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SEE 3423

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Q1. Answer all following sub-questions by considering only the relevant aspects only
within a suitable examination time.

(a) Compare and contrast DC system promoted by Thomas Edison with AC supply
system.
[5 marks]
(b) What is the effect on impedance diagram if the transformer windings nominal
voltage is not used as the base voltage? Prove your answer by giving an example
or by deriving a general formula.
[5 marks]
(c) Why does the electricity tariff consist of energy charge, peak demand charge and
penalty for power factor below a specified limit?
[5 marks]
(d) Compare and contrast overhead line and underground cable from the aspects of
material, construction and equivalent circuit.
[5 marks]
(e) Explain briefly but clearly the principle of wind energy and photovoltaic cell
electricity generations.
[5 marks]

Q2. (a) Describe the term “grid network” in power system. Give two (2) reasons for all
power systems are being connected as grid network.

[7 marks]

(b) Explain briefly the three types of prime movers and energy sources for
generating electrical energy in Malaysia.
[6 marks]
(c) Give 3 (three) reasons why electrical energy is superior to all other forms of
energy in modern society.
[6 marks]
(d) Describe clearly the functions of following entities in relation to electric power
industry in Malaysia.
(i) Energy Commision (Suruhanjaya Tenaga).
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(ii) Tenaga Nasional Berhad.
(iii) Independent Power Producers.
[6 marks]

Q3. (a) Why does the per-unit system being used in power system analysis even though
the manufacturers such as the transformer manufacturer and generator
manufacturer give the impedance value in percent?
[3 marks]
(b) Derive the new value of p.u impedance Z, in terms of old Zp.u, old and new base
voltage and old and new base VA.

[5 marks]
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below:

Figure Q3(c)

(i) Construct the impedance diagram from the given single line diagram.
Take ratings of generator G1 as bases in your calculation. All reactances
in per unit are referred to their respective component’s ratings.
[5 marks]
(ii) Calculate the voltage at bus bar 1 and what is the real power and reactive
power of the generator G1.
[12 marks]
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Q4. (a) State main components and explain operating principles for any of the following
generating station:
(i) Thermal turbine generating station, or
(ii) Hydro generating station, or
(iii) Gas turbine generating station.
[6 marks]

(b) Discuss in general the two constraints in implementing electrical generation using
renewable energy sources.
[4 marks]
(c) A 100 MW steam turbine generator rotates at 3000 revolution per minute, 50Hz,
is supplying 70MW at synchronous frequency. Another 20MW load is suddenly
applied to the generator and the steam valve is opened only after 0.2 second.
Calculate the lowest frequency if the stored energy in the rotating parts moving at
rated speed of 3000rpm is 400 MJ.
[5 marks]
(d) The dam catchment area for a hydroelectric station covers an area of 2 square km
with water capacity of 5 million cubic meter. Water head for the dam is 50 m.
The turbine and generator efficiencies 85% and 95% respectively.
(i) Calculate total electrical energy in kWh that can be generated by the station.
[4 marks]
(ii) If an electrical load of 15000 kW is connected to the station for a duration
of 4 hours, obtain the drop in water level of the dam.
[6 marks]

Q5. (a) State a factor that determines the selection for transmission line model in power
system analysis. List the types of transmission lines base on the given factor.
[4 marks]
(b) Explain how inductance and capacitance can be made equal for all phases in a 150
km, three phase, horizontally-arranged transmission line.
[3 markah]
(c) The cross-sectional view of an overhead three phase, 132 kV, 50 Hz transmission
line is shown in Figure Q5(c). The length of the line is 150 km. Each phase
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consists of two bundled conductors, each with a resistance of 0.001 Ω / km and a
radius r is 1 cm.

10 cm

r r

Fasa R

1 meter

r r

Fasa Y

1 meter

r r

Fasa B

Figure Q5(c)

(i) Given that the conductors are made of aluminum and the line is properly
transposed, obtain resistance, inductance, and capacitance per km per phase
for the line.(Note: µo = 4π x 10-7 H/m, ε o = 8.854 x 10-12 F/m)
[7 marks]
(ii) The line is transmitting power to a three phase 250 MW load with power
factor of 0.9 lagging at line voltage of 132 kV. Using nominal π line model
and bases of 250 MVA and 132 kV, calculate the following values in per
unit:
(a) Sending end voltage and current.
(b) Voltage regulation.
[11 marks]
SEE 3423
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Q6. (a) Describe two type of loads where the sum of the two loads exceeds 50% of the
energy usage in Malaysia presently, from the aspect of energy conversion and
power factor.
[2 marks]

b) Discuss the means to improve the energy efficiency of both loads in section (a)
above, respectively.
[4 marks]

c) Figure Q6(c) below gives the daily load curve and the weekend load curve of a
power supply company. Plot the estimated load duration curve for the year.
[5 marks]

Figure Q6(c)

d) From Figure Q6(c) and from other relevant aspect, explain why the cost of
generation at the peak period is very expensive compared with cost of generation
from generators that generate at a fixed output continuously.
[6 marks]

e) A factory has a load which is the same daily and the load is as given in Table
Q6(e-i). Table Q6(e-ii) is the Tenaga Nasional Berhad’s Industrial Tariff for
2008.
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Table Q6(e-i)
Hours Load in kW
0800 – 1800 2000
1800 – 2200 1500
2200 – 0800 1000

Table Q6(e-ii)
Industrial Tariff TNB 2008

E1 (Medium E2 (Medium Voltage


Voltage General General Industrial
Industrial Tariff) Tariff)

Maximum demand charge RM24.60 RM30.80/kW

Cost /kWhr within peak hour Nil RM0.296/kWhr

Cost per kWhr outside peak hour Nil RM0.182/kWhr

Cost per kWhr at any time RM0.28 Nil

Peak time is between 0800 to 2200.

Calculate the montly bill of the factory above by using tariff E1 and E2. Compare and
contrast those tariffs by using the factory as an example. If 60% of the load is thermal
load, discuss a way to save energy which is suitable for the factory.
[8 marks]