. TRANSFORMER PARAMETERS. ...............................................................................6-20
TABLE 6.7. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION PARAMETERS.................................................................6-20
TABLE 6.8. DESCRIPTION OF LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION MODULE. ..............6-21
TABLE 6.9. CONSTANTS OF THE INVERSE TIME CURVES ACCORDING TO STANDARD IEC 60255-3.........6-24
TABLE 6.10. CONSTANTS OF THE INVERSE TIME CURVES ACCORDING TO STANDARD IEEE C37.112. .....6-24
TABLE 6.11. PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ...........................................6-32
TABLE 6.12. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION....6-
33
TABLE 6.13. EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ...................................................6-42
TABLE 6.14. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE.6-
43
TABLE 6.15. RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ..............................................6-51
TABLE 6.16. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION MODULE..........6-52
TABLE 6.17. TANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ....................................................6-55
TABLE 6.18. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF TANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. ...............6-55
TABLE 6.19. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEILLANCE OF THE TRANSFORMER OWN PROTECTIONS
MODULE. .......................................................................................................................6-58
TABLE 6.20. CIRCUIT-BREAKER CLOSE BLOCK PARAMETERS........................................................6-61
TABLE 6.21. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF CIRCUIT-BREAKER CLOSING LOCK MODULE. .............6-62
TABLE 6.22. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION. ................................................................6-66
TABLE 6.23. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION MODULE. ..6-66
TABLE 6.24. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION PARAMETERS..............................................6-71
TABLE 6.25. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION. .............6-72
TABLE 6.26. CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE PARAMETERS. ...............................................................6-77
TABLE 6.27. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE MODULE (PRIMARY).
..................................................................................................................................6-78
TABLE 6.28. HV TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION PARAMETERS...........................................................6-82
TABLE 6.29. PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER PARAMETERS. ............................................................6-84

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TABLE 6.30. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MODULE
(PRIMARY)......................................................................................................................6-85
TABLE 6.31. CIRCUIT BREAKER MANOEUVRES SUPERVISION PARAMETERS. .......................................6-88
TABLE 6.32. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION MODULE
(PRIMARY)......................................................................................................................6-89
TABLE 6.33. DISCONNECTORS MANOEUVRES SUPERVISION PARAMETERS.......................................6-102
TABLE 6.34. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE INSULATION DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION
MODULE. .....................................................................................................................6-102

TABLE 9.1. POSSIBLE CONFIGURATIONS FOR THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. ....................................9-19


TABLE 9.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. .......9-20
TABLE 9.3. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP1 AND FO1. .........9-21
TABLE 9.4. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP2 AND FO2. .........9-21
TABLE 9.5. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP1, TP2, FO1 AND FO2.
..................................................................................................................................9-22
TABLE 9.6. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE PROCESSING BOARD. .............................9-23
TABLE 9.7. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR OPTICAL FIBRE
INTERFACE. ....................................................................................................................9-25
TABLE 9.8. DESCRIPTION OF THE JUMPERS OF THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR RS 485 INTERFACE.............9-26
TABLE 9.9. PHASE CALIBRATION VALUES................................................................................9-29
TABLE 9.10. NEUTRAL CALIBRATION VALUES..........................................................................9-30

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1
Chapter

1. INTRODUCTION

In this chapter it is introduced the transformer protection and control terminal unit TPU TD420.
There are presented the product main characteristics and its range of application. It is also made
a brief description of the several functionalities and it is presented its operation basic principle.
Chapter 1 - Introduction

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1.1. APPLICATION..........................................................................................................1-3
1.2. VERSIONS ..............................................................................................................1-4
1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................1-5
1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES.....................................................................................................1-7
1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE.............................................................................................1-10

Total of pages of the chapter: 11

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.1. APPLICATION
1
TPU TD420 was designed as a protection and terminal unit for supervision and control of two-
winding transformers for distribution and transport substations.

Alternatively, TPU TD420 can be used to protect three-winding transformers where the nominal
power of the respective tertiary winding is too reduced comparing with the two others windings,
for example, when it is used to feed the substation auxiliary services.

It is also possible to use TPU TD420 in three-winding transformers where there is only one of
the windings is connected to the generation (usually the primary). In this situation, the sum of
the secondary and tertiary currents must be done externally to the protection.

TPU TD420 performs a wide range of automation and protection functions. It has an extensive
range of user programming options, offering a high accuracy of regulation on the currents,
voltages, temporisations and optional characteristics. All protection and automation settings are
independent among themselves, having four sets of parameterizations for each function.

The possibility to define logical interlockings to complement the existing protection and control
functions, and the possibility to chose, besides the default options lists, of inputs, outputs and
alarms with attributable logical mean add an additional configuration facility of the protection,
that can be used to adapt it to the user needs.

The TPU TD420 local interface integrates a graphic display where it is presented a synoptic with
the state of all devices as well as its respective measurements. This synoptic is totally defined by
the user, which allows adjusting it to the specific configuration of the panel where the protection
is installed. On the front panel there are also several functional keys that enable an easier
operation of the protection for the most frequent exploitation situations.

As a terminal unit, the TPU TD420 does accurate measurements of all values of a transformer
related with currents, and several faults monitoring functions, including Oscillography and Event
Chronological Log.

The ability to do complete monitoring of a panel analogue values and digital states allow the
TPU TD420 to be integrated as Remote Unit in Efacec’ Supervision Command and Control
Systems. For that purpose an optical fibre interface is available that ensures the horizontal
communication between different units on the local area network (LAN). Simultaneously, three
serial ports are offered to a PC connection.

Together with the TPU TD420 is supplied an integrated software package for PC interface with
the protection– WinProt – either locally or through the local communication network. This
application enables, among others functionalities, the access and changing of all relay settings
and configurations and also the gathering and detailed analysis of the produced logs.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.2. VERSIONS
1
There are two different versions of TPU TD420 that offers the user the flexibility to choose the
suitable relay for to each case.
TPU TD420-I performs the main transformer protection function (Differential Protection) and
also the Phase and Earth Overcurrent on the primary side as a reserve protection. Besides the
previous ones, it includes the Phase and Earth Overcurrent protection on the secondary side and
the Tank Overcurrent Protection. With this version, it is possible the integration in a single unit of
the more common functions, the primary as the secondary of the transformer, and work as a
reserve protection of the equipments installed in the substation feeders.
Replacing the Phase Overcurrent Protection, the TPU TD420-R integrates the Restricted Earth
Fault Protection that supplies an additional protection against earth faults in the transformer
secondary winding. Therefore, this version allows a complete protection against transformer’s
internal faults.

The control and monitoring functions present are the same for both versions.

The different versions of TPU TD420 can be compared in the Annexe A - Ordering Form
concerning the executed functions.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS


1
The transformers protection and control unit TPU TD420 belongs to Efacec’s TPU x420 digital
technology protections family. All protections which are part of this family are characterised by a
similar set of functionalities and they are based on a common platform which enables uniform
and highly integrated solutions for the protection and automation of substations in power
systems.

Powerful modular architecture, constituted by a processing board with three 32 bit


microcontrollers.

Acquisition up to a maximum of 8 analogue values with 12 bit digital conversion at a rate of


40 samples per cycle (sampling frequency of 2 kHz for a nominal frequency of 50 Hz).

High number of digital inputs and outputs for complete acquisition of all panel and
equipment status and for the commands execution over circuit-breakers or other
indications, respectively.

Integration of a vast set of protection, control and monitoring functions, appropriate to each
application, covering the most common situations of usage.

Modular structure and object-oriented of the different sets of parameters and protection
configurations.

4 sets of independent parameters for each protection and automation function,


interchangeable by specific logic or user’s command.

Possibility of changing the automation logic programmed by default for the implementation
of interlockings and other logic conditions, additional to the protection and control functions.

Graphic editor of programmable logic and associated descriptions with the possibility of
editing, configuring, testing and printing of logic directly from the diagram over the logic
gates.

Easy and accessible visualization, changing and automation logic testing, directly from the
graphic editor of logic gates which constitute the different functions.

Easiness of logging and/ or updating the protection firmware.

Usage of high ability flash memory, for non-volatile storage of all protection parameters and
configurations, as well as all the logs resulting from its application.

Logs of the currents and voltages oscillographies with a sampling frequency of 20 samples
per cycle and up to 40 digital channels, with a total storage capacity of almost one and a half
minute.

Events log with the selection of logical variables and its descriptions editable by the user,
dated with a precision of one millisecond.

Real-time clock with own battery, with the possibility of time synchronization through the
local area network interface or by the SNTP protocol.

Possibility of configuring the regional time parameters associated to the country or zone of
the globe where the protection is installed.

Sophisticated local interface, constituted by a graphic display, alarms with user-settable logic
meaning and functional keys for an easier protection operation.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Possibility of editing the synoptic presented on the frontal panel’s display, with the
representation of the equipment and measurement status.

Interface by optical fibre or copper in LonWorks or Ethernet architectures for complete


integration in Efacec SCADA systems, with simple configuration of digital and analogue 1
information reporting to the Control Centre.

Piggy-back interfaces type supported by the CPU board, in optical fibre, RS232 or RS485 to
support the DNP 3.0 Serial protocol.

Horizontal communication of logic information and another type of information among


different units in the same local area network, for the implementation of complex
automatisms, totally programmable by the user.

A frontal serial port and two back serial ports for communicating with a PC.

Availability of a specific interface application for PC - WinProt - with parameterization


functions, configuration and protection logs reading functions, communicating by serial port
or through the local area network.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES
1
Transformer Differential Protection

Using as main protection function of double winding transformers.

Applicable in three winding transformers where the tertiary is nominal power despicable
regarding the other two, or when there is only one winding connected to the generation.

Unrestricted stage with instantaneous trip, operating only depending on the differential
current value.

Restricted stage with operation restraint by the transformer current image, in order to assure
the compensation of measure errors and the load regulation effect.

Operational characteristic providing the operation stabilization in case of CT saturation.

Blocking of restricted stage by 2nd harmonic to restrain misoperations of the protection by


connection of the unloaded transformer.

Blocking of restricted stage by 5th harmonic to restrain misoperations of the protection in


case of overexcitement of the transformer’s core.

Automatic correction in magnitude and phase of the currents measures to compensate the
transformer and CT’s changing ratio and the connections group.

Removal of homopolar component in both windings.

Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection (primary and secondary)

Available in all the versions for primary winding and, optionally, also for the secondary
winging.

High set overcurrent protection with speed tripping for violent faults fast elimination.

Low set overcurrent protection with definite or inverse time, prepared for chronometric
coordination with other protection elements.

IEC and IEEE standards inverse time characteristics.

Optional dynamic reset when the inverse time option is selected.

Third extended range definite time stage setting, complementing the two previous stages.

Working in parallel (full scheme) of the 9 virtual relays (3 per phase), for each one of the
windings.

Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection (primary and secondary)

Available in all the versions for primary winding and, optionally, also for the secondary
winging.

Same number of stages and similar characteristics as the Phase Overcurrent Protection, for
each one of the windings.

Independent settings from those used for phase faults protection.

Parallel functioning (full scheme) of the 3 virtual relays.

Residual current obtained from the internal sum of the three phase currents for primary
winding.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Possibility of configuring each one of the protection stages against earth faults to optionally
work with the sum of the three currents obtained internally or with the current observed in
the transformer’s neutral point.

Restricted Earth Fault Protection


1
Protection for earth faults in the transformer secondary winding.

Using as the amplitude operational magnitude of the difference between the phase and earth
current sum, with operation restriction by phase and earth overcurrent.

Operational feature that foresees if the operation gets stable in case of CT saturation.

Automatic compensation of the transformation ratio of the phase and earth CT.

Additional phase comparison of the observed residual current and the neutral current, as an
option, to ensure a safer operation.

Transformer’s Tank Overcurrent Protection

Prepared to operate above the current configured value on the connection of the
transformer’s tank to earth, observed in a current input.

High set overcurrent protection with an instantaneous trip

Low set overcurrent protection with definite or inverse time under the IEC and IEEE standards
(as an option).

Independent operation from the Overcurrent protection against earth faults.

Surveillance of the Transformer Own Protections

Surveillance of digital inputs of the protections integrated in the transformer and other
alarms.

Instantaneous trip of the circuit-breakers in situation of transformer internal fault.

Circuit-breaker Close Lock

Close lock after occurring a fault detected by the protection functions or by the transformers’
protections operation.

Memorization of the locking previous situation, with the cancelling possibility only by the
user.

Available contacts normally closed for the locking signalling.

Configuration possibility of specific fault conditions in the transformer that restrains the
circuit breakers close lock, permanent or transient.

Voltage Centralised Restoration

It requires the existence of a bus-bar protection unit, TPU B420.

Interaction with the TPU B420 through the communication network.

Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of restoration through the programmable


logic.

Frequency Centralised Restoration

It requires the existence of a bus-bar protection unit, TPU B420.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Interaction with the TPU B420 through the communication network

Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of restoration through the programmable


logic.
1
Logical Trip Lock

High speeding of the reserve Overcurrent protection of the feeder protections.

A specific input is available for logic interlocking.

Circuit-Breaker Failure

Available for the primary and secondary circuit-breakers of the transformer.

Reset surveillance of protection functions after a trip command as been given.

Operation configured by default in the primary circuit-breaker of the transformer in case of


circuit-breaker failure of the secondary.

Trip Circuit Supervision

Specific inputs available for the surveillance of the trip circuit continuity of the circuit-breaker
coil of each one of the circuit-breakers.

Interaction with the Circuit-breaker protection, for its immediate trip in case of detecting
circuit damage after trip of any protection function.

Protections Transfer

Available for the transformer primary and secondary.

Transfer of the opening circuit-breaker command by protection functions operation, in case


of bypass disconnector closing or user command.

Circuit-Breaker Switching Supervision

Available for the transformer primary and secondary.

Circuit-breaker opening and closing times supervision.

Circuit-breaker spring supervision.

Counting of the circuit breaker opening switch actions.

Sum of the square currents switched off by each circuit-breaker pole supervision.

Disconnectors Switching Supervision

Available for a maximum of 7 disconnectors.

Supervision of the disconnector opening and closing times.

Opening switch actions counting for each disconnector.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE


1
TPU TD420 presents hardware architecture prepared for the digital processing of the analogue
inputs and for the implementation of several protection algorithms, with the correspondent
actuation by means of binary outputs. The equipment basic internal configuration is shown in
Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1. TPU TD420 hardware structure.

The acquisition and analogue/ digital conversion system guarantees the protection galvanic
insulation toward the exterior. It also guarantees the conditioning of the available input signs
concerning the admissible levels by the internal electronics, as well as the filtering and sampling
of signals for subsequent treatment by protection and measurement algorithms. In each input
there a measurement transformer which assures both first aforementioned objectives. For the
current inputs, an additional sampling resistance allows to get an equivalent voltage signal. After
that there is a low-pass analogue filter dimensioned in order to have the adequate bandwidth
for the protection algorithms.

TPU TD420 has 8 current analogue inputs. Three of them are intended for phase currents
measured in the transformer primary and other tree for phase currents of the secondary. The
seventh current input is intended for current measure of the transformer neutral, when there is

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

an accessible neutral point and this one is solidly connected to earth or through some
impedance. The direct connection of the secondary neutral point (for star windings) is
considered as the using of a neutral reactance (for delta windings). There is also an input
dedicated to the current observed in the connection of the transformer’s tank to earth.
1
The different channels are multiplexed and sampled at a frequency of 40 samples per cycle.
Then, a first digital filter that corresponds to the average of each pair of subsequent samples,
from which a 20 sample set per cycle is obtained for the protection and measurement functions,
as well as for the oscillography.

From these samples the fundamental component values from the different channel phasors are
obtained, by using adequate estimation algorithms which remove the other harmonic and
transient components that are present on the signals (Figure 1.2). TPU TD420 also calculates the
fundamental component of differential currents and the 2nd and 5th harmonic from the samples
of currents of primary and secondary for the differential protection function.

From the different sampled phasor values other relevant measurements are calculated, be it
specific characteristics of those signs (their amplitude, for example), or measurements derived
from them, such as the respective symmetric components, the frequency, the currents, etc.
these measurements are calculated regularly to be used in protection and measuring algorithms.
They are compared with thresholds and other characteristics defined by the user and timeouts
are set after some of those conditions are checked.

Figure 1.2. Sampling and filtering of analogue digital signals.

The central processing system is also responsible for the management of other protection
interfaces with the exterior, particularly the digital inputs and outputs and the local and remote
human-machine interface. It is also responsible for the management of several system
resources and of all information obtained.

The digital inputs are sampled every millisecond and submitted to a filtering process to
eliminate transitions due to noise. The digital outputs are changed by certain events internal to
the protection, such as a circuit-breaker opening instruction by some protection function.

The human-machine interface management includes the display and alarms refreshment on the
local interface, the communication by the serial ports and the communication through the local
area network with the SCADA system.

Other executed functions are, for example, the inference of the automation logic as a result of
the performance of the different functions and of the input status, as well as parameters and
other configurations updating. Finally, the logging of information related to occurred faults and
memory management are also performed.

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2
Chapter

2. INSTALLATION

This chapter describes the construction, constitution and installation of the TPU TD420. It
describes its case, constitution, assembly and connections, as well as the type of these
connections. There is an indication concerning the type of conductors to be used and the
procedures to make all connections properly.
Chapter 2- Installation

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS .................................................................................2-3


2.1.1. Case .............................................................................................................................2-3
2.1.2. Dimensions..................................................................................................................2-7 2
2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION...........................................................................................2-8
2.2.1. General Description.....................................................................................................2-8
2.2.2. Boards Description ......................................................................................................2-9
2.2.3. Configuration of the Supply Voltage and Digital I/O .............................................. 2-24
2.3. ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................2-25
2.3.1. Embedded Assembly................................................................................................ 2-25
2.3.2. Assembly in 19’’ rack ............................................................................................... 2-27
2.4. CONNECTIONS......................................................................................................2-29
2.4.1. Connectors description ............................................................................................ 2-31
2.4.2. Description of Connector pin................................................................................... 2-33
2.4.3. Wiring connections diagram .................................................................................... 2-36
2.4.4. Power Supply Connection ........................................................................................ 2-39
2.4.5. Current Connections ................................................................................................ 2-40
2.4.6. Digital input and output connections ...................................................................... 2-47
2.4.7. Local Network Connections ..................................................................................... 2-48
2.4.8. Serial Ports ................................................................................................................ 2-52
2.4.9. Serial Port of the Ethernet communication Board.................................................... 2-54

Total of pages of the chapter: 54

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Chapter 2- Installation

2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS

The TPU TD420 is presented in a 6U height proprietary case for embedded assembly for a cell or
for the assembly in a 19’’ cabinet. This section describes the case and presents its dimensions.

Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions shall be presented in milimeters.


2
2.1.1. CASE

The TPU TD420 has a proprietary case with a width of about half rack and a height of 6U. It has
a front panel with the local user interface and a back panel with the connectors for interface with
the installation. The case has no openings or slits.

The access to the electronic boards is made through the back of the TPU TD420, after the back
panel has been removed which is done by removing the ten screws that fix it to the case of the
TPU TD420. Once the panel is removed the electronic boards are accessible and they may vary
from four to seven according to the configuration. These boards have double Eurocard standard
format, and are interconnected by a Backplane type board, which is in the interior.

The complete user interface is located on a board parallel to the front panel which is also
connected to the Backplane board. The front panel, to which is fixed the board containing the
user interface, can be removed after removing the six screws that fix it to the body of the case.

The removal of the front panel does not allow access to the electronic boards, only to the user
interface. So it should be removed only for maintenance.

Before removing the back lid to access the interior of the TPU TD420, all connectors must be
disconnected in order to avoid the risk of electrical shock. This warning is also applicable for the
removal of the front panel (user interface).

Any intervention in the interior of the TPU TD420 should be carried out by authorised technical
personnel.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

Figure 2.1. , Figure 2.2. and Figure 2.3. present respectively the front panel and the back panels
of the TPU TD420. The panels are briefly described.

Front Panel

Figure 2.1. resents the front panel of the TPU TD420. The TPU TD420 assembly is made by four
screws in the back of the front frame. The front panel is covered by a film of silk screened
polycarbonate where the user interface is located.

This interface is constituted by the graphical display, 8 programmable alarm leds, 2 leds
indicating the operation status of the TPU TD420 and of the LAN, as well as 4 leds indicating the
operation modes.

There are 4 navigation keys in the menus, 3 keys for selection and operation of apparatus, 2
keys for selection of Operation Modes and one last key for alarm acknowledgement.

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Chapter 2- Installation

Finally there is a front serial port type DB9 female for local communication with a personal
computer. This communication is dedicated to the WinProt application, which is the interface
software with the TPU TD420.

For detailed information on local interface and its use, see Chapter 3 - Human-Machine
Interface.

Figure 2.1. TPU TD420 front view.

Back Panel (LAN LonWorks version)

Figure 2.2. presents the back panel of the TPU TD420. It is shown the back connectors
arrangement with their respective identification. Table 2.1. briefly describes the connectors.
Details on the connectors are given in section 2.4 - Connections.

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Chapter 2- Installation

Figure 2.2. Back view of the TPU TD420 (connectors arrangement –LAN LonWorks version).

Table 2.1. Connectors description.

Connector Description Observations

COM1, COM2 Back serial ports See section 2.4


FO1 Connectors for LAN connection (optical Optional
fibre)
IO1, IO2 Connections of base I/O board + Power See section 2.4
Supply
IO3, IO4 Connections of Expansion board 1 Optional, Type I, Type II or Type III
IO5, IO6 Connections of Expansion board 2 Optional, Type I, Type II or Type III
IRIG-B Digital input of the IRIG-B See section 2.4
synchronization signal
P1 Power Supply of the Lonworks Optional
communications board
T1, T2 Current and voltage analogue inputs See section 2.4

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Back panel (LAN Ethernet version)

Figure 2.3. presents the back panel of the TPU TD420. It is shown the back connectors
arrangement with their respective identification. Table 2.2. briefly describes the connectors.
Details on the connectors are given in section 2.4 - Connections.

Figure 2.3. Back view of the TPU TD420 (connector arrangement –LAN Ethernet version).

Table 2.2. Connectors description.

Connector Description Observations

COM1, COM2, Back serial ports See section 2.4


COM4
FO1, FO2 Connectors for LAN connection (optical Optional
fibre)
IO1, IO2 Connections of base I/O board + Power See section 2.4
Supply
IO3, IO4 Connections of the Expansion board 1 Optional, Optional I, Optional II or
Optional III
IO5, IO6 Connections of the Expansion board 2 Optional, Optional I, Optional II or
Optional III
IRIG-B Digital input of the IRIG-B See section 2.4
synchronization signal
T1, T2 Current and voltage analogue inputs See section 2.4
TP1,TP2 Connectors for LAN connection (twisted Optional
pair)

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2.1.2. DIMENSIONS

Figure 2.4. External dimensions and fixation screws of the TPU TD420.

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2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

This section describes the hardware that constitutes the TPU TD420, and presents the possible
configurations in terms of electronic boards.

2.2.1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 2


Figure 2.5. presents a simplified diagram of the constitution of the TPU TD420, which shows the
electronic boards. The boards in dotted lines are optional, they can exist or not depending on
hardware configuration.

Figure 2.5. Internal arrangement of the boards.

Its architecture is modular and multiprocessing, three 32-bit processors and one 8-bit
processor are used in order to achieve high performance of the TPU TD420. A hard real-time
operating system is used to guarantee the demanding time requirements necessary to its
correct operation. The communication among processors is made by a serial high speed
synchronous bus.

The technology and components used allow meeting and exceeding the electromagnetic
compatibility and security standards applicable. All signals that interface with the installation are
properly isolated from the most sensitive electronics and are physically separated as all
connections to the installation are made in the back of the unit, and the sensitive internal signals
circulate in a Front-Plane that interconnects all boards and is located immediately behind the
local user interface.

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2.2.2. BOARDS DESCRIPTION

Front-End Board

This board supports the local interface of the TPU TD420. It is associated to the front panel and
is only accessible by the front. It contains the graphical display, all LEDs, keys and the front serial
port. The graphical display has a 240 x 128 pixel resolution and is back lighted by a cold
cathode lamp. The serial port is internally isolated by means of optical isolators for security
reasons and also to avoid mass rings. It allows communications from 4800 up to 19200 baud.
2
This board should only be accessed for maintenance purposes because it does not have any
accessible configuration.

Front-Plane Board

The Front-Plane board is destined to interconnect the other boards, supplying electrical and
mechanical support to them. It provides different supply voltages necessary to the operation of
the TPU TD420, as well as analogue signals, communications among microcontrollers, signals
regarding digital I/O and also the signals for the local user interface. It does not have any
configuration and its access is only possible by fully dismounting the TPU TD420.

CT & VT Board

This board houses the current and voltage measurement transformers and/ or measurement
converters. In case of the TPU TD420 it has eight measurement transformers, four for current
and four for voltage. The nominal values can be 0.04 A, 0.2 A, 1 A or 5 A for currents, and 100
V, 110 V, 115 V, or 120 V for voltages. There are 3 transformers for phase currents, one for the
fourth current input, and four transformers for voltages measurement of the three phases and
an additional voltage transformer. Associated to this board there is a metal screen to help the
assembly.

The measurement transformers have special structure, based on electromagnetic screen in


order to avoid that exterior disturbances are passed on to the interior of the unit. They also
supply galvanic isolation and allow adjusting the measurements to the internal electronics. This
board also includes the sample resistances of the current transformers.

This board doesn’t include any type of configuration, and their access is possible after removing
the back lid of the TPU TD420.

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Figure 2.6. Back view of the CT & VT board of TPU TD420 (connector arrangement).

Analogue Acquisition Board (A/D)

This board houses all analogue electronics and analogue-digital converting electronics; it accepts
as inputs the outputs of the measurement transformers the Analogue Inputs board. It houses
eight analogue inputs, the respective low pass analogue filters, analogue multiplexer,
instrumentation amplifier, sample & hold, analogue-digital converter with a 12-bit resolution
and a microcontroller to manage the board and format the samples to send to the processing
board (CPU).

The analogue inputs are sampled at a 2000 Hz frequency and have a band width of 460 Hz. The
samples are then pre-processed, before being sent to the processing board (CPU) every
millisecond. This communication is processed at a rate of 1Mbit/s, in serial format.

This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU TD420.

Communications Board (LonWorks)

This board is optional and has two options: with or without auxiliary power supply. It houses the
Lonworks communication processor as well as the transceiver for the physical media, which can
be optical fibre or twisted pair. The option with auxiliary power supply is mainly destined for the
optical fibre option as it allows the supply of the optical transceiver, keeping the optical ring
closed even when the unit’s supply is off during maintenance.

This board should be configured according to the type of transceiver used and its access is
possible after removing the back lid of the TPU TD420. The configuration details of this board
are presented in Chapter 9 – Maintenance.

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Figure 2.7. Back view of the LonWorks communications board of TPU TD420 (connector
arrangement).

Communications Board (Ethernet)

This board is optional and has two options: Redundant 100BaseTX or Redundant
100BaseTX+100BaseFX. It can house up to four ports for the physical media, two for optical
fibre and two for twisted pair. It accepts SC or ST type connectors for optical fibre, and RJ45 for
twisted pair (UTP or STP, Cat.5).

It contains a 32-bit processing module and associated RAM and FLASH memories for operation
data, settings, firmware, etc. It also has a serial port and another port dedicated to download
firmware and make the diagnosis of the processing module. As an option, this board has
redundancy management, so the processing module constantly monitors the Link information
of the two available ports and in case the selected port becomes inactive switches to the other
port.

This board has several configuration jumpers. Its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU TD420. The configuration details of this board are presented in Chapter 9 –
Maintenance.

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Figure 2.8. Back view of the Ethernet communications board of TPU TD420 (connector
arrangement).

Processing Board (CPU)

This board does all the central processing of the TPU TD420. It has three 32 bit processing
modules and associated RAM and FLASH memories for operation data, settings, firmware, etc.

It also has a serial port dedicated to local interface in the front panel and three ports dedicated to
download firmware and make the diagnosis of the processing modules. There is also a real time
clock for maintenance of date and time. Each micro processor also has battery backed-up RAM
memory as well as a dedicated Watchdog. It also houses two piggy-back type boards for the
serial ports in the back panel (COM1 and COM2).

The processing is distributed by the three processing modules according to the functions to be
performed. The modules are identified as MASTER, SLAVE1 and SLAVE2. All protection functions
as well as the processing of digital inputs and outputs, communication with LAN and local
interface are managed by this board.

It has an IRIG-B time synchronization module, which receives optically isolated synchronization
signals which are later directed to the SLAVE processing module. So the TPU TD420 can be
synchronized from the IRIG-B time synchronization signal.

This board has several configuration jumpers. Its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU TD420. The configuration details of this board are presented in Chapter 9 –
Maintenance.

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Figure 2.9. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU TD420 (connector arrangement).

Piggy-back Board for optical fibre interface

This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.

This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt (only point to point mode). It allows transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud.

This board presents two operation modes:


Point to point mode (TX PP1→RX PP2, TX PP2→RX PP1)

Ring mode (TX UC→RX PP1, TX PP1→RX PP2, TX PP2→RX PP3,..., TX PPn→RX UC)

Where PP means piggy-back, TX/RX represent the Transmitters or Receivers of PP board number
1, 2 ... n and UC stands for Central Unit (in Portuguese).

All piggy-backs that form the ring in the ring operation mode must be placed so that the ring
works correctly, except the UC which should be in the point to point operation mode.

Galvanic isolation from the exterior signals is supplied for the processing board (CPU) as well as
protection against electrostatic discharges.

This board can be configured and its access is possible after removing the back lid of the
TPU TD420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 – Maintenance.

Piggy-back board for plastic optical fibre interface

The board uses 1mm thick plastic optical fibre and allows communication distances up to 45m.

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Figure 2.10. Back view of the processing board (CPUI) of the TPU TD420 with piggy-backs for
plastic optical fibre interface (connector arrangement).

Piggy-back board for glass optical fibre interface

The board uses 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre and allows communication distances up
to 1700m.

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Figure 2.11. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU TD420 with piggy-back for
glass optical fibre interface (connector arrangement).

Piggy-back board for RS485 interface

This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.

This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt. It accepts transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud.

The communication is made by twisted pair – cable of two twisted conductor wires. 4 pin “male”
Phoenix Combicon connectors are used in the piggy-back.

The piggy-back assures galvanic isolation from the signals as well as protection against
electrostatic discharges. The 485 bus can be shared by a maximum of 32 terminals and the
length of the cable should be less than 1200m.

In situations of high transmission rate or very long 485 bus the option with adjustment
resistance should be configured.

This board can be configured and its access is possible after removing the back lid of the
TPU TD420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 – Maintenance.

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Figure 2.12. Back view of the processing board (CPUI) of the TPU TD420 with piggy-back for
RS485 interface (connector arrangement).

Piggy-back board for RS232 interface

This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.

This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt. It accepts transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud and is optically isolated and has
protection against electrostatic discharges.

This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU TD420.

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Figure 2.13. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU TD420 with piggy-backs for
RS232 interface (connector arrangement).

I/O Board + Power Supply

This board contains 9 digital inputs, 6 digital outputs (one is used as watchdog and another has
change-over contacts) and the power supply that supplies energy to the TPU TD420. There are
several options depending on the range of supply voltage and the operating voltage of the
digital inputs. These options are detailed in the Annexe A – Ordering Form as well as in the
section 2.2.3 - Configuration of the Supply Voltage and Digital I/O

The power supply is of switching type and generates voltages of +5 V, +24 V and 15 V
respectively for logic, relay digital outputs and the analogue part. It supplies galvanic isolation
and filter from external disturbances. Every input and output is galvanically isolated among each
other with allows any type of cabling. They have high immunity against external disturbances
given by optical isolation and suppression of transient in the digital inputs, by using optical
couplers for the command of output relays, and the use of a separate power supply.

This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU TD420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 –
Maintenance.

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Figure 2.14. Back view of the I/O Board + Power Supply of the TPU TD420 (connector
arrangement).

Expansion 1, Expansion 2 I/O Boards

These two boards are digital inputs/outputs expansion boards and they are optional. There are
four types of expansion boards: Type 1 (9 inputs + 6 outputs), Type II (16 inputs), Type III (15
outputs) and Type IV (32 inputs), according to the number of available inputs and outputs.
Expansion boards Type I have two outputs with change-over contacts, and Type III boards have
six outputs with change-over contacts. Any combination of boards can be made, so it is
possible to obtain several combinations of inputs and outputs up to 41 inputs and 6 outputs
(5+ watchdog), or 9 inputs and 36 outputs (35 + watchdog). These numbers already take into
account the base board. The operating voltages of the digital inputs should be similar to the I/O
Board + Power Supply to guarantee their coherent behaviour. They are detailed in section 2.2.3.

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Figure2.15. Back view of Expansion Board 1 of the TPU TD420 (connector arrangement).

Every input and output is galvanically isolated among each other which allow any type of cabling.
They also have high immunity against external disturbances given by optical isolation and
suppression of transient in the digital inputs, by using optical couplers for the command of
output relays, and the use of a separate power supply.

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Figure 2.16. Back view of the Expansion Board 2 of the TPU TD420 (connector arrangement).

Table 2.3 presents the types of existing boards, and Table 2.4. presents possible configurations
in terms of expansion boards and number of available digital inputs and outputs.

These boards do not have any configuration and their access is possible after removing the back
lid of the TPU TD420. However, it is necessary to configure the TPU TD420 so that they work
properly (see Chapter 4 - Configuration). The maintenance of these boards is explained in
Chapter 9 – Maintenance.

Table 2.3. Types of expansion boards.

Type of board Nº of digital inputs Nº of digital outputs

I/O Board + Power Supply 9 5 + Watchdog


Expansion Type I 9 6
Expansion Type II 16 --
Expansion Type III - 15

Inputs/outputs expansion boards must be correctly configured to work properly. The


configuration process is described in Chapter 4- Configuration. Wrong configuration, besides
causing malfunction in the TPU TD420, may cause permanent damage in the expansion boards
and/or processing board.

Any intervention in the interior of the TPU TD420 should be carried out by authorised technical
personnel. The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct
operation of the TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

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Table 2.4. Some configurations for I/O boards.

Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Nº of digital inputs Nº of digital outputs

-- -- 9 5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I -- 18 11 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I Expansion Type I 27 17 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I Expansion Type II 34 11 + Watchdog
2
Expansion Type I Expansion Type III 18 26 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II -- 25 5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II Expansion Type I 34 11 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II Expansion Type II 41 5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II Expansion Type III 25 20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III - 9 20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III Expansion Type I 18 26 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III Expansion Type II 25 20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III Expansion Type III 9 35 + Watchdog

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Placement of the Boards (version LAN LonWorks)

Back view:

Figure 2.17. Placement of the boards in the TPU TD420.

 - (Position 2) Measurement Transformers Board (CT & VT).


 - (Position 12) Board of Analogue Acquisition (A/D).
 - (Position 15) Board of LonWorks Communications.
 - (Position 20) Processing Board (CPU).
 - (Position 25) Base Board of Power Supply and Inputs/Outputs (Power Supply + I/O).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 1 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
 - (Position 38) Expansion Board 2 (Type I, Type II or Type III).

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Placement of the Boards (version LAN Ethernet)

Back view:

Figure 2.18. Placement of the boards on the TPU TD420.

 - (Position 2) Measurement Transformers Board (CT & VT).


 - (Position 12) Board of Analogue Acquisition (A/D).
 - (Position 15) Ethernet Board Communications.
 - (Position 20) Processing Board (CPU).
 - (Position 25) Base Board of Power Supply and Inputs/Outputs (Power Supply + I/O).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 1 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
 - (Position 38) Expansion Board 2 (Type I, Type II or Type III).

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2.2.3. CONFIGURATION OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND DIGITAL I/O

It is necessary to make sure that the correct options of the operating voltages of the power
supply and of the digital inputs are chosen. Incorrect choice can cause malfunction and even
damage the TPU TD420.

See the Ordering Form in Annexe A. A copy of the ordering form is in the back lid of the 2
TPU TD420, in the tag with the CE marking symbol.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU TD420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

Ranges of Supply Voltages

Table 2.5. shows two options for the operating ranges of the power supply. For nominal
voltages of 24 V, 48 V and 60 V it is used the option 19 to 72 V d.c., for nominal voltages of 110
V, 125 V, 230 V and 240 V it is used the option 88 to 300 V d.c. / 80 to 265 V a.c.

Table 2.5. Ranges of operating voltages for the power supply.

Nominal voltages Operating ranges Consumption

24 V / 48 V / 60 V 19 – 72 V d.c. 12 – 35 W
110 V / 125 V / 230 V /240 V 88 – 300 V d.c. 12 – 35 W
80 – 265 V a.c.

Operating Voltages of Digital Inputs

There are four options for the range of operating voltage of digital inputs in order to adjust their
operation sets to the supply voltage used. The operating voltage must be chosen according to
the nominal voltage in order to assure a high enough operation set to avoid unexpected
operation of the inputs. The ranges and the operation sets are specified in Table 2.6.

Digital inputs will only work properly if a continuous voltage is applied. Make sure the polarity of
digital inputs is correct; otherwise they will not work properly.

Table 2.6. Operating voltages and operation sets of digital inputs.

Nominal Operating ranges Operation set Consumption


voltages

24 V 19 – 138 V d.c. (19 1,9) V < 0,05 W (1,5 mA @ 24 V d.c.)


48 V 30 – 120 V d.c. (30 3) V < 0,1 W (1,5 mA @ 48 V d.c.)
110/125 V 80 – 220 V d.c. (80 8) V < 0,2 W (1,5 mA @ 125 V d.c.)
220/250 V 150 – 300 V d.c. (150 15) V < 0,4 W (1,5 mA @ 250 V d.c.)

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2.3. ASSEMBLY

This section describes the options available to assembly the TPU TD420. The TPU TD420 can be
embedded in a panel or mounted on a 19’’ rack type cabinet. There is only one model for the
two types of assembly. Instructions and relevant information for each type of assembly are
provided below. Assembly should be permanent, internal and made on a dry place.
2
The environmental conditions described in Chapter 10 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS should be
taken into account. Be careful to leave some free space around the TPU TD420, to facilitate the
air flow and improve the dissipation of the generated heat.

