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CHEVRON GEOTHERMAL INDONESIA, LTD Piping Design Criteria

SP-CGI-PP-009 Rev.0

REVISION HISTORICAL SHEET

Rev No Date Page Description

0 14/12/11 ALL Issued for Implementation

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CHEVRON GEOTHERMAL INDONESIA, LTD Piping Design Criteria

SP-CGI-PP-009 Rev.0

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................. 4


2.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 4
3.0 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................. 7
4.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS .......................................................................... ........... 8
5.0 PIPE LAYOUT METHODOLOGY .......................................................................11
6.0 DESIGN LOADS .................................................................................................16
7.0 STRESS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY ............................................................. 19
8.0 PIPING SYSTEMS DESIGN .............................................................................. 23
9.0 PIPES ................................................................................................................ 27
10.0 VALVES ............................................................................................................ 28
11.0 FITTINGS .......................................................................................................... 30
12.0 PIPING SPECIALS ............................................................................................ 32
13.0 VESSELS .......................................................................................................... 32
14.0 PUMPS .............................................................................................................. 33
15.0 OTHER COMPONENTS .................................................................................... 34
16.0 CONSTRUCTABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY................................................. 34

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CHEVRON GEOTHERMAL INDONESIA, LTD Piping Design Criteria

SP-CGI-PP-009 Rev.0

1. SCOPE

This document describes the general criteria to be followed in selection of equipment


and designing pipelines, pressure vessels and mechanical work for the steamfield
upgrade projects at Salak and Darajat Fields. The Salak field is a liquid dominated
reservoir, and therefore process fluids include two-phase, steam, brine and
condensate. The Darajat field is a dry steam reservoir and the process fluids are steam
and condensate.

Detail design including design guides generated for the work shall be based on these
criteria.

This document should be read in conjunction with the:

General Design Criteria

Process Design Criteria

Electrical Design Criteria

Civil & Structural Design Criteria


Control and Instrumentation

Reference shall be made to the Company if deviations from these criteria are
proposed.

2. REFERENCES

2.1 CODE AND STANDARDS

The key design codes for various mechanical equipment shall be the edition of the
following current as at 01 December 2003 :

ANSI B31.1 Power Piping (for all piping in the power plant)

ANSI B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping (for all Steamfield
piping)

ASME VIII Div 1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Design Code

ANSI B36.10M Welded and seamless wrought steel pipe

ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe

ANSI B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Pipe Fittings

ANSI B16.10 Face-to-face and End-to-end Dimensions of Valves

ANSI B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket-welding and Threaded

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ANSI B16.20 Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound and
Jacketed.

ANSI B16.34 Valves - Flanged, Threaded and Welding End

ANSI B16.36 Orifice Flanges

ANSI B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges (Series A Flanges)

(MSS-SP-44 is an annex to this code)

ANSI B18.2.1 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws

ANSI B18.2.2 Square and Hex Nuts

ASTM SA 193 Alloy Steel & Stainless Steel Bolting Materials

ASTM SA 194 Carbon & Alloy Steel Nuts

ANSI B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch)

ANSI B1.1 Unified Screw Threads

API 5L Specification for Line Pipe

API 600 Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends, Bolted and
Pressure Seal Bonnets

API 602 Compact Steel Gate Valves - Flanged, Threaded, Welding And

Extended-Body Ends

API 609 Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- And Wafer-Type

API 6A Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment

API 6D Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball and Check Valves)

ISO 5752 Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems -- Face-to-face and
Centre-to-face dimensions

OSHA US Occupational Safety and Health Authority - Regulations for Platforms


and Access

NFPA National Fire Protection Association - Regulations for Fire

Protection of Buildings

WRC 107 Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External
Loadings

In addition, appropriate ASTM and AWS standards shall be selected.

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2.2 STRESS ANALYSIS

Stress analysis of piping systems shall be carried out for code compliance
requirements. In addition maximum pipe support loads shall be determined from the
load cases identified in the civil and structure criteria.

Loads shall be assumed to be applied to the pipe in the following sequence:

• Gravity
• Pressure
• Temperature
• Seismic or wind

Abnormal operating conditions or events may occur from time to time in the
Steamfield

which may temporarily increase the stresses on the pipe above normally allowable
levels. The frequency and duration of such events shall be assessed to determine
whether such deviations comply with code allowances for increase.

Only equivalent static seismic loads shall be considered. Dynamic load analysis is
not required as the pipe support spacing shall be selected to ensure that resonance
will not occur. Seismic coefficients shall be as stated in Section 2.3 above, except
where piping is supported on structures that may cause an increase in seismic
coefficient. Refer to the Structural and Civil Criteria for these seismic coefficients.

