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Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also

known as Fish Science, is the branch of biologydevoted to the study of fishes. This
includes bony fishes (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), and
jawless fishes (Agnatha). While a large number of species have been discovered
and described, approximately 250 new species are officially described by science
each year. According to FishBase, 32,200 species of fish had been described by
March 2012.[1] There are more species of fishes than the combined total of all other
vertebrates: mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds.[citation needed]

Entomology (from Greek ἔντομος, entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or


engraved/segmented", hence "insect"; and -λογία, -logia[1]) is the scientific study
of insects, a branch of arthropodology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague,
and historically the definition of entomology included the study of
terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such
as arachnids, myriapods,earthworms, land snails, and slugs. This wider meaning
may still be encountered in informal use

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -
logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, eitherunicellular (single
cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).[1] Microbiology
encompasses numerous sub-disciplines includingvirology, mycology, parasitology,
and bacteriology.
Zoology (/zoʊˈɒlədʒi/, zoh AHL uh jee) or animal biology, is the branch
of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the
structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals,
both living and extinct. The term is derived fromAncient Greek ζῷον, zōon, i.e.
"animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study".[1]

Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity in the past, primarily


through the recovery and analysis of the material cultureand environmental data that
they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as
eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record). Because
archaeology employs a wide range of different procedures, it can be considered to
be both a science and a humanity,[2] and in the United States it is thought of as a
branch of anthropology,[3] although in Europe it is viewed as a separate discipline.

Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Etymologically,


the word "ornithology" derives from the ancient Greek ὄρνις ornis ("bird") and
λόγος logos ("rationale" or "explanation"). Several aspects of ornithology differ from
related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of
birds.[1] Most marked among these is the extent of studies undertaken by amateurs
working within the parameters of strict scientific methodology.

Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the
scientific study of algae. Phycology is a branch of life science and often is regarded
as a subdiscipline of botany.

Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study


of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, andgymnophiona)
and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, cr
ocodilians, and the tuataras).Batrachology is a further subdiscipline of herpetology
concerned with the study of amphibians alone.

Paleontology or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪlɪɒnˈtɒlədʒi/, /ˌpeɪlɪənˈtɒlədʒi/ or /ˌpælɪɒnˈtɒlə


dʒi/, /ˌpælɪənˈtɒlədʒi/) is the scientific study of life existent prior to, but sometimes
including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to
determine organisms' evolutionand interactions with each other and their
environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been
documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in
the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and
developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates
from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i.e. "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen.ontos), i.e. "being,
creature" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "speech, thought, study".[1]

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between
them. As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the
organism or environment in question, but by their way of life. This means it forms a
synthesis of other disciplines, and draws on techniques from fields such as cell
biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular
biology, immunology,genetics, evolution and ecology.

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms
for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinals and other products used to sustain and enhance
human life.[1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human
civilization, whereby farming ofdomesticated species created food surpluses that
nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known
asagricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and
its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures,
and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and
maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this
usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland
farming. Livestock are raised in a combination of grassland-based and landless
systems, in an industry that covers almost one-third of the world's ice- and water-
free area. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-
scale monoculturehas become the dominant system of modern farming, although
there is growing support for sustainable agriculture,
includingpermaculture and organic agriculture.

Medicine (UK English i/ˈmɛdsɨn/, US English i/ˈmɛdɨsɨn/) is the science or


practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention ofdisease.[1] It encompasses a
variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by
the prevention and treatment ofillness.

Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various
human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools and sofas) and sleeping (e.g.,
beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work (as
horizontal surfaces above the ground, such as tables and desks), or to store things
(e.g., cupboards and shelves). Furniture can be a product of design and is
considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can
serve a symbolic or religious purpose. It can be made from many materials,
including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety
of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture.

A textile[1] or cloth[2] is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or


artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced
by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long
strands.[3] Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting,crocheting, knotting, or
pressing fibres together (felt).

Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic


decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their
resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650
million years.[4] Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and
include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.[5] They range from volatile materials
with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to
nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal.
Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in
the form of methane clathrates. The theory that fossil fuels formed from
the fossilized remains of dead plants[6] by exposure to heat and pressure in
the Earth's crust over millions of years[7] (see biogenic theory) was first
introduced by Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the
18th century.

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make


useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological
systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products
or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art.
2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the
(related) fields of bioengineering andbiomedical engineering.\