In case of assembly in cell ports or cabinets, check if there is no interference with other
equipment or structure nearby during opening and closing.

In order to assure safe and efficient operation of the TPU TD420, handling, assembly and
installation should be made strictly according to the instructions of this manual.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU TD420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

2.3.1. EMBEDDED ASSEMBLY

For embedded assembly it is necessary to cut the panel according to Figure 2.19. The relevant
dimensions are provided to make the assembly. The TPU TD420 should be fixed by 4 M4x10
screws.

Choose the location where the TPU TD420 will be assembled considering the above
recommendations.

Cut the panel respecting the dimensions indicated in Figure 2.19.

Insert the TPU TD420 in the cut area of the panel and screw it to the panel using the four
screws. M4x10 screws should be used in the front; and M4 washers in the back.

After the TPU TD420 is mounted in the panel, earth connection must be immediately made
for security reasons. This connection should be fully functional before any other connection
is made. See details in point 2.4.4.

Make the remaining connections in the back of the TPU TD420 according to the wiring
connections diagram and to section 2.4. This section has important information on the type
of connectors, section of conductors, terminals to use, etc.

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Figure 2.19. Cut to make embedded assembly

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2.3.2. ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK

For assembly in 19’’ rack it is necessary a 7U space to accommodate the TPU TD420. Figure
2.20. shows the assembly made with a dedicated front plane, detailed in Figure 2.21 and Figure
2.22).

Choose the location where the TPU TD420 will be assembled considering the
recommendations made in the beginning of this section. 2
Make the assembly of the 7U front plane as indicated in Figure 2.20. Using 4 or 8 M6x16
screws.

Screw the TPU TD420 using the four M4x10 screws.

After the TPU TD420 is mounted, earth connection must be immediately made for security
reasons. This connection should be fully functional before any other connection is made. See
details in point 2.4.4.

Make the remaining connections in the back of the TPU TD420 according to the wiring
connections diagram and to section 2.4. This section has important information on the type
of connectors, section of conductors, terminals to use, etc.

7U FRONT

Figure 2.20. Assembly in 19’’ rack.

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Figure 2.21. 7U front plane for assembly in 19’’ rack.

Figure 2.22. 7U front plane for assembly in 19’’ rack.

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2.4. CONNECTIONS

The voltages in the connections of the TPU TD420 are high enough to present a high risk of
electrical shock. As such, precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the
physical health of the technical personnel.

Technical personnel should be adequately trained to handle this type of equipment. The
2
following should be considered:

A solid earth protection connection should be the first to be made, before any other
connections are made;

Any connection may carry dangerous voltages;

Even when the unit’s supply is off, it is possible to have dangerous voltages present.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
the TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

Figure 2.23. shows the connectors present in the back of the TPU TD420 for LonWorks LAN
version and Figure 2.24. shows the connectors present in the back of the TPU TD420 for
Ethernet LAN version.

Figure 2.23. Connectors in the back of the TPU TD420 (LAN LonWorks version).

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Figure 2.24. Connectors in the back of the TPU TD420 (LAN Ethernet version).

The different connectors are described below.

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2.4.1. CONNECTORS DESCRIPTION

Connector for current and voltage analogue inputs (T1, T2)

Phoenix HCC 4 – M type connector. It accepts conductors with section from 0,25 mm2 to 4 mm2.
The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5 mm. Torque: 0,5
– 0,6 Nm. This connector has a retention/removal screw.
2

Connector for power supply and digital inputs/outputs (IO1...IO6)

Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 18 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from
0,2 mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x
3,5 mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm.

Connector for the optional power supply communications board (P1)

Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 6 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5
mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm

Connector for RS232 interface serial port (COM1, COM2, COM3 and COM4)

Sub-miniature 9 pins “D” type connector, female. The signals are EIA-232 standard. See
description of pins and signals in section 2.4.8 - Serial Ports.

Connector for RS485 interface serial port (COM1 and COM2)

Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 4 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5
mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm. The signals are EIA-485 standard. See description of pins and
signals in section 2.4.8 - Serial Ports.

ST Connectors for glass optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)

ST type connector for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, wavelength of 820 nm, type
HFBR-1414 for the Transmitter and type HFBR-2412 for Receiver, both from Agilent, for
distances up to 1700m.

Connectors for plastic optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)

Connector for 1mm thick plastic optical fibre (POF), wavelength of 660 nm, type HFBR-1522 for
Transmitter and type HFBR-1522 for Receiver, both from Agilent, for distances up to 45m.

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Connectors for LonWorks local network connection in optical fibre (FO1)

Connection to the LonWorks local area network, using 50/125 m or 62,5/125 m optical fibre.
The existing versions use SMA or ST connectors. See description of pins and signals in section 5
- Local Network Connections.

Terminal for earth protection connection

Terminal to be fitted by M4 screw, for connection to Earth Protection. This connection is


essential for the correct operation of the TPU TD420. It should be solid for security reasons.
2
ST Connectors for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)

Connection to the Ethernet local area network, using the HFBR-5103 ST optical module from
Agilent for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, 2000m maximum length and wavelength of
1300 nm.

SC Connectors for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)

Connection to the Ethernet local area network, using the HFBR-5103 SC optical module from
Agilent for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, 2000m maximum length and wavelength of
1300 nm.

Connector for Ethernet local network connection in twisted pair (TP1 and TP2)

Connection to the Ethernet local area network in twisted pair, using RJ45plug of 8 pins for
network connection using UTP or STP, Cat.5. See description of pins and signals in section 5 –
Local Network Connections.

Connector for IRIG-B synchronization signal connection (IRIG-B)

Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 2 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connections is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x
3,5 mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm.

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2.4.2. DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTOR PIN

The sequence of the pins is the same as in the figure and the connectors are presented in the
position they are in the back panel of the TPU TD420, when it is in normal vertical position.

Connector for current and voltage analogue inputs (T1, T2)


2
Pin Pin designation (connector T1) Pin designation (connector T2)
Number
10 Io1 GND
9 Io2 GND
8 ISN1 N/C
7 ISN2 N/C
6 ISA1 IPA1
5 ISA2 IPA2
4 ISB1 IPB1
3 ISB2 IPB2
2 ISC1 IPC1
1 ISC2 IPC2
Connector for power supply and digital inputs/outputs (IO1...IO6)
Pin Pin designation (connector IO1) Pin designation (connector IO2)
Number
1 IN1A GND
2 IN1B GND
3 IN2A -VIN
4 IN2B +VIN
5 IN3A O1A
6 IN3B O1B
7 IN4A O2A
8 IN4B O2B
9 IN5A O3A
10 IN5B O3B
11 IN6A O4A
12 IN6B O4B
13 IN7A O5C
14 IN7B O5B
15 IN8A O5A
16 IN8B WDC
17 IN9A WDB
18 IN9B WDA

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Connector for the optional power supply communications board (P1)


1
2 Pin Pin designation (connector P1)
3 Number
4
5 1 +VIN
6
2 -VIN
3 GND
4 GND
2
5 GND
6 GND
Connector for RS232 interface serial port (COM1, COM2, COM3 and COM4)
6
1 Pin Pin designation Pin designation Pin designation
2
7
3 Number (connector COM1 and (connector COM3) (connector COM4)
8
9
4 COM2)
5
9
1 N/C N/C N/C
9
2 RXD RXD RXD
3 TXD TXD TXD
4 N/C DTR ( * ) N/C
5 GND GND GND
6 N/C N/C N/C
7 RTS RTS RTS
8 CTS CTS CTS
9 N/C N/C Reserved
Connector for RS485 interface serial port (COM1 and COM2)
1
2
Pin Pin designation
3 Number
4
1 +485
2 N/C
3 -485
4 GNDISO
ST Connector for glass optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Pin designation

RXD
TXD
RXD

TXD

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Connector for plastic optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Pin designation

RXD
TXD
RXD

TXD
2

Connector for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Pin designation
TXD

TXD
RXD
RXD

Connector for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Pin designation
TXD
TXD
RXD RXD

Connector for Ethernet local network connection in twisted pair (TP1 and TP2)
1
2 Pin Pin designation
3 Number
4
5 1 TD+
6
7
2 TD-
8 3 RD+
4 N/C
5 N/C
6 RD-
7 N/C
8 N/C
Connector for IRIG-B synchronization signal connection (IRIG-B)
Pin Number Pin designation

2 2 -IRIG_B
1
1 +IRIG_B

( * ) Used only for interface supply.

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2.4.3. WIRING CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM

Figure 2.25. presents the general wiring connections diagrams for TPU TD420. It serves as
reference to the next sub-chapters that detail the type of connections and connectors.

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Figure 2.25. General wiring connections diagram of the TPU TD420, base configuration.

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Figure 2.26. Wiring connections diagram of the TPU TD420, Expansion modules (optional).

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2.4.4. POWER SUPPLY CONNECTION

According to security regulations a suitable device should be installed to turn on and off the
power supply of TPU TD420 that should cut both poles simultaneously.

Protection device against over-currents in both poles of supply should also be installed.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of 2
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

Earth protection should be directly connected to the earth system using the shortest possible
path. Earth protection symbol is:

A conductor with a minimum section of 4 mm2, preferably of copper braided wire should be
used.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU TD420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

After connecting the earth protection with a conductor with 4 mm2 minimum section, which
should be the first connection to be made, connect the other earth connections. See relevant
wiring connections diagrams for details and Figure 2.27. . These connections should be made
with 1.5 mm2 section conductor.

The two supply poles, after passing the protection device against over-currents and the switch
device, should be connected to the respective terminals of the IO2 connector, taking polarity into
account. Both poles are fluctuating in regard to earth and have full galvanic insulation.

Supply voltage should be within the acceptable range for the version in question – see the tag in
the back lid of TPU TD420. The use of incorrect supply voltage may cause TPU TD420 to
malfunction and/or damage.

Figure 2.27. Power supply connections of TPU TD420.

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2.4.5. CURRENT CONNECTIONS

The secondary circuits of current transformers must be short-circuited before connecting or


disconnecting the respective terminals in the TPU TD420!

If there are test terminals that automatically short circuit the secondary circuits of the current
transformers, they may be put to test position as long as their correct operation has been
previously verified. 2
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

It is mandatory to check the nominal values of the analogue current, whether they are AC or DC
inputs before they are put to operation. The nominal values can be checked in the back tag of
the TPU TD420 and they can be 0.04 A, 0.2 A, 1 A or 5 A. Incorrect nominal values may cause
the unit to malfunction and/or damage.

The values of acceptable thermal capacity should also be verified for each of the input nominal
values, both for permanent and short-time values. Subjecting analogue inputs to values higher
than those specified will cause permanent damage to the inputs.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

Current connections are made through T1 and T2 connectors in the back of TPU TD420. Take in
consideration the general wiring connections diagram in Figure 2.25., and the specific wiring
connections diagram, depending on the applicable case. Current inputs are completely floating
and independent, having a high galvanic isolation.

Special care should be taken in handling the current connectors because they are not self short-
circuiting. There should be a way to short-circuit the current circuits before current connectors
are disconnected.

It is necessary to check the correct phase sequence and their polarities. Always check the specific
wiring diagram together with the current transformer connections. Polarity is marked by a small
filled circle next to the current transformer connections.

The 9th and 10th terminals of the T2 connector should be connected to the earth common point
in the back of TPU TD420 (protective earth connection) for a correct unit functioning. It should
be used a conductor of at least 2.5 mm2 of section.

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Two-winding transformer

The current transformer connections as indicated in Figure 2.28. must be made in order to use
TPU TD420 in two-winding transformers. There is no need for auxiliary measure transformers
between main transformers and the protection inputs, once the TPU TD420 does the
compensation of magnitude and phase demanded by the differential protection (See Chapter
6.2 – Differential Protection).
2

Figure 2.28. Current connections diagram for two-winding transformers.

The three phase currents of the primary must be connected in a direct sequence, with the
correct correspondence of the three phases and with the polarities according with what is
indicated in the scheme. The same is also applicable to the secondary phase currents.

Polarities of the neutral and tank currents must be respected too.

The change of the primary (or secondary) current phases causes incorrect measurement of the
respective inverse sequence. The change of phases can be detected by the existence of a non
null measurement of the inverse sequence of current, similar to the phase currents, in a normal
situation of three-phase and symmetrical load

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The change of the primary (or secondary) current polarities causes incorrect measurement of the
respective residual sequence (sum of the three currents). Polarity change can be detected by the
existence of a non null measurement of the sum of the three currents, similar to the phase
currents in a normal situation of three-phase and symmetrical load.

Phases or polarities change, or the non correspondence of current phases of the transformer 2
primary with the secondary ones causes incorrect measurement of differential currents and
respective 2nd and 5th harmonics and it can lead to incorrect operation of the Differential
Protection.

Before the Differential protection is enabled, the phase current connections of the primary and
secondary, as well as the transformer nominal values configuration and CT ratio must be
verified, through differential current measurements.

Phase polarities change of the secondary or transformer neutral can lead to incorrect operation
of the Restricted Earth Fault Protection.

Before the Restricted Earth Fault Protection is enabled the phase current of the secondary and
neutral current connections, as well as CT ratio configuration must be verified.

Three-windings transformers (1st case)

Although it is mainly intended to two-winding transformers, the TPU TD420 can be applied,
under particular circumstances, to three-winding transformers, for example, if the nominal
power of the respective tertiary winding is too small regarding the other two windings.

The connections to perform in this situation are equivalent to the case of two-winding
transformer, as indicated in Figure 2.29. , and the tertiary currents are not measured.

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Figure 2.29. Current connections diagram for three-winding transformers – 1st case.

In this situation, a specific protection for the tertiary winding is not supplied. All cautions
referred previously concerning the analogue inputs are applied in this situation too.

Three-windings transformers (2nd case)

TPU TD420 can also be used for protection of three-winding transformers where only one of the
windings (the primary) is connected to generation, serving the other two to supply load.

If both windings, the secondary and tertiary are connected in star, the connections indicated in
Figure 2.30. must be made. These connections correspond to the currents sum of the secondary
and tertiary transformer externally to the protection. In this situation, a separated protection for
each one of voltage levels is not supplied.

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Figure 2.30. Current connections diagram for three windings transformers – 2nd case.

The correspondence of secondary and tertiary phases must be respected so that for each pair of
summed currents, both signs are in phase with each other. The change of some of these
connections causes an incorrect measure of differential currents and the respective 2nd and 5th
harmonic and it can lead to incorrect operation of the Differential Protection.

Before the Differential Protection is enabled, the currents and nominal values configuration, as
well as the CT ratio must be verified through differential current measures.

The CT ratio of secondary and tertiary must compensate the ratio between nominal voltages of
those windings. If that compensation is not exact, there will be a magnitude failure in the
differential currents measure.

To compensate that failure, in case it is significant, auxiliary transformers must be used between
main current transformers and the protection inputs.

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Besides the points referred, all cautions for connections in case of two-winding transformer
must be respected.

Three-winding transformer (3rd case)

This situation is similar to the previous one, but with one of the windings connected in star and
the other one in delta. The connections can be made as indicated in Figure 2.31. . Those
connections correspond to the sum of secondary and tertiary currents externally to the
protection, working also to compensate the phase shift between them. 2

Figure 2.31. Current connections diagram for three-winding transformers – 3rd case.

In this situation, it is not possible to supply separated protection for the transformer secondary
and tertiary.

The phase compensation can be made as indicated in the scheme, assembling the main CT in
delta on the star side and in star on delta side; alternatively, auxiliary measure transformers can
be used to perform phase correction imposed by transformers connections.

The correspondence of secondary and tertiary phases must be respected so that for each pair of

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summed currents, both signs are in phase with each other. The change of some of these
connections causes an incorrect measure of differential currents and the respective 2nd and 5th
harmonic and it can lead to incorrect operation of the Differential Protection.

Before the Differential Protection is enabled, the currents and nominal values configuration, as
well as the CT ratio must be verified through differential current measures.

2
The CT ratio of the secondary and tertiary must compensate the ratio between nominal voltages
of these windings. If that compensation is not exact, there will be a magnitude failure on the
differential currents measure.

To compensate that failure, in case it is significant, auxiliary measure transformers must be used
between main current transformers and the protection inputs. These transformers can, in that
case, be the same as the ones that perform the phase compensation.

Besides the points referred, all cautions refer to connections in case two-winding transformers
must be respected.

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2.4.6. DIGITAL INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS

It is necessary to assure the correct polarity of digital inputs, otherwise they will not work. Also
check that the option of operating voltage and operation set is according to the used control
voltage.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of 2
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

TPU TD420 has digital inputs that may vary in number from 9 to 41 depending on the
configuration of digital input/output expansion boards. Inputs have high galvanic isolation and
are completely independent among each other. It is also necessary to make sure that their
operating voltage (and respective operation threshold) is according to the used control voltage.
See Table 2.6. and 2.2.3 - Configuration of the Supply Voltage and Digital I/O

Digital outputs may vary in number from 5 to 35 (besides the dedicated watchdog output)
depending on the configuration of input/output boards. See section 2.2.3 – Configuration of the
Supply Voltage and Digital I/O

Output contacts are dry and completely independent among each other. There are normally
opened contacts and of change-over type, as can be seen in the wiring diagram. See also Figure
2.32. that shows inputs and outputs of a base board.

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Figure 2.32. Digital input and output connections of TPU TD420 (base board).

2.4.7. LOCAL NETWORK CONNECTIONS

LonWorks Network Board

TPU TD420 can be equipped with a communication board to be connected to a LonWorks


network that can co-exist with other units sharing the same protocol. The physical environment
used is 50/125 m or 62.5/125 m multimode type glass optical fibre. The communication rate
used is 1.25 Mbps, and connectors used are ST type (older equipment can still have SMA type
connectors). Wavelength is 880 nm.

Optical fibre connectors are supplied with protecting covers to avoid dust from entering and
contaminating the optical components. The covers can be easily removed by pushing them out.

As an option, twisted pair can be used. However this option has less immunity against
electromagnetic disturbances.

Auxiliary Power Supply for LonWorks Network Board

When using a communication board with auxiliary power supply there is also a connector to
connect this supply (see Figure 2.25., section 2.4 - Connections). This supply should be
separated from the supply of the TPU TD420, as it is destined to avoid the optical ring to open

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when that auxiliary power supply is disconnected. Recommendations for these connections are
in section 2.4.4 - Power Supply Connection.

Earth connection must be the first made using 2.5 mm2 section conductor. See relevant wiring
diagrams and Figure 2.33. for details. Use only one of the terminals 3,4,5 or 6 of the
P1connector.

The two supply poles (terminals 1 and 2 of the P1connector), after passing by a protection
device against over-currents and by a switch device (that should be independent from that of 2
the main supply of the TPU TD420), should be connected to the respective terminals of the
P1connector, considering their polarity. Both poles are floating in regard to earth and have
complete galvanic isolation.

Supply voltage should be within the acceptable range for the version in question – see the tag in
the back lid of the TPU TD420. The use of incorrect supply voltage may cause TPU TD420 to
malfunction and/or damage.

Figure 2.33.Power supply connections of the LonWorks network board.

Power supply terminals and conductors of the LonWorks network board (when there is one)
carry dangerous voltages. Precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the
physical health of the technical personnel.

Technical personnel should be adequately trained to handle this type of equipment.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU TD420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

LEDs and Command Buttons of the LonWorks Network Board

In the back panel of the TPU TD420 with LonWorks communication board there are four LED to
signal the status of the connection to the network that are described in Table 2.8., and two
command buttons described in Table 2.8. Both the LED and the command buttons are visible in
the back panel of the TPU TD420 with the communication board installed.

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Table 2.7. Command buttons of the LonWorks Network Board.

Command Button Function

SERV Send Service Pin message


RST Neuron Chip Reset

Table 2.8. LED of the LonWorks Network Board.

LED Colour Function


2
TPU PWR Red TPU TD420 with supply
LAN PWR Red LonWorks board with supply
RST Yellow Indication of Neuron Chip Reset
SERV Yellow Indication of Service Pin message sent

Ethernet Network Board

TPU TD420 can be equipped with a Fast Ethernet communication board (100Mbps) to be
connected to an Ethernet network, with redundancy management option and with the possibility
to co-exist with other units sharing the same protocols.

The board houses a 32-bit processing module, to which a serial port (COM4) is associated. This
processing module implements the TCP/IP stack.

Redundancy is achieved by the use of two copper or copper + fibre interfaces (2x100BaseTX or
2x100BaseTX+2X100BaseFX) ports. Copper port option uses RJ45 connectors, and UTP or STP
Cat.5 cable.

62.5/125 m or 50/125 m multimode type glass optical fibre is supported as alternative and
type ST (SC by request) connectors are used. Wavelength is 1300 nm, and fibres length should
be up to 2000m.

Optical fibre connectors are supplied with protecting covers to avoid dust from entering and
contaminating the optical components. The covers can be easily removed.

Figure 2.34. Connections of the Ethernet network board

LED of Ethernet Network Board

In the back panel of the TPU TD420 with Ethernet communication board there are several LED to
signal the status of the connection to the Ethernet network, described in Table 2.9. The external
LED is visible in the back panel of the TPU TD420 when the communication board is placed in
the case. Internal LED is only visible when the board is removed from the case and serve only for
diagnosis.

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Table 2.9. LED of the Ethernet Network Board.

LED Colour Transceiver Indication Visibility

TX1 Green TP1, FO1 Transmission of packages External


RX1 Green Reception of packages
LNK1 Green Network connection status (Link)
COL1 Red Collision of packages
2
FDX1 Yellow Full Duplex Mode Internal
LDEV Green TP1 , FO1 Base address decoding for the active Internal
TP2 , FO2 Base Address Register
TX2 Green TP2, FO2 Transmission of packages External
RX2 Green Reception of packages
LNK2 Green Network connection status (Link)
COL2 Red Collision of packages
FDX2 Yellow Full Duplex Mode Internal

Initialization of the Ethernet Network Board

When powering the TPU TD420 on, the Ethernet communication board will start a sequence of
self-tests to check whether it is ready to start operation.

Self-tests comprise extensive verification of the board’s operation hardware to validate their
good condition before normal operation starts. If there is a failure in the self-tests the process is
restarted.

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2.4.8. SERIAL PORTS

TPU TD420 has three serial ports – one front port (COM3) and two back ports (COM1 and
COM2). Every serial port has galvanic isolation and protection against electrostatic discharges.
TPU TD420 is supplied with protective covers in the three serial ports to protect them from dust
and other environmental agents.

Maximum transmission speed allowed by the TPU is defined by the processing board, and is 2
19200 baud for the front port and each of the back ones. In case of doubt or firmware change,
see in menu Communications > Serial Communication > Settings which is the maximum
baud rate supported by the TPU for each serial port.

Front serial port (COM3)


RS232 front serial port is dedicated to communication with WinProt – application running in
Windows, for configuration, setting, data collection and firmware update of the TPU TD420.

Back serial ports


Back serial ports can be used for communication with WinProt. They can also be used to
support serial communication protocols. There are three types of communication interface for
back serial ports: RS485, RS232 or optical fibre.

Optical fibre interface (COM1 and COM2

There are two options in optical fibre, plastic optical fibre (for connections up to 45 m) or glass
optical fibre (for connections up to 2000 m). This type of ports can be used in a point to point or
ring configuration.

Maximum baud rate is 19200 baud. For details on other possible port configuration see Chapter
9 – Maintenance.

Protective covers for the connectors are supplied to protect them from dust and other
environmental agents.

Figure 2.35. Serial port for optical fibre interface.

RS485 Interface (COM1 and COM2)

This type of interface is destined to allow the connection of units to a RS485 bus. Maximum
baud rate is 19200 baud. For details on other possible port configuration see Chapter 9 –

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Maintenance. This serial interface has galvanic isolation and immunity against electrostatic
discharges.

Table 2.10. Pin allocation to RS485 serial ports.

TPU TD420 DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)


+485 (1) +485 (1)
N/C (2) N/C (2)
2
-485 (3) -485 (3)
GND_ISO (4) Optional (4)

Figure 2.36. Serial port for RS485 interface.

RS232 Interface (COM1 and COM2

Table 2.11 shows pin allocation to the serial port connectors. The cable to be used should be of
“transparent” type, pin by pin. For details on other possible port configuration see Chapter 9-
Maintenance.

Table 2.11. Pin allocation to RS232 serial port.

TPU TD420 DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)


N/C (1) DCD (1)
RXD (2) RXD (2)
TXD (3) TXD (3)
DTR (4) ( * ) DTR (4)
GND (5) GND (5)
N/C (6) DSR (6)
RTS (7) RTS (7)
CTS (8) CTS (8)
N/C (9) RI (9)

( * ) Not used as a communication signal.

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Figure 2.37.Serial port for RS232 interface.

2.4.9. SERIAL PORT OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATION BOARD

The Ethernet communication board has one RS232 (COM4) serial port located in the back panel
of the TPU TD420. A protective cover is supplied to protect the serial port from dust and other
environmental agents.
This port can be used for communication with WinProt. For details on other possible port
configuration see Chapter 9 – Maintenance.

Table 2.12 shows pin allocation to the serial port connector. The cable to use should be
“transparent” type, pin by pin.

Table 2.12. Pin allocation to serial ports.

TPU TD420 DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)

TxD (2) RxD (2)


RxD (3) TxD (3)
RTS (7) RTS (7)
CTS (8) CTS (8)
GND (5) GND (5)
Reserved (9) RI (9)

This back serial port (COM4) does not have galvanic isolation. Precaution should be taken when
using it.

The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
Ethernet communication board and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.

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Chapter

3. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE

The information included in this chapter will also allow acquiring the necessary expertise to
change the settings of all protection and automation functions and the configurations of
TPU TD420.

After reading this chapter, you will be able to put the TPU TD420 in service, check the correct
operation of its functions and analyze the produced information.
Chapter 3- Human-Machine Interface

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................3-2


3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION ....................................................................................3-4
3.2.1. Start-up .......................................................................................................................3-4
3.2.2. Keys..............................................................................................................................3-6
3.2.3. Local Interface Modes..................................................................................................3-8
3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION....................................................................................3-9
3.3.1. Changing the Value of a Parameter ............................................................................3-9
3.3.2. Passwords ................................................................................................................. 3-12 3
3.3.3. Menus Content ......................................................................................................... 3-14
3.3.4. Other Actions in Menus Interface ............................................................................ 3-24
3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND COMMAND INTERFACE ............................................3-28
3.4.1. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 3-28
3.4.2. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 3-28
3.5. USE OF WINPROT ..................................................................................................3-32
3.6. WEBPROT USE ......................................................................................................3-36

Total of pages of the chapter: 38

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3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION

The front panel of the TPU TD420 has the following appearance:

Figure 3.1. Front panel appearance when the TPU TD420 is not energized.

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The Human-Machine Local Interface of the TPU TD420 is constituted by the following elements:

Status LEDs

The ON LED is blinking if the TPU TD420 is energized.

The LAN LED indicates the current status of the communications of the TPU TD420 with the
LAN.

Graphical Display

Depending on the Interface mode the display presents either the mimic and the alarms page or
the TPU TD420 menus.

Alarm LEDs

These LEDs are associated with the alarms page. They display the current state of each defined
3
alarm .

CLR Key

Pressing this key allows the acknowledgment of the active alarms in the alarms page.

Navigation Keys

These keys allow navigation in menus and mimic pages, as well as settings change.

Mode LEDs and Keys

The mode keys allow changing rapidly the Operation Mode of the TPU TD420 which is displayed
in the respective LEDs. The operation mode associated with each key is configurable.

Function Keys

The function keys allow the selection of objects existing in the mimic and their control.

Serial Front Port

This port is used to communicate with the interface software: WinProt.

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3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION

3.2.1. START-UP

When powering the TPU TD420 on, the display will be lighted and the unit will start a sequence
of self-tests to check whether it is ready to start operation.

Self-tests comprise extensive verification of the unit’s operation hardware to validate their good
condition before normal operation starts.

During these tests the watchdog output of the TPU TD420 will remain in its inactive state
signalling that the unit is not yet in normal operation. 3
If there is failure in the self-test the process is restarted.

These self-test include:

Tests to the Microprocessors: internal logs, addressing, logical and arithmetical operations;

Tests to the Microprocessors internal RAM;

Tests to the Microprocessors external RAM;

Boot and Normal code validity tests through checksum verification;

Functions settings validity tests through checksum verification.

If the TPU TD420 has an Ethernet communications board, the self-tests previously described will
be carried out, not only to the MASTER, SLAVE 1 and SLAVE 2 processors of the processing
board (CPU), but also to the SLAVE 3 processor of the Ethernet communications board. The
following self-tests will be added only related to the Ethernet communication board.

Tests to MAC logs

Tests to MAC external RAM

Tests to PHY’s logs

Tests of MAC internal loopback

Tests of PHY’s internal loopback

The self-test last a few seconds. During that time the front panel appearance should be as
shown in Figure 3.2.

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Figure 3.2. Front panel appearance during the TPU TD420 starting.

Graphic display must present the test message, and all LEDs of the front panel must remain lit,
except the LED ON, which must have a pulsing operation.

After the conclusion of self-tests the TPU TD420 will start to present the factory interface,
presented in the Figure Figure 3.3, ad the Watchdog output will turn into active.

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Figure 3.3. Front panel appearance when the TPU TD420 is started-up.

3.2.2. KEYS

The keys on the TPU TD420 front panel have the following functions:

Supervision and Command Interface

Changes the mimic’s visible page.


Menus Interface

Moves the selection bar up.

Paging up the options lists.

Increase the value of the selected parameter.

Supervision and Command Interface

Changes the mimic’s visible page.

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Menus Interface

Moves the selection bar down.

Paging down the options lists.

Decrease the value of the selected parameter.

Supervision and Command Interface

Goes to the Menus Interface.


Menus Interface

Goes to the selected menu;

Starts and ends the process of parameter changing;


3
Confirms the parameter value change.

Supervision and Command Interface

Goes to the Menus Interface.


Menus Interface

Goes back to the previous menu.

Interrupts the process of parameter changing.

Cancels the parameter value change.

Supervision and Command Interface

Selects objects existing in the visible mimic. Pressing this key several times will sequentially
select all the mimic’s objects possible to be controlled.
Menus Interface

Goes to the Supervision and Command Interface.

Supervision and Command Interface

Executes the order associated with the key 1 for the selected object.
Menus Interface

No function.

Supervision and Command Interface

Executes the order associated with the key 0 for the selected object.
Menus Interface

No function.

Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface

Acknowledges active alarms in the alarms page. If the logical state of the variables in that page is

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inactive, the corresponding LEDs will be turned off.

Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface

Changes the Operation Mode configured in the key F1.

Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface

Changes the Operation Mode configured in the key F2.

The interaction with the keyboard has the following particular characteristics:

If two keys are pressed simultaneously, none will be recognized;

If a key is repeatedly and quickly pressed, it will not be recognized;


3
If you keep pressing one key, the associated action will be repeated.

If the key’s information treatment time is too long, for security reasons the acceptance of
new keys will be inhibited until the previous action is completed.

3.2.3. LOCAL INTERFACE MODES

The Local Interface can operate in two different modes: The Supervision and Command Interface
and the Menus Interface.

In the Supervision and Command Interface it is possible to:

See the descriptives of the alarms page;

See the mimic configured for the TPU TD420;

Select and operate on objects existing in the mimic;

Change Operation Modes;

Acknowledge active alarms in the Alarms Page

In the Menus Interface it is possible to:

See the information that the TPU TD420 has locally available: Measurements, Chronological
Event Logging, Load Diagrams;

See the information related to the several monitored apparatus;

Set all the Protection, Automation and Supervision functions in the TPU TD420;

Set all the TPU TD420 configurations: Measurement Transformers, Inputs and Outputs,
Alarms Page, etc.

Change Operation Modes;

Acknowledge active alarms in the Alarms Page.

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3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION

The TPU TD420 has a user-friendly interface, using menus to set its functions.

When you go into the Menus Interface, the display will show the following

Menu Principal
Medidas
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
3
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Transformador
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.4. Menus Interface – Main Menu Appearance.

The Menus Interface is constituted by the following elements:

Menu Identification
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas

The first display line shows the identification of the current menu and provides the user with a
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

reference when navigating through the menus.

Menu Content
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas

Lines 3 to 14 present the several objects that constitute the menu. These objects may be other
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

menus, function settings, measurements,…

Instructions
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas

This line presents the possible actions the user can perform in the current menu.
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Selection Bar
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas

Corresponds to the menu line with the colour inverted regarding the remaining display
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Selection bar identifies which object is accessed when pressing the key.

The interaction with the Menus Interface only uses the 4 navigation keys and thus is very easy to
use.

and keys allow moving the selection bar to the item to be accessed. There are menus
constituted by several pages. So when reaching the first or final line in the menu content, it is
possible to respectively go to the previous page or to the next page.

When pressing the key, access is given to the selected menu. The key allows going
back to the previous menu.

3.3.1. CHANGING THE VALUE OF A P ARAMETER

To change a parameter, do as follows:

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Access the Menus Interface Menu Principal


Medidas
Medida
using the keys or . Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Transformador
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Access the menu with the Menu Principal


parameter to be changed Medida

using the keys , and


Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga 3
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
. Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Transformador
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Transformadores de Medida
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Place the selection bar on the Parâmetros


parameter to be changed with I1N/I2N TI Fases: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI
TT Fases MT: 100.000
the keys and and I1N/I2N TI Neutro: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro MT: 100.000
press the key.

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

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In case the selected parameter


is part of a password Inserir
Insira Password
Password Scada:§000000
Scada:§000000
Antiga:§000000
protected function, it is _
necessary to enter it.

The complete process of entering


password is described in 3.3.2..

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Parâmetros
Press to start the

3
I1N/I2N TI Fases: 100.000
parameter change. The line I1N/I2N TI
TT 100.000
Fases MT: 200.000
with the selected parameter I1N/I2N TI Neutro: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro MT: 100.000
will blink and the value can
then be changed using the

keys and . At any

time you can press to


¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
end, or to cancel the
change.
Parâmetros
I1N/I2N TI Fases: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI
TT Fases MT: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro MT: 100.000

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

After confirming the change Parâmetros


press key until the message CONFIRMAR ALTERAÇÕES ?
with the confirmation request
is shown in the display.

Press to confirm or to
cancel.

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.5. Parameters change process.

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Whenever the parameter of a function is changed, the TPU TD420 makes a confirmation request
to the user in order to validate the changes. If this confirmation request is not accepted, that is, if
the changes are not confirmed, the parameters resume their original values.

During the change of parameters the functions that use those parameters continue to use the
most recent group of valid data. When the new parameters are confirmed, the functions start to
use them as soon as they are able to make that update.

3.3.2. PASSWORDS

In the security philosophy adopted for the TPU TD420 settings any user can see all the
information. However the change of values depends on entering the correct password.

The TPU TD420 has three security levels to which three default factory defined passwords are
3
associated:

Protections Password: 000000. Entering this password is necessary to change the settings
of the TPU TD420 protection functions.
Scada Password: 000001. Entering this password is necessary to change the settings of the
automation and supervision functions, as well as the TPU TD420 configurations.
System Password: 097531. After entering this password, a new item will appear in the
Main Menu: System Menu. The contents and use of this menu are described in Chapter 7 –
Operation.

Insert a Password

This is the procedure to insert a password:

Access the Enter Password Menu Principal


Informações
menu and press . Inserir Password

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

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Change each number by Menu Principal


Informações
pressing the , keys Inserir
Acertar Password:§000000
0
Data e Hora
confirming each one with the

key.

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Menu Principal
Informações
Inserir
Acertar Password:§000000
Data e Hora 0 3

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.6. Entering password process.

Change a Password

To change a password do as follows:

Enter the password to be Menu Principal


changed as described above. Informações
Inserir
Acertar Password:§000000
0
Data e Hora

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

After entering the password a Menu Principal


new item will appear in the Informações
main men: Change Inserir Password
Alterar Password
Password. Select this item

and press .

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

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Select the password to be Alterar Password


changed with the selection Password Protecções
Password Scada
Password Sistema
bar and press .

Note: This menu presents only the


previously entered passwords.

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Enter the old password first Password Protecções


changing each number with Insira Password
Inserir PasswordAntiga:§000000
_0
Antiga:§000000 3
the , keys validating

one by one with the key.

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Finally enter the new Password Protecções


password in the same way as Insira Password Antiga: ******
before. Insira Nova Password:§000000
0

After confirming the last number,


the new password will be
immediately active.

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.7. Password changing process.

3.3.3. MENUS CONTENT

The TPU TD420 is equipped with a user-friendly configuration interface using menus. In order
to simplify the use of these menus, all the groups of parameters and information are divided by
function.
When accessing the Menus Interface, the Main Menu will be shown. The content of this menu is
longer than one page; it is therefore necessary to move to the next page to access the full
content.

This menu allows accessing all other menus through the respective items.

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Menu Principal

Medida
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Transformador

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Menu Principal

Acertar Data e Hora


Informações
Inserir Password

3
Alterar Password
Menu Sistema

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.8. Main Menu.

Measurements
The Measurements menu allows accessing the TPU TD420 analogue measurements, not only
those directly available in the analogue inputs, but also those internally calculated. It also allows
resetting the maximum values of the phase currents.
Medida
Medida

Aceder Medidas
Limpar Registo de Corrente Máxima
Limpar Registo de Corrente Máxima (2)
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.9. Measurements menu.

To see the measurements values in real time it is necessary to go to the Access Measurements
sub-menu.

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Medida
Aceder Medidas
Aceder Medidas

Corrente IA = 0.000 A
Corrente IB = 0.000 A
Corrente IC = 0.000 A
Corrente Inversa = 0.000 A
Corrente IN Soma = 0.000 A
Corrente IN
Corrente IA (2)= 0.000 A
Corrente IB (2)= 0.000 A
Corrente IC (2)= 0.000 A
Corrente Inversa (2)= 0.000 A
Corrente IN Soma (2)= 0.000 A
Corrente IN (2)= 0.000 A

¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar


Aceder Medidas

Corrente Dif A = 0.000 A

3
Corrente Dif B = 0.000 A
Corrente Dif C = 0.000 A
Corrente Dif A (2h)= 0.000 A
Corrente Dif B (2h)= 0.000 A
Corrente Dif C (2h)= 0.000 A
Corrente Dif A (5h)= 0.000 A
Corrente Dif B (5h)= 0.000 A
Corrente Dif C (5h)= 0.000 A
Medida Genérica 1 = 0.000
Medida Genérica 2 = 0.000
Medida Genérica 3 = 0.000

¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar


Aceder Medidas

Medida Genérica 4 = 0.000


Medida Genérica 5 = 0.000
Medida Genérica 6 = 0.000
Medida Genérica 7 = 0.000
Medida Genérica 8 = 0.000
Corrente Máxima = 0.00000 kA 15-07 04:33
Corrente Máx (2)= 0.00000 kA 15-07 04:33

¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar

Figure 3.10. Access Measurements Menu.