Loadings due to reaction forces associated with rupture disc, safety valve discharge
or two phase flow shall be determined and the effects shall be included in the pipe
stress analysis, pipe support design and location of pressure relief devices. Forces
due to rupture disc and safety valve discharges are occasional loads.

Pipelines shall be analyzed for all possible combinations of hot and cold
configurations that may be caused by warming up pipelines, system isolation and
other operations.

Pipe restraints connected to the ground shall by assume to be rigid.

All piping systems 4" NPS and larger whose design temperature is 150°C (300°F) or
greater, plus wellhead bleed lines shall be computer analyzed for code compliance

For piping systems less than 150°C (300°F), judgment shall be used as to when a
computer analysis, hand analysis, or no analysis should be performed. This
judgment shall be based on piping configuration, temperature, allowable reactions
on equipment, etc.

Vessels shall conform to ASME Section VIII Division 1. Where it will simplify and
economize piping systems, nozzle flexibility may be taken into account for pipe
stress analysis. Additional nozzle reinforcement shall be used if required to
accommodate higher forces and moments acting on it.

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Pump nozzle loads shall be as provided by the pump manufacturer. If such data is
not available nozzle loads shall be in accordance with API 610, ASME B73.1 or
ASME B73.2 as appropriate to the pump design.

Thermal anchor movements at equipment nozzles shall be provided by the


equipment manufacturer. If the data is not available, the movements shall be
calculated using equipment support information on manufacturer’s drawings. The
equipment shall be assumed to expand from mean monthly temperature to the
operating temperature.

The following are acceptable boundaries for starting and terminating pipe stress
analysis calculations.

• Equipment nozzles
• Structural anchors or penetrations which provide three force and three
moment restraints
• Pipe restraints and supports on pipe lines
• A branch pipe whose moment of inertia is less than one-tenth of the run pipe.

2.3 THERMAL EXPANSION

Piping shall be designed so as to maximise the use of natural flexibility to absorb


thermal expansion. Expansion loops are preferred for accommodating expansion on
long pipelines. However, compensators may be used on steam lines where their use
can be justified on economic grounds and approved by Chevron Geothermal
Indonesia Ltd.

Pipe design shall allow for compensator movement of ±3°, but the compensators
themselves shall be suitable for up to 4.5° movement. They shall have a design
fatigue life of 1000 cycles.

2.4 NOISE EMISSIONS

The Steamfield development is located in environmental sensitive areas. The project


shall be designed to operate with the least practical noise emission. The
requirements are specified in the Steamfield Design Basis.

3. TERMINOLOGY

3.1 COMPANY

Refer to Chevron Geothermal Indonesia Ltd (CGI), and Chevron Geothermal Salak
Ltd (CGS), as the ultimate user and owner, the authorized representative of
COMPANY or COMPANY third part inspection.

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3.2 CONTRACTOR

Refers to company selected by COMPANY, which may be responsible for the


detailed engineering design, material and equipment procurement, and construction
as specified in Contract, Scope of Work, or Work Order.

3.3 VENDOR

Refers to the company selected by COMPANY or CONTRACTOR, which is


responsible for the purchase agreement specification.

Note:

- For EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) project purpose:


The terminology shall have the meanings as above.

- For “Direct Procurement” by COMPANY purposes: Vendor shall also be


responsible as CONTRACTOR.

4. DESIGN PARAMETERS

4.1 AMBIENT CONDITIONS

The environmental conditions for the Salak and the Darajat sites are defined in the
General Design Criteria.

4.2 PROCESS CONDITIONS

The process conditions shall be determined by the process design for each areas
based on the Process Design Criteria.

4.2.1 PIPE CLASSES

Piping classes for Salak shall be as designated in Table 1. Classes S, T and T1 shall
not be used for new projects.

Piping classes for Darajat shall be as designated in Table 2.

Additional classes shall be added if required.

The piping systems shall be designed to the specified design pressure and
temperature unless noted otherwise.

 Table 1 Salak Pipe Classes

Class Design Design Corrosion ASME Material System Document Reference


Pressure Temp Allowance Flange Description
(bar.g) (deg C) (mm) Class

S1 13.8 198 3.2 150 Carbon Steam & Piping Specification


Steel Condensate Class S1
T2 34.5 198 3.2 300 Carbon Brine Piping Specification

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Steel Class T2
T3 55.0 198 3.2 600 Carbon Brine Piping Specification
Steel Class T3
U 62.0 288 3.2 600 Carbon Two-Phase Piping Specification
Steel Class U
U1 20.0 215 3.2 300 Carbon Two-Phase Piping Specification
Steel Class U1
C1 49.7 50 5.0 150 Carbon Condensate Piping Specification
Steel Class C1
C2 69.1 50 3.0 300 Carbon HP Piping Specification
Steel Condensate Class C2
C3 43.8 198 5.0 300 Carbon Condensate Piping Specification
Steel Class C3
S* 13.8 193.3 3.2 150 Carbon Steam, Brine ***
Steel & Condensate
T* 34.5 246.0 3.2 300 Carbon Steam, Brine ***
Steel & Condensate
T1* 43.1 221.0 3.2 300 Carbon Condensate ***
Steel

* Classes S, T and T1 shall not be used for the new projects.

