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EMR seminar Seminar Sept.

2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« EMR OF AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE »

Dr. W. Lhomme, Prof. A. Bouscayrol,


(L2EP, Université Lille1, France,)

http://www.emrwebsite.org/
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Introduction -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Simulation is a key issue before working on a real system…


model representation simulation

real
system

How to define control?

d
J  gear  Tdcm  T gear  f gear
dt
d
Larm idcm  u chop  edcm  Rarm idcm
dt
u chop  mchop Vbat Tdif  k dif Tgear
i 
 chop  mchop idcm  dif  k dif  wh

 Tdcm  k dcm idcm Tgear  k gear Tdcm


e 
 dcm  k dcm  gear gear  k gear  diff

Tazzari Zero M
d
dt
vev  Ftot  Fres

of L2EP
Which kind of model?
How to organize Simulation?
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Outline -
3
EPF Lausanne, September 2014

1. Studied EV - Modelling

2. EMR of the EV

3. Control of the EV (objective)

4. More complex EVs


EMR seminar Seminar Sept. 2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« STUDIED ELECTRIC VEHICLE


- MODELLING STEP »
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Tazzari Zero EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Tazzari Zero characteristics


• 15 kW induction machine
• 80V 160Ah LiFePO4 battery
• 542 kg (empty mass)
• Maximum speed: 85km/h

its
Tim
2 3
ubat 1
iim1iim2 gear
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Simplified EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Objective:
control of the traction system
Simplifications:
• a permanent magnet DC machine is considered in a first step
• an equivalent wheel is considered (no curve)
i ts
i T im
u bat
 gear
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Modelling -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Battery:
• RE model
Vbat (t )  E (t )  Richop (t)

Chopper:
• ideal power switches
• average modelling
uchop (t )  mchop (t ) Vbat (t )

 ichop (t )  mchop (t ) idcm (t )
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Modelling (2) -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

DC Machine:
• no magntic saturation, permanent magnets

Armature winding
d
Larm idcm (t )  uchop (t )  edcm (t )  Rarmidcm (t )
dt

Electromagnetic conversion (PM)


Tdcm ( t )  k dcm idcm ( t )

 edcm ( t )  k dcm 1( t )

Rotation shaft
d
J 1( t )  Tdcm ( t )  T1( t )  f1( t )
dt
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Modelling (3) -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Gearbox:
• no losses T2 ( t )  k gear T1( t )

1( t )  k gear  2 ( t )

Wheel:  1
F
 wh ( t )  T2 ( t )
• no slip  Rwh

 ( t )  1 v ( t )
 2 Rwh
ev

Chassis: d
M vev (t )  Fwh (t )  Fres (t )
dt
Environment: Fres (t )  F0  a vev (t )  bvev2 (t )  Mg sin  (t )
EMR seminar Seminar Sept. 2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« EMR OF THE EV -
MODEL ORGANIZATION »
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Structural
i ts
Representation
T dcm
u bat
1

Functional Description
ubat uchop
Battery
ichop iarm
mchop

u chop  mchop Vbat



 i chop  mchop iarm
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

i ts
i T dcm
u bat
1

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm 1


Battery
ichop iarm edcm 1 T1
mchop

Tdcm  k dcm idcm d


Larm
d
idcm  uchop  edcm  Rarm idcm  J 1  Tdcm  T1  f1
dt  edcm  k dcm 1 dt
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

i ts
i T dcm
u bat
 1r

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm 1 2 vev


Battery
ichop iarm edcm 1 T1 T2 Fwh
mchop

T2  k gear T2 T2  Rwh Fwh


 
1  k gear  2 vev  Rwh  2
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

i ts
i T dcm
u bat
1

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm 1 2 vev Fwh vev


Battery
ichop iarm edcm 1 T1 T2 Fwh vev Fres
mchop

d
M vev  Ftot  Fres
dt
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

i ts
i T dcm
u bat
1

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm 1 2 vev Fwh vev


Battery
ichop iarm edcm 1 T1 T2 Fwh vev Fres
mchop
permutations
Conflict of association:
1 and vev state variables but vev  Rwh k gear 1
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

i ts
i T dcm
u bat
1

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm T1 Fwh vev Fwh vev


Battery
ichop iarm edcm 1 2 vev Fres vev Fres
mchop
2
M eq
d
vev  Ftot  Fres 
k gear
f
merging
Conflict of association: dt 2
Rwh 2
a unique state variable is required! k gear
M eq  M  J shaft
2
Rwh
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EMR of the EV -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

A Faero
Fgrade
½ Froll
½ Froll 


Mg
ubat uchop idcm Tdcm T1 Fwh vev
Battery Env.
ichop iarm edcm 1 2 vev Fres
mchop