This menu has several pages due to the high quantity of measurements available in the
TPU TD420. To change page press and keys.

To reset the maximum values of the phase currents logged by the TPU TD420, it is necessary to
select the chosen item and give the reset command as described in 3.3.4.

Event Logging

The events logged during the TPU TD420 operation are associated with state changes of the
automation logic gates.
Registo de Eventos
Registo de Eventos

Ver Registo de Eventos


Limpar Registo de Eventos
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.11. Event Logging Menu.

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To see the local event logging it is necessary to access the See Event Logging menu.
Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos

-2003-03-18 16:08:26,772
Desligação Protecção - 0->1
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,000
Ligação Protecção - 0->1
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,003
Lógica Transform Medida - Alteração
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,004
Lógica Hora Local - Alteração
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,014
Entrada Genérica 16 - 0->1
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,039
Saída Genérica 13 - 0->1

¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar

Figure 3.12. See Event Logging Menu. 3


Since the size of these logs is normally high, only the 256 most recent events are shown in the
Local Interface.

Each event has the following information:

Event occurrence date with 1 millisecond resolution;

Event description;

Description of the change occurred.

The events are ordered by ascending chronological order. To navigate through the various

pages use and keys.

Load Diagram

The TPU TD420 logs the evolution of the most interesting analogue measurements.

Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama de Carga

Diagrama I
Diagrama I (2)
Limpar Diagramas de Carga
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.13. Load Diagram Menu.

To see a load diagram it is necessary to access the Load Diagram menu and choose one of the
logged measurements.

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Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama I
Diagrama I

2003-03-19 10:30 I= <E>


2003-03-19 10:45 I= <E>
2003-03-19 11:00 I= <E>
2003-03-19 11:15 I= <E>
2003-03-19 11:30 I= <E>
2003-03-19 11:45 I= <E>
2003-03-19 12:00 I= <E>
2003-03-19 12:15 I= <E>
2003-03-19 12:30 I=-0.000 A
2003-03-19 12:45 I=-0.000 A
2003-03-19 13:00 I=-0.000 A
2003-03-19 13:15 I=-0.000 A

¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar

Figure 3.14. Power Diagram Menu.

For each one of the measurements average values of 15 minutes are logged. In the Menu 3
Interface it is possible to see the logs of the last 24 hours.

Each logged event value has the following information:

Date when the value was calculated with 1 minute resolution;

Measurement average value;

Measurement unit.

The logged average values are ordered in ascending chronological order. To navigate through
the various pages use the and keys.

Apparatus Supervision

The TPU TD420 can supervise a great number of control and manoeuvre apparatus.
To see the information about one apparatus it is necessary to access the Apparatus
Supervision menu and choose one of the available apparatus.

Supervisão de Aparelhos
Supervisão de Aparelhos

Disjuntor AT
Falha Disjuntor AT
Disjuntor MT
Falha Disjuntor MT
Seccionador Isolamento AT
Seccionador Isolamento 2
Seccionador Bypass AT
Seccionador Bypass 2
Seccionador Barras
Seccionador Barras 1
Seccionador Barras 2

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.15. Apparatus Supervision Menu.

When accessing the menu associated with the supervision of a circuit breaker, the following
menu will be shown:

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Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor AT
Disjuntor AT

Parâmetros
Informações
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.16. Circuit Breaker Supervision Menu.

In this menu it is possible to access the configuration menus of the various sets - Set 1 to Set 4 3
of the supervision function, choose the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item and
see the available information for this apparatus.

For circuit breakers the available information is:

Number of opening manoeuvres;

Sum of the square current cut, by phase;

State of maximum square current cut alarm.


Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor AT
Informações
Informações

Manobras Disjuntor = 0
Disparos Disjuntor = 0
I Cort A Disjuntor = 0.000 kA
I Cort B Disjuntor = 0.000 kA
I Cort C Disjuntor = 0.000 kA
Soma I² A Disjuntor = 0.000 kA²
Soma I² B Disjuntor = 0.000 kA²
Soma I² C Disjuntor = 0.000 kA²
Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Estado Alarme I²: OFF
Limpar Informações

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.17. Information Menu (Circuit Breaker).

In the Delete Information item the user can delete the various logs saved by the TPU by
selecting the chosen item and executing the corresponding order.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor AT
Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar Informações

Limpar Número de Manobras


Limpar Número de Disparos
Limpar I Cortada Fase A
Limpar I Cortada Fase B
Limpar I Cortada Fase C
Limpar Soma I² Fase A
Limpar Soma I² Fase B
Limpar Soma I² Fase C

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.18. Delete Information Menu (Circuit Breaker).

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When accessing the menu associated with the supervision of a disconnector, the following menu
will be shown.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento AT
Seccionador Isolamento AT

Parâmetros
Informações
Valores por Defeito

3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.19. HV Insulation Disconnector Supervision Menu.

The content and available functions in this menu are similar to the circuit breaker supervision
menu.

For disconnectors the available information is:

Number of opening manoeuvres.


Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento AT
Informações
Informações

Manobras Sec Isol AT= 0


Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Limpar Informações

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.20. Information Menu (HV Insulation Disconnector).

When accessing the Delete Information item, the user can delete the logged number of
opening manoeuvres for this disconnector.

Operation Modes

The Operation Modes menu allows seeing and setting the Operation Modes of the TPU TD420.

Protection Functions

This menu shows all the protection functions available in the TPU TD420. Its content depends on
the unit’s ordering form.

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Funções de Protecção
Funções de Protecção

Diferencial de Transformador
Máxima Intensidade de Fases AT
Máxima Intensidade de Fases MT
Máxima Intensidade de Terra AT
Máxima Intensidade de Terra MT
Máximo Intensidade de Cuba

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.21. Protection Functions Menu.

For each function there is a configuration menu


3
Funções de Protecção
Máxima Intensidade de Fases AT
Máxima Intensidade de Fases AT

Cenário 1
Cenário 2
Cenário 3
Cenário 4
Configuração Cenário
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.22. Phase Overcurrent Protection Menu.

This menu allows accessing the setting menus of the various protection function sets - Set 1 to
4 and choosing the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item.

Automation

This menu shows all the automation functions available in the TPU TD420.
Automatismos
Automatismos

Bloqueio de Fecho Transformador


Falha Disjuntor AT
Falha Disjuntor MT
Transferência de Protecções AT
Transferência de Protecções MT

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.23. Automation Menu.

For each function there is a setting menu:

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Automatismos
Transferência de Protecções AT
Transferência de Protecções AT

Cenário 1
Cenário 2
Cenário 3
Cenário 4
Configuração Cenário
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.24. Protection Trip Transfer Menu.

This menu allows accessing the configuration menus of the various automation function sets - 3
Set 1 to 4 and choosing the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item.

Inputs and Outputs


The Inputs and Outputs menu allows accessing the configuration of all digital inputs and
outputs boards of the TPU TD420. It also allows configuring the complementary time between
double inputs. It is also possible to see the inputs state.
Entradas e Saídas
Entradas e Saídas

Carta I/O Base


Carta I/O Expansão 1
Carta I/O Expansão 2
Entradas Duplas
Estado das Entradas

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.25. Inputs and Outputs Menu.

Communications

In this menu are available the unit’s communications configurations, including the configuration
of the communication protocol with the SCADA system and the configuration of the serial ports.
Its content depends on the unit’s ordering form.
Comunicações
Comunicações

Comunicação Série
Ethernet
IEC104

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.26. Communications Menu.

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Human-Machine Interface

In this menu are available the configuration of the alarms page presented in the Supervision and
Command Interface and also the visualization configurations of the TPU TD420 graphical
display.
Interface Homem-Máquina
Interface Homem-Máquina

Alarmes
Display
Oscilografia

3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.27. Human-Machine Interface Menu.

Measurement Transformers

This menu allows configuring the ratios of the measurement transformers connected to the
analogue inputs of the TPU TD420.

Set Date and Time

The Set Date and Time menu allows seeing and setting the TPU TD420 current date and time
and also accessing the winter time/summer time change configuration menu.
Acertar Data e Hora
Acertar Data e Hora

Data : 2003-03-14
Hora : 19:45:06
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.28. Set Date and Time Menu.

Information
The Information menu allows seeing the firmware definitions of the TPU TD420.

The information presented in this menu should be according to the TPU TD420 ordering form
and to the identification tag in the back panel. The serial number should also be the same as
that presented in the box.

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Informações
Informações

Versão Firmware
Número de Série: 97531
Equipamento: TPU TD420-R-Ed1-1A-1A-0,2A-
0,2A-50Hz-D-1-1-ETH4-PT

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.29. Information Menu.

The available information is:


3
Type of Equipment;

Firmware serial number;

Nominal values of the TPU TD420 and number of available elements. For example: the item
CT Phase: 1.00 (3) indicates that the unit has Current Transformers associated with the
phases, with nominal current of 5 A, in number of 3.

The firmware version of all the TPU TD420 microcontrollers can be seen when accessing the
item Firmware Version and selecting the chosen microcontroller. All the versions of BOOT
and NORMAL codes should be the same in all microcontrollers, for each of the type.

Enter Password

By selecting this item and pressing key the password entering process will be started as
described in 3.3.2.

Change Password

This item is only shown in the menu when a valid password is entered. The Change Password
menu allows configuring passwords according to the process described in 3.3.2.

System Menu

This item is only shown in the menu when the System Password is entered. This menu provides
some special actions which are fully described in Chapter 7 - Operation.

3.3.4. OTHER A CTIONS IN MENUS INTERFACE

Apart from configurations and password entering, the Menus Interface allows performing other
actions in the TPU. An example is deleting the logs of maximum values of analogue
measurements or deleting the Chronological Event Logging presented in the Menus Interface.

As in configuration confirmation, whenever the user wants to execute an action available in the
Menus Interface, the TPU TD420 makes a confirmation request to the user so that the action is
confirmed. If that confirmation request is not accepted, the TPU will execute no action and
shows the previous menu again.

To illustrate the performance of this type of actions, the procedure for deleting the most recent
Chronological Event Logging is presented:

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Access the menu where the Menu Principal


chosen action is by using the Medida
Registo de Eventos
, and keys. Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Transformador
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Place the selection bar on the Registo de Eventos


Ver Registo de Eventos
chosen item with and Limpar Registo de Eventos
Parâmetros 3
, and press the key. Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

In case the selected action is


protected by a password, it is Inserir
Insira Password
Password Scada:§000000
Scada:§000000
Antiga:§000000
necessary to enter it. _

The complete process of entering


a password is described in 3.3.2.

¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar

Limpar Registo de Eventos


Press to confirm the
CARREGUE ENTER PARA LIMPAR !
action or to cancel.

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.30. Command execution process.

Another possible action in the Menus Interface is to change the date and time of the unit. The
procedure to change the date is as follows.

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Access the menu Set Date Menu Principal


Acertar Data e Hora
and Time and press . Informações
Inserir Password
Alterar Password
Menu Sistema

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Place the selection bar on the Acertar Data e Hora


Data:§2003-03-14
2003
item Date with and Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros 3
and press the key. The Valores por Defeito
part of the date corresponding
to the year starts blinking and
the value can be changed

using and keys. At


¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
any time can be pressed

to end, or to cancel the


change.

Acertar Data e Hora


When pressing the part
Data:§2003-03-14
03
of the date corresponding to Hora: 20:27:09
the month starts blinking and Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
the value can be changed

using and keys. At

any time can be pressed

to end or to cancel the


¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
change.

Acertar Data e Hora


When pressing the part
Data:§2003-03-14
14
of the date corresponding to Hora: 20:27:09
the day starts blinking and the Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
value can be changed using

and keys. At any

time can be pressed to

end or to cancel the


¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
change.

When you press the


protection date will change.

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Acertar Data e Hora


Data: 2003-03-14
Data:§2003-03-14
Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 3.31. Date Change Process.


3
The procedure is similar in case of time change and it is necessary to change the hour, minutes
and seconds.

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3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND


COMMAND INTERFACE

The Supervision and Command Interface is constituted by two elements:

The Alarms Page, formed by the alarm LEDs and associated identification descriptions,
shown in the graphical display;

The Mimic, shown in the graphical display allows: the graphical representation of the bay
configuration to which the TPU TD420 is associated, the state of the apparatus and also the
definition of objects for simplified access to TPU TD420 functions and configurations
3
The Supervision and Command Interface is the default TPU TD420 interface. After some time
without pressing any key the TPU TD420 will automatically switch to this interface and at the
same time turns off the lighting lamp of the graphical display.

To access the Supervision and Command Interface from the Menus Interface press the key.

The switch to the Supervision and Command Interface can be done from any menu. When the
interface switch occurs, the TPU TD420 logs in which menu or mimic page it was; and if the user
decides to go back to the same interface the TPU TD420 will show the logged menu or mimic
page.

3.4.1. ALARMS PAGE

The alarms page is constituted by 8 LEDs to which logical variables can be associated. These
variables reflect events occurring during the TPU TD420 operation.

These events may be protection functions start or tripping, current automation state,
interlockings state, etc. Annexe E – Alarm Options Table- presents all possible configurations for
the LEDs in the alarms page.

The descriptions corresponding to the logical signalling associated with each alarm are shown in
the graphical display and allow a quick view of its meaning.

The alarms page configuration and operation process is described in Chapter 7 - Operation.

3.4.2. MIMIC

Up to two pages with mimics can be defined. The choice of which page is shown in the graphical
display is made through the keys and the TPU TD420 shows the Supervision and Command
Interface.

The mimic configuration can only be done by using the WinProt program namely the WinMimic
module.

The use of the mimic described next is based on an example mimic. It can be easily configured
by the user with the help of the library that comes with the installation program and by reading
the WinProt User’s Manual.

After sending the mimic to the TPU TD420 the Supervision and Command Interface will have the
following appearance:

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1234567890123456789012345678901234567890

Figure 3.32. Appearance of the display with the sample mimic.

In this example every object that constitutes the mimic can be identified:

Static Object

This object normally corresponds to the single phase diagram of the bay to which the
TPU TD420 is associated with. Interaction with this object is not possible.

Apparatus Object

The objects of the apparatus type can be used to monitor the state of apparatus or other
TPU TD420 internal logical signalling. According to the configuration their state can be dynamic,
where representation varies according to the current state of the logical signalling associated
with them. With the correct configuration they can also have associated actions carried out by

pressing the and keys.

Command Object

The main function of these objects is to change the state of logical interlocks. With the correct

configuration they can also have associated actions carried out by pressing the and
keys.

Parameter Object

The use of the Parameter type objects may have two options. The visualizing mode allows
displaying in the Supervision and Command Interface the value of any parameter of the
protection and automation functions or configuration of the TPU TD420. In the Change mode it
is possible to change the settings of any function into pre-defined values by pressing and

Measurement Object

All analogue measurements available in the TPU TD420 can be seen in the Supervision and
0.000 Command Interface.

Similarly the apparatus manoeuvres counters can be displayed in the mimic for a quick view.

Measurements and counters are automatically updated in the same way as for the

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Measurements Menu in the Menus Interface. The value is updated whenever the change is
higher than the precision guaranteed by the TPU TD420 for that measurement.

Interaction with this object is not possible.

Information Line

In the lower line of the Supervision and Command Interface the following information is shown:

Description of the selected objects according to the configuration made with WinMimic;
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890

Information about the actions executed with and keys.

Selecting an object 3
To act on an existing object in the mimic first it is necessary to select it. This can be done by
pressing as described next.

The first time Key is


pressed, it will select the first
apparatus or command existing
in the current mimic page. The
circuit breaker is the given
example.

When an apparatus is selected, the


area occupied by the corresponding
figure will be represented in inverted
colour.

In the information line the apparatus


description will be shown.

When key is pressed again


the next object or command in
the current mimic page will be
selected.

All the apparatus and commands of


the current mimic page will be
selected when the key is repeatedly
pressed.

The information line will display the


descriptions corresponding to each
one of them.

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3
.
.

Figure 3.33. SEL key using.

There are some particular characteristics in the process of selecting objects in the mimic:

When the last object of the current page is selected, this selection will disappear if is
pressed again.

Selection will also disappear if:

1.1. or keys are pressed;

1.2. The mimic visible page is changed by pressing or keys;

1.3. or keys are pressed to go to the Menus Interface.

The selection is always cyclical, that is, it will always start in the same object and end in
another one defined in the current page.

Act on an object

To act on an object and keys are used. The action depends on the type of object.

In the case of an Apparatus object with each key is associated the sending of a logical pulse to
an automation logic gate (0->1->0 transition) according to the configuration made with
WinMimic.

For the Command object there is no difference between keys and for any state. When
the object is selected by pressing any of these keys, the signalling (0->1 or 1->0) associated
with that state, is sent.

When the user decides to send the order it might be blocked, according to the object
configuration. In that case the order will not be sent. The message Blocked Command will be
shown in the information line!!

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3.5. USE OF WINPROT

The use of the TPU TD420 interface application WinProt is the most user-friendly process to
execute all TPU TD420 setting and configuration actions, as well as to see all logs produced by
it.

WinProt can carry out all actions available in the local Human-Machine Interface as well as other
operations, such as:

Configure the automation logic;

Edit the descriptions associated with all logical variables;

Simulate the protection operation;

Draw the mimic;

Upload and see all Chronological Event Logs stored in the TPU;

Upload and see the logged oscillographies ;

Upload and see the load diagrams in graphical format;

Perform commissioning tests;

Update the firmware.

To use WinProt with TPU TD420 some previous procedures are necessary to collect information
about the unit for the WinProt database so that all its functions can be used.

Follow the next instructions step by step to update all necessary information about the
TPU TD420 to the WinProt database. From that moment on the user can configure the various
TPU functions and see the information produced by it.

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Start WinProt

After installing the WinProt program, access the Windows Start menu and press Programs ->
WinProt.exe WinProt 4 -> WinProt 4.

The user identification and password will be asked for when the program is started. Appropriate
user id and password must be entered to have access to the desired permissions

Communications

The most common serial communication with the TPU TD420 is established by using a serial
cable commonly called “transparent” or “direct” which is equipped with a male DB9 type plug at
one end and a female DB9 type plug at the other; this plug is connected to the COM3 connector
of the front panel.

The back serial ports can also be used as long as they are not occupied with specific
3
communication protocols, such as DNP3.0. Those ports can be RS232, RS485 or plastic or glass
optical fibre type. Communication with WinProt is established in RS232 so in other cases it is
necessary to use converters for connection to the PC.

If the TPU TD420 has an Ethernet communication board, it will also be able to communicate with
WinProt through TCP/IP or through the Ethernet board serial port.
In the WinProt program menu click Communication -> Configure Communication ->
Substation -> TPU x420 and choose one of the following communication types:

Serial Port: Used for serial protocol communication. For this communication interface the
address, port, transmission rate, data bits, end bits and parity must be configured.
DNP3.0: Used in DNP3.0 protocol communication. For this communication interface the TPU
and the Central Unit (CU) addresses must be configured. The local IP can be directly inserted.
Lonworks: Used to configure the communication with the Lonworks local network. For this
communication interface the Location String and the CU addresses must be configured. The
local IP can be directly inserted.
TCP/IP Used to configure the communication with Ethernet local network. For this
communication interface the CU address must be configured.

Add the TPU TD420 to the database

In the WinProt main window click the Tools link for database management. The unit’s
management module of the WinProt database will be started.

Click Add Unit.

In the window Add Unit click Upload from Protection. The program shall receive the
information from the TPU TD420 and fill in all the window fields except for the Protection
Description one.

In the Protection Description field insert the name to be used as the TPU identification in the
database. For example: EXAMPLE TPU TD420.

Click Add so that the information can be stored in the database.

Click OK to exit Database Management

Logical Configuration and SOE Descriptions

Press the logical edition module link in the WinProt main window. The WinLogic module will be
started. This module allows configuring the automation logic and the descriptives of the

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Chronological Event Logging.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.

Press button in the taskbar to receive the list of all the TPU’s logical modules.

Associated with the chosen unit the list of all TPU logic modules shall appear.

Select again TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list and press.

In the communication window choose Modules, Select All and Ok successively. From this
moment on WinLogic will update the database with all automation logic and SOE
descriptions existing in the TPU

Functions Parameters
3
In the WinProt main window press the settings module link. The WinSettings module will be
started. This module allows configuring the parameters of the protection and automation
functions and the TPU TD420 configurations.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the unit list.

Press button in the taskbar to receive the list of all the TPU’s logical modules.

Associated with the chosen unit the list with all the unit functions shall appear.

Select again TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the unit list and press button.

In the communication window choose Functions, Select All and OK successively. From this
moment on WinSettings will update the database with all the functions including ranges,
libraries and parameters.

Mimic

In the WinProt main window press the mimic configuration module link. The WinMimic module
will be started. This module allows drawing the mimic presented in the Supervision and
Command Interface.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.

Press button in the taskbar to receive the TPU TD420’s mimic data. This operation is
necessary to update the database regarding the mimic’s dimensions, maximum number of
apparatus, etc.

Associated with the chosen unit the Mimic item shall appear. By pressing this item the user will
access to the Mimic configuration window

Logs

In the WinProt main window press the logs collection and analysis module link. The WinReports
module will be started. This module allows seeing all information acquired and produced by the
TPU TD420.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.

Press button in the taskbar to receive information about the types of logs available in the
TPU.

Associated with the chosen unit the following items shall appear: Measurements, Load
Diagrams, Event Logging, Oscillography and Hardware Information. By selecting each one

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of these items and pressing button the user will be allowed to receive and see the unit’s
different types of logs.

Protection Test

In WinProt main window press the unit test module link. The WinTest module will be started. This
module allows performing commissioning tests in the TPU TD420.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.

Configure value, phase and frequency of each test signal by using the popup menus. Press

button to start the simulation.

While the simulation is in progress, there are four situations that end it: with button, 3
when the trigger is activated and the configured transition occurs, in case there is a
communication error or when the type of signal to be simulated corresponds to a pulse and
ends the configured time interval.

Firmware Update

On the WinProt main window click the link of the firmware updating module. The WinCode
module responsible for the TPU TD420 firmware updating process will be started.

Select the S Record (S19) file related to the processor to which you want to
download the firmware.

Select the TPU TD420 EXAMPLE protection to configure.

Start the firmware downloading process for the processor flashs by pressing the
Download button.

If it is necessary to update the firmware of the remaining processors repeat the


process for each protection processor. (MASTER, SLAVE1 and SLAVE2)

At the end check if there was any saving problem executing the operation Restart
Protection.

To have a more complete description of the interface program WinProt and its modules see
WinProt 4.00 User’s Manual.

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3.6. WEBPROT USE

The EFACEC’s protection and control units can provide an embedded Web server, WebProt,
which allows seeing the various logs and functions of the unit as well as changing the current
settings. No special application is required.

The WebProt server can be accessed from a browser such as Internet Explorer.

With WebProt it is possible to:

See general unit information, such as type, ordering form, general description, type of logs,
version and serial number;

See the list of available measurements and change those possible to be changed;

See the list of load diagrams available in the unit and access each of them;

See the list of event logs available in the unit and access each of them;

See the list of oscillographies available in the unit and access each of them;

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See the list of defaults logged by the unit and access each of them;

See the unit’s functions list;

For each function, see the current setting and when in possession of access password
change that setting.

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Access directly to support email;

Access directly to EFACEC’s web page;

See the number of previous unit’s WebProt accesses;

Print the presented information.

To start WebProt some previous Internet Explorer configurations are necessary.

Internet Explorer Configurations

Access the menu Tools->Internet Options, select Tab General and in Check for newer versions
of stored pages, select the option Every visit to the page.

Access the menu Tools->Internet Options, select Tab Connections and click LAN Settings, click
Advanced and in combo box Exceptions add the unit’s IP address. 3
Start WebProt

To access the homepage of WebProt configure the browser correctly (as described in the
previous point) and type in the address bar: http:// followed by the unit’s IP.

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4
Chapter

4. CONFIGURATION

This chapter explains the configuration of the TPU TD420 several interfaces: analogue inputs,
digital inputs and outputs and local human-machine. It is described the use of programmable
logic and other base configurations necessary for the correct operation of the protection and
control functions, such as date and time of the protection. The configuration of the local area
network interface has a dedicated chapter.
Chapter 4 - Configuration

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4.1. DATE AND TIME ......................................................................................................4-3


4.1.1. Time Synchronization..................................................................................................4-3
4.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-4
4.1.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-7
4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS...................................................................................4-8
4.2.1. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-8
4.2.2. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-9
4.3. MEASURES ...........................................................................................................4-10
4.3.1. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-10
4.3.2. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-13
4.4. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS..................................................................................4-14
4.4.1. Inputs ........................................................................................................................ 4-14 4
4.4.2. Outputs ..................................................................................................................... 4-16
4.4.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-18
4.4.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-22
4.5. LOCAL INTERFACE..................................................................................................4-24
4.5.1. Display ...................................................................................................................... 4-24
4.5.2. Alarms page.............................................................................................................. 4-24
4.5.3. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 4-25
4.5.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-30
4.5.5. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-32
4.6. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ...........................................................................................4-33
4.6.1. Logical Variables....................................................................................................... 4-33
4.6.2. Logic Inference ......................................................................................................... 4-37
4.6.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-38
4.7. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................4-44
4.7.1. Operation Modes Types ........................................................................................... 4-44
4.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-44
4.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-45
4.8. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................4-51
4.8.1. Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 4-51
4.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-51
4.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-52

Total of pages of the chapter: 53

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4.1. DATE AND TIME

The protection date and time configuration is essential for the correct event time-tagging
reported by the TPU TD420. It is also necessary to time-tag the changes of the groups of
parameters and other logs produced by the protection. The process used assures an accurate
time-tag and allows time synchronization mechanisms that ensure equal dates in different units.

4.1.1. TIME SYNCHRONIZATION

The protection’s internal time and date update depends on the synchronization type:

Internal synchronization when the protection is not integrated in a local area network;

SCADA Protocol synchronization when the synchronization signal is established by the


SCADA system;
4
SNTP synchronization when the synchronization is made through the SNTP protocol.

IRIG-B synchronization when the synchronisation is made through an IRIG-B signal.

Internal Synchronization (RTC)

When the TPU TD420 operates separately from any communication network event time-tagging
is made automatically. Obviously in this case it is not possible to assure synchronization among
different units.

Current date and time can be configured in the TPU TD420 directly from its local interface, as
described in Chapter 3 - Human-Machine Interface.

The high accuracy of the internal clock allows obtaining event time-tags with 1ms resolution. A
real time clock (RTC) ensures that, even when the protection is switched off, the time is still
updated, so that periods of power off and start up of the unit do not have serious effect on
time-tagging. The error in this situation is less than 1s.

Event time-tags logged by the TPU TD420 are always made in the local time of the country or
globe zone where it is installed. It is possible to set the deviation of the time zone relative to the
reference given by the GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) time, as well as the day and hour of start
and end of the summer period, according to the legal regulations. With this data configured the
protection is automatically in charge of the time changes during its operation.

SCADA Protocol Synchronization

When the TPU TD420 is integrated in a local area network, the time is established by it. The
protection periodically receives a time synchronization signal foreseen in the communication
protocol that assures the events synchronous time-tagging in all substation units. Changes
made to date in the local interface are not effective.

However date and time continue to be refreshed in the RTC so that after a protection’s
temporary power off, even removing the connection to the communication network, time is still
approximately correct, with maximum error of 1 s.

The time broadcast in the LAN network can be the local time or can be referred to GMT time.
The last option is preferable because the synchronization signal is received only with a time
interval of a few seconds, which allows the change of the summer period to be made in the
exact moment that it occurs.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

If the network broadcasts the time relative to GMT meridian, all data regarding the time zone
and the yearly changes should be configured in the protection to convert GMT time to local time.

If the time signal broadcast in the network is already the local time, including the two changes
per year, then the automatic time change should not be configured in the protection, the
network will be responsible for this function.

SNTP Synchronization

Alternatively to the messages received from SCADA, time synchronization of the TPU TD420 can
be implemented by SNTP protocol. Internal updating of date and time in the protection is similar
to that mentioned in the previous point.

IRIG-B Synchronization

It is important sometimes that units that are not connected in network be synchronised among
themselves. In this case the synchronisation can be made using a time server distributor of an
IRIG-B signal. The operation mode of the date and time internal update in the protection is
similar to the previous points. 4

4.1.2. CONFIGURATION

The Synchronization parameter allows selecting the source of synchronism among the options
INTERNAL (without exterior synchronization), SNTP or SCADA.

To configure local time zone and changes from winter period to summer period and vice-versa,
the data presented next should be configured.

The time difference between local time and GMT time during the winter period can be positive if
local time is advanced regarding GMT time (East zone of Greenwich meridian ), or negative if it is
delayed (West zones). Configure the parameter Offset Winter Time> Signal to POSITIVE or
NEGATIVE. The parameters Offset Winter Time> Hours, Offset Winter Time> Minutes and
Offset Winter Time> Seconds respectively indicate the number of hours, minutes and seconds
of difference.
The time difference during the summer period has similar configuration. The parameter Offset
Summer Time> Signal indicates whether local time is in advance (POSITIVE) or in delay
(NEGATIVE) regarding GMT time. The parameters Offset Summer Time> Hours, Offset
Summer Time> Minutes and Offset Summer Time> Seconds quantify the difference.
Normally the summer period is one hour advanced regarding the winter period.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Acertar Data e Hora


Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Sincronização: INTERNA
Offset Inverno> Sinal: POSITIVO
Offset Inverno> Horas: 0
Offset Inverno> Minutos: 0
Offset Inverno> Segundos: 0
Offset Verão> Sinal: POSITIVO
Offset Verão> Horas: 1
Offset Verão> Minutos: 0
Offset Verão> Segundos: 0
Hora Verão> Estado: ON
Hora Verão> Formato: DIA DA SEMANA
Hora Verão> Dia Ano: 90

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Parâmetros

Hora Verão> Dia Semana: DOMINGO


Hora Verão> Semana: 5
Hora Verão> Mês: MARCO
Hora Verão> Hora: 1
Hora Verão> Minuto: 0
Hora Verão> Segundo: 0
Fim Hora Verão> Estado: ON
Fim Hora Verão> Formato: DIA DA SEMANA
Fim Hora Verão> Dia Ano: 300

4
Fim Hora Verão> Dia Semana: DOMINGO
Fim Hora Verão> Semana: 5
Fim Hora Verão> Mês: OUTUBRO

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Parâmetros

Fim Hora Verão> Hora: 1


Fim Hora Verão> Minuto: 0
Fim Hora Verão> Segundo: 0

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.1. Parameters Menu (Set Date and Time).

The group of data regarding the start of the summer period allows setting the instant/moment
of change from the winter period to the summer period. A similar group of parameters allows
configuring the complementary time change corresponding to the end of the summer period.
For example, in the first case the parameter Summer Time> State indicates if this period is
active. There are two configuration possibilities in Summer Time> Date Format parameter:
DAY OF THE YEAR or DAY OF THE WEEK.
The fist option activates Summer Time> Day of the Year, which indicates the day when time
changes: between 1 and 366, 1 being January 1st and 366 being December 31st. To avoid
changing this parameter in leap years, February 28th always corresponds to the 59th day and
March 1st to the 61st day, independently of existing or not February 29th. The 60th day is
automatically converted to the 61st day in non leap years.

In the second option the date of time change is specified by a weekday configured by the
parameter Summer Time> Day of the Week (from SUNDAY to SATURDAY), Summer Time>
Week (from 1 to 5) and Summer Time> Month (from JANUARY to DECEMBER). Week 1 means
the first occurrence of the day chosen in the indicated month; week 2 means the second
occurrence and so forth. Week 5 means the last occurrence of that same day in the month (in
fact it can be the fifth but also the fourth if in that year and month there is only four weekdays
equal to the chosen one).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Independently from the chosen option, the data indicating the moment of the day when time
moves forward or backwards must be configured in Summer Time> Hours, Summer Time>
Minutes and Summer Time> Seconds.

Default setting corresponds to data in continental Portugal. The winter time coincides with GMT
time (deviation of 0 hours, 0 minutes and 0 seconds) and in the summer period there is one
hour in advance (positive difference of 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0 seconds). The start of the
summer period occurs at 1 am in the last Sunday of March every year: 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0
seconds of Sunday of the fifth (or fourth) week of March. The summer period also ends at 1 am
in the last Sunday of October every year: 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0 seconds of Sunday of the fifth
(or fourth) week of October. Therefore, the active configuration is the day of the week option.

For any other country in the world, the same parameters must be configured according to the
legal time regulations.

Table 4.1. Time parameters.

Parameter Range Default value

4
Current Set 1..1 1
Synchronization INTERNAL / SNTP / SCADA / IRIG-B INTERNAL
Std Time Offset> Sign POSITIVE / NEGATIVE POSITIVE
Std Time Offset> Hours 0..14 0
Std Time Offset> Minutes 0..59 0
Std Time Offset> Seconds 0..59 0
Saving Offset> Sign POSITIVE / NEGATIVE POSITIVE
Saving Offset> Hours 0..14 1
Saving Offset> Minutes 0..59 0
Saving Offset> Seconds 0..59 0
Saving> Status OFF / ON ON
Saving> Format DAY OF THE YEAR / DAY OF THE WEEK DAY OF THE WEEK
Saving> Year Day 1..366 90
Saving> Week 1..5 5
Saving> Weekday SUNDAY / MONDAY / TUESDAY / SUNDAY
WEDNESDAY / THURSDAY / FRIDAY /
SATURDAY
Saving> Month JANUARY / FEBRUARY/ MARCH / APRIL MARCH
/ MAY / JUNE / JULY / AUGUST /
SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER / NOVEMBER /
DECEMBER
Saving> Hour 0..23 1
Saving> Minute 0..59 0
Saving> Second 0..59 0
End Saving> Status OFF / ON ON
End Saving> Format YEAR DAY / WEEK DAY WEEK DAY
End Saving> Year Day 1..366 300
End Saving> Week 1..5 5
End Saving> Weekday SUNDAY / MONDAY / TUESDAY / SUNDAY
WEDNESDAY / FRIDAY / FRIDAY /
SATURDAY

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Parameter Range Default value

End Saving> Month JANUARY / FEBRUARY/ MARCH / APRIL OCTOBER


/ MAY / JUNE / JULY / AUGUST /
SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER / NOVEMBER /
DECEMBER
End Saving> Hour 0..23 1
End Saving> Minute 0..59 0
End Saving> Second 0..59 0

4.1.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Some logical variables related to the configuration of the protection’s date and time allow the
user to have in the Event Log information of events associated with manual or automatic time
changes. Together with those indicated in Table 4.2, the variables associated with the change of
parameters, logic or descriptions are also available (see Chapter 6.1).

Table 4.2. Description of the time module logical variables. 4


Id Name Description

3584 Daylight Saving Time Start Indication of the moment when the winter period
changes to the summer period
3585 Daylight Saving Time End Indication of the moment when the summer period
changes to the winter period
3586 Time MMI Indication of current time change in the protection
local interface
3587 Unit Restart Indication of protection’s power on time
3588 Unit Reset Indication of protection’s power off time

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS

The configuration of the measurement transformer is only related to the connections of the
analogue inputs board. The TPU TD420 allows configuring, in case of the AC inputs, the ratio of
the current transformer (CT) or the voltage transformer (VT) connected to each one of the
current or voltage inputs, respectively by group of inputs.

I nom, prim TI
n TI (4.1)
I nom,sec TI
The configuration of the measurement transformers is necessary for the correct presentation of
the measurements in primary values in the local and remote interface of the TPU TD420. The
values observed in the protection inputs (CT or VT secondary) are multiplied by the configured
transformer ratio in order to obtain the corresponding values in the primary.

The protection functions are not affected by this configuration because the respective 4
operational settings are configured in per unit values of nominal current (or voltage) of the
associated analogue input. The only exception is the Restricted Earth Fault Protection function.
The CT transformer ratio is required in order to compensate the magnitude difference between
the secondary phase currents and the neutral current of the transformer to be protected.

If the CT transformer ratios are wrongly configured, the Restricted Earth Fault Protection function
can operate inappropriately in situations of absence of transformer internal fault.

In order to increase the protection functions sensitivity it can be chosen a different nominal value
for the current inputs from the respective CT secondary nominal value. This can be particularly
useful for the fourth current input when observing low value fault currents.

For example, choosing a nominal value of 0.2A for a CT with the secondary 1A allows increasing
5 times the input sensitivity. It must be taken into account the protection functions regulations
should be multiplied, in this case, by 5 relating the required values. The regulation of an
operational threshold to 0.1 pu (10% of 0.2A) corresponds effectively to a real value of 0.2 pu
(2%) concerning the substation CT.

On the other hand, it must be also taken into account that, increasing the input sensitivity, the
acceptable maximum current value is also inferior (on the example referred, 5 times).

4.2.1. CONFIGURATION

There are 4 parameters corresponding to the 4 groups of the available analogue inputs that may
be configured in the TPU TD420:

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Transformadores de Medida
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

I1N/I2N TI Fases: 100.000


I1N/I2N TI Fases MT: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro: 100.000
I1N/I2N TI Neutro MT: 100.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.2. Measurement Converters Menu

The I1N/I2N Phase CT parameter is the ratio of the three phase CT mounted in the
transformer’s primary; the I1N/I2N Phase CT MV parameter is similar to the previous one, but
for the three phase CT of the secondary. The I1N/I2N Ground CT is the ratio of the associated
neutral CT transformation; and the I1N/I2N Neutral CT MV parameter is the CT transformation
ratio of the earth tank connection, in case it exists. 4
Table 4.3. Measurement converters parameters.

