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Title: Smart Home based on internet of things

Abstract

The technology development is paving way for the automation to be made to the
existing machines leading to the new technology called Internet of Things. Things
get connected with each other over Internet that reduces human workload. The
home is built with electrical devices for comfortable living style. But, the devices
are operated manually in the home. The devices are in running state even users left
the home with unaware of the electrical devices status. Hence, users should come
back to the home to stop the devices. It leads to wastage of human energy,
electrical energy and devices life time. This project is proposed to implement the
smart home automation that controls the devices such as fan, lamp and motor from
remote location over the network. The experiments have been conducted to
implement the automation using home gateway where it acts as IOT register
server and operates the devices using web, android applications through smart
phone, laptop. This work is proposed to reduce human workload and reduce the
electricity consumption.

Keyword: IOT device, smarthome, internet, Home automation, connected home


Chapter 1: GENERAL Introduction

1.1 introduction

this chapter deals with briefly the content of this research. the main topics in it are
introduction ,background of study ,motivation to do this project ,problems
statements ,objectives of project,scope of project and organization of book

1.2 BACKGROUND

The process of improving and upgrading the living standard of the house has been
raised due to the advanced technology applied in this era society. Home
automation is building mechanization for a home, called a smart home [1]. It
includes the control and computerization of lighting, warming, ventilation, cooling,
and security, and also home machines, for example, washer/dryers, stoves or
fridges/coolers and others [2].

1.3 motivation of the research project

.To apply the theoretical skills from the class lectures to the real life problems
solving

.To increase our knowledge in networking of internet of things


1.4 Problem statement and solution

Smarthome based on internet of things idea is a solution to the people who forget
to close/open the home appliance(light,fan,air conditioning,radio,tv,
door,window,and so on ) in his/her home or office but needs to do that later when
we are at home or office without return to do it. in addition also is the solution to
the people who are not happy with the lock and key methods due to the risk of
losing them and duplication of the keys for non outhorized people.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

1.5.1 Main objectives

The main objective of this project is to design and simulate system for smart house
automation based on IOT.

1.5.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

The specific objectives of our project are the following:

. To design and simulate automated Process

.to control the home appliance remotely


1.6 Project scope

Our project is very important and is made up mains system as shown in


background but due to the budget of whole project and time we have ,which is very
short,we are going to design and simulating only the systems containing home
appliance (light, fans, door, windows and garage) automation control, while
security control and security protection is for the future or others come after us.

1.7 Expected results

The home automation using Internet of Things has been experimentally proven to
work by connecting simple appliances to it and the appliances were successfully
controlled remotely through internet. After completing of our project, all device
will be connected together and controlled remotely and is look like the
following figure
1.8 Organization of the project
This project reports consists of six chapters.
Chapter one: general introduction. The first chapter is introduction ,which
contains the problems statement, motivation of project, background of
project,the objectives of project, scope of project and organization of the
project.
Chapter two: literature review this chapter is the introduced to discuss on
what other people have done related to our project.
Chapter three: research methodology.The third chapter discuss about on
which research methology approach used,and it finally decides or selects the
best methods of data collection.
Chapter four: system analysis and design. This fourth chapter discuss
about how system analysis and design was carried out
Chapter five: the fifth chapter focuses on the implementation of the system
,technology used and results abtained as well as the testing of the system
Chapter six: conclusion and recommendation
It the last chapter of this project report. it presents the conclusion and
recommendation that were made upon this research project
Chapter 2: Literature review

This chapter provider related theoretical work or references used to perform this
project entitled ”design and simulation of smart home automation based on internet
of things using smartphone/computer”

2.1 Connected Home vs Automated Home

Smart things are products that incorporate sensors, microprocessors, data storage,
controls, software, an embedded operating system .when that smartthing connected
to the internet is called connected thing, or when the smart thing is programmed to
work by itself is called automated device. Automation refers to the ability to
program and schedule events for the devices on the network. The programming
may include time-related commands, such as having your lights turn on or off at
specific times each day. It can also include non-scheduled events, such as turning
on all the lights in your home when your security system alarm is triggered. Home
Automation is a term used to describe the working together of all household
amenities and appliances. For example, a centrally-controlled LCD panel can have
the capability to control everything from heating, air conditioning, security
systems, audio systems, video systems, lighting, kitchen appliances, and home
theatre installations. A diagram of a home automation system is shown below.