1
Fres  k roll Mg cos    air AC x vev
2
 Mg sin 
2
EMR seminar Seminar Sept. 2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« CONTROL OF THE
STUDIED ELECTRIC VEHICLE »
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Tuning path -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

chopper DC machine gearboxes wheel chassis

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm T1 Fwh vev


Battery Env.
ichop iarm edcm 1 2 vev Fres
mchop

Control ?
vev-ref

Objective: control the EV velocity

Tuning variable: modulation ratio of the DC-DC converter


« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Maximum Control Structure -


20
EPF Lausanne, September 2014

chopper DC machine gearboxes wheel chassis

ubat uchop idcm Tdcm Tgear Tdiff Fwh vev


Battery Env.
ichop iarm edcm  shaft  gear diff vev Fres
mchop

uchop-ref idcm-ref Tdcm-ref Tgear-ref Tdiff-ref Fwh-ref vev-ref

Maximum Control Structure:


• inversion of each element step-by-step
• all variables are assume measurable
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Simulation -
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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Matlab-Simulink ©, using the EMR library


« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- Implementation on the real vehicle -


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EPF Lausanne, September 2014

Electronic
Control Unit

sensors
EMR seminar Seminar Sept. 2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« MORE COMPLEX
ELECTRIC VEHICLES »
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EV with a field-winding DC machine -


24
EPF Lausanne, September 2014

ia gear fsh 
gear lwh vveh
uch-a Jsh diff Tldiff
ich-a Tdcm Tload
ubat Fenv
Tgear
itot if rwh
uch-f Trdiff
i
ch-f
parallel
connection choppers DC machine gearbox differential wheels chassis

ubat uch-a ia Tldiff Flwh


ubat
ich-a ia ea Tdcm Tgear Tdiff lwh v Ftot vveh
BAT m lwh
ENV
itot ubat ch-a gear
uch-f if diff wh Trdiff Frwh vveh Ftot

ich-f if ef Rt
rwh vrwh
mch-f
EMR seminar Seminar Sept. 2014
Lausanne “Energetic Macroscopic Representation”

Sept. 2014

« REFERENCES »
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- References -
26
EPF Lausanne, September 2014

A. Bouscayrol, W. Lhomme, P. Delarue, B. Lemaire-Semail, S. Aksas, “Hardware-In-the-Loop simulation of


electric vehicle traction systems using Energetic Macroscopic Representation”, IEEE-IECON'06, Paris,
November 2006.

A. Bouscayrol, A. Bruyère, P. Delarue, F. Giraud, B. Lemaire-Semail, Y. Le Menach, W. Lhomme, F.


Locment, “Teaching drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation - initiation level”, EPE'07,
Aalborg, September 2007.

K. Chen, P. Delarue, A. Bouscayrol, R. Trigui, “Influence of control design on energetic performances of an


electric vehicle”, IEEE-VPPC'07, Arlington (U.S.A.), September 2007.

K. Chen, A. Bouscayrol, W. Lhomme, “EMR and Inversion-based control: application to an Electric Vehicle
with an electrical differential”, Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, vol. 6, no.1, p. 1097-1102, June 2008.

K. Chen, A. Bouscayrol, A. Berthon, P. Delarue, D. Hissel, R. Trigui, W. Lhomme, “Global energetic


modelling of different architecture Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, ElectrIMACS'08, Québec (Canada), May 2008.

C. Depature, W. Lhomme, A. Bouscayrol, “Teaching Electric Vehicle drive control using Energetic
Macroscopic Representation”, EVS’27, Barcelona (Spain), November 2013.

W. Lhomme, Ph. Delarue, Ph. Barrade, A. Bouscayrol, “Maximum Control Structure of a series hybrid electric
vehicle using supercapacitors”, EVS'21, Monaco, April 2005.
« EMR of an Electric Vehicle »

- EV with a field-winding DC machine -


27
EPF Lausanne, September 2014

parallel connexion DC machine wheel environment


battery (2.133) choppers (2.136)(2.135)(2.138) gearbox (2.141) chassis (2.143)
(2.131)(2.132) (2.134)(2.135) (2.140) (2.144)
ubat uch1 iarm

ubat ich1 iarm earm Tem Tgear Fwh vev


Bat. mch1 Env.
itot ubat uch2 ifield  gear wh vev Fres

ich2 ifield efield


mch2 (3.30)
(3.31) (3.32)

(3.25) wh-est vev-est


(3.24)
(3.23) (3.22) (3.21)
(3.29) (3.26) uch2-ref ifield-ref
(3.27)
Tem-ref Tgear-ref Fwh-ref vev-ref
(3.28) uch1-ref iarm-ref
SoCest strategy
driver request