Parameter Range Default value

Current Set 1..1 1


I1N/I2N Phase CT 1..10000 100
I1N/I2N Phase CT MV
Change Ground CT 1..10000 100
I1N/I2N Neutral CT MV 1..10000 100

4.2.2. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The logical module associated with the measurement transformers is composed by several
variables that indicate the state of the voltage transformers. But in the case of TPU TD420 they
are not used once the unit measures only the currents in their inputs. The variables associated to
the parameters, logic or descriptions change are also available (see Chapter 6.1).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.3. MEASURES

The TPU TD420 stores the values of several analogue measures either directly from its voltage
and current inputs or by calculating values derived from those measures. The values of discrete
measures are also stored such as the counters of apparatus manoeuvres. There are also 8
generic measures whose value is obtained from the other measures using configurable
conversion functions.

All these measures can be used in the 8 analogue comparators existing in the unit and
configurable in the Measures module.

4.3.1. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the analogue comparators and of the generic measures can be made either
in the Measures menu or in the WinSettings in the Measures module.
4
There are 8 analogue comparators and 8 generic measures identified in the measures parameter
menu as Measure 1..8 and Generic Measure 1..8 respectively

Medida
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Medida 1
Medida 2
Medida 3
Medida 4
Medida 5
Medida 6
Medida 7
Medida 8
Medida Generica 1
Medida Generica 2
Medida Generica 3
Medida Generica 4

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Parâmetros

Medida Generica 5
Medida Generica 6
Medida Generica 7
Medida Generica 8

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.3. Parameters Menu (Measure).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Medida
Parâmetros
Medida 1
Medida 1

Med 1> Config: Nada Atribuído


Med 1> Estado Alr Alto: OFF
Med 1> Estado Alr Baixo: OFF
Med 1> Limiar Alto: 0.000
Med 1> Limiar Baixo: 0.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.4. Measure 1 Menu (Parameters - Measure).

In each analogue comparator, the following parameters are configured:


Meas n> Config: Measurement to be monitored;

Meas n> High Alarm State: Indicates whether or not an alarm should be generated when
the upper limit is exceeded; 4
Meas n> Low Alarm State: Indicates whether or not an alarm should be generated when
the lower limit is exceeded;
Meas n> High Set: The value above which an alarm is generated;

Meas n> Low Set: The value below which an alarm is generated
Medida
Parâmetros
Medida Generica 1
Medida Generica 1

Med Gen 1> Medida 1: Nada Atribuído


Med Gen 1> Medida 2: Nada Atribuído
Med Gen 1> Fun Conversão: DIRECTA
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 1: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 2: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 3: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 4: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 5: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 6: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 7: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Parâmetro 8: 0.000
Med Gen 1> Num Params: 0

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.5. Generic Measurement 1 Menu (Parameters - Measurement).

The generic measurements can be obtained by using several conversion functions. The
parameters have specific meanings for each function.
Meas Gen n> Measure 1: Identifies one of the unit’s measurements;

Meas Gen n> Measure 2: Identifies the second measurement of the unit (used only when
Multiplication or Sum are the conversion functions);
Meas Gen n> Parameter 1..8: Used by the conversion functions (p1..p8);

Meas n> Parameters Num: Number of parameters used by the conversion function;

Conversion Functions

The conversion functions supported for the generic measurements are: Direct, Linear, Piecewise
Linear, Multiplication and Sum.

Direct

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

When the conversion function is of Direct type, the value of the configured measure is directly
mapped to the value of the corresponding generic measure, which results in the conversion
function f ( x) x .

Linear

The first four parameters are used when the conversion function is of Linear type. The
( p 4 p 2)
conversion function used is f ( x) m x b, where m , b p2 p1 m
( p3 p1)
and p1, p3, p3 and p4 correspond to the first four parameters.

Figure 4.6. Linear Conversion Function Configuration.

Piecewise Linear

When the conversion function is of Piecewise Linear type, the value of the configured measure is
converted through the application of several linear functions defined by a number of points. The
number of points to use corresponds to half the number of configured parameters.

Figure 4.7. Piecewise Linear Conversion Function Configuration.

Multiplication

In the conversion function type Multiplication, the generic measure is the result of the
multiplication of the configured measures considering the first parameter, that is
f ( x) m1 m2 p1 .
Sum

For the conversion function type Sum, the generic measure is the result of the configured
measures sum, each one multiplied by a scale factor configured in the first two parameters, that
is f ( x) m1 p1 m 2 p 2 .

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.3.2. AUTOMATION LOGIC

There are some associated variables regarding the Measures module, namely the alarms
generated by the analogue comparators.

Table 4.4. Description of the logical variables of the Measures module.

Id Name Description

9472 Measure 1 High Alarm Indicates that the monitored measure is above the
... ... high set
9479 Measure 8 High Alarm
9480 Measure 1 Low Alarm Indicates that the monitored measure is below the
... ... low set
9487 Measure 8 Low Alarm
9488 Measure 1 Supervision Indicates if the measurement supervision is in or
... ... out of service

4
9495 Measure 8 Supervision

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.4. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

Together with the analogue inputs, the digital (or binary) inputs and outputs are the other
important interface with the energy system. The digital inputs allow obtaining the states of the
circuit breakers associated with the bay, as well as the state of other alarms or auxiliary contacts.
The binary outputs allow executing commands on those apparatus or reporting to the exterior
other interesting indications. It is essential that the configuration of the digital inputs and
outputs corresponds exactly to the connections made so that the protection may operate
correctly.

The TPU TD420 has 9 digital inputs and 6 binary outputs as base but this number can be
expanded with dedicated expansion boards in a maximum of 2. There are three types of
expansion boards available – one board of 16 inputs, one board of 9 inputs and 6 outputs and
another one of 15 outputs - which can be used in any configuration, as described in 2 -
Installation.
4
4.4.1. INPUTS

Physical and Logical Inputs

The available options of inputs and outputs boards allow a maximum of 41 inputs in the same
protection unit, all isolated among each other. These are the physical inputs as they correspond
to effectively existing contacts.

+ - Every binary input is of programmable logic allocation, so the meaning of each contact can be
IN x
chosen from a group of available options. These options are the logical inputs that correspond
to logical variables that can be used by the protection and control functions, can affect the
interlockings logic or simply monitor states of the energy system.

There are no restrictions in allocating logical inputs to each of the physical contacts. However,
you should take in consideration that when allocating the same logical variable to more than one
physical input, you may create inconsistent internal states if they are not in accordance. This
situation should be avoided.

The list of logical inputs covers the most frequent applications, especially the states associated
with several circuit breakers and disconnectors. This list can be found in the Annexe C – Inputs
Options Table.

Apart from this list there are generic logical variables available (as many as the maximum
number of inputs possible), without default allocated meaning. These generic inputs can be
configured by the user to represent logical states not covered in the previous options. These
variables can only serve to supervise these states but may also have implications in the
remaining automation logic. Therefore, you should use the logic configuration tool provided by
the WinProt (see Chapter 4.6 - Programmable Logic).

Inputs Validation

The TPU TD420 has several validation mechanisms of input transition.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Digital filtering is used on every binary input to eliminate the contacts self-chattering or the
noise from the power equipment. Transitions are only considered if the input remains in the new
state for at least a minimum time (corresponding to a number of configurable confirmations
performed at a rate of one per millisecond).

The filtering mechanism does not affect the correct time-tagging of the start of each state
transition.

Input

t
1ms

T
Status
T

Figure 4.8. Digital inputs filtering (example: confirmations nr. equal to 5).

There is also a maximum acceptable number of transitions per second for each input, as shown
in Figure 4.9. When that number is exceeded all posterior transitions are not considered and an
4
alarm indication is generated. This alarm is cancelled if the input state changes stop and the
input remains stable for one second.

...
Input

1s 1s

...
Status

...
Invalidity

Figure 4.9. Digital inputs validation (example: maximum nr. of state changes per second equal
to 5)

The complementary logical inputs (for example, open circuit breaker and closed circuit breaker)
have one additional validation: the two single inputs cannot be in the same state for longer than
a maximum configurable period, after which an invalid state indication is activated. The state of
the double variable remains in the value it had prior to the invalidity. This situation ends if the
two single inputs become again in complementary states. There is a single complementary
period for all pairs of logical inputs.

If only one of the two inputs is configured, this validation does not take effect and the state
variable is completely defined by the single variable. For example, if only the closed circuit
breaker input is configured, the circuit breaker state will be open if the input is in the level 0 and
closed if in the level 1. If only the open circuit breaker input is configured, the situation will be
the opposite.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Status 0

Status 1

Two status

T. complem
Invalidity

Figure 4.10. Complementary inputs validation.

4.4.2. OUTPUTS

Physical and Logical Outputs


OUT x
A B The available options of inputs and outputs boards allow a maximum of 36 outputs in the same
protection unit, all isolated among each other. These are the physical outputs as they effectively
correspond to existing contacts.
4
The sixth output of the base board has a fixed meaning and is activated by the internal
watchdog in case of protection failure. This is a double contact (change-over) and is placed in
the normal operation state only after verification of the initial self-tests. Apart from protection
failure, the internal watchdog is activated in situations of serious errors such as:

Errors in the access to the non volatile memory which prevent the update of the parameters
and other logs;

Failure of communication with the microprocessor of the analogue/digital conversion board


which prevents receiving the samples;

Failure of communication among the internal microprocessors that may cause loss of
functionalities;

System resources fully used.

The remaining binary outputs are of programmable logic allocation. So the meaning of each
contact can be chosen from a group of available options. These options are the logical outputs
that correspond to logical variables updated by the protection and control functions, or by the
automation logic.

There are no restrictions in allocating logical outputs to each of those physical contacts. Actually,
the same variable can be allocated to different physical outputs and all are activated
simultaneously.

Two of the TPU TD420 base board outputs (one of which the watchdog) and two on each of type
1 expansion boards outputs are double (change-over). In type 3 expansion boards (15 outputs),
the number of these double contacts is six. These outputs allow providing a solution for logic
interlockings that use normally closed contacts, thus not requiring auxiliary relays. Two type 1
expansion boards provide 5 normally closed contacts besides the watchdog contact.

The list of logical inputs covers the most frequent applications, especially the commands of the
apparatus associated with the bay and the trippings of the protection functions. This list can be
found in 4.6 - Programmable Logic).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Apart from this list there are generic logical variables available (as many as the maximum
number of outputs possible), without default allocated meaning. These generic outputs can be
configured by the user to generate indications to the exterior not covered in the previous
options, for example logical combinations of generic outputs. Therefore, you should use the
logic configuration tool provided by the WinProt (see Chapter 4.6 - Programmable Logic).

Outputs Type

Outputs can be configured as one of two types: indication or pulse.

As indication, the output contact follows exactly the state of the logical variable it is allocated
to: the output is activated when the variable changes to the logical state 1, and resets when
the variable changes to the logical state 0. This type can be used for example as indications
of protection functions start.

The outputs defined as pulse are also activated when the respective variable changes to 1;
but in this case, they remain active for a configurable fixed period, independently from the
state of the variable that originated them. This type should be specifically used for the open
and close commands of the circuit breakers and disconnectors.
INDICATION
4

Variable

Output

PULSE

Variable

Output

Command T Command T

Figure 4.11. Outputs operation modes.

The outputs allocated to open and close commands of circuit breakers and disconnectors
should be configured as pulses with duration longer than the opening time of the auxiliary
contact located in the apparatus itself. This procedure is taken in order to prevent that it is the
protection contact to open that highly inductive circuit which could cause high overvoltages and
therefore result in equipment damage.

Independently from the specific configuration, the operations of output contacts are
permanently monitored: after commands are sent, the effective operation of output contacts is
checked by the presence of voltage in the respective coils. Besides, all operations are blocked if
there is voltage in the coils in the absence of ongoing commands to avoid the risk of untimely
commands on the energy equipment. The TPU TD420 indicates all operation detected errors.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.4.3. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of digital inputs and outputs is made for each board individually and is
identical for all boards.

The State parameter indicates whether the respective board is ABSENT or PRESENT. The Type
parameter allows choosing the specific board configuration from the four available options (for
expansion boards). Its value should correspond exactly to the physical configuration existing in
the protection, before the configured inputs and outputs are used. For the base board these two
configurations are fixed and correspond to the only possible option.
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Estado: PRESENTE
Tipo: 9I + 5O
Entradas
Saídas

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.12. Parameters Menu (Base I/O Board).

The correct procedure when adding an expansion board to one protection or when replacing an
existing board by a different type should consider the following steps:

Configure the desired expansion board as ABSENT.

Power off the protection.

Introduce the new board or replace the existing board by the new one.

Power on the protection.

Enter the correct parameters according to the new hardware configuration.

Each physical input has three configurable parameters. The E[n]> Config parameter is the
correspondence to the internal logical variable and can be chosen from a list of pre-defined
options, that includes the generic inputs. By choosing the option NO ALLOCATION the respective
input is not used. The E[n]> T Confirmation parameter is the required number of confirmations
necessary to consider valid the transition of a given input. The E[n]> Max Trans/Second
parameter is the maximum number of transitions per second acceptable for a given input, if that
number is exceeded originates an indication of invalidity.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Entradas
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica

E1> Config: Nada Atribuído


E2> Config: Nada Atribuído
E3> Config: Nada Atribuído
E4> Config: Nada Atribuído
E5> Config: Nada Atribuído
E6> Config: Nada Atribuído
E7> Config: Nada Atribuído
E8> Config: Nada Atribuído
E9> Config: Nada Atribuído

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Tempo de Confirmação
Tempo de Confirmação

E1> T Confirmação: 20
E2> T Confirmação: 20
E3> T Confirmação: 20
E4> T Confirmação: 20
E5> T Confirmação: 20
E6>
E7>
T
T
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
20
20 4
E8> T Confirmação: 20
E9> T Confirmação: 20

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Máximo Transições/Segundo
Máximo Transições/Segundo

E1> Max Trans/Segundo: 5


E2> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E3> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E4> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E5> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E6> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E7> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E8> Max Trans/Segundo: 5
E9> Max Trans/Segundo: 5

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.13. Inputs related menus.

Each physical output (except the watchdog) also has three configurable parameters. The S[n]>
Config parameter is the correspondence to the internal logical variable as for the inputs, and can
be chosen from a list of pre-defined options, that includes the generic outputs. The option NO
ALLOCATION corresponds to the non-use of that output. The S[n]> Operation parameter
should be configured to INDICATION if you wish the output to replicate the state of the variable
defined in the previous parameter or PULSE if you wish the contact to remain activated for a
fixed period. That period should be configured in the S[n]> T Pulse parameter.

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Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Saídas
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica

S1> Config: Nada Atribuído


S2> Config: Nada Atribuído
S3> Config: Nada Atribuído
S4> Config: Nada Atribuído
S5> Config: Nada Atribuído

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Operação
Operação

S1> Operação: SINALIZACAO


S2> Operação: SINALIZACAO
S3> Operação: SINALIZACAO
S4> Operação: SINALIZACAO
S5> Operação: SINALIZACAO

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Tempo de Impulso
Tempo de Impulso

S1> T Impulso: 0.120


S2> T Impulso: 0.120
S3> T Impulso: 0.120
S4> T Impulso: 0.120
S5> T Impulso: 0.120

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.14. Inputs related menus.

The Validation Time parameter indicates the maximum time that single and complementary
inputs can remain in the same state. It is valid for all pairs of complementary logical inputs, but
only for those pairs where both inputs are configured.
Entradas e Saídas
Entradas Duplas
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Tempo Validação: 10.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.15. Double Inputs Parameters Menu.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Table 4.5. Digital inputs and outputs parameters (base board).

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Status PRESENT PRESENT
Type 9I + 5O 9I + 5O
I1> Config
I1> Confirm Time 1..128 ms 20
I1> Max Trans/Second 1..255 5
...
I9> Config
I9> Confirm Time 1..128 ms 20
I9> Max Trans/Second 1..255 5
O1> Config
O1> Operation PULSE / INDICATION INDICATION 4
O1> Pulse Time 0,02..5 s 0,12
...
O5> Config
O5> Operation PULSE / INDICATION INDICATION
O5> Pulse Time 0,02..5 s 0,12

Table 4.6. Digital inputs and outputs parameters (expansion boards 1 and 2).

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Status ABSENT / /PRESENT ABSENT
Type 9I + 6O / 16I / 15O 16I
I1> Config
I1> Confirm Time 1..128 ms 20
I1> Max Trans/Second 1..255 5
...
I32> Config
I32> Confirm Time 1..128 ms 20
I32> Max Trans/Second 1..255 5
O1> Config
O1> Operation PULSE / INDICATION INDICATION
O1> T Pulse 0,02..5 s 0,12
...
O15> Config
O15> Operation PULSE / INDICATION INDICATION
O15> Pulse Time 0,02..5 s 0,12

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Table 4.7. Complementary inputs parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Defautl Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Validation Time 1..30 s 10

4.4.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Each digital input and output board has an associated logic module, composed by several
variables. That list is prepared for boards with a maximum of 16 inputs and 8 outputs, although
some of those variables may have no meaning, depending on the existing hardware
configuration. To learn more about the possible logical configurations, see Chapter 4.6 -
Programmable Logic.

Table 4.8. Logical variable description of the base board module.

4
Id Name Description
Id Name Description
4864 Generic Input 1 Logical variables without default allocated
... ... meaning, configurable as inputs in any I/O board
4895 Generic Input 32
4896 MainBoard Input 1 State Corresponding physical input state (with or without
... ... applied voltage)
4904 MainBoard Input 9 State
4905 MainBoard IN 1 Validity Physical input state validity, depending on the
... ... number of transitions detected per second
4913 MainBoard IN 9 Validity
4914 Generic Output 1 Logical variables without default allocated
... ... meaning, configurable as outputs in any I/O board
4929 Generic Output 16
4930 MainBoard Output 1 Physical output contact state (open or closed)
... ...
4934 MainBoard Output 5
4935 MainBoard Output 1 Error Operation error information when executing a
... ... command on the corresponding output
4939 MainBoard Output 5 Error
4940 IO Main Board HW Error Board state (operational or out of order)

Table 4.9. Logical variable description of the expansion board 1 module.

Id Name Description

5120 ExpBoard 1 Input 1 State Corresponding physical input state (with or without
... ... applied voltage)
5135 ExpBoard 1 Input 16 State
5136 ExpBoard 1 IN 1 Validity Physical input state validity, depending on the
... ... number of transitions detected per second
5151 ExpBoard 1 IN 16 Validity

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Id Name Description

5152 ExpBoard 1 Output 1 Physical output contact state (open or closed)


... ...
5166 ExpBoard 1 Output 15
5167 ExpBoard 1 Output 1 Error Operation error information when executing a
... ... command on the corresponding output
5181 ExpBoard 1 Output 15 Error
5182 IO ExpBoard 1 HW Error Board state (operational or out of order)

Table 4.10. Logical variable description of the expansion board 2 module.

Id Name Description

5376 ExpBoard 2 Input 1 State Corresponding physical input state (with or without
... ... applied voltage)
5391 ExpBoard 2 Input 16 State
5392 ExpBoard 2 IN 1 Validity Physical input state validity, depending on the 4
... ... number of transitions detected per second
5407 ExpBoard 2 IN 16 Validity
5408 ExpBoard 2 Output 1 Physical output contact state (open or closed)
... ...
5422 ExpBoard 2 Output 15
5423 ExpBoard 2 Output 1 Error Operation error information when executing a
... ... command on the corresponding output
5437 ExpBoard 2 Output 15 Error
5438 IO ExpBoard 2 HW Error Board state (operational or out of order)

The variables corresponding to generic logical inputs and outputs are located in the base board
module because this board is present in every possible hardware configuration. However, these
variables can be allocated to contacts of any of the inputs and outputs board.

Besides the variables indicated in the previous tables, each board has available variables
associated with the change of parameters, logic or descriptions (see Chapter 6.1).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.5. LOCAL INTERFACE

The information available in the local human-machine interface of the TPU TD420 can be
configured in the most convenient way for the user. This configuration comprises the alarms
page associated with the front panel LEDs and the mimic represented in the display.

4.5.1. DISPLAY

The graphical display of the TPU TD420 allows two types of adjustments to facilitate the
visualization: visualization mode and contrast adjustment.

The contrast adjustment allows having more or less display brightness. It is advised to keep
luminosity in the minimum limit without compromising a comfortable visualization in order to
avoid accelerated wearing out of the LCD.

There are two possible visualization modes: white characters in black background or black
4
characters in white background. The option is chosen by the user.

Menu Principal Menu Principal


Medidas Medidas
Registo de Eventos Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção Funções de Protecção
Automatismos Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas Entradas e Saídas
Interface Homem-Máquina Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida Transformadores de Medida
Valores Nominais do Transformador Valores Nominais do Transformador
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar ¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.16. LCD visualization modes.

4.5.2. ALARMS PAGE

The alarms page corresponds to the 8 LEDs on the left side of the protection display. Each LED
can be associated with logical variables that report events occurring during the operation of the
TPU TD420.

These events can be protection functions starts or trips, current state of automation functions
and interlockings, etc. The Annexe E – Alarm Options Table presents all possible configuration
options for the alarms page LEDs.

This list of options includes variables without default allocated logic meaning. These generic
alarms can be configured by the user to represent indications not covered in the previous
options, for example, their logical combinations. Therefore, you should use the logic
configuration tool provided by the TPU TD420 (see Chapter 4.6 - Programmable Logic).

The descriptions corresponding to logical indications associated with each alarm are presented
in the graphical display when it is with the Command and Supervision Interface, allowing a quick
view of its meaning. Each descriptive is limited to 20 characters. It can be edited by using the
WinSettings module of the WinProt. The descriptive edition cannot be made in the local
interface.

It is also possible to configure the behaviour of the several alarms regarding the state transition
of each associated logical variable. There are two possible configurations:

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Latched: when configured as latched the LED state reflects directly the logical variable state,
that is, it will be on when the variable has the logical value 1 and off in the opposite situation.
This configuration should be used to represent for example the state of blocked automation
functions.
Alarm: in this configuration the alarms page LEDs will be on as soon as the associated logical
variable is in the logical state 1, and will stay on even if their logical state changes to 0. To
acknowledge – “delete” – the LEDs that are on in the alarms page it is necessary to press the
key. Then all alarms which associated logical variable has logical value 0 will be deleted. This
configuration is the most appropriate to represent the tripping of the protection functions
because the indication remains active after the fault until it is acknowledged by the user.
INDICATION

Variable

Alarm

ALARM 4
Variable

Alarm

Figure 4.17. Alarms operation modes.

4.5.3. MIMIC

In the front display of the TPU TD420 it is possible to graphically represent information
associated with the power equipment, whether acquired in the analogue and digital inputs or by
the local area network. This interface also provides an easy operation of that equipment as well
as the execution of other commands on the protection.

The mimic represented in the protection display can be fully configured by the user, in order to
adjust it to the substation specific configuration and to the information one wishes to visualize.
This configuration can only be executed by using the WinMimic module of the WinProt.

The mimic is composed by two different parts: one static part and one dynamic part. The last
part comprises four types of objects: apparatus, commands, parameters and measures.

Static Mimic

The mimic static graphical information does not depend on variable states or protection
measurements. It is used to represent components associated with for example, busbars, lines,
transformers, cable connections between the equipment and the switch devices as well as non-
monitored circuit breakers and disconnectors. The static part may also include text such as bay
or measurements identification.

The static part configuration corresponds to the definition of one bitmap with the drawing of
those components. This bitmap can have one or two pages, each with the size reserved for the
mimic in the protection display (120 128 pixel).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Apparatus type objects

Apparatus type objects firstly serve to represent the state of circuit breakers and disconnectors,
which depends on the state of the internal logical variables. The apparatus can be commanded
or not. These objects can also be used to represent variables not associated with apparatus and
to execute other type of commands.

Figure 4.18. Apparatus type objects configuration.

The parameters associated with this type of object are the following (example is given for an
object representing a circuit breaker):
X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the apparatus drawing.

Bitmap State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the State variable.

Bitmap State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the State variable.

Bitmap Undefined State00: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Undefined


State00 variable, independently from the logical value of the State variable.

Bitmap Undefined State11: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Undefined


State11 variable, independently from the logical value of the State variable.

Bitmap Background State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the Background


State variable.

Bitmap Background State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Background


State variable.

Bitmap Background Undefined State: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the


Background Undefined State variable, independently from the logical value of the
Background State variable.

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Module: logical module to which belong all variables that define the states and the
operations of the apparatus.
State: logical variable representing the apparatus state (for example open or closed circuit
breaker) that defines which of the state associated bitmaps is visualized in each moment.
Undefined State00: logical variable that is activated when the apparatus state is considered
invalid (both inputs with logical value 0). In this situation the associated drawing corresponds
to Bitmap Undefined State00.

Undefined State11: logical variable that is activated when the apparatus state is considered
invalid (both inputs with logical value 1). In this situation the associated drawing corresponds
to Bitmap Undefined State11.

Background State: logical variable that defines the background drawing in the area
reserved to the object. This state can be associated with additional information on the
apparatus, for example the apparatus position (if inserted or extracted).
Undefined Background State: logical variable equivalent to Undefined State, but
associated with the background drawing.
Command Key 0: logical variable that is activated when the object is selected and the key is
4
pressed. It is frequently used as local command for apparatus opening. The command is of
pulse type, that is, the variable is placed in the Level logical value and then in the
complementary level, Level opposite.
Command Key 1: logical variable that is activated when the object is selected and the key is
pressed (for example the local command for apparatus closing ). The command is of pulse
type as the previous one.
Locked Command Key 0: logical variable that with value 1 indicates that the command
associated with the key is blocked (for instance blocking the local opening of the circuit
breaker). When in locked situation, the order is not sent and in the instructions line is
displayed the message Locked Command !!.

Locked Command Key 1: logical variable that with value 1 indicates that the command
associated with the key is blocked (blocking the local closing of the circuit breaker). When in
locked situation, the order is not sent and in the instructions line is displayed the message
Locked Command !!.

Level: logical value indicated by the user in the configuration.

Validity: all previous variables can be defined or not as an option by enabling the respective
validity field (for example blockings may not be defined for the executed commands).
Descriptive: apparatus identification text displayed in the instructions line when the
apparatus is selected.

The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part of the
bitmap.

Control Type Objects

Control type objects allow imposing the state of internal logical variables directly from the
protection mimic. The parameters associated with this type of object are the following:

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Figure 4.19. Command type objects configuration.

X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the object’s drawing.

Bitmap State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the State variable.

Bitmap State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the State variable.

State: logical variable (and respective module) representing the object’s state and defining
which of the state associated bitmaps is visualized on each moment. The change of this
variable value should be directly or indirectly associated with the variables defined by the
Command parameter.

Command Type: definition of command type: pulse or indication.

Command: logical variable (and respective module) which state is changed when the object
is selected and one of the or keys is pressed, if the State variable is in the command
corresponding logical level. The command variable is placed in the logical value configured
by the user.

Active Command: logical variable (and respective module) that prevents visualization and
consequent command execution if not in the indicated logical level.
Validity: all previous variables can be defined or not as an option by enabling the respective
validity field (for example there can be no variable defined to activate the command).
Descriptive: object identification text displayed in the instructions line when the apparatus is
selected.

The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part of the
bitmap.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Parameter Type Objects

Parameter type objects serve to visualize or change the protection parameters value. Its
selection is possible in change mode. In visualization mode they cannot be selected but they
dynamically reflect the most updated value of the configured parameter. The associated
parameters with this type of object are indicated below.

Figure 4.20. Parameter type object configuration.

X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the object’s drawing (only valid in Change
Operation Mode).
Bitmap: drawing corresponding to the object in Change Operation Mode. In case of Visualize
Operation Mode the protection display represents the value of the configured parameter.
Operation Mode: selection of object’s application: change or visualize the value of a
parameter.
Function: module to which belongs the parameter to change or visualize.

Parameter: parameter to change or visualize. The parameter identified by the three previous
data, after being selected, can be changed by pressing one of the keys or , as long as the
Operation Mode is Change.

Type: type of parameter to change or visualize. The parameter can be one of three types:
byte, short or float. As an option, it is also possible to select if one wants to change the value
of the parameter related to a specific scenario, to the active scenario or to all scenarios
simultaneously.
Value: value desired for the parameter when the change command is executed (valid only if
the Operation Mode is Change).

Identification: object identification text displayed in the instructions line when the apparatus
is selected (valid only if the Operation Mode is Change).

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As for the previous objects, the object’s position is automatically defined by its location related
to the static part of the bitmap.

Measure Type Objects

Measure type objects allow visualizing the value of the measures in the mimic. They cannot be
0.000 selected but they dynamically reflect the most updated value of the configured measure. The
associated parameters with this type of object are indicated below:

4
Figure 4.21. Measurement type objects configuration.

Measure: measure to be presented in the mimic, chosen among the available options
provided by the TPU TD420; that list includes analogue measurements and counters, both
internal and received through the local area network. The unit in which the measurement is
visualized is indicated.
Scale Factor: multiplication factor of the measure value to be visualized in the display. This
factor is unitary by default and the unit is adjusted to the values normally observed for each
measure; to represent very low or very high values it is advisable to change this scale factor
to a more convenient value, preferably a 10 multiplier.

The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part bitmap.

4.5.4. CONFIGURATION

Regarding the display characteristics, its brightness will be as much intense as higher the
Contrast parameter value. The Inverse Video parameter defines whether the display shows
black characters in white background (OFF value) or the opposite (ON value). In the Screensaver
parameter it is possible to define the period without pressing any key after which the unit
activates the screensaver. These parameters can be adjusted in the menu of the TPU TD420
indicated in Figure 4.22.

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Interface Homem-Máquina
Display
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Contraste: 20
Video Inverso: OFF
Screensaver: 60

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.22. Display Configuration Menu.

The alarms page has three types of parameters: for each alarm you should choose the logical
configuration, the respective operation mode and the associated descriptive.
Regarding logical configuration the Al[n]> Config parameter should be chosen from a list of
supplied options which, besides the most frequently used cases, provides generic alarms with 4
logical meaning allocated by the user. The option NO ALLOCATION corresponds to the non-use
of that alarm in the local interface.
The operation mode of each Alarm (Al[n]> Operation parameter) can be chosen from two
available options: ALARM or LACHED. The Al[n]> Descriptive parameter is a sentence with a
maximum of 20 characters and can only be edited by using the WinSettings.

To associate logical states with the alarms page LEDs it is necessary to access the menu of the
TPU TD420:
Interface Homem-Máquina
Alarmes
Parâmetros
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica

Al1> Config: Nada Atribuído


Al2> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al3> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al4> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al5> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al6> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al7> Config: Nada Atribuído
Al8> Config: Nada Atribuído

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Modo de Operação
Modo de Operação

Al1> Operação: ALARME


Al2> Operação: ALARME
Al3> Operação: ALARME
Al4> Operação: ALARME
Al5> Operação: ALARME
Al6> Operação: ALARME
Al7> Operação: ALARME
Al8> Operação: ALARME

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.23. Alarms Page Configuration Menu.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

The protection mimic can only be edited by using the WinMimic module of the PC interface
program WinProt. For that purpose see the user’s manual of this application.

Table 4.11. Display Parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Contrast 10..31 20
Screensaver 1..60 min 60
Inverse Video OFF / ON OFF

Table 4.12. Alarms page parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Al1> Config
4
Al1> Operation ALARM / INDICATION ALARM
Al1> Descriptive ' '..'ÿ'
...
Al8> Config
Al8> Operation ALARM / INDICATION ALARM
Al8> Descriptive ' '..'ÿ'

4.5.5. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The alarms module provides a group of variables possible to be configured in the local interface
and which logical meaning can be allocated by using the programmable logic tool (see Chapter
4.6 - Programmable Logic).

Table 4.13. Logical variables description of the alarms module.

Id Name Description

6912 Generic Alarm 1 Logical variables without default allocated


... ... meaning, configurable as alarms
6919 Generic Alarm 8

Besides the variables indicated in the previous table, there are also available the variables
associated with the change of parameters, logic or descriptions (see Chapter 6.1).

The modules associated with the mimic and with the display properties only provide the logical
variables related to the change of those three groups of data.

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4.6. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC

In the previous chapters several references were already made to the automation logic provided
by the TPU TD420. This logic is completely programmable and besides the traditional logical
functions (OR and AND), it allows implementing timers, delays and other logical combinations.

The flexibility of this parameter can be used to configure additional interlockings to the
protection and control functions or any other more complex logical conditions.

4.6.1. LOGICAL VARIABLES

The elementary structure in which the automation logic of the TPU TD420 is based on is the
logical variable, also called gate. To each gate corresponds the internal state of a given variable
related to a protection function, a monitoring or control function, states related to the operation
of the unit itself, etc. All the states represented by the different logical variables are binary states, 4
that is, they can only be in one of two logical levels: level 0 or level 1.

Organization

The automation logic that defines the different implemented interlockings and remaining logical
functions is based on a network of interconnected logical variables. Regarding their location in
that network, logical variables can be inputs, outputs or intermediate variables.

The state of the input logical variables is defined by processes external to the logic itself that
impose their value to the logical level 0 or 1. The origin of those processes can be related with:
Digital inputs: the logical variables allocated to digital inputs are activated or deactivated by
change of state of the respective contact.

Protection and control functions: the different protection and control functions generate
state changes in several gates as a result of their operation.
User Commands: the state imposition (blockings for example) and command execution
(data change, apparatus control) made by the user also has an effect on logical states.
Local area network variables: another possible origin for the change of the logical state is
the reception of indications from other units in network.

The output logical variables are those resulting from the inference of the automation logic
process and are reflected in some interface with the exterior. Its state can be reflected in:
Digital outputs: determining the operation of output contacts according to the state of those
logical variables.
Local area network indications: sending the state of those variables to other protection
units in the communications network.
Protection and control functions indications: defining specific operating conditions of the
implemented functions.

Between the input and output logical variables there can exist different levels of auxiliary or
intermediate logical variables whose state is defined by the variables of the preceding levels state
and ultimately by the state of the input variables that influence the state of the variables
connected to them and, consequently the state of the output variables. (Figure 4.24).

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Inputs Intermediate variables Outputs

TIMER

Figure 4.24. Automation logic organization.


4
This network of logical variables is then divided in more elementary subgroups, each of them
associated with a specific module of the TPU TD420. These modules can be:
Protection functions: high priority functions that operate with the purpose of minimizing
the effect of faults in the energy system.
Control and monitoring functions: lower priority functions which main purpose is to restore
the normal operation conditions of the energy system or to optimize its operation as well as
to supervise the several equipments.

Other configurations: necessary to the protection unit operation and generally associated
with components or interfaces of the protection unit.

Each one of these modules is constituted by a group of gates whose number varies from module
to module which represents the logic associated with that function or component. The existing
modules are fixed for each TPU TD420 model and each of them can have up to 256 variables.
Each logical variable is identified by the module it belongs to and by its index (module internal
order number). The identification of each variable to the exterior is obtained by the expression:

id mod ulenumber 256 index (4.2)

The state of the represented variables can have an effect on other variables of the same or
different module. As for the global logic, it is possible to create in each module a grouping of the
different gates in input variables (those established by the function itself or those which state is
function of other modules variables), output variables (those used by the function or by other
modules) or module internal variables. This organization is represented in Figure 4.25.

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Module 1 Module 3

...
...

Module 4

Module 2
...
...

Figure 4.25. Modular organization of the automation logic.


4
Types

The logical variables of the TPU TD420 are one of five possible types:

OR OR: the variable state is the logical disjunction of its inputs.

AND: the variable state is the logical conjunction of its inputs.


AND
DELAY: is a logical variable activated after a time interval if the input remains active.

DELAY
TIMER: The variable state corresponds to a pulse of configurable duration, activated by the
transition of the logical OR of the gate inputs to the logical level 1. The duration of the pulse
is fixed independently from the posterior state of the inputs.
TIMER
PULSE: this variable works similarly to the previous one but the output state remains 1 only
while the logical OR of the inputs remains 1, for a previously defined maximum period.
PULSE

DELAY

Input

Output

Command T Command T

Figure 4.26. DELAY logical variable types.

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TIMER

Input

Output

Command T Command T

PULSE

Input

Output

Command T

Figure 4.27. TIMER and PULSE logical variable types.

Constitution 4
Each variable corresponds to a logical port with 8 inputs and 8 outputs, as represented in Figure
4.28. The inputs and outputs allow defining connections between a given variable and other
gates, in order to create the logical conditions for the operation of the protection.

Type

Timer

Input 1 Status Output 1 connection

Input 2 Status Output 2 connection

Input 3 Status Output 3 connection

Input 4 Status Output 4 connection

Input 5 Status Output 5 connection

Input 6 Status Output 6 connection

Input 7 Status Output 7 connection

Input 8 Status Output 8 connection

Interfaces

Figure 4.28. Logical variable constitution.

The structure of each logical variable comprises a group of fields where all gate related
information is stored. This information can be divided in two different types: a static part and a
dynamic one.

The static part does not change during the TPU TD420 normal operation. It can only be changed
during the configuration of the logic. It is composed by:

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Variable type: should correspond to one of the five mentioned types: OR, AND, DELAY,
TIMER or PULSE.
Outputs configuration: identifies the connections of each output of the variable to other
variables. Each connection is completely defined by the destination variable module and
internal index, as well as by the number of the respective input of that gate; as an option, the
output can be negated, that is, the output can be activated when the variable has the logical
level 0.
Initial state of each of the eight inputs of the Logical Variable: this field should be
compatible with the type of logical variable (if for example the logical variable is AND, the
free inputs should be active) and with the connections to that logical variable.
Time delay: time associated with the variable if it is of DELAY, TIMER or PULSE type (the time
delay of the gate is configured in WinSettings).

The dynamic part of the information related to each gate corresponds to the fields that change
during the protection operation:

Inputs logical state: represents the current logical level of each of the eight gate inputs.

Variable logical state: is the current state of the gate reflected in the respective outputs and
4
resulting from the state of each of its inputs and the type of variable.
Validity: this field has information about the validity of the variable logical state: possible
causes for the invalidity of this state are for example: for logical variables associated with the
state of circuit breakers and disconnectors, the fact that the associated single inputs (for
example open and closed circuit breaker) are not complementary.
Cause: this field relates to the cause of the last state change of the variable; this information
is especially relevant for the variable related to the state of the circuit breaker because
besides the fact of being open or closed, it is important to know which is the source of the
last opening or closing command.

4.6.2. LOGIC INFERENCE

One important thing to consider in the definition of the specific automation logic for a given
application is the way the logic is inferred, that is, how the state of all variables is defined in each
instant. The mechanism used is of event-driven type, which means that the logic is resolved
from back to front, according to the defined connections, whenever there is a change of state of
any of the input variables and not cyclically as in other traditional programmable logic
controllers.