Connected things are products with sensors, microprocessors, and controls that
communicate with networks in order to serve two purposes. On one hand, it
exchanges data over the network to allow monitoring and data collection. On the
other, it’s designed to allow some of its functions to be controlled remotely by one
of those smart things over a communications network.
connected home: is the home consist of connected devices and appliances
controlled by something the user would like on remote control such as
smartphone, tablet, or computer.

Thus, while you could create a home that is either smart, automated, OR connected
(without being either of the other two), you can create a smart, connected,
AND automated home. It all really depends upon how much you want the
connected devices in your home to begin thinking for themselves to smartly start
automating everyday home functions.

2.2 History of smarthome

Smart home system is the use of advanced computer technology, network


communication technology and automatic control technology, which combines the
relevant subsystem into a whole control system.The first "home computer" was an
experimental system in 1966[1]. The Smart House Project was initiated in the early
1980’s as a project of the National Research Center of the National Association of
Home Builders (NAHB) with the cooperation of a collection of major industrial
partners. Considerable efforts have been made to the development of smart house
system [2].
2.3 Related work

2.3.1 Home automation using bluetooth

Sharon Panth, Mahesh Jivani proposed a system for mobile phones having Android
platform to automate Bluetooth interfaced microcontroller which controls a
number of home appliances like lights, fans, bulbs and many more us
on/off relay. This represents the automated approach of controlling the devices in a
household that could ease the tasks of using the traditional method of the switch.
The disadvantage of Bluetooth is that the security in Bluetooth is good but it is
much better in infrared technology means that is used at low range distance [3].

2.3.2 Home automation based on GSM

Ihedioha Ahmed C. proposed a GSM based Home Automation system has worked
as a remote sensing for the electrical appliances at home to check whether it is on
or off and in the same time allowed the user to control the electrical appliances at
home based on SMS technique. It also works as automatic and immediate reporting
to the user in case of emergency for home security. This system has the drawback,
SMS depends on the networks and there is a possibility of delayed delivery
[4].

2.3.3 Home automation based on wireless

Vinay sagar K N, Kusuma S M proposed a Home Automation system that employs


Internet based wireless system for multi-functional devices. Although the system
has a low cost and flexible wireless solution to the home automation, there are still
some limitations related to the wireless communication range and power failure
[5].

2.3.4 Home automation based on voice recognition


Dhawan S. Thakur , Aditi Sharma proposed a Voice recognition home
automation system is intended to control all lights and electrical appliances in a
home or office using voice commands. The MATLAB software has been used to
implement the voice recognition system. it is a very useful for the adults and
physically disabled persons. Even the best speech recognition systems
sometimes make errors. If there is noise or some other sound in the room, the
number of errors will increase [6, 7].

2.3.5Home automation system for controlling home appliance remotelly

Apurva Misra, Ajay K. Yadav, ShrikeshYadav, Ashwani K. Sonker proposed


another home automation system for controlling home appliances remotely. The
prime objective of this paper is to design a phone based remote controller for home
automation. The system differs in that all communications occur over a fixed
telephone line and not over the Internet. The system can be accessed using any
telephone that supports dual tone multiple frequency (DTMF). The disadvantages
of this system are Users are not provided with a graphical user interface, users have
to remember an access code [8].

2.4 Challenges face previous home automation

Home automation systems face four main challenges; these are high cost,
inflexibility,poor manageability, and difficulty in achieving security.