 Table 2 Darajat Pipe Classes

Class Design Design Corrosion ASME Material System Document Reference


Pressure Temp Allowance Flange Description
(bar.g) (deg C) (mm) Class
B 35.0 244.0 2.7 300 Carbon Steam Piping Specification
Steel Class B
C 16.7 208.4 3.0 300 Carbon Steam Piping Specification
Steel Class C
C1 21.0 218.0 3.0 300 Carbon Steam Piping Specification
Steel Class C1
D 13.8 40 3.0 150 Carbon Compressed ***
Steel Air
E1 49.0 50 3.0 & 6.0 300 Carbon Condensate Piping Specification
Steel Class E1
E2 60.0 50 3.0 600 Carbon Condensate Piping Specification
Steel Class E2
WDS1 46.0 50 3.0 300 Carbon Water Supply Piping Specification
Steel Class WDS1

4.3 DESIGN LIFE

The design life of the project is 30 years. All mechanical equipment and piping shall
be designed for full design life.

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4.4 MATERIAL

4.4.1 GENERAL

Refer to the General Design Criteria, section 8 for general instructions about material
selection.

4.4.2 PIPE MATERIALS

Pipe materials shall be as follows.

Non-oxygenated geothermal fluids and condensate of pH > 5.5 shall be carbon steel
pipes to the following specifications:

 ASTM A106 Grade B


 ASTM A53 Grade B
 API 5L Grade B

Oxygenated geothermal fluids from sumps and ponds shall be:

 Carbon Steel
 Aluminium alloy (including victaulic)
 ABS plastic
 FRP
 CPVC

Plastic or FRP pipe shall be buried. The pipe materials selection shall be based on
economic and operational considerations.

Compressed air and other low temperature fluids shall be:

 HDPE
 ABS Plastic
 Stainless steel 316 grade tubes to ASTM A269
 Low carbon steel (not to be used for instrument air)
 Galvanised steel pipes
 FRP tubings

4.4.3 PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIALS

Steel plates used for parts of the vessels subjected to pressure above atmospheric
pressure shall be carbon steel to ASTM A515-70 or A516-70.

4.4.4 NON-RESSURE VESSEL MATERIALS

Mild steel for non pressure parts shall be ASTM A36. The suitability of alternative
materials shall be subject of further investigation, and discussed with Chevron.

In some areas inside the non-pressure vessels (i.e. flash tanks) where the incoming
fluid impacts the tank shell, special considerations to mitigate corrosion/erosion
problems shall be provided in the design, they include:

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 Enhanced corrosion/erosion allowance


 Use of carbon steel or stainless steel wear plates
 Use of a hardfacing material overlay (e.g. Stellite).

4.4.5 VALVE MATERIALS

Materials for the main valve components shall be as follows:

Non-oxygenated geothermal fluids and condensate of pH > 5.5 - carbon steel and
stainless steel as specified in Table 3.

 Table 3 - Valve Component Materials - Non-oxygenated geothermal fluids


Valve Components Specifications

Body, bonnets and flanges ASTM A216 Gr. WCB


ASTM A105
Wetted components ASTM A182 Gr. F6a
ASTM A182 Gr. F316 (Darajat only)
ASTM A216 Gr. WCB
ASTM A564 Gr. 630 (PH17-4)
Oxygenated condensate of 5.5 > pH > 3.5 and cold oxygenated geothermal
fluids from sumps and ponds - carbon steel and stainless steel mainly as
specified in Table 4.

 Table 4 - Valve Component Materials - Oxygenated geothermal fluids


Valve Components Specifications
Body, bonnets and flanges  ASTM A351 Gr. WCB
 ASTM A105
Wetted components  ASTM 182 Gr. F316
 ASTM A 351 Gr. WCB
 ASTM A564 Gr. 630 (PH17-4)

[Note: valve material specification to be confirmed]

Valve materials in contact with the geothermal fluid shall include specific
hardness and heat treatment requirements as per ISO 15156, to protect the
valves against potential Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) and Stress
Corrosion Cracking (SCC) caused mainly by the H2S content in the fluid.

5. PIPE LAYOUT METHODOLOGY

5.1 PROVISIONS FOR EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY

Provision for thermal expansion shall be made in all lines in accordance with the
requirements of the governing codes. Piping shall be designed so as to maximise the
use of natural flexibility to absorb thermal expansion. Loops or compensators shall be
provided only when required flexibility cannot be achieved by piping configuration.