Therefore whenever a variable changes its logical state, that change is reflected in the variables
to which it is connected, that is, the inputs of the logical variables to which its eight inputs are
connected. The state of each of those gates is then defined by the gate type and by the state of
its eight inputs, being inferred after the occurrence of the state change. If the state changes and
this gate is connected to other gates, for each of these gates the input state associated with this
connection is updated and the process is resumed for the new logical variable. This recurrent
process is repeated until the end of state transitions or connections.

This mechanism is exemplified with the following simplified logical scheme that indicates the
initial logical level of each of the variables and its inputs:

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

1 Gate 1 (OR) Gate 2 (OR)


Gate 3 (AND)
0

0 0
0

Gate 4 (OR)

Figure 4.29. Example of logic inference scheme.

Admitting there is a change of state of the variable connected to the first input of the gate 1 and
that it changes to the logical level 1, as the variable is OR type and its state only depends on that
input, the logical sate of the variable changes to logical level 1. This gate is connected to two
variables on which this change will be reflected.

Firstly, the state of the first input of the logical variable 2 changes to level 1. This variable
subsequently changes of state as it is an OR and all its inputs were 0 before the transition. This
change of state is then reflected in the variable 3. However, this variable does not change its 4
state as it is of AND type and requires all inputs at 1 to be activated. On the other hand the
variable 2 is not connected to any other gate.

The inference process then continues with the inference of the state changes regarding the
second connection of the gate 1, which connects to the first input of the gate 4. The new state of
the inputs of this gate generates a state identical to the previous one. As there are no more
changes of state and no more connections, the mechanism stops here.

The main advantage of this automation logic inference process is its excellent efficiency that
allows to quickly update the state of all defined automation logic with few logical operations.

4.6.3. CONFIGURATION

The automation logic cannot be configured in the TPU TD420 local interface. For that purpose
use the logic edition tool of the WinProt, in the WinLogic module (Figure 4.30).

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 4-38
Chapter 4 - Configuration

Figure 4.30. Automation logic configuration with WinLogic.

This application allows configuring all the fields that constitute the several available logical
variables.

By default, the TPU TD420 provides a fully operational factory automation logic that allows the
operation of the several protection, control and supervision functions. The description of that
logic for each function can be found in Chapter 6 – Control and Protection Functions.

The connections between the variables are always defined in the variable where that connection
has its origin and for each of the 8 outputs of the variable is defined the gate it is connected to.
The gate is completely defined by the module it belongs to and by the internal index inside that
module, plus the input where the connection will be made. Each output can be negated
independently of the remaining outputs.

Having the factory logic as starting point, connections can be added in not used outputs,
existing connections can be eliminated or configured variables can be changed. However,
special attention should be given to the construction of the new connections so that the group
stays coherent and executes the desired functions.

Caution should be taken when editing the logical connections:

The state changes with origin external to the automation logic (that is, the state changes of
the input variables) directly impose the state of the first input of that gate. Therefore no other
variable can be connected to that reserved input because there is the risk of the defined state
not matching the externally established state and consequently generate inconsistent states.

There cannot be two different logical variables, or two outputs of the same variable
connected to the same input of a given gate. As in the previous point this situation may
cause inconsistent states in the logic, because for that input will always be valid the last

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

occurred transition.

Closed loops in the logic that may cause infinite cycles of state changes in the same variables
should be avoided. The simplest example, with only one gate, is presented in Figure 4.31
where is indicated the initial state of the inputs. In this situation the recurrent process of
automation logic inference will be indefinitely executed, changing the variable state from 1 to
0 and vice-versa until the protection stops the process to avoid the system resources to be
fully used. This is an undesirable situation and should be avoided.
1
0

Figure 4.31. Loop example.

The initial state of the 8 inputs of each gate should also be correctly configured according to the 4
defined logic. For that purpose the logical state of each input should be in accordance with the
state of the gate that connects to each input.

Most of the variables are initialized with the 0 state (generally all input variables of the logic)
which implicates that many of the inputs will also be initialized with the 0 state. The same is
applicable to type OR variables, the not used inputs should be initialized with the 0 state in order
not to interfere with the logic. However there are some exceptions:

The not used inputs of type AND variables should be initialized with the logical state 1 so
that it is possible to change the variable state according to the remaining inputs.

1 4
1 4
1 4
0 1 4
1 4
1 4

Figure 4.32. Initialization of gates inputs with AND type variables

The denied outputs of variables with initial state 0 are in the logical state 1. For that reason
the inputs of the variables to which they are connected should be also initialized with the
level 1. This situation is presented in Figure 4.33, where you can see that the initial state of
the two inputs of gate 1 is different depending on whether the corresponding connection is
negated or not. For the gate 2, the initial state of the single input is 0 because it corresponds
to a negated connection of a variable which initial state is 1.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

0
Gate 1 (OR) Gate 2 (OR)
0

4 0
1

Figure 4.33. Initialization of gates inputs with denied outputs.

Besides the gate type, the connections of each of the eight outputs and the inputs initial state, it
should be defined whether the logical transitions of 0->1 and/or 1->0 of the variable should be
logged in the Event Chronological Log.

The configuration of each logical variable also includes the associated descriptive. The change of
the descriptions has no influence in the protection’s internal operation; it only modifies the text
presented to the user. The user configurable descriptions are:
Gate descriptive: logical variable’s name used for example in the Event Chronological Log,
in the configuration of Inputs, Outputs and Alarms or in the mimic’s configuration. 4
0 -> 1 State transition descriptive: descriptive that complements the previous one and that
is displayed in the Event Chronological Logging whenever occurs a transition of the logical
state of the gate from 0 to 1.
1 -> 0 State transition descriptive: descriptive that complements the previous one and that
is displayed in the Event Chronological Logging whenever occurs a transition of the logical
state of the gate from 1 to 0.

Figure 4.34. Descriptions configuration of the logical variables with WinLogic.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Any change in the automation logic implemented with WinLogic and sent to the protection is
valid only after the unit is restarted.

The changes made to the variables descriptions are automatically reflected in the Event
Chronological Log.

Some additional groups of auxiliary logical variables are available to make logic edition easier.

For time delay variables of TIMER or PULSE type there is the additional configuration of the
associated time that is set in tens of milliseconds (minimum possible configuration is 0,01 s).
The TIMER or PULSE type variables in a total of 16 are grouped in a specific module. Some of
them have default allocated functions but the rest can be used to create additional logic

A feature provided by the TPU TD420 is the possibility of auxiliary variables associated with
inputs, outputs and logical alarm indications without allocated meaning, thus completely generic
for use in any desired application. They allow configuring inputs, outputs and alarms with logical
variables not foreseen in the default lists.
4
To configure a generic input do the following:

Using WinLogic, select one generic input not yet used and configure the outputs connections
of that gate to other variables or change its interfaces according to the outcome required for
the new variable.

Change the descriptions associated with the generic input for more adequate names.

Configure a physical input from one of the boards to the chosen generic input (the name
edited by the user will appear in the WinSettings inputs list if the changes have been saved in
WinLogic and in the protection if they were already sent to it).

Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic

To configure a generic output do the following:

Using WinLogic, implement the variable combinations necessary to create the desired logic
and make the connection to a generic output not yet used.

Change the descriptions associated with the generic variable for more adequate names.

Configure a physical output from one of the boards to the chosen generic output.

Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

To configure a generic alarm do the following:

Using WinLogic, implement the variable combinations necessary to create the desired logic
and make the connection to a generic alarm not yet used.

Change the descriptions associated with the generic variable for more adequate names.

Configure an alarm of the local interface alarm to the chosen generic alarm.

Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic.

For other specific logical interlockings of the application that require additional variables not
directly associated with inputs, outputs or alarms; there are two auxiliary modules, constituted
by 64 variables without allocated meaning or default defined connections, which can be
configured as OR or AND type.

Table 4.14. Logical variables description of the auxiliary logic module 1.

4
Id Name Description

256 Auxiliary Logic 1 Gate 1 OR or AND type variables available for auxiliary
... ... logic
319 Auxiliary Logic 1 Gate 64

Table 4.15. Logical variables description of the auxiliary logic module 2.

Id Name Description

512 Auxiliary Logic 2 Gate 1 OR or AND type variables available for auxiliary
... ... logic
575 Auxiliary Logic 2 Gate 64

Table 4.16. Logical variables description of the time delay module.

Id Name Description

3328 Timer 1 TIMER or PULSE type variables used in the


... ... default defined logic or available for auxiliary logic
3351 Timer 24

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.7. OPERATION MODES

A particular application of logic is the bay Operation Modes. These modes are extremely
important to define the operation mode of the protection and control functions and the blocking
of open and close commands of the circuit breakers and disconnectors.

4.7.1. OPERATION MODES T YPES

There are three base operation modes supported by the TPU TD420:
Local/Remote Mode (L/R): this operation mode defines the protection’s behaviour
regarding the commands received from the Supervision and Command System. When in
Local mode, all remote operations are inhibited.
Manual/Automatic Mode (M/A): this operation mode regards all automation executed in the 4
TPU TD420. When in Manual mode all automation functions are blocked. This mode is
essential to perform maintenance operations in the system when it is in service.
Normal/Emergency (N/E) Mode: the Emergency mode refers to the operation of the system
in special conditions. In Emergency mode all user defined logical interlockings of open and
close of circuit breakers are inhibited, allowing free operation of the circuit breaker. The
Normal mode corresponds to the normal situation of operation of the equipment.
Besides these Operation Modes it is also provided the Exploitation Mode which has three
options (Normal, Special A or Special B) and the Bay Test Mode. In the TPU TD420 these two
functioning modes have no allocated function, however, the user can define the function by
configuring the associated logic.

There are also two generic operation modes whose meaning can be freely allocated by the user
through logic configuration.

4.7.2. CONFIGURATION

The change of operation mode is equivalent to the change of any other protection’s parameter
and the most current state of each one of the mode types is saved in the non-volatile memory,
not being lost even when the protection is powered off. This change can be made in the local
interface, using WinProt or from the Supervision and Command System.

The local interface provides two functional keys and , which allow immediately changing some
operation modes. From the existing modes the user can configure the meaning of these keys.
The other modes can be changed in the menus.

As an option, the change of any of the operation modes can be made using binary inputs
connected to selectors external to the protection.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Modos de Operação
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Modo Manual/Automático: MANUAL


Modo Local/Remoto: LOCAL
Modo Normal/Emergência: NORMAL
Modo de Exploração: NORMAL
Modo Genérico 1: OFF
Modo Genérico 2: OFF
Modo Ensaio: OFF
Tecla de Modo 1: L/R
Tecla de Modo 2: M/A

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.35. Operation Modes Menu.

The state of the operation mode used by the TPU TD420 is the logical OR of the two previous
options (parameter or input), that is why only one of them should be used at a time to prevent
inconsistent states. 4

Table 4.17. Operation modes parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 1


Manual/Automatic Mode MANUAL / AUTOMATIC MANUAL
Local/Remote Mode LOCAL / REMOTE LOCAL
Normal/Emergency Mode NORMAL / NORMAL
EMERGENCY
Exploitation Mode NORMAL / SPECIAL A / NORMAL
SPECIAL B
Generic Mode 1 OFF / ON OFF
Generic Mode 2 OFF / ON OFF
Test Mode OFF / ON OFF
Mode Key 1 L/R / M/A / N/E / GEN 1 / L/R
GEN 2 / TEST
Mode Key 2 L/R / M/A / N/E / GEN 1 / M/A
GEN 2 / TEST

4.7.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The logical variables associated with the operation modes module are grouped in several groups
according to the different ways of changing the modes. Basically they are two: through binary
inputs or by changing a parameter.

Regarding the L/R, M/A and N/E operation modes, the associated inputs are 6 in groups of two
complementary variables (Local Mode and Remote Mode, for example). The result of the
combination of these pairs is accessible in specific variables that are the operation modes
determined by the inputs. On the other hand, there is one variable related to each of the
operating modes with the state resulting from the configuration of the associated parameter.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

The indication of each of the operation modes available for the remaining automation functions
and displayed in the local interface is the logical OR of the two previous variables (that
depending on the inputs and that refreshed by configuration).

The principle of the logic associated with the Exploitation Mode and the Bay Test mode is
identical.

The Exploitation Mode has three associated inputs (Normal Mode, Special Mode A and Special
Mode B). There are also three variables associated with each of these options, refreshed by
parameters change. The three final indications are the logical OR of the variables changed by the
respective inputs and configuration.

The logic implemented in the Exploitation Mode prevents two different indications from being
simultaneously active, which might happen if, for example, due to inputs the option of Special
Mode A is selected for inputs and the option Normal Mode is selected due to configuration. The
solution used defines that the Exploitation Mode A has higher priority than the Normal Mode
and that the Exploitation Mode B has higher priority than both of them.

There are also three variables associated with the Bay Test Mode: the input, the one associated
with the parameter and the indication with the logical OR of the two previous variables.
4
Table 4.18. Logical variables description of the operation modes module.

Id Name Description

10240 Local Operation Mode Local mode (input)


10241 Remote Operation Mode Remote mode (input)
10242 Manual Operation Mode Manual mode (input)
10243 Automatic Operation Mode Automatic mode (input)
10244 Normal Operation Mode Normal mode (input)
10245 Emergency Operation Mode Emergency mode (input)
10246 Normal Exploration Mode Normal Operation Mode Indication
10247 Special A Exploration Mode Special Exploitation Operation Mode A Indication
10248 Special B Exploration Mode Special Exploitation Operation Mode B Indication
10249 Generic Op Mode 1 Inactive Generic mode 1 inactive (input)
10250 Generic Op Mode 1 Active Generic mode 1 active (input)
10251 Generic Op Mode 2 Inactive Generic mode 2 inactive (input)
10252 Generic Op Mode 2 Active Generic mode 2 active (input)
10253 Test Operation Mode Bay test mode (input)
10254 L/R Operation Mode Local or Remote Operation Mode Indication
10255 M/A Operation Mode Manual or Automatic Operation Mode Indication
10256 N/E Operation Mode Normal or Emergency Operation Mode Indication
10257 Generic Operation Mode 1 Generic Operation Mode 1 Indication
10258 Generic Operation Mode 2 Generic Operation Mode 2 Indication
10259 HMI L/R Operation Mode Local or Remote Operation Mode (provided)
10260 HMI M/A Operation Mode Manual or Automatic Operation Mode (provided)
10261 HMI N/E Operation Mode Normal or Emergency Operation Mode (provided)
10262 HMI Normal Explor Mode Normal Exploitation Operation Mode (provided)
10263 HMI Special A Explor Mode Special Exploitation Mode A (provided)

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Id Name Description

10264 HMI Special B Explor Mode Special Exploitation Mode B (provided)


10265 HMI Generic Op Mode 1 Generic Mode 1 (provided)
10266 HMI Generic Op Mode 2 Generic Mode 2 (provided)
10267 HMI Test Operation Mode Bay test mode (provided)
10268 I/O L/R Operation Mode Variable resulting from Local Mode and Remote
Mode complementary inputs
10269 I/O M/A Operation Mode Variable resulting from Manual Mode and
Automatic Mode complementary inputs
10270 I/O N/E Operation Mode Variable resulting from Normal Mode and
Emergency Mode complementary inputs
10271 I/O Normal Explor Mode Normal Exploitation Mode (input)
10272 I/O Special A Explor Mode Special Exploitation Mode A (input)
10273 I/O Special B Explor Mode Special Exploitation Mode A (input)

4
10274 I/O Generic Op Mode 1 Variable resulting from the complementary inputs
of the Generic Operation Mode 1
10275 I/O Generic Op Mode 2 Variable resulting from the complementary inputs
of the Generic Operation Mode 2
10276 I/O Test Operation Mode Variable resulting from the inputs of the Bay test
mode
10277 HMI Blq Change L/R Op Mode Block of the Local/Remote Mode change in the
local interface
10278 HMI Blq Change M/A Op Mode Block of the Manual/Automatic Mode change in
the local interface
10279 HMI Blq Change N/E Op Mode Block of the Normal/Emergency Mode change in
the local interface
10280 HMI Blq Change M1 Op Mode Block of the Generic Mode 1 change in the local
interface
10281 HMI Blq Change M2 Op Mode Block of the Generic Mode 2 change in the local
interface
10282 HMI Blq Change Tst Op Mode Block of the Bay Test Mode change in the local
interface
10283 Op Mode Gnd Dir Inst Trip Input associated with the instantaneous trip of
external detection of phase to earth faults
10284 Op Mode Gnd Dir Delay Trip Input associated with the time delayed trip of
external detection of phase to earth faults
10285 Op Mode Protection Trip Trip order resulting from the exploitation mode and
the active protection functions

Additionally to the variables referred in Table 4.18, the variables associated with the change of
parameters, logic and descriptions are also available as explained in Chapter 6.1.. There is also a
group of auxiliary variables used in the module internal logic.

The connections to external variables slightly vary depending on the TPU TD420.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

10259> 10288>
Modo Operação L/R 10254> Modo Operação Gate
IHM Modo Operação L/R 1
OR OR OR

O1 I1 O1 I1 O1

O2 I2 O2 41798>Regime L/R Disjuntor AT I2 O2 49184>Regime L/R Secc Isolamento

I3 O3 42566>Regime L/R Disjuntor MT O3 49440>Regime L/R Seccion Isol 2


10268>
10240> Modo Operação L/R
O4 O4 49952>Regime L/R Secc Bypass
Modo Operação Local E/S
OR AND O5 50208>Regime L/R Secc Bypass 2

O1 I1 O1
O6 50720>Regime L/R Seccionad Barra

O2 I2 O2
O7 50976>Regime L/R Secc Barra 1

I3
O8 51232>Regime L/R Secc Barra 2
10241>
Modo Operação
Remoto
OR

O1

O2

4
10261> 10290>
Modo Operação N/E 10256> Modo Operação Gate
IHM Modo Operação N/E 3
OR OR OR

O1 I1 O1 I1 O1

O2 I2 O2 41800>Regime N/E Disjuntor AT I2 O2 49185>Regime N/E Secc Isolamento

I3 O3 42568>Regime N/E Disjuntor MT O3 49441>Regime N/E Seccion Isol 2


10244> 10270>
Modo Operação Modo Operação N/E O4 53252>Bloq Fecho Transformador O4 49953>Regime N/E Secc Bypass
Normal E/S
OR AND O5 O5 50209>Regime N/E Secc Bypass 2

O1 I1 O1 O6 50721>Regime N/E Seccionad Barra

O2 I2 O2 O7 50977>Regime N/E Secc Barra 1

I3 O8 51233>Regime N/E Secc Barra 2

10245>
Modo Operação
Emergência
OR

O1

O2

10267> 10253>
Modo Operação Modo Operação
Ensaio IHM Ensaio
OR OR

O1 I1 O1

O2 I2

I3

10276>
Modo Operação
Ensaio E/S
OR

O1

O2

Figure 4.36. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 1).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

10260> 10289>
Modo Operação M/A 10255> Modo Operação Gate
IHM Modo Operação M/A 2
OR OR OR

O1 I1 O1 I1 O1

O2 I2 O2 41799>Regime M/A Disjuntor AT I2

I3 O3 42567>Regime M/A Disjuntor MT


10242> 10269>
Modo Operação Modo Operação M/A O4 39947>Bloqueio Deslastre Tensão
Manual E/S
OR AND O5 40715>Bloqueio Deslastre Freq

O1 I1 O1 O6

O2 I2 O2

I3
10243>
Modo Operação
Automático
OR

O1

O2

10266> 10258>
10265> 10257>
Modo Oper Genérico 2 Modo Operação
Modo Oper Genérico 1 Modo Operação
IHM Genérico 2
IHM Genérico 1
OR OR
OR OR
O1 I1 O1
O1 I1 O1

O2 I2
O2 I2

I3
I3 10275>
10249> 10274> 10251>
Modo Oper Gener 2 Modo Oper Genérico 2
Modo Oper Gener 1 Modo Oper Genérico 1
E/S

4
Inactivo E/S Inactivo
OR AND
OR AND

O1 I1 O1
O1 I1 O1

O2 I2 O2
O2 I2 O2

I3
I3

10252>
10250>
Modo Oper Gener 2
Modo Oper Gener 1
Activo
Activo
OR
OR
O1
O1

O2
O2

10277>
10286>
Modo Op Blq Alter L/R 10280>
Dados Modo
IHM Modo Oper Blq Alter
Operação
OR M1 IHM
OR
OR
I1 O1
O1
I1 O1

10278>
Modo Op Blq Alter M/A 10287>
IHM 10281> Lógica Modo
OR Modo Oper Blq Alter Operação
M2 IHM
OR
I1 O1 OR
O1
I1 O1

10279>
Modo Op Blq Alter N/E 10282>
IHM Modo Oper Blq Alter
OR PE IHM
OR
I1 O1
I1 O1

Figure 4.37. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 2).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

10262>
Modo Explor Normal
IHM
OR

O1
10291> 10246> 10293>
O2 Modo Operação Gate Modo Exploração Modo Operação Gate
4 Normal 6
OR AND AND
10271>
Modo Explor Normal I1 O1 I1 O1 I1 O1
E/S
OR I2 O2 I2 O2 41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj AT Aut I2 O2

O1 I3 I3 O3 42532>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj MT Aut

O2 I4 O4

10263>
Modo Explor Especial
A IHM 10294>
OR Modo Operação Gate
7
10292>
O1 AND
Modo Operação Gate
5 10247> 10285>
O2 I1 O1 Modo Oper Disparo
OR Modo Exploração
Especial A Protec
I2 O2 OR
I1 O1 AND
10272>
Modo Explor Especial I2 O2 I1 O1 I1 O1
A E/S
I3 O3 I2 O2 I2
OR

O1 I3 I3

O2 10295> I4
Modo Operação Gate
10284> 8 I5
Modo Oper Disparo AND
10264> Temp DTR
Modo Explor Especial OR I1 O1
B IHM
OR O1 I2 O2
10248>
O1 Modo Exploração O2

4
Especial B
O2 OR
10296>
I1 O1 Modo Operação Gate
9
10273> I2 O2 AND
Modo Explor Especial
B E/S I3 O3 I1 O1
OR
O4 10283> I2 O2
O1 Modo Oper Disparo
Inst DTR I3
O2 OR

O1

O2

Figure 4.38. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 3).

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

4.8. OSCILLOGRAPHY

The oscillography function allows logging the waveform of the signals in the analogue inputs of
the TPU TD420 when certain events occur. This monitoring function is extremely important to
characterize the incidents occurring in the energy system and in a posterior analysis, to verify
the correct operation of the protection.

4.8.1. CHARACTERISTICS

Together with the Chronological Event Log, the Oscillography function is one of the tools
provided by the TPU TD420 to analyse faults or other disturbances in the energy system. While
in the Chronological Event Log it is possible to access the sequence of logical events detected or
produced by the protection, the Oscillography allows analysing the corresponding analogue
information.

The characteristics of the oscillographies registered by the TPU TD420 are fixed. The signals in
4
the 4 current analogue inputs and in the 4 voltage analogue inputs are logged with sampling
frequency of 20 samples per cycle of the fundamental harmonic of the AC magnitudes. Up to 40
digital channels can be registered whose correspondence with the TPU TD420’s internal logical
variables is configured by the user.

Nevertheless, the conditions that define the registration of new logs are completely configurable
by the user, with the programmable logic tool (see Chapter 4.6 - Programmable Logic), as
described further ahead.

The oscillography length is adjustable and completely defined by the configured logical
conditions. The logging starts when any of the function’s start conditions is activated and ends
when all of them reset. It is also possible to store a configurable time of the signals waveforms
prior to the start of the logging (pre-fault time) and another configurable time after the reset
(post-fault time) of the logging. But the length of the log never exceeds a maximum duration
that is also configurable by the user.

The oscillographies are saved in the non-volatile memory to allow storing them in the protection
while they are not uploaded to a PC. In total it is possible to save a number of oscillographies
equivalent to approximately one and a half minute.
The oscillographies can be displayed in a PC at any time by using the WinReports module of the
WinProt.

The oscillographies can be uploaded through the protection’s front serial port or remotely
through the local area network.

4.8.2. CONFIGURATION

The Pre-fault T parameter specifies the duration of the signals prior to the oscillography start,
that is still registered with the oscillography. The Post-fault T parameter is equivalent but
applied to the duration of the signals posterior to the fault. The maximum register duration is
configured in Maximum T.

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Chapter 4 - Configuration

Interface Homem-Máquina
Oscilografia
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

T Pré-Defeito: 100
T Pós-Defeito: 60
T Máximo: 1000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 4.39. Parameters Menu (Oscillography).

Table 4.19. Oscillography parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Current Set 1..1 - 1


4
Pre-fault T 0..200 (50 Hz), s 100
0..240 (60 Hz)
Post-fault T 0..1000 (50 Hz), s 60
0..1200 (60 Hz)
Maximum T 0..1000 (50 Hz), s 1000
0..1200 (60 Hz)

4.8.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The logic associated with the oscillography is related with the logical conditions that define the
logging of a new register. These conditions are divided in two groups:

the indications that trigger the logging of an oscillography while they remain active (the
protection functions, for example, where it is desired an oscillography from the start to the
reset of the function);

the ones that originate an oscillography logging for a specific period (never longer than 1
second) defined by an auxiliary logic TIMER (the case of the circuit breaker close commands,
where it is desired to have a logging of the time interval immediately after the order’s
execution).

These different conditions are grouped in a logical variable used by the function to define the
instant of the logging start and end.

Besides the mentioned conditions (protection functions start and circuit breaker close command)
it is also available, by default, a logical input that allows starting oscillography logging by user’s
order or due to a protection’s external event. The oscillographies associated with this input have
a maximum duration defined by TIMER.

Table 4.20. Logical variables description of the oscillography module.

Id Name Description

8704 Oscillography Logging Input that triggers the oscillography logging


8705 Oscillography Timed Start Logical conditions of oscillography logging start
(for a fixed time)

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Id Name Description

8706 Oscillography Start Gate 1 First group of logical conditions of oscillography


logging start (without associated timer)
8707 Oscillography Start Gate 2 Second group of logical conditions of
oscillography logging start (without associated
timer)
8708 Oscillography Variable that gathers all three previous logical
conditions
8709 Oscillog Digital Channel 1 Digital oscillography channels with user allocated
... ... meaning
8748 Oscillog Digital Channel40

8705>
8704> Arranque Temp
Gravação Oscilografia Oscilografia
OR OR

O1 I1 O1 3328>Oscilografia

4
O2 41761>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor AT I2 O2

42529>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor MT I3

I4

8708>
8706> Oscilografia
Gate 1 Arranq OR
Oscilografia
OR 3328>Oscilografia I1 O1

26374>Protecção Diferencial I1 O1 I2

24838>Protecção Prot MI Cuba I2 O2 I3

I3 I4

15640>Protecção MI Fases AT I4

16392>Protecção MI Terra AT I5

15896>Protecção MI Fases MT I6

16648>Protecção MI Terra MT I7

I8

8707>
Gate 2 Arranq
Oscilografia
OR

I1 O1

O2

Figure 4.40. Logical diagram of the oscillography module.

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5
Chapter

5. COMMUNICATIONS

This chapter describes the various communication interfaces available in the TPU TD420 such as
RS232, RS485, optical fibre connections, Ethernet, Lonworks, etc. On these physical interfaces
various communication protocols for connection to SCADA systems are supported, such as IEC
61850, IEC60870-5-104, DNP3.0, Lonworks, etc. Also available are protocols for horizontal
communication among the various TPU TD420 units, such as GOOSE, the Lonworks Distributed
Database and the Ethernet Distributed Database. For each protocol are presented the main
operation features and described the configuration methods of each one of the configurable
parameters, as well as the corresponding default values and ranges.

This chapter also describes the time synchronization through SNTP protocol.
Chapter 5 - Communications

TABLE OF CONTENTS
5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS .........................................................................................5-2
5.1.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-2
5.1.2. Modem Connection.....................................................................................................5-2
5.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-2
5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION.........................................................................................5-4
5.2.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-4
5.2.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-4
5.2.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................5-5
5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS ...............................................................................................5-7
5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................................5-9
5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL ...........................................................................................5-10
5.5.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-10
5.5.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-11
5.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-13
5.5.4. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-17
5.5.5. Lonworks Distributed Database............................................................................... 5-17
5.5.6. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-22
5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL .............................................................................................5-24 5
5.6.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-24
5.6.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-24
5.6.3. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-25
5.6.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-27
5.6.5. Communication with the WinProt ............................................................................ 5-30
5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL ..............................................................................5-32
5.7.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-32
5.7.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-33
5.7.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-36
5.7.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-39
5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................5-40
5.8.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-40
5.8.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-40
5.8.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-41
5.8.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-45
5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL ..........................................................................................5-46
5.9.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-46
5.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-46
5.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-51
5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL................................................................................................5-52
5.10.1. Architecture ............................................................................................................ 5-52
5.10.2. Operation Principles ............................................................................................... 5-52
5.10.3. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 5-52
5.10.4. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 5-53
Total of pages of the chapter: 53

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5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

5.1.1. ARCHITECTURE

All EFACEC’s protection and control units provide one front serial port and at least two rear
ports. When the unit is equipped with the Ethernet board, three rear ports are available. These
serial ports are intended for communication with WinProt, except in the versions that
TPU TD420 supports DNP3.0 that have COM1 reserved for the protocol and it can’t be used for
other purposes.

The rear serial ports identified as COM 1 and COM 2 support RS232 and RS485 connectors,
RS232 converters for glass or plastic optical fibre. The configuration of these ports is
independent of the type of connector used and the change of the type of connector does not
imply updating the unit’s firmware.

By using the various types of converters, several architectures for serial communication with
TPU TD420 may be designed, namely:

 Ring network using optical converters.

 RS485 bus network using RS485 converters.

 Point to point connection with RS232 converters. 5

5.1.2. MODEM CONNECTION

The EFACEC’s protection and control units support a connection with WinProt via Modem. For
that purpose it is necessary to have a Modem on the PC side where WinProt is executed and
another Modem on the unit side. Both Modems should be configured so that they are
compatible, having in mind that the characters echo, the flow control and RTS must be disabled.
The configured exit sequence should be ‘+++’.

The Modem on the unit side must be previously configured while the one on the PC side is
configured by WInProt through the Communication window where the desired Start String must
be indicated. It is also necessary to indicate which serial port will be used, the baudrate, the
connection start and end commands and the stand-by time after which the connection should
be terminated.

The connection between WinProt and a unit is established for the first time when WinProt tries to
communicate with that same unit using the Modem as active communication protocol. Once the
connection is established it is shared by the various modules and an icon appears in the
Windows toolbar showing that it is active.

On the other hand, a connection with a unit can be terminated by WinProt in two situations.
Either when nothing is received from the unit during the time period configured in the
configuration window of the Modem parameters; or by using the popup menu activated with the
right-mouse button over the Windows taskbar icon that corresponds to the connection with that
unit.

5.1.3. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the serial ports provided by the TPU TD420 can be made in WinSettings or
in the unit by using the Communications > Serial Communications > Parameters menu.

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Comunicações
Comunicação Série
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Endereço Série: 0
COM Frontal> Baudrate: 4800
COM Traseira 1> Baudrate: 4800
COM Traseira 2> Baudrate: 4800
COM Traseira 3> Baudrate: 4800

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.1. Configuration menu of the Serial Communication parameters

Table 5.1. Serial Communication parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Serial Address 0 .. 32767 - 0


Front COM> Baudrate 4800 .. 19200 baud 4800
Back COM 1> Baudrate 4800 .. 19200 baud 4800
Back COM 2> Baudrate 4800 .. 19200 baud 4800
Back COM 3> Baudrate 4800 baud 4800 5

One of the serial communication parameters corresponds to the Serial Address. This
parameter allows identifying the unit when it is in a RS 485 or in an optical fibre network. The
configured value must unique in the network. The Serial Address can have values from 0 to
32767.

It is also necessary to indicate the Baudrate for each one of the ports. All of them allow
baudrates from 4800 to 19200 except for the Ethernet board serial port. This port only allows a
baudrate of 4800 baud. The Baudrate configured for all the ports is 4800 baud.

When the unit executes the BOOT code the Baudrate is 38400 baud for all the ports except for
the front door which is 19200 baud.

In order to allow WinProt to communicate with a unit through a serial port it is necessary to
configure, in the WinProt, the serial protocol option as the active protocol for that unit.

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5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION

5.2.1. ARCHITECTURE

The TPU TD420 can be supplied with an Ethernet communication board to communicate
through TCP/ IP. This board serves as basis for several protocols provided by the TPU TD420
such as the direct connection to WinProt through TCP (up to 4 simultaneous connections), the
connection to SCADA systems through the IEC 60870-5-104 protocol or even for horizontal
communication among units through UDP.

The provided Ethernet board has a communication speed of 100 Mbps allowing a high
communication performance. In terms of options two configurations for the Ethernet board are
possible both with two communication ports:

Redundant 100BaseTX Option

This option provides two redundant ports with copper interface. On each moment only one port
is active even if there are valid connections in both ports. Port 1 has preference over port 2, that
is, if there is a valid connection in both ports, only port 1 will be used.

The activation of a port is done in the following situations:

When there is no valid connection in any of the ports and it starts existing in one of them the
5
corresponding port is activated;

When there is no valid connection in any of the ports and it starts existing in both ports, port
1 is activated;

Redundant 100Base FX Option

This option provides two redundant ports, each one with copper and optical fibre redundant
interface. On each moment only one of the two ports is active even if there are valid connections
in all ports.

As in the previous option, port 1 has preference over port 2. At unit’s start-up the fibre interface
has preference over the copper interface.

To activate a port follow the indications given in the previous option. When no link is detected in
any port, the configured interface will alternate between copper and fibre.

5.2.2. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the Ethernet board parameters can be made in WinSettings or in the unit by
using the Communications > Ethernet > Parameters menu.

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Comunicações
Ethernet
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Endereço IP: 192. 1. 1. 1


Máscara de Subrede: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192. 1. 1. 1
IP Servidor SNTP: 192. 1. 1. 1
IP Servidor SNTP 2: 192. 1. 1. 1
Tempo Pedidos Servidor: 300
Variação Máxima: 500
Número Mínimo Pacotes SNTP: 5
Timeout Servidor: 300
Modo Funcionamento: MULTICAST
Tempo de Repetição da BDD: 0.100
Tempo de Refrescamento da BDD: 1.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Parâmetros

Tempo Falha de Unidade da BDD: 10.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.2. Configuration menu of the Ethernet communication parameters

5
Table 5.2. Ethernet Parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

IP Address 1.1.1.1 .. 254.254.254.254 - 192.1.1.1


Subnetwork Mask 0.0.0.0 .. 255.255.255.255 - 255.255.255.0
Gateway 1.1.1.1 .. 254.254.254.254 - 192.1.1.1

One of the parameters to be configured corresponds to the Ip Address. This parameter allows
identifying a unit when in a TCP/IP network. The configured value should therefore be unique.
Each IP Address field can have values from 1 to 254. It is not possible to configure Loopback
addresses (127.xxx.xxx.xxx). The default IP Address is 192.1.1.1.

The indication of the Subnetwork Mask is also necessary. The configured default Subnetwork
Mask is 255.255.255.0. Each Subnetwork Mask field can have values from 0 to 255. As in the
previous parameter, loopback addresses cannot be configured for this parameter.

The last parameter necessary for the communication of WinProt with the unit via TCP/IP is
Default Gateway. This parameter is necessary when there is the need to access units not
belonging to the same subnetwork. Each Default Gateway field can have values from 1 to
254 as in the IP Address and loopback addresses are not allowed. The default value of the
Default Gateway parameter is 192.1.1.1.

The Ethernet board MAC address can be seen in the unit through the Communications >
Ethernet > see MAC Address menu. This is a unique address and is stored in the Ethernet
board microcontroller BOOT code.

5.2.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Associated with the TCP/IP communication there is a group of logical variables in the Ethernet
module. These variables transmit information about the communication status.

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Table 5.3. Description of the logical variables in the Ethernet module.

Id Name Description

8192 Communication State Indicates the communication status.


8193 Ethernet Board Restart When the Ethernet board starts, a pulse command
is sent to this gate.
8194 Port 1 - 100BaseTX The state of this gate is active when port 1 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the copper interface.
8195 Port 1 - 100BaseFX The state of this gate is active when port 1 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the optical fibre interface.
8196 Port 2 - 100BaseTX The state of this gate is active when port 2 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the copper interface.
8197 Port 2 - 100BaseFX The state of this gate is active when port 2 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the optical fibre interface.

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5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS

Apart from the unit’s protection and control functions, the TPU TD420 allows the connection to
a local area network and the consequent interconnection to substation supervision and control
systems or to remote control centres. Depending on the unit’s version, it can provide one of four
different protocols for interaction with SCADA systems:

IEC60870-5-104 – Available in the ETH version units.

Lonworks – Available in the LON version units.

DNP 3.0 – Available in the DNP version units.

IEC61850 – Available in the 850 version units.

The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a network which includes the various protection and control units. The
connection to a local area network also allows the connection to a data concentrator unit that
works as a bridge to the supervision and control system of the network. This hierarchy level is
beyond the scope of this description and it can be based on several network infrastructures
(radio, optical fibre, telephone line, etc.) and on different communication protocols.

Figure 5.3. Typical architecture of the protection and control system

The functions associated with the connection to the SCADA system through a LAN allow the
TPU TD420 to execute a set of operations that are common in terminal units integrated in
supervision and control systems, namely:
Sending logical information to the supervision and control system (single digital indications
and double digital indications);

Sending analogue information to the supervision and control system (measures, counters,
etc.);

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Sending configuration information to the supervision and control system (settings, tables,
etc.);

Reception of controls from the supervision and control system (pulse commands, permanent
commands, analogue commands, etc.);

Reception of information about time synchronization from a synchronization unit integrated


in the supervision and control system.

The time synchronization mechanism can be based on information sent directly by a


synchronization unit (with an integrated GPS system) or indirectly by the local concentrating unit.
It has a precision of 1 ms.
So that the units are synchronized by protocol, the Synchronization parameter in the Set Date
and Time > Parameters menu must be configured with the SCADA value.

In all units that have interaction protocols with SCADA systems, the LAN LED in the front panel
indicates the communication status.

The device profile for the IEC 60870-5-104 and DNP 3.0 protocols and the documents related
with the IEC 61850 protocol can be consulted.