2.5 Our contribution

We are going to design and simulating the smart home automation based on IOT
for control appliance remotely that gives user a simple and effective means of
monitoring their various home appliances from a remote location i.e. without
physically being present.
2.6 TERMINOLOGIES AND DEFINITION

2.6.1. wireless technology

Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic


waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the
communication path. Some monitoring devices, such as intrusion alarms, employ
acoustic waves at frequencies above the range of human hearing; these are also
sometimes classified as wireless[].The first wireless transmitters went on the air in
the early 20th century using radiotelegraphy (Morse code). Later, as modulation
made it possible to transmit voices and music via wireless, the medium came to be
called "radio." With the advent of television, fax, data communication, and the
effective use of a larger portion of the spectrum, the term "wireless" has been
resurrected.

2.6.2 Types of wireless communication technology

Wireless communication technology defines any method of communication


possible without a direct physical connection between the two parties, largely
describing systems based on radio waves. The first wireless communication
systems came into use at the end of the 19th century, and the technology has
matured significantly over the intervening years. Today, many types of devices use
wireless communication technology, allowing users to remain in contact even in
remote areas.
2.6.2.1 Radio

Open radio communication was one of the first wireless technologies to find
widespread use, and it still serves a purpose today[]. Portable multichannel radios
allow users to communicate over short distances, while citizen's band and maritime
radios provide communication services for truckers and sailors. Ham radio
enthusiasts share information and serve as emergency communication aids during
disasters with their powerful amateur broadcasting equipment, and can even
communicate digital data over the radio spectrum[].

2.6.2.3 Cellular

Cellular networks use encrypted radio links, modulated to allow many different
users to communicate across a single frequency band. Because individual handsets
lack significant broadcasting power, the system relies on a network of cellular
towers, capable of triangulating the source of any signal and handing reception
duties off to the most suitable antenna. Data transmission over cellular networks is
possible, with modern 3G systems capable of speeds approaching that of wired
DSL or cable connections. Cellular providers typically meter their service,
charging customers by the minute for voice and by the megabyte for data.

2.6.2.4 Satellite

Satellite communication is another wireless technology that has found widespread


use in specialized situations. These devices communicate directly with orbiting
satellites via a radio signal, allowing users to stay connected virtually anywhere on
Earth. Portable satellite phones and modems feature more powerful broadcast and
reception hardware than cellular devices due to the increased range, and are
correspondingly more expensive. For semi-permanent or permanent installations,
such as outfitting a ship for satellite communication, a more traditional
communication system may link to a single satellite uplink, allowing multiple
users to share the same broadcast equipment.

2.6.2.5 Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a form of low-power wireless communication used by computers and


hand-held electronic devices. In a Wi-Fi setup, a wireless router serves as the
communication hub, linking portable devices to a wired internet connection. These
networks are extremely limited in range due to the low power of the transmissions,
allowing users to connect only within close proximity to a router or signal repeater.
Wi-Fi is common in home networking applications, allowing users to link devices
without running lengths of cable, and in commercial applications where a business
may provide wireless Internet access to their customers. Wi-Fi networks may be
free to use, or their owners may secure them with passwords and access
restrictions.

2.6.3 Types of WI-FI Technologies:

Currently they are four major types of WIFI technologies.

 Wi-Fi-802.11a
 Wi-Fi-802.11b
 Wi-Fi-802.11g
 Wi-Fi-802.11n

2.6.3 1 Wi-Fi802.11a

802.11a is the one of a series of wireless technology. That defines the format and
structure of the radio signals sent out by WI-FI networking routers and antennas.

2.6.3.2 Wi-Fi-802.11b:

802.11b is the one of a series of wireless technology. 802. 11b support bandwidth
11mbps. Signal in unregulated frequency spectrum around 2.4 GHz. This is a low
frequency compared with Wi-Fi-802.11a means it is working reasonable distance.
It is interference with micro owns cordless phones and other appliance. It is low-
cost; signal range is good using home appliance.

2.6.3.3 Wi-Fi-802.11g:

In 2002 and 2003, This Technology supporting a newer slandered products. It is


best technology of 802.11a and 802.11b. The 802.11 b support bandwidth upto
54mbps and it use a 2.4 GHz frequency for greater range. This cost is more than
802.11b. It is fast accessing and maximum speed.

