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KAZAKHSTAN

By: JASTINE EDRITZ T. ABON


Grade 7 – Rizal

I. INTODUCTION
It is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the
world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometers, Kazakhstan is the
dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the
region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral
resources.

II. HISTORY
The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic
nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic
Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian
Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as
a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying
specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe
in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of
Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian
Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was re-
organized several times. And Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the
Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's
climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle. The Kazakh
territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of
the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first
domesticated the horse (i.e. ponies) in the region's vast steppes. Central
Asia was originally inhabited by the Scythians.[26] According to the Jewish
historian, Josephus, areas of Bactria (southern Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
Uzbekistan and Afghanistan) were also inhabited earlier by a Semitic race
of Aramaeans, the sons of Gather.

III. CONTRIBUTIONS
Kazakhstan's role in the global nuclear order is "far from minor",
wrote the report's author, Togzhan Kassenova. Blessed with abundant
uranium resources, the country is the world's largest uranium producer. Its
nuclear sector made a major comeback after facing collapse in the early
1990s when the Soviet Union disintegrated and state-owned company
Kazatomprom has been gradually pursuing an advanced nuclear fuel cycle,
including the capacity to produce nuclear fuel. On the international scene,
Kazakhstan's nuclear diplomacy is "rather ambitious as well," Kassenova
wrote. The country hosted Iranian nuclear talks in 2013 and will host the
international nuclear fuel bank expected to be launched in 2015. These
examples confirm that Kazakhstan "is seeking a greater role for itself in
global nuclear politics." "Kazakhstan's leadership believes development of
nuclear energy will fuel the country's economic growth and stimulate high-
tech industrialization."

IV.IMPROVEMENTS
Kazakhstan has transitioned from lower-middle-income to upper-
middle income status in less than two decades. The country moved to the
upper-middle-income group in 2006. Since 2002, GDP per capita has risen
sixfold and poverty incidence has fallen sharply, showing a significant
progress in country performance in the World Bank’s indicator of shared
prosperity.

V.SIGNFICANT EVENTS
This year Kazakhstan celebrates 25 years of independence.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan adopted
the constitutional law on the independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan
on December 16, 1991. It was a key date in the history of independent
Kazakhstan. Since that day Kazakhstan achieved a lot, and we would like
to walk you through its main achievements.

6 Notable Dates in Kazakhstan’s History

1. 1992: Kazakhstan’s admission to the United Nations. Three


months after gaining its independence Kazakhstan became a
member of the UN on March 2, 1992. The UN System (specialized
agencies, programs and funds) started its work in Kazakhstan shortly
after the country’s accession. It was a very important step on the way
to gaining recognition in the international community as a sovereign
country.

2. 1993: 1st constitution of Kazakhstan. The first Constitution of the


Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted on 28 January 1993; it
consisted of 4 sections, 21 chapters. Kazakhstan confirmed its
commitment to international norms and to creating a democratic and
legal state. Constitution proclaimed interethnic consent within the
country with the rule of the Kazakh nation, provide equal rights and
freedoms of all citizens.

3. 2009: Nazarbayev announces country’s readiness to build a


nuclear fuel bank. In 2009 Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev made
a proposal to establish world’s first LEU bank in Kazakhstan. Many
countries, including the U.S, welcomed the initiative. The IAEA Board
of Governors approved the plan to set up the fuel bank in December
2010. The LEU Bank will start its operations in 2017.

4. 2012: establishment of the ATOM project. Throughout its history


Kazakhstan has spearheaded numerous nuclear non-proliferation
initiatives. Under President Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan relinquished all
Soviet-era nuclear weapons, destroyed the Semipalatinsk Nuclear
Test Site and joined the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-
nuclear-weapon state. It also spearheaded the creation of a nuclear-
weapons-free zone in Central Asia in 2009. Finally, in 2012
Kazakhstan launched a large-scale ATOM project that aims to build
international support for the abolishment of nuclear testing.

5. 2015: Kazakhstan’s accession to the WTO. After 20-year long


negotiations Kazakhstan became the 162nd WTO member on 30
November 2015. According to experts, Kazakhstan’s accession to the
global trading system and adaptation of its rules and regulations to
those necessitated by the WTO package will accelerate the growth of
the $231.9 billion economy by attracting foreign investors.

6. 2016: Kazakhstan’s election as a non-permanent member of the


UNSC. Last but not least, in 2016 Kazakhstan became the first
Central Asian country to be elected as a non-permanent member of
the UN Security Council. It’s a huge milestone for Kazakhstan and a
true testament of Kazakhstan’s growing role in the international
community.

These are just some of the most important events that


happened in Kazakhstan since it gained its independence. They allow
us to build an understanding of Kazakhstan’s history.