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5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE

Besides the features already presented, the TPU TD420 uses the network infrastructure to
execute another type of functions mainly designed for the execution of distributed automation
functions which means they are based on the direct interaction with other units. This function
consists in the horizontal communication among different units through a distributed database
associated with each unit.

Synchronisation

Telecontrol

Distributed
5
database

Figure 5.4. Distributed database architecture.

The distributed database is a function available in all units of the 420 range. Its main goal is to
quickly transmit information among units in the same LAN. This mechanism allows exchanging
information among any protection and control units of the 420 range, as long as they are
connected in the same local area network.

The main field of application of this function is to carry out distributed automation among the
various units belonging to the same system. These automation functions can perform the
replacement of solutions based on cables, such as the transference of protection tripping as well
as the acceleration of protections, or control functions that use external information, as in the
case of automatic voltage regulation, reactive power control or others.

The units of the 420 range provide two distinct platforms for the distributed database. One of
them is based on the Lonworks protocol while the other is based on UDP. Both will be detailed in
this chapter.

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5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL

5.5.1. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE

The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a local area network with an optical fibre or twisted pair ring topology and
that integrates the various protection units of the same network. The system can have up to 60
units connected in the same ring.

The ring network topology allows a correct operation in case one of the connections is broken.
However the general operation of the system with the ring open may present a problem if one
more connection is broken thus creating islands composed by some units isolated from the rest
of the system.

The local area network is based on a ring network that has a glass optical fibre communication
media with SMA or ST type connectors. The communication rate is 1.25 Mb/s. The network
protocol is based on the LONTALK protocol upon which the highest level layers are implemented
which is defined in a PUR 2.1 protocol variant. This protocol is thus also implemented in the 5
EFACEC’s Central Unit and owned by EFACEC.

Entities Types

The following entities are defined in the TPU TD420:

Digital variables – These variables correspond to logical indications of the unit.

Analogue measures – They correspond to all the measures processed in the unit including
the calculated ones. They are sent in floating point format.
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format.
Tables – They correspond to structures of data, logs, etc., which have a variable dimension
and that are sent to or received by the unit.
Controls – Normally they are controls generated by the control centre aiming at performing
an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.

Entities Attributes

All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU TD420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:

Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.

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Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control, it will contain its associated state or value.
Cause – It indicates the cause that led to the transmission of the entity. In the case of logical
variables, this attribute represents the reason of the logical state transition. It is normally
used to characterize the circuit-breaker state changes where it is very useful to know in a
single message the cause associated with the manoeuvre. The defined causes are:

Table 5.4. Causes List.

Id Description

0 No associated cause
1 State change
2 Validity change
3 By request
7 By time delay
128 External local command (button)
129 TPU Local command
130 Remote command

5
131 Automation command
132 Protections command

In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the Lonworks function. The defined causes for sending measures are:

Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;

By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;

Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.

The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:


Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The protection is
responsible for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with
logical state 0. This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is
needed for commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.

The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:


Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.

5.5.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES

The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:

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Have one or more protection units with a Lonworks communication board;

Have a central unit running on a local PC;

Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit, namely the ring
connection through the optical fibre;

Configure all units connected to the network correctly;

Configure the central unit database correctly.

When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit it
is possible to normally operate the system.

Although the mechanisms of central unit database configuration are not in the scope of this
document, it is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:

A node corresponding to the unit’s address must be defined.

All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.

All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.

All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent by
the unit.
5

The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.

In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.

Mechanisms against Communications Failure

Communications failure may have different causes, which vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:
Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the network board and refreshing all database information associated with the
failed unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information.

General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit database.

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Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do
with the protocol used to transmit messages. To assure that all messages are delivered
correctly this protocol was conceived to be connection oriented, that is, with message
delivery acknowledgment.

A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > Lonworks > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information log. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data.

Debug Mechanisms

To access the unit’s operation, as terminal unit of the SCADA system, the TPU TD420 has a
group of menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time. The central
unit itself also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and received
information from the various network units can be seen. This information includes a detailed
amount of information about the status of the internal communication with the network board
and between this and the central unit, namely: 5
 Status of communication with the network.

 Internal status of the network board.

 Number of synchronization messages.

 Number of repeated messages.


Comunicações
LonWorks
Informações
Informações

Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 22
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
Reset do Neuron Chip
Enviar Service Pin

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.5. LonWorks Communication Menu with debug information

5.5.3. CONFIGURATION

The Lonworks protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in WinSettings in the
Lonworks function. The Location String can also be consulted and configured in the unit’s
menu.

The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies firstly the definition of the
unit’s address. This information is done by configuring the Location String parameter. This

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parameter should have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the central unit
and it should be unique in the network.

You should also be aware that the first two digits of the Location String should contain a
number from 00 to 60, for example 029999, since these two digits define the address for the
other units on the same network and are thus indispensable for the horizontal communication
among units.
Comunicações
LonWorks
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Location String: 029999

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.6. Location String configuration mode.

If the network board is not correctly configured, its configuration process should be executed
through the LoadNodes application supplied with the central unit. This application allows 5
configuring the network board firmware, including the address.

The unit’s network address configuration, when it is done for the first time, needs making a
network board identification operation, namely the identification of the network board
microcontroller – Neuron ID. This identification belongs to each board and is unique in the
global context and is acquired in two distinct ways:

By using the SERV button available at the rear of the unit.


By using the unit local interface through the Communications > Lonworks > Information >
Send Service Pin menu.

It is also possible to restart Communications by pressing the RST key available at the rear of
the unit or through the restart Communications menu. You should select the
Communications > Lonworks > Information > Neuron Chip Reset menu.

Comunicações
LonWorks
Informações
Informações

Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 22
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
Reset do Neuron Chip
Enviar Service Pin

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.7. Send Service Pin and Reset Neuron Chip commands access menu

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Measures and Counters

The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU TD420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.

The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU TD420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure > Time parameter.

If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.

As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n > 5
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.

If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.

Digital Indications

The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and
gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indication since it cannot be done
through the unit’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128 single
digital indications.

The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the
combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.

Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid. Causal associations for double indications are not supported.

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The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.

Controls

The configuration of the controls received in the TPU TD420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
gate in the Command n parameter and the desired type, PULSE or INDICATION in the
Command n > Type parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.

The configuration of commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the
supervision and control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with
the logical state varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders
are a typical example.

The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.

Parameters

The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.

The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU TD420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters. These
5
parameters can be interpreted in the central unit as analogue or digital parameters depending
on the configuration made.

Changing data is done parameter by parameter; their check and validation is responsibility of
the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter identification
and respective value. This means that when you want to change any function with several
parameters that corresponds to a set of changes of values and respective sending of messages.

In functional terms there are several possible hypotheses: the central unit may want to know the
parameter current state before it changes it, it may simply change it or it may only consult it

Table 5.5. LonWorks protocol parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Location String 000000 .. 999999 - 011000


Measure n Measures defined in the - No Allocation
TPU TD420
Measure n > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure n > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Measure n > Jitter 0.5 ... 100 % 0.5
Measure n (Int) Counters defined in the - No Allocation
TPU TD420
Measure n (Int) > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure n (Int) > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Indication n Gates defined in the unit -
Double Indication n Gates defined in the unit -

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Parameter Range Unit Default Value

Command n Gates defined in the unit -


Parameter n Parameters defined in the unit -

5.5.4. COMMUNICATION WITH WINP ROT

The protection and control units in LON version support communication with WinProt through a
connection to EFACEC’s Lonworks Scanner.

For WinProt to communicate with a unit through Lonworks, the unit should be correctly
configured in the local network as well as the PC where WinProt is installed. In WinProt it must be
indicated the Location String of the unit one desires to communicate and the central unit
address. The Lonworks protocol must also be configured as active protocol for that unit.

5.5.5. LONWORKS DISTRIBUTED D ATABASE

The distributed database, as indicated by its name, is the method each unit has to communicate
its information, necessary in other units, to the network and at the same time to access other
units’ information, that is, other distributed databases.

This horizontal communication mechanism has already been implemented in the last generation
units (TPU x410) with the same philosophy. Due to that fact there is a complete compatibility in 5
information exchange through the distributed database among the units of the 410 and 420
ranges.

The distributed database is based on a group of network variables defined in the Lontalk
protocol. These network variables have a 32 bytes length, but only 23 of them have useful
information. The remaining bytes are used by the system. The information placed in this data
structure is divided into three main types:
Digital Indications: up to 64 digital indications can be transmitted, using for that purpose
the first 8 bytes from the distributed database structure. The indication is represented to the
bit and each one represents the logical state of each one of the digital indications.
Analogue Measures: Up to 3 float type measures can be transmitted; each one occupies 4
bytes.
Counters: Up to 3 counters can be transmitted; each one occupies 1 byte.

The database structure is fixed and the user can configure all transmitted information, whether
they are digital entities, analogue entities or counters as can be seen next:

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LSB MSB

Digitals (8 bytes)

Measure 1 (4 bytes)

Measure 2 (4 bytes)

Measure 3 (4 bytes)

Counter 1 (1 byte) Counter 2 (1 byte)

Counter 3 (1 byte)

Figure 5.8. Data structure of the Distributed Database.

Operation Principles

The distributed database is based on three basic principles:

Each distributed database is broadcast to the network. The sending unit does not need to
know which units will consume information because all receive it.
5
It is the receiving units’ responsibility to decide which information to process. It is on the
receiving units that the configuration of the databases they are interested in should be made.

Finally the distributed database refresh mechanism consists in the retransmission, by each
sending node, whenever the associated information changes or periodically, after this
refreshment, after a period defined in the database of the central unit.

From these basic principles the following conclusions can be drawn:

Each unit can simultaneously be a sending node and a reception node.

Each reception node can receive all distributed databases except its own.

The configuration of the information to be received is always made on the side of the
receiver units having in mind what the sending units are transmitting at each moment.

The configuration of the information to be sent is made in the sending units.

Even if a unit starts operating long after the others, it will be refreshed with their updated
information without the need to occur a change of data on those units.

Interaction with the Central Unit

The distributed database function does not need the central unit to be running. However, it is
absolutely necessary that it runs at least once, to execute the network variables bindings that are
used to support the distributed databases. Once the network is initialized, the central unit can
be powered off.

After the central unit powers off, all the units that are added to the network will not have the
distributed database operating correctly. This is also true for the power off and power on of the
units that were in the network. In both cases the central unit must be restarted.

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Mechanisms against Communications Failure

The matter of the recovering mechanisms against Communications failures should be analysed
taking into account that each unit can send or receive distributed databases.

 Failure in the Sending Unit


The failure of a sending unit is detected in the reception unit by the network board. The
detection process consists in checking the periodically sending of the distributed database by
the sending nodes. If the sending node takes three times longer than the time of retransmission
of the distributed database, each reception node will assume the sending unit as failed and
assume the default data as the information it was receiving from the failed unit. If it was
receiving digital indications, they will be set to the logical state 0. If it was receiving measures or
counters, they will be set to 0. In case it is a temporary failure, as soon as the communications
are restored the protection will be refreshed with the correct information. In the Lonworks
module are available 60 indications [Failure in the Ddb Unit 1 .. Failure in the Ddb Unit 60]
which are activated whenever a sending unit in which the reception unit is interested in is
considered failed.

 Failure in the Reception Unit


The failure of the reception unit does not interfere with the sending units. However this failure
may be due to a problem in the communications channel only affecting that unit. In these cases
the procedure is the same as the one used for the case of failure in the sending unit, that is, all
values are set to the default values. Note that the reception unit may not distinguish a failure in a
5
sending unit from its powering off from the network.

In case of power off and posterior power on of the unit, the central unit must be operating
correctly, so that the unit can send and receive the distributed database correctly. If this does not
happen, the connected unit will not operate correctly in terms of sending and receiving
distributed database.

Mechanisms of Real Time Analysis

The TPU TD420 provides in real time a group of information about the state of all information
received through the distributed database. This information consists in the state of logical
variables and in the values of measures and counters received from the distributed database.

It is possible to consult, using the logic edition module Winlogic, the logical state of each of the
128 logical variables received through the distributed database. For that purpose consult the
gates state [From Ddb: Generic Var 1 . . From Ddb: Generic Var 128] of the Lonworks
module. These gates can be connected to any other gates.

Configuration

The configuration of the distributed database consists in the definition of the digital and
analogue information received and transmitted in the distributed database. This information
should consider the needs of the remaining acquisition or protection units in the network and is
done in the function configuration module – WinSettings – and the distributed database
parameters can be found in the Lonworks function.

 Digital Indications to Send


The configuration of the 64 digital indications that will be sent to the network is made
exclusively through the WinSettings by indicating for each one the desired module and gate for
the parameters For Ddb> Indication 1 . . For Ddb > Indication 64.

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 Digital Indications to Receive


The configuration of the logical indications to receive takes the existence of the 128 logical
variables in the Lonworks module into account; these variables can be updated from any
protection unit. For each one of them it must be defined the source protection unit and its
position in the database. The source unit corresponds to the first two digits in that unit’s
Location String and it affects the parameter From Ddb >Indication n - Unit, n from 1 to 128.
The position in the database corresponds to the order of the bit in the database and it is
configured through the parameter From Ddb > Indication n - Index, n from 1 to 128.

 Analogue Measures to Send


The configuration of the sent measures consists in the definition of the 3 measures possible to
send through the distributed database. The choice is made from a list of all the defined and
calculated measures in the unit. It is therefore possible to transmit any measure at user’s choice
in one of 3 possible positions. This configuration is carried out through the For Ddb > Measure
n parameter where n varies from 1 to 3 and has the identification of the measure to be sent.

Sending measures is dependent on the unit precision, that is, whenever the unit detects a
change in a measure, that measure will also be refreshed through the distributed database,
where the jitter is the internal precision of the unit’s measure system. This feature is important
for the implementation of functions that depend on external analogue information, as is the
case of functions such as the reactive power control of capacitors.

 Analogue Measures to Receive


5
The configuration of analogue measures is made in the same way as the digital indications. In
the list of possible measures in the protection is defined a group of 20 measures that can be
received in the distributed database, some of them already with meaning, such as reactive
powers. These measures are important because they can be used for internal functions of the
unit, thus their definition. For example, the reactive powers can be used in the TPU C420 in the
Reactive Power Control automation.

For each one of them it is possible to define the sending unit and the respective measure (from
the 3 measures sent by the sending units) by defining the From Ddb > Measure n - Unit and
From Ddb > Measure n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 20.

 Counters to Send
Counters are configured, such as measures, from a list of counters available in the unit through
the To Ddb > Counter n parameter where n varies from 1 to 3 and has the identification of the
counter to be sent. The counters transmitted in the distributed database are bytes (values from 0
to 255) and have a jitter of 1 unit. Thus, whenever they change value, they are automatically
transmitted to the network.

 Counters to Receive
The counters follow the same philosophy as the measures. There is a pre-defined group of
counters – 10 counters – that can be separately configured to be updated from a unit at choice
and the respective counter (from the 3 possible ones) by defining the From Ddb > Counter n -
Unit and From Ddb > Counter n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to10.

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Table 5.6. Parameters associated with the distributed database.

Parameter Range Unit Default Value

From Ddb> Indication n – Unit 0..60 - 0


From Ddb > Indication n – Index 1..64 - 1
From Ddb > Measure n – Unit 0..60 - 0
From Ddb > Measure n – Index 1..3 - 1
From Ddb > Counter n – Unit 0..60 - 0
From Ddb > Counter n – Index 1..3 - 1
To Ddb > Indication n Indications defined in -
the unit
To Ddb > Measure n Measures defined in - NO
the unit ALLOCATION
To Ddb > Counter n Counters defined in - NO
the unit ALLOCATION

Configuration Example
The goal of the following application example is to provide a better perception of the distributed
database operation and configuration mode. The system is formed by 3 sending and receiving
units with the Location Strings 010000, 020000 and 600000. The following operation is desired:
5
Unit 01 should know from unit 60 the Logic Selectivity Blocking state.

Unit 02 should know from unit 01 the circuit breaker state and the observed reactive power.

Unit 60 should know from unit 01 the observed position of the tap changer.

URT

T T
U
P U
P
S3 S3
0
0 UU
0
0 UU
IrIr===
r2r=
2 IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
220 020AA 220
220 0 0AA
2K
K 22
K K
VV VV

60 kV

LAN

T T
U
P U
P
S3 S3
0 0
0 UU
IrIr===
r=
r
0 UU
=
r=
IrIr==r
220 22
0AA 22022
0AA
220 0
2 220 0
K2
K 2
K2
K
VV VV

TPU 02

CB status
Active Power
Logical trip Changeover
lock tap

15 kV
T T T T
U
P U
P U
P U
P
S3 S3 S3 S3
0
0 UU 0
0 UU 0
0 UU 0
0 UU
IrIr==
r2r=
2 IrIr==
r2r=
2 IrIr==
r2r=
2 IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
220 0 0AA 220 0AA 220 0AA 220 0AA
22
K K 220 0
22
K K 220 0
22
K K 220 0
22
K K
VV VV VV VV

TPU 60 TPU 01

Figure 5.9. Example of distributed database configuration.

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Unit 010000 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the To Ddb> Indication 64 parameter


with Circuit Breaker in the Value field and Circuit Breaker State in the Value 2 field.

Configure the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to be updated from unit 60 with index 1.
For that purpose configure the From Ddb> Indication 1 – Unit parameter with the value 60
and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.

Configure To Ddb > Measure 20 with Reactive Power.

Configure To Ddb > Counter 1 with Tap Changer Position.


Unit 020000 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to
be updated from unit 01 with the index 64. For that purpose configure the From Ddb>
Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value 01 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index
parameter with the value 64.

Configure the measure Reactive Power of the Ddb to be updated from unit 01 position 64.
For that purpose configure the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Unit parameter with the value 01
and the From Ddb> Measure 2 - index with the value 20.
Unit 600000 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the To Ddb> Indication 1 parameter 5


with Overcurrent Protection in the Value field and Logic Selectivity Blocking in the Value 2
field.

Configure the Ddb Tap Changer counter to be updated from unit 01 position 1. For that
purpose configure the From Ddb> Counter 1 - Unit parameter with the value 01 and the
From Ddb > Counter 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.

5.5.6. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Associated with the Lonworks protocol there is a module constituted by a group of logical
variables used for sending and receiving logical indications. These indications are divided into
two large groups. The first one is formed by 5 logical variables that show information regarding
the Lonworks protocol.

The second group of logical variables refers to the variables which are associated with the
distributed database. It is constituted by 60 logical variables for the purpose of failed protection
units indication and by 128 variables that are updated through the reception of databases from
other units.

Table 5.7. Description of the logical variables of the Lonworks module.

Id Name Description

7936 LAN Communication Board This indication shows the Lonworks board status –
Out of Order or Operational.
7937 LAN Communication Status This gate, as the LAN led, shows the
communication status with the central unit.
7938 LAN Invalid Command When an invalid command is received from the
network, a pulse command is transmitted to this
gate.
7939 LAN Remote Commands Blocked When this indication is active, the commands

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Id Name Description
received from the LAN are ignored.
7940 LAN Information Loss Whenever loss of information in the network
message sending or reception is registered, a
pulse command is sent to this gate.
7941 From Ddb: Generic Var 1 128 Indications that are updated from the
... ... databases received from other units.
8068 From Ddb: Generic Var 128
8069 Ddb Unit 1 Failure Indications that are activated whenever a sending
... ... unit which is being received is assumed as failed.
8128 Ddb Unit 60 Failure

Additionally to the indications referred in Table 5.7 are also available the variables
corresponding to parameters change and function logic.

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5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL

In the DNP version, the TPU TD420 allows the connection to a local area network based on a
DNP 3.0 network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres.

5.6.1. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE

The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a local area network with a serial interface in an optical fibre ring topology or
in a RS485 topology.

5.6.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLE

The DNP3.0 network protocol is based on a serial protocol. In units with this firmware version
the serial port identified as COM 1 is exclusively allocated to the protocol.

The local area network can be implemented on a plastic or glass optical fibre ring topology or it
can be based on a RS485 interface, depending on the connector used for COM 1. In both cases
the communication rate is configurable and can have a value from 4800 baud to 19200 baud. 5
Entities Types

According to the DNP3.0 protocol the following entities are defined in the TPU TD420:
Digital Variables – These variables correspond to logical indications of the unit;

Analogue Measures – They correspond to all measures processed in the unit including the
calculated ones. They are sent in floating point format;
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format.
Controls – Normally they are controls generated by the control centre aiming at performing
an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.

Files – All information exchanged between the unit’s configuration program, WinProt, and
the unit has as basis the file transfer mechanisms foreseen by the protocol.

Entities Attributes

All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU TD420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:
Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.
Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control, it will contain its associated state or value.

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In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the DNP function. The defined causes for sending measures are:

Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;

By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;

Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.

The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:


Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The protection is
responsible for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with
logical state 0. This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is
needed for commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.

The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:


Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.

5
5.6.3. OPERATION P RINCIPLES

The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:

Have one or more protection units with the DNP firmware version;

Have a central unit running on a local PC;

Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit running in the
PC;

Configure all units connected to the network correctly;

Configure the central unit database correctly.

When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit, it
is possible to normally operate the system.

Although the mechanisms of the central unit database configuration are not in the scope of this
document, it is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:

A node corresponding to the unit’s address must be defined.

The unit must be correctly configured in the central unit both in application and logical levels.

All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.

All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.

All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.

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The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.

In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.

Mechanisms against Communications Failure

Communications failure may have different causes that vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:
Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the DNP 3.0 protocol and refreshing all database information associated with the
failed unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information.
5
General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit database.
Class 1 Entities Request – The information request of class 1 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 1 entities.
Class 2 Entities Request – The information request of class 2 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 2 entities.
Class 3 Entities Request – The information request of class 3 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 3 entities.
Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do
with the protocol used to transmit messages. To assure that all messages are delivered
correctly this protocol was conceived to be connection oriented, that is, with message
delivery acknowledgment.

A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > DNP 3.0 > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information log. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data.

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Debug Mechanisms

To access the unit’s operation, as a terminal unit of the SCADA system, TPU TD420 has a group
of menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time, namely:
Comunicações
DNP 3.0
Informações
Informações

Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 8
Limpar Contadores Mensagens

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.10. DNP 3.0 Communication Information Menu with debug information.

The central unit itself also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and
received information from the various network units can be seen. This information includes a
detailed amount of information about the status of the internal communication with the network
board and between this and the central unit.
5
5.6.4. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies firstly the definition of the
unit’s address. This is done by configuring the DNP Address parameter. This parameter should
have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the central unit and should be unique
in the network. It can be configured with values from 0 to 32767 and its default value is 2. It is
also necessary to indicate the DNP Master Address which corresponds to the central unit
address in the network. This address, as the previous one, can have values from 0 to 32767 and
its default value is 1. These parameters can be configured and consulted in the unit’s menu or
using the WinSettings.
Comunicações
DNP 3.0
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Endereço DNP: 2
Endereço Master DNP: 1

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.11. Configuration Menu of the DNP 3.0 protocol parameters.

There is another group of parameters that can only be configured in the DNP 3.0 function of
WinSettings. One of these parameters corresponds to Link Confirmation. This parameter can be
configured as NEVER or SOMETIMES, the first one is the default value. The Timeout Link
parameter can have values from 0 to 32767 milliseconds. Its default value is 3000 milliseconds.

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Link Resend is the next parameter to configure for DNP 3.0 protocol. It can be configured with
values from 0 to 255 and its default value is 2. The next parameter is Application
Confirmation. It can be configured as ON or OFF, OFF being its default value. The
Communication Timeout parameter corresponds to the interval after which the unit should
assume communication failure with the central unit, if nothing has been received. This time
interval can be configured from 0 to 32767 seconds and its default value is 60 seconds. The
next parameter corresponds to Report by Exception. Its value can be configured as ON or OFF.
It indicates whether the events should be immediately reported to SCADA or not, that is, if its
value is ON the events are immediately reported to SCADA, otherwise the events are only
reported when the central unit enquires the unit with a request of events of the class they belong
to. Its default value is OFF. In a ring network, this parameter should be configured with its
default value. The Indications Class parameter indicates the class to which the indications
belong. It can be configured as NONE, CLASS 1, CLASS 2 or CLASS 3, the first is its default value.
The Measures Class parameter is equivalent to the previous parameter but indicating in which
class the measures and counters should be reported.

Measures and Counters

The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU TD420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.

The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and 5
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU TD420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure > Time parameter.

If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.

As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.

If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.

Digital Indications

The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and

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gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indication since it cannot be done
through the unit’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128 single
digital indications.

The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the
combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.

Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid.

The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.

Controls

EFACEC’s protection and control units support all type of single digital controls defined in the
DNP 3.0 protocol.

The configuration of the controls received in the TPU TD420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
5
gate in the Command n parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.

The configuration of commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the
supervision and control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with
the logical state varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders
are a typical example.

The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.

Parameters

The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.

The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU TD420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter and in Parameter n > Type field the type of desired parameter:
DIGITAL or ANALOGUE. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters. These
parameters can be interpreted in the central unit as analogue or digital parameters depending
on the configuration made.

The DIGITAL type parameters should only be used for parameters with only two possible values:
ON and OFF.

The ANALOGUE type parameters can be used for all type of parameters (byte, short or float).

Changing data is done parameter by parameter; their check and validation is responsibility of
the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter identification
and respective value. This means that when you want to change any function with several
parameters that corresponds to a set of changes of values and respective sending of messages

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In functional terms there are several possible hypotheses: the central unit may want to know the
parameter current state before it changes it, it may simply change it or it may only consult it.

Table 5.8. DNP 3.0. protocol parameters

Parameter Range Unit Default value

DNP Address 0 .. 32767 - 0


DNP Master Address 0 .. 32767 - 1
Link Confirmation NEVER / SOMETIMES - NEVER
Timeout Link 0 .. 32767 ms 3000
Link Resend 0 .. 255 - 2
Application Confirmation ON / OFF - OFF
Application Timeout 0 .. 32767 ms 5000
Communication Timeout 0 .. 32767 s 60
Report by Exception ON / OFF - OFF
Master Synchronization 0 .. 300 s 10
Indications Class NONE / CLASS 1 / CLASS 2 / - NONE
CLASS 3
Measures Class NONE / CLASS 1 / CLASS 2 / - NONE
CLASS 3
Measure n Measures defined in the - No Allocation
5
TPU TD420
Measure n > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure n > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Measure n > Jitter 0.5 ... 100 % 0.5
Measure (Int) n Counters defined in the - No Allocation
TPU TD420
Measure (Int) n > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure (Int) n > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Indication n Gates defined in the unit -
Double Indication n Gates defined in the unit -
Command n Gates defined in the unit -
Parameter n Parameters defined in the unit -
Parameter n > Type ANALOGUE / DIGITAL - ANALOGUE

5.6.5. COMMUNICATION WITH THE WINP ROT

The protection and control units in DNP 3.0 version support communication with WinProt
through a connection to EFACEC’s DNP Scanner.

So that the WinProt communicates with a unit through DNP it is necessary that the unit is
correctly configured in the local network as well as the PC where WinProt is installed. As the
communication of the unit with WinProt has the file transfer as basis, it is necessary that all
associated configuration is correctly made in the central unit. On the WinProt side it is necessary

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to indicate the Unit Address with which one desires to communicate and the central unit
address. The DNP 3.0 protocol must also be configured as active protocol for that unit.

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5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL

5.7.1. ARCHITECTURE

In the ETH version, the TPU TD420 allows the connection to a local area network based on an
Ethernet network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres. The local area network is based on TCP/IP network with copper or
optical fibre interface with ST or SC type connectors. The communication rate is 100Mb/s.

The EFACEC’s protection and control units have full compatibility with systems where the
network protocol corresponds to the IEC60870-5-104 protocol.

Entities Types

According to the IEC60870-5-104 protocol the following entities are defined:


Digital Variables – These variables correspond to logical indications in the unit.

Analogue Measures – They correspond to all measures processed in the unit including the
calculated ones. They are sent in a floating point format.
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format. 5
Controls – They correspond to controls generated by the control centre aiming at
performing an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.

Entities Attributes

All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU TD420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:

Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.
Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control (command or parameter), it will contain the
control associated state or value.
Cause – It indicates the cause that led to the transmission of the entity. In the case of logical
variables, this attribute represents the reason of the logical state transition. It is normally
used to characterize the circuit breaker state changes where it is very useful to know in a
single message the cause associated to the manoeuvre. The defined causes are:

Table 5.9. List of causes.

Id Description

0 No associated cause
1 State change
2 Validity change

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Id Description

3 Overflow
4 Underflow
5 By time delay
16 Undetermined cause
17 Automation command
18 Manual command
19 Protections command

In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the IEC104 function. The defined causes for sending measures are:

Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;

By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;

Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.

The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:


Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The unit is responsible
for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with logical state 0.
This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is needed for
5
commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.

The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:


Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.

5.7.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLE

The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:

Have one or more protection units with a Ethernet communication board;

Have a central unit running on a local PC;

Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit, namely the
connection of all units to the network;

Configure all units connected to the network correctly;

Configure the central unit correctly.

When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit, it
is possible to normally operate the system.

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Although the mechanisms of central unit configuration are not in the scope of this document, it
is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:

A unit with the IP Address of the TPU TD420 is defined in the central unit.

It is also necessary that the unit and the central unit are configured in the same network.

The configuration of the time delays made in the unit should be the same as the
configuration made for that unit but in the central unit.

The unit must be correctly configured in the central unit both in application and logical levels

The common address for the EFACEC’s protection and control units has a length of 2 bytes. It
is defined as being the last two bytes of the unit’s IP address, for example, for a unit with IP
address IP 172.16.2.56, the common address will be 2*256+56=568.

The connection port to the central unit defined for EFACEC units is 2404.

The source address is present in the messages exchanged between the units and the central
unit.

The objects address for EFACEC units has a length of 3 bytes.

All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.

All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.

All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent by
5
the unit.

All parameters defined in the database must have an associated entity configured in the
central unit for consultation of its value.

The digital parameters have an associated indication with the address 3*256+offset of the
parameter, where offset varies from 1 to 64.

The analogue parameters have an associated measure where the address is obtained in the
same way as in the digital parameters.

The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.

In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.

Mechanisms against Communications Failure

Communications failure may have different causes that vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:

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Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the protocol and refreshing all database information associated with the failed
unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information. Resynchronization
can also be periodically done according to the time delay defined in the central unit.
General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit. The general
control request is made during unit synchronization or resynchronization whenever for some
reason there is loss of transmitted information or according to the time delay configured in
the central unit.
Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do with
the protocol used to transmit messages. As the IEC60870-5-104 is supported in a TCP/IP
network, the platform itself is in charge of managing the message retransmission mechanism
when communication failures are detected.

A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > IEC104 > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information log. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data. 5

Debug Mechanisms

To access the unit’s operation, as terminal unit of the SCADA system, the TPU TD420 has a
group of menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time, namely:
Comunicações
IEC104
Informações
Informações

Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Limpar Contadores Mensagens

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 5.12. IEC104 Communication Information Menu with debud information.

The central unit itself also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and
received information from the various network units can be seen. This information includes a
detailed amount of information about the status of the internal communication with the network
board and between this and the central unit.

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5.7.3. CONFIGURATION

The IEC60870-5-104 protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in the IEC104
function of WinSettings.

The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies in the first place the
network configuration. The parameters associated with the network configuration, namely IP
Address, Subnetwork Mask and Default Gateway, can be consulted and configured in the
unit’s menu, in Communications > Ethernet > Parameters, or in WinSettings in the Ethernet
function. The IP Address should have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the
central unit and it should be unique in the network.
Comunicações
IEC104
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Tempo Estabelecimento Ligação: 30.000


Tempo Envio APDUs: 15.000
Tempo Confirm Msg ACK: 10.000
Tempo Confirm Msg Teste: 20.000
Diferença Sequência Msg: 12
APDUs após último ACK: 8

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


5
Figure 5.13. Configuration Menu of the IEC60870-5-104 protocol

Timers

The configuration of the timers associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol can be done in
WinSettings or in the unit in Communications > IEC104 > Parameters. The configuration of
the timers made in the unit must be coherent with the configuration made for the same timers
in the central unit.
One of the timers corresponds to the Connection Establishment Time and can be configured
with values from 1 to 255 seconds. By default this timer is configured for 30 seconds.
Another timer APDUs Send Time, corresponds to the APDUs end time or test. It can be
configured with values from 1 to 255 seconds and its default value is 15 seconds.
The Msg ACK Confirm Time corresponds to a confirmation timer of acknowledged messages
when data messages are not received; it can be configured with values from 1 to 255 seconds.
By default the configured value is 10 seconds. This timer should be configured with a value
higher than the previous time delay.
The last timer Test Msg Confirm Time corresponds to the time to send test frames after a
period when nothing is sent. This time can have values from 1 to 255 seconds and its default
value is 20 seconds.

System Parameters

One of the parameters associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol corresponds to the
maximum difference of I format APDUs, in the number of the received sequence, so that the
state variable is sent. This parameter, Msg Sequence Difference, can be configured with values
from 1 to 32767 APDUs and its default value is 12 APDUs.

The other system parameter corresponds to the number of I format APDUs received between
sending acknowledge messages. This parameter, APDUs after last ACK, can have values from

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1 to 32767 APDUs and its default value is 8 APDUs. The value configured for this parameter
should not be higher than two thirds of the value configured for the previous parameter.

The configuration of system parameters can be made, as in the case of time delays, in the
WinSettings or in the unit in Communications > IEC104 > Parameters. The configuration
made in the unit must be coherent with the configuration made for the same parameters in the
central unit.

Measures and Counters

The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU TD420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.

The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU TD420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure n > Time parameter.

If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
5
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.

As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:

If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.

If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.

Digital Indications

The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and
gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indications since it cannot be done
through the protection’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128
single digital indications.

The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the

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combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.

Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid. Causal associations for double indications are not supported.
The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.

Controls

EFACEC units support all type of single digital controls defined in the IEC60870-5-104 protocol.

The configuration of the controls received in the TPU TD420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
gate in the Command n parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.

The control type (PULSE or INDICATION) is defined on the central unit side. The configuration of
commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the supervision and
control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with the logical state
varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders are a typical
example.

The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.
5
Parameters

The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.

Remote Configuration is a generic function which basic principle is the change of data of the
various functions of the unit parameter by parameter, their check and validation is responsibility
of the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter
identification and respective value.

The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU TD420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter and in the filed Parameter n > Type The type of parameter desired:
DIGITAL or ANALOGUE. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters.

The DIGITAL type parameters should only be used for parameters with only two possible values:
ON and OFF. This type of parameter is consulted in the central unit as a digital entity with the
address 3*256+parameter offset where offset varies from 1 to 64.

The ANALOGUE type parameters can be used for all type of parameters (byte, short or float) and
are visualized in the central unit as measures also with the address 3*256+ parameter offset.

The update of the parameters value in the central unit is made in the general control requests.

Table 5.10. IEC60870-5-104 Protocol parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

Connection Establishment Time 1 .. 255 s 30


APDUs Send Time 1 .. 255 s 15
Msg ACK Confirm Time 1 .. 255 s 10
Test Msg Confirm Time 1 .. 255 s 20

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Parameter Range Unit Default value

Msg Sequence Difference 1 .. 32767 APDU 12


APDUs after last ACK 1 .. 32767 APDU 8
Measure n Measures defined in the unit - NO
ALLOCATION
Measure n > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure n > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Measure n > Jitter 0.5 ... 100 % 0.5
Measure (Int) n Counters defined in the - NO
TPU TD420 ALLOCATION
Measure (Int) n > Send OFF / TIME / JITTER / - OFF
TIME+JITTER
Measure (Int) n > Time 1 .. 60 s 5
Indication n Gates defined in the unit -
Double Indication n Gates defined in the unit -
Command n Gates defined in the unit -
Parameter n Parameters defined in the -
unit
5
5.7.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol there is a module constituted by a group of


logical variables that convey protocol related information.

Table 5.11. Logical variables description of the IEC104 module.

Id Name Description

10496 IEC104 Communication Status This gate shows, as the LAN led, the status of
communication with the central unit.
10497 IEC104 Invalid Command Whenever a network invalid command is received,
a pulse command is sent to this gate.
10498 IEC104 Remote Commands When this indication is active, the commands
Blocking received from the LAN are ignored.
10499 IEC104 Information Loss Whenever loss of information is registered in
sending or receiving network messages, a pulse
command is sent to this gate.
10500 IEC104 Protocol Restart Whenever the protocol is restarted, a pulse
command is sent to this gate.

Additionally to the indications referred in Table 5.7 are also available the variables
corresponding to parameters change and function logic.

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5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE

5.8.1. ARCHITECTURE

The units of the 420 range when equipped with Ethernet board can support the exchange of
information in the network having as base the UDP protocol and according to a distributed
database philosophy. This mechanism of horizontal communication was also implemented in
units with LON version but having as base the Lontalk protocol. Therefore, there is no
compatibility between these two platforms.

The distributed database is based on the objects defined in the IEC60870-5-104 protocol and
allows a maximum network of 100 units. The information transmitted and received is divided
into three main types:
Digital Indications: up to 64 digital indications can be transmitted and up to 128 digital
indications can be received.
Analogue Measures: Up to 8 float type measures can be transmitted and up to 20 float type
measures can be received.
Counters: Up to 4 short type counters can be transmitted and up to 10 short type counters
can be received.
5
The database structure transmitted to the network depends on the number of entitles
configured for transmission.

5.8.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES

The distributed database is based on four basic principles:

The Ethernet distributed database is broadcast in the network through UDP packages.

Each distributed database is placed in the network as broadcast to port 49152. The sending
unit does not need to know which units will consume information because all receive it.

It is responsibility of the receiving units to decide which information to process. It is on the


receiving units that the configuration of the databases they are interested in should be made.

Finally the distributed database refresh mechanism consists in the retransmission, by each
sending node, whenever the associated information changes or periodically according to the
time interval defined in the DDB Refresh Time parameter.

From these basic principles the following conclusions can be drawn:

Each unit can simultaneously be a sending node and a reception node.

Each reception node can receive all distributed databases except its own.

The configuration of the information to be received is always made on the side of the
receiver units having in mind what the sending units are transmitting at each moment.

The configuration of the information to be sent is made in the sending units.

Even if a unit starts operating long after, it will be refreshed with their updated information
without the need to occur a change of data on those units.