2.6.3.4 Wi-Fi-802.11n:

The 802.11n is the newest WIFI technology. It was designed to improve on


802.11g .The amount of bandwidth supported by utilizing multiple wireless signals
and antennas instead of one. It supports 100 mbps bandwidth and increased signal
intensity.
Applications:

 Mobile applications
 Business applications
 Home applications
 Computerized application
 Automotive segment
 Browsing internet
 Video conference

2.6.3.5 BLUETOOTH

Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to transfer data between different


electronic devices. The distance of data transmission is small in comparison to
other modes of wireless communication. This technology eradicates the use of
cords, cables, adapters and permits the electronic devices to communicate
wirelessly among each other

Technology used in smart automation


2.6.4 IOT
IoT is a concept where an object is assigned to an IP address and through that IP
address we make that device identifiable on internet. A Team of International
Telecommunications Union defined IoT as a global infrastructure for the
information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and
virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and
communication technologies. The network can be a combination of people-things,
things-things and people-people. It happens only because of the conjugation of
various technologies such as wireless communication, Micro Electromechanical
System that includes wireless sensor, networks and control system. The most
important elite presence of cloud space on Internet is shaping the architecture of
IoT in a feasible and rational form. Certainly, what IoT can do is beyond
imagination. It connects plethora of heterogeneous object .

2.6.4.1 EVOLUTION of IOT


Adoption of Internet as a technological innovation has brought a revolution in our
society. It was the time in late 1950s[1], USSR launched sputnik which is the first
effort of human civilization to step into outer space. Subsequently, Advanced
Research Project Agency(ARPA) was born in US for carrying out missile and
space research to complete with USSR. Then National Aeronautics and Space
Administration was also established in USA. Activities of NASA reoriented the
focus of ARPA for computer science research and information processing research
in USA. ARPA connected few Universities of USA through ARPANET which is a
multiple-site computer network. This ARPANET subsequently developed as
internet.

2.6.5 Internet

Internet is the interconnected system around the worldwide that use TCP/IP model
to exchange information

2.6.5.1 Classification of internet

Internet can be classified as The Internet of Documents, The Internet of


Commerce, The Internet of Applications, The Internet of People and The Internet
of Things.

2.6.5.2 Internet of documents

Internet of documents comprises e-libraries and document of web pages.

2.6.5.3 Internet of commerce

The Internet of Commerce deals with e-commerce banking and online trading.

2.6.5.4 Internet of application

.Internet of Applications confine to web 2.x and Internet of Things is associated


with connected devices and machines[2].

2.7 smartphome

Smartphone is a mobile phone that performs many of the functions of a computer,


typically having a touchscreen interface, Internet access, and an operating system
capable of running downloaded apps[8].
2.8 Consideration to choose smartphone

We choose smart phone because of its features ,such as size, weight, battery life
and unconnectionless service since it is always on

2.9 Homegateway

A residential gateway is a small consumer-grade router which provides network


access between local area network (LAN) hosts to a wide area network (WAN) via
a modem

2.9.1 Advantage of homegateway

The great advantage of homegateway as opposite to microcontroller is that


micromicrocontroller is bwilt-in inside with other popular technology such
Bluetooth,wifi,zigbee,zwave as we see on the above figure and is easy to use .
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODILOGY

This chapter provide all techniques used for data gathering for implementing this
project.it also clarifies the software used ,activities and all requirements needed to
performs this system

3.1 Methodology of data collection

In our research project we use two main methods which is documentation and
simulation[5]

The tools used to collect data for this project are: observation of existing system,
internet document, library document, and simulation using packet trace

3.2 OBSERVATION

Observation method is a method under which data from the field is collected with
the help of observation by the observer or by personally going to the in our project
we look at different home automation and non home automation

In our abservation ,we see the following points

.many people are using the traditional methods to control home appliance and are
not happy with that method because it has consume its high time, cost and is more
insecurity where lock and keys always associated with lisk of losing or key
duplicating.