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Interaction with the Central Unit

The Ethernet distributed database, unlike the Lonworks distributed database has no type of
interaction with the central unit, so the units can operate without it.

Mechanisms against Communications Failure

The matter of the recovering mechanisms against communications failures should be analysed
taking into account that each unit can send or receive distributed databases.

The failure of a sending unit is detected in the reception unit by the network board. The
detection process consists in checking the periodically sending of the distributed database by
the sending nodes. If the sending node takes more than the timer defined in Time Failure in
the DDB Unit without transmitting, each reception node will assume the sending unit as failed.
The sending unit is responsible for placing the default data as the information it was receiving
from the failed unit. If it was receiving digital indications, they will be set to the logical state 0. If
it was receiving measures or counters, they will be to set 0. In case it is a temporary failure, as
soon as the communications are restored the protection will be refreshed with the correct
information

The failure of the reception unit does not interfere with the sending units. However this failure
may be due to a problem in the communications channel only affecting that unit. In these cases
the procedure is the same as the one used for the case of failure in the sending unit, that is, all
values are set to the default values. Note that the reception unit may not distinguish a failure in a
sending unit from its powering off from the network. 5
Mechanisms of Real Time Analysis

The TPU TD420 provides in real time a group of information about the state of all information
received through the distributed database. This information consists in the state of logical
variables and in the values of measures and counters received from the distributed database.

It is possible to consult, using the logic edition module Winlogic, the logical state of each of the
128 logical variables received through the distributed database. For that purpose consult the
gates state [From Ddb: Generic Var 1 . . From Ddb: Generic Var 128] of the Ethernet module.
These gates can be connected to any other gates.

To consult the value of each measure and counter received through the distributed database use
the collect and register analysis module, WinReports, and consult the measures and counters
value that refers to the distributed database.

5.8.3. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the distributed database consists in the configuration of the time delays
associated with transmission and reception of information and in the definition of the digital and
analogue information received and transmitted in the distributed database. This information
should consider the needs of the remaining acquisition or protection units in the network.

The configuration is done in the function configuration module – WinSettings – and the
distributed database parameters can be found in the Ethernet function.
Consider that the unit’s IP Address corresponds to the unit identification in the distributed
database.

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Timers
One of the timers associated with the Ethernet distributed database corresponds to the DDB
Repeat Time. This parameter can be configured with values from 0.01 to 1 second and
corresponds to the repetition time used by the transmitting units for retransmission after a
database change in order to avoid that the receiving units loose the new database.
It is also necessary to configure the DDB Refresh Time with a value from 0.1 to 60 seconds.
The transmitting units periodically send their database to the network according to the value
configured in this parameter.

The last timer is associated with the unit failures. If during a time interval higher than the
configured value in Time Failure in the DDB Unit, nothing is received from a unit, the receiving
unit should assume that unit as failed. This parameter can have values from 0.1 to 60 seconds.

Figure 5.14. Time Schematic of sending the Ddb to the network.

Digital Indications to Send

The configuration of the 64 digital indications that will be sent to the network is made
exclusively through the WinSettings by indicating for each one the desired module and gate for
the parameters For Ddb> Indication 1 . . For Ddb > Indication 64. The logical state of each of
these 64 gates will be the same as the sate of the entities of the structure of the distributed
database. This philosophy allows that a logical variable is the result of a logical expression
previously implemented with connections among gates.

Digital Indication to Receive

The configuration of the logical indications to receive takes the existence of the 128 logical
variables in the Ethernet module into account; these variables can be updated from any
protection unit. For each one of them it must be defined the source protection unit and its
position in the database. The source unit corresponds to the IP Address of that unit and it
affects the parameter From Ddb >Indication n - Unit, n from 0 to 255. The position in the
database corresponds to the object’s address in the database and it is configured through the
parameter From Ddb > Indication n - Index, n from 0 to 255.

Analogue Measures to Send

The configuration of the sent measures consists in the definition of the 8 measures possible to
send through the distributed database. The choice is made from a list of all the defined and

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calculated measures in the unit. It is therefore possible to transmit any measure at user’s choice
in one of 8 possible positions. This configuration is carried out through the For Ddb > Measure
n parameter where n varies from 1 to 8 and has the identification of the measure to be sent.

Sending measures is dependent on the unit precision, that is, whenever the unit detects a
change in a measure, that measure will also be refreshed through the distributed database
where the jitter is the internal precision of the unit’s measure system. This feature is important
for the implementation of functions that depend on external analogue information, as is the
case of functions such as the reactive power control of capacitor banks.

Analogue Measure to Receive

The configuration of analogue measure is done in the same way as the digital indication. In the
list of possible measure in the protection is defined a group of 20 measures that can be received
in the distributed database, some of them already with meaning, such as reactive powers. These
measures are important because they can be used for internal functions of the unit, thus their
definition. For example, the reactive powers can be used in the TPU C420 in the Reactive Power
Control automation.

For each one of them it is possible to define the sending unit and the respective measure (from
the 8 measures sent by the sending units) by defining the From Ddb > Measure n - Unit and
From Ddb > Measure n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 20.

Counters to Send
5
Counters are configured, such as measures, from a list of counters available in the unit through
the To Ddb > Counter n parameter where n varies from 1 to 4 and has the identification of the
counter to be sent. The counters transmitted in the distributed database are bytes (values from 0
to 255) and have a jitter of 1 unit. Thus, whenever they change value, they are automatically
transmitted to the network.

Counters to Receive

The counters follow the same philosophy as the measures. There is a pre-defined group of
counters – 10 counters – that can be separately configured to be updated from a unit at choice
and the respective counter (from the 4 possible ones) by defining the From Ddb > Counter n -
Unit and From Ddb > Counter n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 10.

Table 5.12. Ethernet distributed database parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

DDB Repeat Time 0.01. .1 second 0.1


DDB Refresh Time 0.1..60 second 0.1
Time Failure in the DDB Unit 0.1..60 second 1
From Ddb > Indication n – Unit 0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255 - 0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Indication n – Index 1..255 - 1
From Ddb > Measure n – Unit 0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255 - 0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Measure n – Index 1..8 - 1
From Ddb > Counter n – Unit 0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255 - 0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Counter n – Index 1..4 - 1
To Ddb > Indication n Indications defined in the -

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Parameter Range Unit Default value


unit
To Ddb > Measure n Measures defined in the - NO
unit ALLOCATION
To Ddb > Counter n Counters defined in the - NO
unit ALLOCATION

Configuration Example

The goal of the following application example is to provide a better perception of the distributed
database operation and configuration mode. The system is formed by 3 sending and receiving
units with the IP addresses 172.16.2.56, 172.16.2.57 and 172.16.2.58.

The following operation is desired:

Unit 172.16.2.56 should know from unit 172.16.2.58 the Logic Selectivity Blocking state.

Unit 172.16.2.57 should know from unit 172.16.2.56 the circuit breaker state and the
observed reactive power.

Unit 172.16.2.58 should know from unit 172.16.2.56 the observed position of the tap
changer.

RTU 5
T T
U
P U
P
S3 S3
0UU
0 0UU
0
=
r=
IrIr== r =
r=
IrIr==r
22 22
220
220200
2AA 220
2200
20
2AA
K K KK
VV VV

60 kV

LAN

T T
U
P U
S3 P
S3
0
0 UU
=
0
0 UU
IrIr==r=r2 IrIr==
=
rr2
2 2
220
220 02
2 0AA 220
220 0 0AA
2
K K 2
KK
VV VV

TPU 02

CB status
Active Power
Logical trip Changeover
Lock tap

15 kV
T T T T
U U U U
P
S3 P
S3 P
S3 P
S3
0
0 UU 0
0 UU 0
0 UU 0
0 UU
IrIr=r= =
2=r2 r=
IrIr== =
2r2 r=
IrIr== =
2r2 r=
IrIr== =
2r2
220
220 00 A 220 00 A 220 00 A 220 00 A
2
K 2A
K
220 2
K 2A
K
220 2
K 2A
K
220 2
K 2A
K
VV VV VV VV

TPU 60 TPU 01

Figure 5.15. Example of the distributed database configuration.

Unit 172.16.2.56 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the To Ddb> Indication 64 parameter with
Circuit Breaker in the Value field and Circuit Breaker State in the Value 2 field.

Configure the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to be updated from unit 172.16.2.58 with
index 1. For that configure the From Ddb> Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value
172.16.2.58 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.

Configure To Ddb > Measure 8 with Reactive Power.

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Configure To Ddb > Counter 1 with Tap Changer Position.


Unit 172.16.2.57 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to
be updated from unit 172.16.2.56 with the index 64. For that configure the From Ddb>
Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value 172.16.2.56 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 -
Index parameter with the value 64.

Configure the measure Reactive Power of the Ddb to be updated from unit 172.16.2.56
position 8. For that configure the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Unit parameter with value
172.16.2.56 and the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Index with the value 8.
Unit 172.16.2.58 Configuration

In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the To Ddb> Indication 1 parameter with
Overcurrent Protection in the Value field and Logic Selectivity Blocking in the Value 2 field.

Configure the Ddb Tap Changer counter to be updated from unit 172.16.2.56 position 1. For
that configure the From Ddb> Counter 1 - Unit parameter with value 172.16.2.56 and the
From Ddb > Counter 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.

5.8.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Associated with the Ethernet distributed database there is in the Ethernet module a group of
logical variables used for sending and receiving logical indications. These indications are divided 5
into two large groups.

The first one refers to the variables which are associated with the distributed database. It is
formed by 128 variables that are updated through the reception of databases from other units.

The second group is constituted by 2 logical variables that allow the blocking of the reception
and/or sending of the distributed database.

Table 5.13. Description of the logical variables of the Lonworks module

Id Name Description

8198 From Ddb: Generic Var 1 128 Indications that are updated from the
... ... databases received from other units.
8325 From Ddb: Generic Var 128
8326 Ddb Reception Blocking When this indication is active the unit ignores the
messages received from the ddb.
8327 Ddb Transmission Blocking When this indication is active the unit does not
transmit its ddb to the network.

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5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL

5.9.1. ARCHITECTURE

In the 850 version, the TPU TD420 allows the connection to a local area network based on an
Ethernet network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres. The local area network is based on TCP/IP network with copper of
optical fibre interface with ST or SC type connectors. The communication rate is 100Mb/s.

The EFACEC’s protection and control units are fully integrated in systems which follow the
IEC 61850 architecture.

The conformity document (PICS – Protection Implementation Conformance Statement) describes


the services implemented by the unit.

Data Model

According to part 6 of the standard the definition of the TPU TD420 data model is described in
SCL language in the corresponding ICD file that is supplied with the unit.

5.9.2. CONFIGURATION 5
The IEC 61850 protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in the WinSettings IEC
61850 function.

The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies in the first place the
network configuration, namely IP Address, Subnetwork Mask and Default Gateway, can be
consulted and configured in the unit’s menu in Communications > Ethernet > Parameters, or
in the WinSettings in the Ethernet function.
IED Name Parameter

This parameter is generic to all IEC 61850 application and is important both to communication
with IEC 61850 clients and communication among units through GOOSE messages. The IED
Name allows identifying the server in the system and together with the Logical Device ( LD )
name completes the domain name (IEC 61850 – 8 – 1). This identifier should be unique in the
system and can only use characters from the following character set: ( "A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c"
| "D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" | "G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" | "J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" | "M" | "m" |
"N" | "n" | "O" | "o" | "P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" | "S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" | "V" | "v" | "W" | "w" |
"X" | "x" | "Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ).

Command Related Parameters

The Command Type and Timeout Selection parameters define generic default values for all the
commands of the server. These values can then be changed for each particular command
through the write services of the protocol itself. Command Type defines the states machine to
follow to give a command and Timeout Selection is the maximum time a SBO type command
remains selected.

GGIO node configuration

The GGIO SPCx and GGIO DPCx parameters allow configuring system logical variables by
making them correspond to objects of the generic GGIO node existing in the unit.

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Report Control Blocks

The unit has 4 Buffered Report Control Blocks (BRCB) and 2 Unbuffered Report Control Blocks
(URCB). To configure them in WinSettings it is only necessary to configure the variables list of the
associated dataset. It is possible to configure any variables with Functional Constraints (FC) equal
to ST (variables states), MX (measures) or SP (parameters).

Figure 5.16. Configuration window of a Dataset.

The dataset configuration window allows exporting/importing the configured variables to a text
file to facilitate the interaction with other tools for configuration of the rest of the system.

GOOSE Messages Publishing

The parameters necessary for the publishing of GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation
Event) messages are the retransmission curve (equal for all GOOSE published by the unit) and
the data relative to each published GOOSE application.

The retransmission curve has 1 parameter to indicate the number of points of the curve and 16
parameters with the configuration of times for each point. An adequate retransmission curve
should have higher time delays every time and the last valid point is used as refresh time.

For each GoCB (GOOSE Control Blocking) there are several parameters to be configured. The
Dataset Name is the name of the group of data associated with the GoCB. The Priority
message allows separating critical messages from the remaining network traffic. As higher is the
parameter value the more priority the message has. The VID (Virtual ID) allows defining a virtual
network dedicated for GOOSE messages.

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The use of virtual LANs depends on the fact that the remaining network devices support them
and they should be configured according to these parameters. In case the remaining network
devices do not support the use of virtual LAN, the Priority and VID parameters are ignored.

The APPID (Application ID) is an identifier that allows differentiating the application. It should be
unique for each system GoCB and the subscriber units should be configured accordingly.

Finally, it is necessary to configure the dataset content. This parameter is of the same type as the
reports parameters and is configured in a similar window. When this parameter is reconfigured,
the WinSettings verifies which units configured in the same database subscribe this GOOSE
application and updates them automatically.
The name of the GoCB published by the unit is not fixed and varies from Publish1 to Publish8.

GOOSE Messages Subscription

The parameters associated with the subscription of GOOSE messages allow to identify the
message one desires to subscribe and configure the process data that will reflect the received
values. In GoCB Name should be configured the reference, that is, the full path of the control
name. In case the publisher unit is a X420 unit from EFACEC, the GoCB names vary from
Publish1 to Publish8 and the path is [NameIED]LD/LLN0$GO$Publish1...8. In the Dataset Name
should also be configured a reference (ex: [NameIED]LD/LLN0$[DatasetName]). The VID and
APPID parameters have the same meaning as in the Output GOOSE and should correspond to
the values of the corresponding message. Finally, it is necessary to match the information being
published and the process data that will receive that information in the Dataset Configuration 5
parameter. This configuration is made in a dedicated window of WinSettings. First it is necessary
to identify the message one desires to subscribe indicating which is the publishing unit and the
required GoCB or indicating that is a unit external to the database.

Figure 5.17. Choosing window of the published.

When pressing OK, the GoCB Name, Dataset Name, VID and APPID parameters are
automatically filled with the publishing corresponding data. Then will appear the configuration
window of data match.

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Figure 5.18. Configuration window of an input Dataset.

The GOOSE input configuration window allows matching the indexes of the variables configured 5
in the published dataset to process data of the subscriber unit. The list with the configuration
can be exported/imported in suitable format.

Table 5.14. IEC61850 Protocol parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

IED Name Up to 8 characters (FROM ( - IED01


"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" |
"1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" |
"7" | "8" | "9" ))
Command Type ONLY STATE / DIRECT - DIRECT
NORMAL SECURITY / SBO NORMAL
NORMAL SECURITY / SECURITY
DIRECT INCREASED
SECURITY / SBO
INCREASED SECURITY
Timeout Selection 20 .. 1000 ms 100
Test Message Conf Time 1 .. 255 s 20
GGIO SPC n Gates defined in the unit -
APDUs after last ACK 1 .. 32767 APDU 8
BRCBxx Max. 32 variables from the -
“Named Variables” list

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Parameter Range Unit Default value

URCBxx Max. 32 variables from the -


“Named Variables” list
Retr Curve> Points Number 1 .. 16 - 5
Retr Curve > T1 0 .. 86400000 ms 50
Retr Curve > T2 0 .. 86400000 ms 100
Retr Curve > T3 0 .. 86400000 ms 200
Retr Curve > T4 0 .. 86400000 ms 400
Retr Curve > T5 0 .. 86400000 ms 1000
Retr Curve > T6..16 0 .. 86400000 ms 0
GoOutn> DataSet Name Up to 65 characters (FROM ( -
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" |
"1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" |

5
"7" | "8" | "9" ))
GoOutn> Priority 4 .. 7 - 4
GoOutn> VID 0 .. 4095 - 0
GoOutn> APPID 0 .. 16383 - 0
GoOutn> DataSet Config Max. 20 variables from the -
“Named Variables” list
GoInn> GoCB Name Up to 65 characters (FROM ( -
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | “$” | "_" |
"0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" |
"6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ))
GoInn> DataSet Name Up to 65 characters (FROM ( -
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | “$” | "_" |
"0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" |
"6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ))
GoInn> VID 0 .. 4095 - 0
GoInn> APPID 0 .. 16383 - 0

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Parameter Range Unit Default value

GoInn> DataSet Configuration Published GoCBs existing in -


the system.

5.9.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

Associated with the IEC61850 protocol there is a module constituted by a group of logical
variables that convey protocol related information.

Table 5.15. Logical variables description of the IEC61850 module.

Id Name Description

10752 Connected Clients This gate indicates whether there are IEC61850
clients connected.
10753 Request Errors Whenever an invalid request is received from the
network, a pulse command is sent to this gate.
10754 SCADA Blocking When this indication is active, the indications are
not sent to LAN.
10755 IEC61850 Remote Com Blocking When this indication is active, the commands
received from the LAN are ignored.
10756 Goose Emission Blocking When this indication is active the GOOSE
messages are not sent to the network. 5
10757 Goose Reception Blocking When this indication is active the received
GOOSE messages are ignored.
10758 Goose Reception Failed If there is failure in GOOSE message reception
this gate is signalized.
10759 Goose 1 Transmitting Failed These gates indicate that are not being received
.. .. any messages from the corresponding
10798 transmitting unit.
Goose 40 Transmitting Failed

10799 IEC 61850 Data Indicates change in the IEC 61850 module data
10800 IEC 61850 Logic Indicates change in the IEC 61850 module logic

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Chapter 5 - Communications

5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL

5.10.1. ARCHITECTURE

EFACEC’s protection and control units allow time synchronization by SNTP when integrated in a
network with a SNTP/NTP server.

5.10.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES

Time synchronization by SNTP is based on the following principles:

The unit operates only as client;

The unit may operate in UNICAST mode (makes a request to the server and waits its answer)
or MULTICAST mode (receives broadcasts from the server);

All configuration of the unit necessary to the SNTP protocol is made in the Ethernet function
of WinSettings, or directly in the unit’s local interface in the Communications menu;

As client, the unit foresees the existence of a second backup server in case the main one
fails.
5
5.10.3. CONFIGURATION

The configuration of the synchronization by SNTP, as mentioned before, can be made in the
functions settings module, WinSettings, or in the unit’s local interface.

All parameters regarding SNTP are found in the Ethernet function, except for the
Synchronization parameter that is in the Date and Time function and allows choosing the unit’s
source of synchronism. So that the synchronization is made by SNTP it is necessary that this
parameter is configured with the SNTP value.

SNTP/NTP Server Identification

One of the parameters necessary for synchronization by SNTP is the IP SNTP Server parameter.
This parameter corresponds to the IP address of the SNTP/NTP server to use.

It is also possible to configure a backup server by using the IP SNTP Server 2 parameter. When
the unit is not able to establish a connection with the server configured in IP SNTP Server, it will
try to connect to the backup server.

If there is no backup server, the IP SNTP Server 2 parameter should be configured with the IP
address of the main server configured in IP SNTP Server.

SNTP Protocol

One of the parameters associated with the SNTP protocol corresponds to the Server Requests
Time parameter. This parameter can be configured with values from 1 to 1440 minutes and it
corresponds to the time interval between requests made to the SNTP/NTP server.

It is also necessary to configure the Maximum Variation parameter with a value from 1 to 1000
milliseconds. This parameter indicates the maximum variation between the unit’s clock and the
server’s clock.

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Chapter 5 - Communications

The Minimum Number Packages parameter indicates the minimum number of answers received
from the server so that the unit updates its clock. It can have values from 1 to 25.

There is another parameter associated with failures of the SNTP/NTP server. If during a time
interval higher than the configured time in Server Timeout is not received an answer from the
server, the unit assumes the server as failed and attempts communication with the backup
server. On the other hand, if it is not able to establish connection with this server, it will try again
the main server and the cycle is repeated until the unit finds a valid server. The Server Timeout
parameter can be configured with values from 1 to 3600 seconds.

The last parameter associated with the SNTP is the Operation Mode parameter. This parameter
allows the selection of the unit’s operation mode, as SNTP client, between UNICAST and
MULTICAST.

Configuration Example

Table 5.16. Configuration example of the SNTP protocol.

Parameter UNICAST MULTICAST

Server Requests Time 1m 5m


Maximum Variation 0,1 ms 0,5 ms

Minimum Number SNTP 1 5


Packages
Server Timeout 15 s 300 s
5

5.10.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC

In the Ethernet module there are two logical variables associated with the SNTP time
synchronization that reflect the status of the main SNTP server and of the backup SNTP server.

Table 5.17. Logical variables description of the Ethernet module associated with the SNTP
protocol.

Id Name Description

8328 SNTP Server Status Indicates the communication status with the SNTP
server.
8329 SNTP 2 Server Status Indicates the communication status with the SNTP
server 2.

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6
Chapter

6. CONTROL AND PROTECTION


FUNCTIONS

This chapter describes the protection and control functions available in the TPU TD420. For each
of them are described the main operation characteristics, the operation method and the scope
of application. It explains the different operating characteristics and the meaning of each
configurable parameter as well as the respective default values and regulation ranges. It also
analyses the logical schemes associated by default with each function.
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

TABLE OF CONTENTS

6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................6-4


6.1.1. Function Modular Organization ..................................................................................6-4
6.1.2. Configuration Sets.......................................................................................................6-5
6.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................6-6
6.1.4. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................6-7
6.2. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION ........................................................................................6-9
6.2.1. Operation Method .......................................................................................................6-9
6.2.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-18
6.2.3. Automation logic ...................................................................................................... 6-21
6.3. PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ............................................................................6-23
6.3.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-23
6.3.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-30
6.3.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-33
6.4. EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION............................................................................6-37
6.4.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-37
6.4.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-40
6.4.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-43
6.5. RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION ......................................................................6-47
6.5.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-47
6.5.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-50 6
6.5.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-51
6.6. TRANSFORMER TANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..........................................................6-53
6.6.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-53
6.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-54
6.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-55
6.7. SURVEILLANCE OF THE TRANSFORMER OWN PROTECTIONS.................................................6-57
6.7.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-57
6.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-57
6.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-58
6.8. CIRCUIT-BREAKER CLOSE LOCK .................................................................................6-60
6.8.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-60
6.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-61
6.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-61
6.9. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION ........................................................................6-64
6.9.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-64
6.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-65
6.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-66
6.10. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION ....................................................................6-69
6.10.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-69
6.10.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-71
6.10.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-71
6.11. BLOCKING BY LOGICAL SELECTIVITY ..........................................................................6-74

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.11.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-74


6.11.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-75
6.11.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-75
6.12. CIRCUIT-BREAKER FAILURE ....................................................................................6-76
6.12.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-76
6.12.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-77
6.12.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-78
6.13. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION .....................................................................................6-81
6.13.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-81
6.13.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-82
6.13.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-82
6.14. PROTECTIONS TRIP TRANSFER .................................................................................6-83
6.14.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-83
6.14.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-84
6.14.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-84
6.15. CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPERVISION ...............................................................................6-86
6.15.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-86
6.15.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-87
6.15.3. automation Logic ................................................................................................... 6-88
6.16. DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION................................................................................6-100
6.16.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-100
6.16.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-101
6.16.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-102
6
Total of pages of the chapter: 117

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS

The TPU TD420 integrates several protection and control functions of transformers, some are
base and others are supplied as optional. The optional functions when existing are indicated
next to the respective ANSI number:

Transformer Differential Protection (87T);

Phase Overcurrent Protection for primary winding (50/51);

Phase Overcurrent Protection for secondary winding (50/51) – optional;

Earth Overcurrent Protection for primary winding (50/51N);

Earth Overcurrent Protection for secondary winding (50/51N);

Restricted Earth Fault Protection for secondary winding (87N) – optional;

Tank Overcurrent Protection (50/51G );

Surveillance of the Transformer own Protections;

Circuit-breaker Close Lock (86T);

Load Restoration after Voltage Trip;

Load Restoration after Frequency Trip;

Logical Trip Lock (68);

Circuit-breaker failure, for primary and secondary (62BF);

Trip Circuit Supervision of primary and secondary circuit-breakers (62);


6
Protections Transfer for primary and secondary circuit-breakers (43);

Circuit-breakers Supervision;

Disconnectors Supervision.

All these functions have particular characteristics detailed in the next sections. This section
analyses the characteristics common to the several functions regarding their configuration and
automation logic.

6.1.1. FUNCTION MODULAR ORGANIZATION

All units from the x420 range have an identical structure, modular and object-driven. This
architecture assures a uniform interface with the exterior for all the products of that range,
which allows in particular the existence of only one PC interface application – WinProt – for all of
them.

Each one of the control and protection functions corresponds to a different module, and its
existence in a given unit depends on its type and the considered version. The remaining
modules are associated with the remaining configurations, for example, hardware components
(see Chapter 4 - Configuration).

A specific unit corresponds to a group of several modules that can be protection functions,
automation and control functions or other configurations. The group of modules varies
according to the type of unit; yet identical modules in different units present a similar structure.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

The information associated with the identification of the protection can be fully received by the
WinProt, including the list of existing modules, the regulation ranges, the options lists and the
dictionary with the terms used on these options, as well as the group of logical variables.

Each module is composed by:


Parameters: settings of the operational characteristics and other data necessary for the
operation of each function. Associated with the parameters are the respective default values
and the regulation ranges that include the maximum and minimum acceptable limits and the
options lists, in case they exist.
Automation Logic: characteristics of the several logical variables such as the type, initial
state of the inputs or interfaces, as well as definition of the connections of each one of the
outputs to other variables.
Logical Variables: name of the logical variables and their transitions, as they are displayed
in the Chronological Event Log and in the options lists.

Module

Parameters
Default values
Ranges
Automation logic
Descritiptions

Algorithm
Data
conversion routines

Figure 6.1. Function modular structure. 6


The parameters can be changed both in the protection’s local interface and by using the WinProt
application (WinSettings module). The CLP 500RTU remote configuration tool can also be used
if one desires to change them from the Control Centre.
The logic and variables descriptions can only be changed by using WinProt (WinLogic module).

The default values and the regulation ranges associated with the parameters can not be
changed, they are only used for consultation.

6.1.2. CONFIGURATION SETS

Each one of the protection and automation functions has 4 different groups (sets) of parameters.
In the case of TPU TD420, the logical trip lock is an exception, because this function does not
have specific parameters. The remaining modules associated with configurations only have one
group of parameters.

The 4 groups of parameters allow considering different settings for a given function. From the 4
sets only 1 is active in every moment, that is, the function does not use more than 1 group of
settings simultaneously.

The active set can be changed in two different ways:

by user’s command through the local or remote human-machine interface;

by specific logical conditions defined using WinLogic.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

The first option assures that independently of whether the configuration was local or remote,
only one of the sets is active in each moment. However, the logical conditions defined by the
user do not assure there are not two groups of different parameters simultaneously activated.
For that to happen, it is sufficient that the logical conditions of more than 1 set are active.

The TPU TD420 implements different priorities for the different sets so that only one is active in
each moment: Set 1 is the default set, Set 2 has more priority than Set 1, Set 3 has more priority
than both of the previous ones and so forth.

The active set may not correspond to that defined by the configuration if there is a set activated
by logical conditions with more priority.

By default, the active set is independently regulated for each function so that the logical
conditions associated with the set change can be different for each function.

If desired, the edition of the automation logic can assure the simultaneous change of the active
set in more than one function.

After set change by configuration or after updating the function’s parameters, they are
immediately saved in non-volatile memory.

However, to avoid operation incoherencies, if the function is already in operation in that moment
(for example if a protection function has started) its operating data is still that prior to the
change. In that situation, the new settings will only be considered by the function when it is back
6
to resting condition.

6.1.3. CONFIGURATION

For each protection or control function (and only those), the Current Set parameter is available
which allows changing the active set by the user in the local or remote interface. Example is
given in Figure 6.2, for the Phase Overcurrent function of the primary.

From each one of the groups of specific parameters of each function, there are 4 groups exactly
identical, corresponding to the 4 available sets, as indicated in the next sections.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases AT
Configuração Cenário
Configuração Cenário

Cenário Actual: 1

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 6.2. Set Configuration Menu (HV Phase Overcurrent).

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.1.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC

All modules corresponding to fault detection or control functions present a similar logic of active
setting group change, independently of the function. This logic allows implementing the priority
mechanism of the different setting groups mentioned above. Per module there are also logical
variables associated with the change of the function’s data groups, and a logical variable that
indicates if the change is active or not.
The next table identifies these variables where <Function> should be replaced in each case for
the name of the respective protection or automation function.

Table 6.1. Description of the logical variables common to the different modules.

Name Description

<Function> Settings Indication of the change of the function’s parameters


<Function> Logic Indication of the change of the function’s automation logic
<Function> Status Indication produced by the function showing whether it is on
(Status parameter with value ON) or off line
<Function> Set 1 Logic Variables that gather the logical conditions that allow
... activating a given setting group. They do not directly define
the active set because it depends on the relative priorities of
<Function> Set 4 Logic the groups of parameters
<Function> Set 1 Indication whether the respective setting group is active
... considering the associated priorities; in each moment only
one of the 4 variables of this type has logical value 1
<Function> Set 4

Only inputs 2 to 8 of each one of the <Function> Set 1 Logic to <Function> Set 4 Logic 6
variables should be used to define logical conditions of that set, as the first input is reserved for
the activation of set by the user (parameters change).

<Function>_Set4_Active
<Function>_Set4

<Function>_Set3

<Function>_Set3_Active

<Function>_Set2

<Function>_Set2_Active

<Function>_Set1

<Function>_Set1_Active

<Function>_Change_Data <Function>_Change_Logic <Function>_In_Service

Figure 6.3. Logic diagram common to the different modules.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

From the previous scheme a logic of simultaneous change of the active set can be implemented
in more than one function. To do so consider conditions of set change in only one of the
functions and connect the respective indications of set activation to the activation variables of
the sets equivalent in the second function, from that to the third and so forth.

Set 1 should be regulated as current set in the configuration of all functions except eventually in
the first function that defines the set of the remaining functions.

An example of this process is given in Figure 6.4 for the simplest case, that of two functions and
two sets (bearing in mind that Set 1 is the one activated by default).

<Function1>_Set2

<Function1>_Set2_Active

<Function2>_Set2

<Function2>_Set2_Active

<Function1>_Set1

<Function1>_Set1_Active <Function2>_Set1

<Function2>_Set1_Active

Figure 6.4. Logic of simultaneous change of active set in more than one function.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.2. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

The Differential Protection is the main transformer protection function from a certain power. It is
also the main function integrated in the TPU TD420, essentially intended for two-winding
transformers, but it can be applied in three-winding transformers under some circumstances.
The combination of sensitiveness and speed in this function allows the insulation of a faulty
transformer, selectively, in few cycles of network magnitude. In spite of its excellent
characteristics, most of the times it has to be combined with other protection functions, in order
to achieve the complete protection of the equipment.

6.2.1. OPERATION METHOD

The Differential Protection has special characteristics that makes it normally chosen as
transformers’ main protection, and other equipments such as generators, busbars and even
high voltage lines. Its main advantage is the fact that it is a unitary protection, only sensitive to
faults in its protection area, which comprises the transformer itself and the busbar section or
cables between these and CT. However, its selective operation prevents its use as reserve to
downstream protections.

Its extremely simple base principle, consists on the comparison of the equipment’s input and
output currents or, in equipments with more than two terminals, the checking of currents vector
sum in all of them. An internal fault is revealed by a non-null value of this sum, while in any
situation of load or external fault, this value is theoretically null.

6
Protection area Protection area

I1 I2 I1 Equipment
I2
Equipment
to protect to protect

Icc Icc

Idif=I1-I2 Idif=I1-I2
R R

Figure 6.5. Differential Protection Principle.

However, its application in transformers demands some particular cautions: in first place,
because the transformer itself presents a scale factor and a possible phase rotation among the
primary and secondary currents that must be compensated, starting with the appropriate choice
of CT nominal values. Secondly, because several error sources cause the existence of a non-null
differential current in load situation or external fault, such as:

The currents disagreement of the primary and secondary due to the deficient compensation
of their magnitude and phase;

The possibility of homopolar current circulation only in some of the transformer windings,
particularly for external earth faults;

The transformer magnetization current in unloaded or normal load situation;

Measurement errors of CT and the protection unit itself and, particularly, the effect of voltage
regulation, for normal operation situations;

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Transient saturation of some of the CT for high external faults;

The transient magnetisation current due to the unload transformer connection, or the
connection of a transformer in parallel;

The magnetization current increasing in a stationary situation by overexcitation of the


transformer’s ferromagnetic core, by its operation with high voltages, or by the decreasing of
frequency value.

Compensation of Current Magnitude and Phase

The power transformer turns ratio creates a difference in the current magnitude of the several
windings. In general, the main current transformers assembled in each one of the transformer
sides allow to closely compensate its transformation ratio. However, that adjustment can’t be
perfect once there are only available CT’s with specified nominal values.

Besides this, the transformer to be protected may introduce an additional phase shift between
the primary and secondary currents, depending on the windings connections. The connections
group may also restrain the homopolar component circulation in some of the transformer
windings.

Any of these situations leads to the existence of a false unbalance current that may affect the
Differential Protection, if due corrections are not performed. These were traditionally performed
with measure auxiliary transformers. TPU TD420 assures the perfect compensation of the
observed current values by software, exempting the using of those transformers.

In order to obtain null differential current for all situation s of load or of external faults, its
calculation considers:
6
The adjustment of current magnitude of several windings;

The compensation in phase of the transformer connections group;

The elimination of homopolar component in all the cases that this may exist, to avoid the
relay operation for external earth faults.

In all the calculations performed, for the CT external connections the TPU TD420 assumes the
reference directions indicated in the Figure 6.6.

The differential current by phase follows the equation:


idif i1 i2 , (6.1)

where i1 and i2 are, respectively, the currents in the primary and secondary windings, after
performing the three described operations. The differential currents are referred to the primary
side.
I1 I2
Primary Secondary

IN

Figure 6.6. Reference directions for differential current calculation.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

The compensation of magnitude of the transformer turns ratio and the CT is made by reducing
the currents magnitude of the secondary to the respective values when seen from the primary,
that is:

n 2 V2 N
i2 i2 C 2 i2 , (6.2)
n1 V1N
where n1 and n2 are, respectively, the CT transformation ratio of the primary and secondary and
V1N and V2N are the nominal voltages for both windings, and its ratio is the transformer‘s
transformation ratio.

The current phase compensation for the different windings depends on the type of transformer
to be protected. This compensation meets the referred magnitude adjustment, as well as the
homopolar component elimination, needed for several situations, and the more common are:

The star-delta transformers with neutral connected to earth on the star side, requiring to
remove the homopolar component on that side;
I0

I0

Figure 6.7. Homopolar component in a Yod transformer.

The star-star transformers where one of the neutrals is not connected to earth, and because 6
of this, a homopolar component may circulate on the other winding which corresponds to a
flux that closes itself by the tank, enhanced by the possible existence of a tertiary in delta;

I0

I0

Figure 6.8. Homopolar component in a Yyod transformer.

All delta windings where a reactance is connected working an artificial neutral in the
transformer protection area, which creates a homopolar component by the CT but external
to delta one.
I0

I0

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Figure 6.9. Homopolar component in a Yd transformer with neutral reactance.

To remove the homopolar component in these situations, one may chose to do the difference
each two phase currents (6.3), or calculate the homopolar component and remove it directly
(6.4):

1
iA 3
iA iB
iB 1
iB iC (6.3)
3
1
iC 3
iC iA

iA iA iN 3
iB iB iN 3 (6.4)
iC iC iN 3
where the 1
factor is intended to adjust the new current magnitudes.
3

TPU TD420 implements that correction like this:

Star windings: one chooses the solution of (6.3) that, besides eliminating the homopolar
component, allows to compensate the phase rotation for star-delta transformers; for a star-
star transformer this solution does not have inconveniencies since it is performed for both
windings.
Delta winding: in this case there isn’t another possible choice that is not (6.4); it may be
executed for all the delta windings, even those where there isn’t connection of an artificial
neutral, for that the calculations are not affected.

This solution corresponds to the assemblies made with auxiliary CT. These are connected in
6
delta for star-windings and in star for delta-windings. The TPU TD420 embraces all the
connections variants, in star or delta, of a two-winding transformer, that may be obtained from
four different connections group: Yy0, Yd1, Dy1, Dd0. The following tables present the
differential current expressions for these four cases and show the way how they are obtained the
remaining ones by phase exchange or the respective polarities. These exchanges are always
performed on the secondary side.

These corrections are valid for both stages of Differential Protection and also for harmonic
blockings.

Table 6.2. Current compensation for transformers with star-star connections.

Connections set Phase Exchange Differential current


nd
(2 )

Yy0 i difA 1
i1 A i1B C 2 i2 A i2 B
3
1
i difB 3
i1B i1C C 2 i2 B i 2C (6.5)
1
i difC 3
i1C i1 A C 2 i 2C i2 A
Yy2 A, B, C -B, -C, -A idifA 1
i1 A i1B C2 i2C i2 B (6.6)
3

Yy4 A, B, C C, A, B i difA 1
i1 A i1B C 2 i 2C i2 A (6.7)
3

Yy6 A, B, C -A, -B, -C idifA 1


i1 A i1B C 2 i2 B i2 A (6.8)
3

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Connections set Phase Exchange Differential current


nd
(2 )

Yy8 A, B, C B, C, A idifA 1
i1 A i1B C 2 i2 B i 2C (6.9)
3

Yy10 A, B, C -C, -A, -B idifA 1


i1 A i1B C 2 i2 A i 2C (6.10)
3

Table 6.3. Current compensation for transformers with star-delta connections.