3.3 documentation

3.3.1 library documents

In our project we use data and information collected in library where we read the
books, novels and final year project of previous years
3.3.2 Internet document

Internet is among the tool we used in this project by browsing different website to
search on other related researches done .also to see what other people worldwide
are thinking about the smarthome automation based on internet of things using
smartphone

3.4 SIMULATION

To do simulation we will use Cisco Packet Tracer which is a network


simulation and visualization tool. This free software helps us to practice project
network configuration .

3.5 System development and model use

To perform this project ,waterfall models is chosen which invoke the new process
while the previous one is done .our project is divided into the following process
phase that follows

.requirement specification, system design, implementation ,testing and


maintenance.

3.6 Requirements specification

The system requirements specification documents describes all data ,functional


and behaviors requirements of smarthome automation come from different
sources which observation, internet ,and library
3.7 Implementation

This phase called implementation focus on the realization of a technical


specification as a programs,software components

3.8 Testing and maintenance

System testing is the testing of the system based on its specification .it is the
comprehensive testing and verification of the system against the requirements
specification

3.8 Analyzing of the existing system

By analyzing the existing system ,focusing on how they work ,what are the
advantage and disadvantage ,their fail and other more.

During this analysis there were many related system for smart home automation
analyzed as shown on chapter two of this work.

3.9 Proposed system requirements

3.9.1 Hardware requirements

A smart phone with an android operating system will be used to control on/off of
all home appliance used in our project.

The homegateway: is an essential part for this system to work ,it receives the
command coming from smartphone or laptop and use to on or off home appliance

.computer : with any operating system and able to access internet

.homegate way : with antenna so that is able to produce wireless connection

.internet,light bulb,smart refrigerator,air conditioning,garage door,house door


House window

3.9.2 Software requirements

IOT Hardware and Software


The hardware used in IOT has devices for remote communication, control, servers
and routing devices. The main function of the IOT hardware is like system
activation, action specification, security, communication and detection to support
specific objectives. The different hardware that is used in this smart home system
are sensors, router and switch. However the interconnection of these devices is
enabled by software system which gives a platform for the devices to run. It also
integrates the devices and collects information via the WAN.

.Android os

.homegateway operating system(ubuntu,window10)

.networking
3.10 Analysis of new system

This system is to unable a user to on/off the home appliance using smart phone or
laptop.

Light bulb

Smart
refrigerator
communication Wi-fi
Air conditioning

Garage door

House window

House door
Chapter IV: system analysis and design

The purpose of the design phase is to plan a solution of the problems specified by
the requirements documents .this phase is first step in moving from problems
domains to the solution domain .implimenting explains the technology and
methodology used in implimentating the proposed system after a through the
analysis of the current one and design of the proposed one.

4.1 system purpose

The purpose of this project based on smartphone/laptop to control remotely the


home appliancefor the purpose of switching on and off.
4.2 flowchart of whole project

start

Initialize connection

connected

Login to the web server


192.168.25.1

yes
Enter the name of admin and
pppppppppassword ,

yes
Control home appliance on /off
,lock/unlock ,high/low
CHAPTER V: simulation and implementation of the system

5.1 description of project


In general, the system is required to do two things. One is the remote access of
users to the servers ; the other is the internal access to the local network, which is
locally implemented .Our project is consist of the following components smart
devices, IOT server, DNS server, IOT cloud (WAN), cellular tower, Central office
server, ISP server, smart phone ,cable modem and laptop. The discussion of this
IOT devices and hardware devices is given as follows.
5.2 Function of each components

5.2.1 IOT Gateway controls the activities of the smart devices connected to it; It
gets an internet connection by using an IP address from the ISP server
automatically after associating Ethernet cable and coaxial cable of the cloud
(WAN) to allow services topass through it. It registers smart devices and assigns
an ip address to them. All the wireless connected smart devices to the IOT gateway
like: webcam, window and door obtain an IP address automatically from the ISP
router via the cloud (WAN). Home Gateway have 4 Ethernet ports in addition to a
wireless access point configured with the "Home Gateway" SSID (see fig 2).To
secure wireless connection WEP / WPA-PSK / WPA2 enterprise can be configured
on home gateway. The figure 2 shows seven internet of Things device connected to
a Home Gateway by using Ethernet cable and wireless. To connect the Home
Gateway to the Internet its Internet WAN Ethernet port available on home
getaway.The IoE device can be remotely managed through a web interface hosted
by the Home Gateway. The Home Gateway internal (LAN) IP address is
192.168.25.1 but it can also be accessed through its Internet facing IP address
5.2.2 The central office server
gets all IP information from the ISP automatically after configuring DHCP
server, DNS server and default router on the ISP router .It can also be used to
connect a cell tower to
the router and the router to the cell tower for transferring of information between
them.
5.2.3 IOT server:
IT brings services to the connected devices after the IOE server is enabled .Smart
devices
can access their services from the web server by using their respected ip addresses
after the hypertext
transfer protocol of the server is started. In other words, the smart devices can be
accessed by using the ip address of the IOT server. It associates IOE smart devices
to the IOT gateway with the ip address of the IOE server. In general, it controls the
devices connected to it.
5.2.4 DNS server:
It provides services to registered devices after the DNS server is enabled and made
it to state, then all the connected devices directly or indirectly accesses the services
by using the domain name of the DNS server (ioe.org) and starts their
communication. It is connected to the switch by suing straight through cable.
5.2.5 IOT cloud (WAN).
First, the interfaces of the cloud (WAN) for the coaxial cable and Ethernet cable
are enabled to associate the two interfaces and allow the information pass through
it. It Transfers the information collected by the smart devices from the smart office
environment and sends it to the IOT server for storage. Ip addresses assigned to the
smart devices by the IOT gateway pass via the cloud.
5.2.6 Cellular tower: It is used to access and control the office services from
remote.It communicates to the central office server by usinga coaxial cable
interface. It gets data from the router (2911) via crossover cable.
5.2.7 ISP (internet service provider).
It proves the internet services to smart home, particularly to the smart office. The
DHCP server is configured on this device and it assigns an IP address to every
connected device, whether it is smart or not dynamically.
5.2.8 Smartphone
It is used to access the smart devices through the web by using 192.168.25.1.
Then all the devices which connect to the home gateway. It can also be controlled
all the smart office IOE devices from remote with internet connection. It is very
close and connected to the cell-tower
Table:1. Devices used for design
NO: Device Function
It connects cellular network
1 Router(1911)
and smart office to each other
Is used to connect IOT gateway
2 Cable modem
to the cloud and vice versa
It registers smart devices and
3 IOT gateway
assigns an ip address to them
Controls the smart IOE devices
4 IOE server registered on it and brings a
variety of server functions
Is used to connect a cell tower
Central office
5 to the router and the router to
server
the cell tower for transferring of
information.
6 Fan Used to ventilate the smart

Office
Is a smart device used to
777 Webcam
Control smart Office activities
Provides light for the smart
888 Smart Light office by using smart light
devices
Connects to the IOT gateway
and brings some main important
989 Smart door
functions based events in the
smart office.
It is a cellular mechanism that
1010 Cell-tower brigs controlling and accessing
office services from remote.
It is used to control the window
remotely with smart phone
connected to a wireless internet
This decreases the carbon
1111 Smart window
monoxide, carbon dioxide,
hydrogen and helium and it
increases oxygen to get fresh air
which is good for health.
5.3 Smarthome overview
5.4 SIMULATION OF SMART HOME USING INTERNET OF THINGS

Simulating of smart home consist of 2 way,one using wireless device, second using
wire as shown on the following figure.To simulate smart home automation ,
Cisco packet tracer is used which is a new released technology that includes smart
objects intended for home automation.These devices are like: smart light, smart
fan, smart camera, smart door and smart window. However, home gateway
provides controlling mechanisms by
registering smart devices respectively via the wide area network(WAN) as shown
below
Wireless smart home
The above the two figure shows the smart object is connected to the home
Gateway or server using Ethernet cable and wireless medium to manage smart
device local and remotely. Home gateway also works as DHCP server by assigning
IP address to each smart device that connected Home Gateway used, since it
provide programming environment for controlling smart object connected to it and
provide controlling mechanisms by registering smart device to Home Gateway
respectively .