Connections set Phase Exchange Differential current


nd
(2 )

Yd1 i difA 1
i1 A i1C C 2 i2 A i2 N 3
3
1 (6.11)
i difB 3
i1B i1 A C 2 i2 B i2 N 3
1
i difC 3
i1C i1B C 2 i 2C i2 N 3
Yd3 A, B, C -B, -C, -A i difA 1
i1 A i1C C2 i2 B i2 N 3 (6.12)
3

Yd5 A, B, C C, A, B idifA 1
i1 A i1C C2 i2C i2 N 3 (6.13)
3

Yd7 A, B, C -A, -B, -C i difA 1


i1 A i1C C2 i2 A i2 N 3 (6.14)
3

Yd9 A, B, C B, C, A idifA 1
i1 A i1C C2 i2 B i2 N 3 (6.15)
3

Yd11 A, B, C -C, -A, -B i difA 1


i1 A i1C C2 i 2C i2 N 3 (6.16)
3

6
Table 6.4. Current compensation for transformers with delta-star connections.

Connections set Phase Exchange Differential current


nd
(2 )
Dy1 i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1
i2 A i2 B
3
1
i difB i1B i1N 3 C2 3
i2 B i 2C (6.17)
1
i difC i1C i1N 3 C2 3
i 2C i2 A
Dy3 A, B, C -B, -C, -A i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1
i 2C i2 B (6.18)
3

Dy5 A, B, C C, A, B i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1


i 2C i2 A (6.19)
3

Dy7 A, B, C -A, -B, -C i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1


i2 B i2 A (6.20)
3

Dy9 A, B, C B, C, A i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1


i2 B i 2C (6.21)
3

Dy11 A, B, C -C, -A, -B i difA i1 A i1N 3 C2 1


i2 A i 2C (6.22)
3

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-13
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Table 6.5. Currents compensation for transformers with delta-delta connections.

Connections set Phase Exchange Differential current


nd
(2 )

Dd0 i difA i1 A i1N 3 C 2 i2 A i2 N 3


i difB i1B i1N 3 C 2 i2 B i2 N 3 (6.23)

i difC i1C i1N 3 C 2 i 2C i2 N 3


Dd2 A, B, C -B, -C, -A idifA i1A i1N 3 C2 i2 B i2 N 3 (6.24)

Dd4 A, B, C C, A, B idifA i1A i1N 3 C 2 i 2C i2 N 3 (6.25)

Dd6 A, B, C -A, -B, -C idifA i1A i1N 3 C2 i2 A i2 N 3 (6.26)

Dd8 A, B, C B, C, A idifA i1A i1N 3 C 2 i2 B i2 N 3 (6.27)

Dd10 A, B, C -C, -A, -B idifA i1A i1N 3 C2 i 2C i2 N 3 (6.28)

Application in Three-Winding Transformers

Magnitude and phase compensations are directly applicable in the case of two-winding
transformer. However, the TPU TD420 may also be used for three-winding transformers under
certain circumstances. In those situations, some additional cautions should be used in order that
differential currents are correctly calculated.

If the tertiary has a nominal power considerably low compared with the one of the other two
windings and, thus, its impedance is high enough, short-circuits create low magnitude fault 6
currents when referred, for example, to the primary. These currents are hardly observed by the
differential protection, so the tertiary is not normally considered in the connections performed
(see chapter 2.4, section 2.4.5 - Current Connections - Three-windings transformers (1st case)).

In a three-windings transformer where the tertiary connections are not considered, the
introduction of parameters associated to the transformer for compensation of currents
magnitude and phase must be made considering only two windings with higher voltage, as the
two-winding transformer.

A different situation is the application of TPU TD420 to three-windings transformers where only
one of them (the primary one by default) is connected to the generation and the currents sum of
secondary and tertiary is made externally to the protection. In this case, one must consider that
data introduced for currents compensation concern only the secondary, so that it is necessary to
assure, by the connections performed, that the currents of both windings are coincident in
magnitude and phase.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-14
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Secondary and tertiary phase correspondence must be respected so that, for each pair of
summed currents, voltages corresponding to both signs are in phase with each other. The
exchange of some of these connections creates an incorrect measure of differential currents and
respective 2nd and 5th harmonic and it can lead to incorrect operation of the Differential
Protection.

In the particular case of one of the windings is connected in star and the other in delta, the CT
assembled on the star-winding side must be connected in delta (see Chapter 2.4, section Three-
winding transformer (3rd case)

). This connection may be made, as an alternative, with auxiliary current transformers.

The CT turn ratio relations of secondary and tertiary must compensate the ratio between
nominal voltages of these windings. If that compensation is not exact, there will be a magnitude
error in the differential currents measure.

To compensate that error, if significant, must be used measure auxiliary transformers between
main current transformers and protection inputs, which can be the same as the used to phase
compensation, in case they exist.

Unrestrained Differential Stage

The transformer unrestrained Differential Protection is a fast and selective function intended to
protect transformers and isolate them from the power network where they are inserted in case
of high magnitude internal faults.

This stage operates instantaneously when the magnitude of the difference between the
transformer’s primary and secondary currents exceeds the specified operation threshold,
6
according to the Figure 6.10. A 5% dead band assures the operation stability.
I dif I op (6.29)

Idif

Startup

Iop

Reset

Irest

Figure 6.10. Operational characteristic of unrestrained differential stage.

This threshold must be, generally speaking, sufficiently high to consider the higher differential
current observed in the absence of an internal fault, that is, the higher of two values: the
maximum observed in the connection of the unloaded transformer and the unbalance
overcurrent for an external fault situation.

So, the unrestrained Differential Protection is immune to all external faults and transients of
unloaded transformer connection and, consequently, to all load situations. The absence of other

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-15
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

restrictions enable that this stage operation is extremely fast, although less sensitive, since it is
regulated for a value normally high.

Restrained Differential Stage

TPU TD420 executes, independently from the previous stage, the restrained Differential
Protection, which offers great sensitivity in the detection of transformer internal faults. This
characteristic is extremely important because a considerable number of faults in the transformer
start from interturn faults of the same winding, before evolving to more serious situations. This
type of faults may be characterized by an increase of current of extremely reduced magnitude,
depending on the number of turns concerned. So, it is fundamental that the Differential
Protection is the more sensitive possible.

However, this protection function sensitivity is conditioned to measure errors of differential


current. As most of these errors may be proportionally assumed, in a certain range of values, to
the current observed in the phase CT or, in general, depending of its value, it is common to
consider an operational characteristic where the differential current value is compared with an
image of the current that goes through the transformer, called restraint current.

The restraint current does not have a single expression. To calculate it, the TPU TD420 reduces
the secondary current to primary values making the same compensations as for the differential
current and then takes the magnitude of the two currents vectorial average.

I rest 1
2 i1 i2 (6.30)

For two-winding transformers, one verifies that this is the optimal expression, once it offers
high sensitivity for internal faults (reduced restraint current) without loosing safety for external
faults or load situations (high restraint current).

The operational characteristic considered is composed by three different sections, according 6


with the Figure 6.11

(6.31)

Idif

Startup

Slope 2

Imin Slope 1
Reset
I Rest1->2 Irest

Figure 6.11. Operational characteristic of restricted differential stage.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-16
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

This characteristic allows benefiting the maximum possible sensitivity in situations where
measure errors are reduced and restrain the Differential Protection operation only in situations
where errors may be high (but where an internal fault also creates a high differential current).

The maximum sensitivity is limited by a minimum differential current value, configurable by the
user. In this threshold, the transformer magnetization current in a normal load situation, in
particular, must be accounted for in order to assure the protection operation only for internal
faults.

In the second characteristic section, the differential current value that causes the protection
operation is directly proportional to calculated restraint current (the section is a segment of a
straight line through the origin). The slope regulation of this section must contemplate the
existing errors due to relay or CT inaccuracies, as well as, the effect of voltage regulation. The
influence of magnetization current may be considered as small, once the range of restrictive
current values corresponds to short-circuit situations, for which the magnetization is practically
null.

The third section anticipates possible saturation of CT for high current values that crosses the
transformer, in case of short-circuits external to the transformer of high magnitude.
Consequently, this section slope must be regulated for a higher value, in order to desensitize the
Differential Protection.

The combination of restrained and unrestrained stages gives origin to one characteristic as
indicated in Figure 6.12 that assures the complete operation stabilization of the Differential
Protection for all errors sources considered.

I dif

Startup
6
I op
Slope 2

Imin Slope 1
Reset
I Rest1->2 Irest

Figure 6.12. Operational characteristic of Differential Protection.

Blocking by 2nd harmonic

As referred before, the Differential Protection is sensitive to the unload transformer connection.
This is characterized by a current in only one of the windings that may reach a very high peak,
for which the previous characteristic does not allow the necessary discrimination. The same
phenomenon is observed when commissioning a transformer in parallel (normally the current
observed has low magnitude).

Though, this current that is shown to the protection as a differential current, has a very
asymmetric and distorted waveform, with great harmonic component. The value of the 2nd
harmonic is particularly high, with an additional advantage of being a even harmonic, not in high
quantity in the differential current for a normal situation if there isn’t CT saturation.

TPU TD420 uses the 2nd harmonic restriction to prevent the protection missperation during
transformer energising. The magnitude value of the 2nd harmonic of differential current is
compared with the fundamental one and, if a defined percentage is exceeded, the operation is
blocked. Only the restrained stage is affected.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

I dif , 2 ª h p2 ª h I dif (6.32)

The magnitudes comparison of each one of those harmonic of differential current with the
respective fundamental component is made individually for each phase. For higher safety, the
blocking is crossed between different phases, that is, the detection in anyone of the phases of a
blocking condition restrains the global operation of the restrained stage.

Blocking by 5th harmonic

Another situation where there is a great increasing of transformer magnetization current is its
operation with high voltage/frequency ratio, that is, with high voltages or decreasing of network
frequency. In these conditions, the flux of the transformer core increases, and it can begin a
deep saturation.

The differential current in this situation presents also a distorted waveform, even if symmetric,
and because of that it doesn’t have even harmonics. However, the odd harmonics, such as the
lower order ones, normally have a higher magnitude. Particularly the 5th is the normally used to
identify this situation, once the 3rd one, because it forms a homopolar system, may not exist due
to transformer particular connections. Anyway, this component is filtered by the TPU TD420
algorithm.

Thus, the 5th harmonic magnitude value of differential current is compared with the fundamental
one, resembling to what is done for 2 order harmonic and, if a defined percentage is exceeded,
the operation is blocked. Only the restrained stage is affected.
I dif ,5 ª h p5 ª h I dif (6.33) 6
The comparison is also made individually for each phase, and the blocking is crossed between
different phases.

6.2.2. CONFIGURATION

For the correct operation of Differential Protection, besides data concerning the operational
characteristic it is necessary to set:

The current transformers turns ratio;

Nominal values and connections group of the transformer to be protected.

Unwanted operation of the function may occur if these parameters are not correctly configured.

The transformer nominal values are required for the compensation in magnitude and phase of
currents used in the differential current calculation.

The connections group corresponds to the Secondary Vector Grp parameter that may assume
24 different values, as many as the possible variants of two-windings transformers with star or
delta connections. Time notation is used to distinguish several options: the first letter shows the
primary winding (Y or D), the second one the secondary winding (y or d), the number shows the
time corresponding to the secondary voltage phase when the primary voltage phase
corresponds to the 12 o’clock pointer. For example, an Yd1 connection set shows that primary

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-18
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

winding is in star and the secondary in delta, when voltages of this last winding are 30º delayed
relatively to the first one.
The Primary U Nom and Secondary U Nom define the nominal voltages of transformer
primary and secondary respectively. The Rated Power parameter is not necessary for the
differential protection regulation but it can be introduced to complete the information about the
transformer.
Transformador
Parâmetros
Parâmetros

Grupo Lig Secundário: Yd1


Pot Nominal: 20.000
U Nominal Primário: 60.000
U Nominal Secundário: 10.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 6.13. Parameters Menu (Transformer).

The transformer Differential Protection has two parameter sets, independently regulated: the
unrestrained stage parameters and the restrained stage parameters. Data referring to harmonic
restriction can be added.
The unrestrained stage must be enabled by configuring the Unrestrained> Status data to ON.

The Unrestrained> Iop parameter is the differential current value above which unrestrained
protection operates; it must be higher than the transient current of unloaded transformer 6
connection. This value depends on the short-circuit calculation, simulations or experimental
data about the transformer, but one should add an additional security margin, 20% for example.
Its configuration is made in values per unit of the primary CT nominal current.
Funções de Protecção
Diferencial de Transformador
Cenário 1
Cenário 1

Não Restrita> Estado: OFF


Não Restrita> Iop: 2.000
Restrita> Estado: OFF
Restrita> I Min: 0.100
Restrita> Declive 1: 15.000
Restrita> Declive 2: 50.000
Restrita> Mudança 1<>2: 1.000
Restrita> Bloq 2h: 10.000
Restrita> Bloq 5h: 10.000

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 6.14. Set 1 Menu (Transformer Differential).

The restrained stage presents more parameters to be regulated: to activate it and make the
remaining parameters valid, the Restrained> Status value must be regulated to ON.

The Restrained> I Min, Restrained> Slope 1, Restrained> Slope 2 and Restrained>


Transition 1/2 parameters allow the user to completely define the operational characteristic of
the restrained Differential Protection. The first is the minimum differential current necessary to
make the function operate, which defines the first characteristic section. The configuration is
made in values per unit of the phase CT nominal current of primary. A value between 10% and
40% is advisable.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

The Restrained> Slope 1 and Restrained> Slope 2 define the slopes of the second and third
characteristic sections, respectively. When calculating the first one, consider the following: half of
the variation range enabled by the load voltage regulator (taking into account the adjustment for
medium tap); the phase CT errors, in agreement with its accuracy class (5%, for example); and
the protection measure error (5% for TPU TD420).

The second slope must be regulated for a value higher than the previous one (at least twice), in
order to consider the possible saturation of any of the CTs.
The Restrained> Transition 1/2 parameter defines the restraint current value for which the
transition from the section with slope 1 to the section with slope 2 is made. It is also regulated
depending on the nominal current of primary CT.
The 2nd harmonic restriction can be adjusted with Restrained> 2h Block parameter. Its value is
the 2nd harmonic percentage, regarding the fundamental one, which is in the differential current,
above which the restrained Differential Protection operation is blocked. These parameters must
consider, based on empirical data or simulations, the percentages of 2nd harmonic observed in
internal fault situation (including the possible CT saturation) and transients of unloaded
transformer connection.
The Restrained> 5h Block parameter is equivalent to the previous one but it is applied to 5th
harmonic. It is also defined in percentage regarding the differential current fundamental
component. One must consider a higher percentage of 5th harmonic observed in internal fault
situations.

Table 6.6. Transformer parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

Current Set 1..1 1


Secondary Vector Grp Yy0 / Yy2 / Yy4 / Yy6 / Yd1
6
Yy8 / Yy10 / Yd1 / Yd3 /
Yd5 / Yd7 / Yd9 / Yd11 /
Dy1 / Dy3 / Dy5 / Dy7 /
Dy9 / Dy11 / Dd0 / Dd2 /
Dd4 / Dd6 / Dd8 / Dd10
Rated Power 1..1000 MVA 20
Primary U Nom 1..1000 kV 60
Secondary U Nom 1..1000 kV 10

Table 6.7. Differential Protection Parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

Current Set 1..4 1


Unrestrained> Status OFF / ON OFF
Unrestrained> Iop 2..25 pu 2
Restrained> Status OFF / ON OFF
Restrained> I Min 0,1..1 pu 0,1
Restrained> Slope 1 15..100 % 15
Restrained> Slope 2 50..200 % 50
Restrained> Transition 1/2 1..20 pu 1
Restrained> 2h Block 10..65 % 10

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Parameter Range Unit Default value

Restrained> 5h Block 10..65 % 10

6.2.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The Differential Protection module has the indications produced by the function while it is
operating, such as: the start-up discriminated by stage (unrestrained or restrained) and phase,
and also the indications concerning the harmonic restrictions.

Unlike the remaining protection functions, the function trip indications are not produced by the
Differential Protection function. Because there is no delay time applied, the trip indications are
produced directly from logic connections from the corresponding start-up indications, subjected
to the existence of active blockings.

Blockings by harmonic restriction are defined in the module internal logic although they are
implemented, for safety reasons, in the function algorithm.

Table 6.8. Description of logical variables of the Differential Protection module.

Id Name Description

26368 Unrest Diff Protec Phase A Start-up indications of unrestrained stage


... ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the function)
26370 Unrest Diff Protec Phase C
26371 Rest Differ Protec Phase A Start-up indications of the restrained stage
... ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the function)
26373 Rest Differ Protec Phase C
26374 Differential Protection Function Start-up 6
26375 Unrest Differential Protec Start-up of unrestrained stage
26376 Rest Differential Protec Restrained stage start-up
nd
26377 2 Harm Blocking Phase A Blocking indications by second harmonic
... ... restriction discriminated by phase (indications
nd produced by the function)
26379 2 Harm Blocking Phase C
th
26380 5 Harm Blocking Phase A Blocking indications by restriction of the fifth
... ... harmonic by phase (indications produced by
th function)
26382 5 Harm Blocking Phase C
nd
26383 2 Harmonic Blocking Blocking by restriction of the second harmonic
th
26384 5 Harmonic Blocking Blocking by restriction of the fifth harmonic
26385 Differential Protec Trip Function trip
26386 Unrest Differ Protec Trip Trip of unrestrained stage
26387 Rest Differ Protec Trip Trip of restrained stage
26388 Differential Prot MMI Lock Function blocking by the local interface
26389 Differential Prot LAN Lock Function blocking by remote interface
26390 Differential Protec Lock Function blocking conditions

Additionally to indications referred in Table 6.8, there are also available the variables
corresponding to the changing of the function parameters, logic or descriptions, as well as gates
associated to the set logic and the function activation.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

26368> 26375>
Protec Dif Não Rest Protec Diferenc Não 26374>
Fase A Rest Protecção Diferencial
OR OR OR
O1 I1 O1 I1 O1 8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia

O2 26369> I2 O2 I2 O2
Protec Dif Não Rest
Fase B I3 O3 I3
OR
I4
O1
26370>
O2 Protec Dif Não Rest
Fase C
OR
26386>
O1 Disparo Dif Não
Restrita
O2 AND
I1 O1
26376>
26371> Protec Diferenc I2 O2
Protec Dif Rest Fase A Restrita 26385>
I3 Disparo Prot
OR OR
Diferencial
O1 I1 O1 OR

O2 I2 O2 I1 O1 53248>Sin Defeito Transformador


26372>
Protec Dif Rest Fase B I2 O2 41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disj AT
I3 O3
OR
I4 I3 O3 42752>Sin Arranque Falha Disj MT
O1 26387>
Disparo Dif Restrita O4
O2 AND
26373>
Protec Dif Rest Fase C I1 O1
OR I2 O2
O1
I3
O2
I4
26388> 26390> I5
Bloqueio Diferencial Bloqueio Prot
MMI Diferencial
OR OR
O1 I1 O1
26389>
O2 Bloqueio Diferencial I2 O2
LAN
OR I3 O3

O1

O2
6
26377>
Bloqueio 2ª Harm Fase 26383>
A Bloqueio 2ª Harmónica
OR OR
O1 I1 O1
26378>
O2 Bloqueio 2ª Harm Fase I2 O2
B
OR I3

O1 I4
26379>
O2 Bloqueio 2ª Harm Fase
C
OR
O1
26380> O2
Bloqueio 5ª Harm Fase 26384>
A Bloqueio 5ª Harmónica
OR OR
O1 I1 O1

O2 26381> I2 O2
Bloqueio 5ª Harm Fase
B I3
OR
I4
O1
26382>
O2 Bloqueio 5ª Harm Fase
C
OR
O1

O2

Figure 6.15. Logic diagram of the Differential Protection module.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-22
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.3. PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

Complementing the Differential Protection, the TPU TD420 performs other protection functions,
such Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection. This function has as main goals the operation for the
transformer internal faults, working as Differential Protection backup, and also its protection
against external faults. The TPU TD420 has this function for primary winding and, optionally,
also for secondary.

6.3.1. OPERATION METHOD

The Overcurrent Protection has limitations that restrain its use as main protection function
against faults between phases in transformers from a specified power. The need to consider the
load current in its regulation turns the detection of incipient faults in the transformer, as
interturn short-circuits, almost impossible, while the need to timely coordinate it with other
downstream protection devices turns its operation too slow for the transformer protection
requirements. On the other hand, if an instantaneous operation is intended, its regulation must
be done for a high threshold, which turns it less sensitive and assures only its operation for
extremely violent faults.

However, this function completes the Differential Protection because, opposing to this last one,
is not a unitary protection, being sensitive to faults outside the protection area. Its more frequent
use is a kind of reserve protection of Differential Protection: while this one assures the detection
of most of the transformer internal faults, if possible in a starting phase and limited extension,
the Overcurrent Protection works as a resource level for faults from a certain magnitude and it
protects against external faults that somehow may represent damage for the equipment. 6
These are the main applications of Overcurrent Protection on the primary side. On the secondary
winding side, if there isn’t a generation and this only supply the load, as it is common in
distribution substations, the Overcurrent Protection can’t observe transformer internal faults but,
on the other hand, works as reserve to protection equipments of feeders.

Overall, for each one of transformer sides, 9 virtual relays are available, in three sets
corresponding to three levels of operation, which algorithm is executed in parallel (full-scheme).

All explanations ahead are valid for Overcurrent Protection of both windings.

High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping

As a rule, the High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping is destined to implement a very
fast protection where the selective coordination is obtained by regulating the value of the
operation threshold (cut-off protection).

The selectivity is achieved by regulating this stage to a threshold higher than the maximum fault
current external to the section of the line to be protected in order to assure that it is not put out
of service for short-circuits outside the protection zone. However, sensitivity to internal faults is
lost, being reserved only for faults above a specified magnitude.

Although it is usual to require an instantaneous operation of the protection function, it is also


possible to configure a selective timer. This feature is important to coordinate with other
protections immediately at downstream, either by different operation thresholds or by logic
interlocking (see 6.11 - Blocking by Logical Selectivity).

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Low Set Overcurrent with Definite/Inverse Time

The Low Set Overcurrent function offers higher sensitivity to internal faults than the previous
stage and for selective coordination uses step timings (time-lag protection). TPU TD420
provides both the definite and the inverse time options. The last option complies with
International Standards, which is a guarantee of compatibility with devices of different types and
manufacturers. The standards are IEC 60255-3 and IEEE C37.112.

For the IEC complying option, the time-current functions follow the general expression (6.34),
with the constants defined in Table 6.9:

a TM
t op s b
(6.34)
I cc I 1
Table 6.9. Constants of the inverse time curves according to standard IEC 60255-3.

Curve a b A

NI 0,14 0,02 16,86


VI 13,5 1 29,7
EI 80,0 2 80,0
LI 120 1 264

For the IEEE complying option, the time-current functions follow the general expression (6.35),
with the constants defined in Table 6.10:

c
(6.35)
6
t op s d
e TM
I cc I 1
Table 6.10. Constants of the inverse time curves according to standard IEEE C37.112.

Curve c d e A

NI 0,103 0,02 0,228 9,7


VI 39,22 2 0,982 43,2
EI 56,40 2 0,243 58,2
LI 56,143 1 21,8592 133,1

Any of the standards has four curve options: Normal Inverse (NI), Very Inverse (VI), Extremely
Inverse (EI) and Long Time Inverse (LI). The respective characteristics are represented in Figure
6.16.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-24
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

IEC 60255-3: Normal Inverse IEC 60255-3: Very Inverse

IEC 60255-3: Extremely Inverse IEC 60255-3: Long Time Inverse

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-25
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

IEEE
C37.112: Normal Inverse IEEE C37.112: Very Inverse

IEEE C37.112: Extremely Inverse IEEE C37.112: Long Time Inverse

Figure 6.16. Tripping characteristics of the Overcurrent Protection with inverse time.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Both for the definite time and the inverse time options the operational threshold should be
regulated to a value higher than the maximum load current, considering the possible current
peak observed during the connection due to the cold load and an additional safety margin. A 4%
reset factor in the definite time option assures the necessary operation stability.

In the particular case of the inverse time curves the protection start happens at a value 1,2 times
higher than the configured value in order to avoid inaccuracies resulting from the operation time
for short-circuit current values close to the operational value. These curves already include a
safety margin of 20%.

About the operation time, the setting of the Low Set Overcurrent function should consider the
coordination with downstream protections. This may imply longer operation times, particularly if
it is considered the definite time option. The inverse time curves, on the contrary, allow a
decrease of the operation time at the same time as the fault current increases, adjusting more
naturally to the thermal characteristics of the equipment. In this case, the coordination can be
achieved by adjusting the scale factor (TM - Time Multiplier).

When choosing the Extremely Inverse curve option, the variation of the tripping time with the
fault current is more extreme while with the Normal Inverse curve that variation is minimum. On
the other hand, the dependence of the operation time regarding the upstream short-circuit
power is also higher for the Extremely Inverse curves.

TPU TD420 assures the precision of the inverse time curves for all the setting range and for fault
currents between 1.5 to 20 times the operational value according to the standards it complies
with. The IEC 60255-3 standard only specifies the precision of fault currents between 2 and 20
times the operational threshold. In the IEEE C37.112 standard the defined range varies between
1.5 and 20 times that threshold.

TPU TD420 allows the dynamic reset option in the inverse type time-lag operation. With this
selected option, the protection function reset after the fault elimination is not instantaneous, but 6
it follows a time expression depending on the observed current value:

A TM
t rearme s 2
(6.36)
I I 1
The constant A, meaning the reset total time when the current is zero and the scale factor TM is
unitary, is defined in the Table 6.9 and in the Table 6.10 to the different types of curves.Figure
6.17 to both standards and to different available options: Normally Inverse (NI), Very Intense (VI),
Extremely Inverse (EI) and Long Time Inverse (LI).

The dynamic reset just stirs up the complete reset Overcurrent Protection function after a
defined period. This way, in case of a second fault occurred during the reset, the timer does not
start from zero, improving a faster operation. This mode also allows a dynamic coordination
between the protection and fuses or reclosers connected in the network.

The implementation of the dynamic reset follows the definition of the IEEE C37.112 standard,
making possible a defined mode to evaluative effects. The TPU TD420 originally extends the
dynamic reset principle defined by the IEEE C37.112 standard, to the time-current functions
established by the IEC 60255-3 standard.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-27
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

IEC 60255-3: Normal Inverse IEC 60255-3: Very Inverse

IEC 60255-3: Extremely Inverse IEC 60255-3: Long Time Inverse

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-28
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

IEEE C37.112: Very Inverse


IEEE C37.112: Normal Inverse

IEEE C37.112: Extremely Inverse IEEE C37.112: Long Time Inverse

Figure 6.17.Protection dynamic reset characteristics of the inverse time.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-29
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Definite Time Universal Overcurrent

In parallel and independently of the previous functions, the TPU TD420 performs a third
overcurrent function with constant timer. The characteristics of this function are similar to those
of the low set with definite time protection.
The wide setting range of this protection function (called definite time universal protection)
allows several applications:

as a limiter of the operation time of the low set definite time protection, for situations of low
short-circuit power where the operation times of this function can have important
increments;

as a high set protection second stage, coordinated in time and current with high set
elements of network downstream protections.

The use of this function together with the two previous ones, according to the two described
application examples, allows obtaining for the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection a global
operational characteristic as that indicated in Figure 6.18.

Example of the universal protection application Example of universal protection as second of


as limitation of the operation times high threshold.

Figure 6.18. Operational characteristic of the Overcurrent Protection.

6.3.2. CONFIGURATION

The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters are grouped in three independent groups:
one for each of the stages. The configuration is similar for primary and secondary protection
functions.
The high set protection must be activated by changing the value of the High Set > Status
parameter from OFF to ON.

The High Set > Iop parameter is the current value above which this stage operates. In case of
the primary protection, it should be regulated a value higher than the highest transient current
of transformer energising and than the highest current of external short-circuit, in order to
operate only for faults in the transformer. In case the secondary protection one must take into
account the threshold regulated in the feeder protection.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

The time between the fault occurrence and the operation of the high set protection is defined by
the High Set > Top parameter. Its value can be made null if one wishes an operation as fast as
possible. In case of blocking by logical selectivity, this timer should be adjusted to a value higher
than the time guaranteed for the reception of the trigger indication of the downstream
protections.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases AT
Cenário 1
Cenário 1

Amp> Estado: OFF


Amp> Iop: 2.000
Amp> Top: 0.000
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def> Iop: 0.500
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.500
Inv> TM: 0.050

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Cenário 1

Univ> Estado: OFF


Univ> Iop: 0.500
Univ> Top: 0.040

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 6.19. Set 1 Menu (HV Phase Overcurrent). 6


To activate the low set stage, the Low Set > Status parameter should be configured with ON
value. The Low Set > Operation parameter allows choosing the operation mode from the two
possible options: DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME.
When choosing the DEFINITE TIME option, configure the two parameters: Def> Iop and Def>
Top. The first is the current value above which the protection will operate and that should be
regulated considering the maximum load current; the second is the respective operational time,
which enables the coordination with downstream protections.
When choosing the INVERSE TIME option, configure the parameters: Inv> Standard allows
choosing the standard with which the inverse time curve complies (IEC or IEEE) and Inv> Curve
allows choosing the type of curve (NI, VI or EI). The function reset can be STATIC (default option)
or DINAMIC (situation in which the attack time follows the expression (6.36)), by selecting the
parameter value Inv> Reset.

The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the fault current. Instead one
should configure the Inv> TM parameter. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational
times of the time-lag stage and, this way, finding the optimal point for coordination with the
other downstream inverse time protections.

Regarding the universal stage, the parameters are similar to those of the low set definite time
stage. The Univ> Status parameter indicates whether the function is active, Univ> Iop is the
value above which the function operates and Univ> Top defines the trip time. Its setting should

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-31
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

be coordinated with that of the two other stages according to one of the two examples
presented or according to other criterion defined by the user.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases MT
Cenário 1
Cenário 1

Amp> Estado: OFF


Amp> Iop: 2.000
Amp> Top: 0.000
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def> Iop: 0.500
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.500
Inv> TM: 0.050

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar


Cenário 1

Univ> Estado: OFF


Univ> Iop: 0.500
Univ> Top: 0.040

¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar

Figure 6.20. Set 1 Menu (MV Phase Overcurrent).

6
Table 6.11. Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters.

Parameter Range Unit Default value

Current Set 1..4 1


High Set> Status OFF / ON OFF
High Set> Iop 0,2..40 pu 2
High Set> Top 0..60 s 0
Low Set> Status OFF / ON OFF
Low Set > Operation DEFINITE TIME / DEFINITE TIME
INVERSE TIME
Def> Iop 0,2..20 pu 0,5
Def> Top 0,04..300 s 0,04
Inv> Iop 0,2..20 pu 0,5
Inv> TM 0,05..1,5 s 0,05
Inv> Standard I.E.C. / I.E.E.E. I.E.C.
Inv> Curve NI / VI / EI NI
Inv> Reset STATIC / DYNAMIC STATIC
Univ> State OFF / ON OFF
Univ> Iop 0,2..40 pu 0,5
Univ> Top 0,04..300 s 0,04

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

6.3.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC

The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module includes all start and trip indication of this
function, discriminated by stage (high set, low set and universal) and by phase. These variables
are then grouped by stage and constrained by the existence of blockings established by the user
or by other logical variables.

The blocking by logical selectivity is a particular case to which corresponds a variable that can be
configured in a physical input or to which can be connected a variable received from the local
area network. By default, this blocking is connected to the similar blocking of the earth
protection. By default, the blocking by logical selectivity only affects the high set stage.

The logic associated to Phase Overcurrent Protection of secondary is similar to primary.

Table 6.12. Description of the logical variables of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection.

Id Name Description

15616 Def Time OC Prot Phase A Start indication of the low set definite time stage
… ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
15618 Def Time OC Prot Phase C
15619 Def Time OC Prot Ph A Trip Trip indication of the low set definite time stage
... ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
15621 Def Time OC Prot Ph C Trip
15622 Inv Time OC Prot Phase A Start indication of the low set inverse time stage
... ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
15624 Inv Time OC Prot Phase C

6
15625 Inv Time OC Prot Ph A Trip Trip indication of the low set inverse time stage
... ... discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
15627 Inv Time OC Prot Ph C Trip
15628 Universal OC Prot Phase A Start indication of the universal set definite time
... ... stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions) .
15630 Universal OC Prot Phase C
15631 Univers OC Prot Ph A Trip Trip indication of the universal set definite time
... ... stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
15633.. Univers OC Prot Ph C Trip
15634 High Set OC Prot Phase A Start indication of the high set stage discriminated
... ... by phase (indication produced by the functions).
15636 High Set OC Prot Phase C
15637 High Set OC Prot Ph A Trip Trip indication of the high set stage discriminated
... ... by phase (indication produced by the functions).
15639 High Set OC Prot Ph C Trip
15640 Phase Overcurrent Protect Start of the function.
15641 Phase OC Low Set Start of the low set stage.
15642 Phase OC High Set Start of the high set stage.
15643 Phase OC Universal Start of the universal stage.
15644 Phase OC Protection Trip Trip of the function.
15645 Phase OC Low Set Trip Trip of the low set stage.
15646 Phase OC High Set Trip Trip of the high set stage.
15647 Phase OC Universal Trip Trip of the universal stage.

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Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

Id Name Description

15648 Phase OC MMI Lock Blocking of the function by the local interface.
15649 Phase OC LAN Lock Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
15650 Phase OC Protection Lock Indication of general function blocking.
15651 Phase OC High Set Lock Blocking by logical selectivity received in a input or
by the local area network.

Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.12, are also available the variables
corresponding to the change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates
associated with setting groups logic and function activation. There are also some auxiliary
logical variables used in the module internal logic.

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-34
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

15616>
Prot MI Temp Def Fase
A AT
OR
O1
15617>
O2 Prot MI Temp Def Fase
B AT
OR
15664> 15641>
O1 Gate 1 Max Intens Protec MI Cronom
15618> Fases AT Fases AT
O2 Prot MI Temp Def Fase OR AND
C AT
OR I1 O1 I1 O1
15622>
Prot MI Temp Inv Fase O1 I2 O2 I2 O2
A AT
OR O2 I3 I3

O1 I4
15623>
O2 Prot MI Temp Inv Fase I5
B AT
OR I6
O1 I7
15624>
O2 Prot MI Temp Inv Fase
C AT
OR
O1

O2 15640>
Protecção MI Fases
15628> 15665> 15643> AT
Prot MI Univers Fase A Gate 2 Max Intens Protec MI Univers OR
AT Fases AT Fases AT
OR OR AND I1 O1 8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia

O1 I1 O1 I1 O1 I2 O2
15629>
O2 Prot MI Univers Fase B I2 O2 I2 O2 I3
AT
OR I3 I3 I4
O1 I4
15630>
O2 Prot MI Univers Fase C
AT
OR

15634> O1 15666> 15642>


Prot MI Amperim Fase Gate 3 Max Intens Protec MI Amperim
A AT O2 Fases AT Fases AT
OR OR AND
O1 I1 O1 I1 O1
15635>
O2 Prot MI Amperim Fase I2 O2 I2 O2
B AT
OR I3 I3
O1 I4
15636>
O2 Prot MI Amperim Fase
C AT
OR
15619>
Disp MI Temp Def Fase O1
A AT
O2
OR
O1
15620>
O2 Disp MI Temp Def Fase
B AT
OR
15667> 15645>
O1 Gate 4 Max Intens Disparo MI Cronom
15621> Fases AT Fases AT
O2 Disp MI Temp Def Fase OR AND
C AT
OR I1 O1 I1 O1

6
15625>
Disp MI Temp Inv Fase O1 I2 O2 I2 O2
A AT
OR O2 I3 I3

O1 I4
15626>
O2 Disp MI Temp Inv Fase I5
B AT
OR I6
O1 I7
15627>
O2 Disp MI Temp Inv Fase
C AT 15644>
OR Disparo Prot MI Fases
15631> 15668> 15647> AT
Disp MI Univers Fase O1 Gate 5 Max Intens Disparo MI Univ Fases OR
A AT Fases AT AT
OR O2 OR AND I1 O1 41730>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia

O1 I1 O1 I1 O1 I2 O2 42498>Ordem Abert Disj MT Protec


15632>
O2 Disp MI Univers Fase I2 O2 I2 O2 I3 O3 41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disj AT
B AT
OR I3 I3 I4 O4 42752>Sin Arranque Falha Disj MT
O1 I4 O5
15633>
O2 Disp MI Univers Fase
C AT
OR
15637> 15669> 15646>
Disp MI Amperim Fase O1 Gate 6 Max Intens Disparo MI Amper
A AT Fases AT Fases AT
OR O2 OR AND
O1 I1 O1 I1 O1
15638>
O2 Disp MI Amperim Fase I2 O2 I2 O2
B AT
OR I3 I3
O1 I4 I4
15639>
O2 Disp MI Amperim Fase
C AT
OR
O1
15648> 15650>
Bloqueio MI Fases AT Bloqueio Prot MI Fases
O2
MMI AT
OR OR
O1 I1 O1
15649>
O2 Bloqueio MI Fases AT I2 O2
LAN
OR I3 O3

O1 O4

O2 O5

O6

O7

15651>
Blq Select Log MI
Fases AT
OR
I1 O1

O2 16399>Disparo MI Terra Amper AT


O3

Figure 6.21. Logic diagram of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module (primary).

TPU TD420 Edition 1 - User Manual, Nr. ASID10000054, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011 6-35
Chapter 6 - Control and Protection Functions

15872>
Prot MI Temp Def Fase
A MT
OR
O1
15873>
O2 Prot MI Temp Def Fase
B MT
OR
15920> 15897>
O1 Gate 1 Max Intens Protec MI Cronom
15874> Fases MT Fases MT
O2 Prot MI Temp Def Fase OR AND
C MT
OR I1 O1 I1 O1
15878>
Prot MI Temp Inv Fase O1 I2 O2 I2 O2
A MT
OR O2 I3 I3

O1 I4
15879>
O2 Prot MI Temp Inv Fase I5
B MT
OR I6
O1 I7
15880>
O2 Prot MI Temp Inv Fase
C MT
OR
O1

O2 15896>
Protecção MI Fases
15884> 15921> 15899> MT
Prot MI Univers Fase A Gate 2 Max Intens Protec MI Univers OR
MT Fases MT Fases M