5.4 controlling connected device

After all device is connected to home gateway a in wireless connection or to the


server in wire connection , Smartphone is used to control home appliance on/off
process using web where we log on the web server using ip address of server
192.168.25.1 as shown
The above figure shows after registering smart device to home gateway all device
are accessed through web by legitimate user. Figure 4 shows there are seven IOE
device registered to Home gateway those all are controlled through web by
legitimate person.
5.5 Managements of project

5.5.1 troubleshooting of the network

When the network fail or any other issues related to the network in our smart home
,we do the following methods so that connection is always available.

5.5.1.1 Hard Resets

A hard reset is the most drastic type of router reset that's most commonly used
when the owner of home has forgotten their password or keys and wishes to start
over with fresh settings.

Since the software on the router is reset to factory defaults, a hard reset removes all
customizations, including passwords, usernames, security keys, port forwarding
settings, and custom DNS servers.

Hard resets do not remove the currently-installed version of router firmware,


however.To avoid internet connectivity complications, disconnect the broadband
modem from the router before performing hard resets.

5.5.1.1.2 How to do it:

1. With the router powered on, turn it to the side that has the Reset button. It might be
on the back or the bottom.
2. With something small and pointy, like a paperclip, hold down the Reset button
for 30 seconds.
3. After releasing it, wait another 30 seconds for the router to fully reset and power
back on.

An alternative method called the 30-30-30 hard reset rule involves holding down
the reset button for 90 seconds instead of 30 and can be tried if the basic 30 second
version doesn't work.

Some router manufacturers might have a preferred way to reset their router, and
some methods to resetting a router may differ between models.
5.5.1.2 Power Cycling

Shutting off and re-applying power to a router is called power cycling. It's used to
recover from glitches that cause a router to drop connections, such as corruption of
the unit's internal memory, or overheating. Power cycles do not erase saved
passwords, security keys, or other settings saved via the router's console.

5.5.1.2.1 How to do it:

Power to a router can be shut off either by the unit's on/off switch (if it has one) or
by unplugging the power cord. Battery-powered routers must have their batteries
removed.

Some people like to wait 30 seconds out of habit, but it's not necessary to wait
more than a few seconds between unplugging and reattaching a router's power
cord. As with hard resets, the router takes time after power is restored to resume
operation.

5.5.1.3 Soft Resets

When troubleshooting internet connectivity issues, it can help to reset the


connection between the router and modem. Depending on how you want to do it,
this may just involve removing the physical connection between the two, not
manipulating the software or disabling power.

Compared to other kinds of resets, soft resets take effect almost instantaneously
because they don't require the router to reboot.

5.5.1.3.1 How to do it:

Physically unplug the cable connecting the router to the modem and then reconnect
it after a few seconds.

Some routers include a disconnect/connect button on their console; this resets the
connection between the modem and the service provider.

Some router brands including Linksys provide a menu option in their console
called restore factory defaults or something similar. This feature replaces the router's
customized settings (passwords, keys, etc.) with the original ones it had at the
factory, without requiring a hard reset.
Some routers also feature a reset Security button on their Wi-Fi console screens.
Pressing this button replaces the subset of the router's wireless network
settings with the defaults while leaving other settings unchanged. Specifically, the
router name (SSID), wireless encryption, and Wi-Fi channel number settings are
all reverted.

To avoid confusion around which settings get changed on a security reset, Linksys
owners can avoid this option and use restore factory default instead.

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