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Pipe expansion loops shall preferably be horizontal (rather than vertical) to minimise
vulnerability to seismic action, liquid slug flow and condensate pooling. Loops shall
be graded with the back leg in the same gradient as the pipeline, and the side legs
horizontal.

5.2 CLEARANCES AND ACCESSIBILITY

Generally, clearances & accessibility shall comply with the Chevron Safety in Designs
manual (SID-SU-5106-A).

Generous clearance shall be provided around equipment especially control valves for
instrument mountings and accessibility for maintenance.

Platforms, stiles, ladders and stairs shall be provided as appropriate for access to
valves and equipment, and for crossing pipes.

Pipelines shall be kept close to the finished ground level with minimum ground
clearances as follows:

Steam & brine lines – Darajat : 0.6 m minimum; 0.8 m


preferred for ease of personnel
access beneath pipeline.
– Salak: 1.5 m for greenfields
corridors to allow passage of wildlife;
for existing pipe corridors, match
existing ground clearances but not
less than 0.6 m minimum.
Condensate and WDS lines – Darajat & Salak: 0.3 m minimum;
however to minimise obstruction to
personnel movement, the preferred
clearance is either less than 400 mm
or more than 800 mm.

The minimum clearance between pipes NPS 16 and larger (measured without
insulation) shall be 600mm. This clearance is to provide access for construction,
welding, inspection and fitting of insulation.

5.3 VALVE LAYOUT

5.3.1 BRANCH LINE VALVES

Valves on branch lines shall generally be placed as close to the main header as
practical.

5.3.2 STEM POSITIONS

The position of the stems of all valves NPS 3 and larger shall be indicated on the
piping layout drawings.

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5.3.3 ACCESS CRITERIA

All operating valves shall be accessible by a 1.5m tall person for operation and
maintenance – either from grade, or from a permanent access platform. Chain
operators shall not be used unless approved as individual exceptions. Valves shall
not be located in the middle of pipe bundles.

5.3.4 RODDING OUT

For valves smaller than NPS 4, clearance in the order of 900mm for pressurised lines
and 450mm for atmospheric lines in the direction that the valve points, is
recommended to enable rod-out (hot tap) of a plugged valve.

5.3.5 SERVICING ACCESS

All safety valves, control valves, check valves, rupture discs and equipment which
may require servicing shall be located so that they shall be readily accessible from
permanent platforms or from grade.

5.3.6 ACCESS HEIGHT

Operating valves shall be oriented to optimise the manual operation of the valve.
Overhead valves shall be oriented so that the handwheels are approximately
1500mm above the operating level or access platform. This orientation may be
increased to 1800mm maximum provided that the valve can be opened or closed in
this position.

5.3.7 LOCKED VALVES

Where valves are to be locked in an open or closed position, they shall be provided
with a suitable locking device, and this shall be noted on the piping layout drawing.

5.3.8 WRENCH CLEARANCE

Wrench or lever operated plug, ball or butterfly valves shall be located to provide
adequate clearance for turning wrenches and for lubricating. Special consideration
shall be given to wrench clearance on such valves around control valve assemblies.

5.3.9 INACCESSIBLE LOCATIONS

Operating valves located underground or in trenches or below platforms shall be


provided with extension stems or otherwise arranged so that the handwheels will be
above the surface of the ground or grating, and in such position as to be readily
reached and operated.

5.3.10 WAFER STYLE BUTTERFLY VALVES

Wafer style butterfly valves shall not be installed directly on equipment nozzles.

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5.4 DRAINING & VENTING PHILOSOPHY

The draining and venting philosophy is explained in the Process Design Criteria
section 3.6. Specific considerations relevant to the pipe layout definition are as
follows:

 The minimum gradient for drainage shall be 1:200. Deviations from these
guidelines may be acceptable on a case by case basis with Chevron approval.
 The steam system piping shall be designed to avoid low points where practical.
 All steam piping low points shall be fitted with a condensate collection drain
pot, connected to the condensate drainage system.
 Manual vent valves shall be provided at high points and at other locations -
such as piping dead legs - as required for gas venting, pipe line warm up and
system depressurisation.

5.5 BURIED PIPE

Pipelines shall generally be designed to run above ground, except where ABS,
CPVC, or FRP is used, in which case they shall generally be buried in order to
provide adequate protection from mechanical damage.

Buried carbon steel pipe shall have additional corrosion allowance.

5.6 PIPE SPANS AND ARRANGEMENT OF SUPPORTS

Pipe support spans and supports arrangement shall be designed to achieve sound
engineering in the pipe stressing and to fit in with geometrical requirements and
demands of the pipeline corridor and terrain.

The pipe spans shall be limited so as to keep the period of vibration of the pipeline to
less than or equal to 0.1 seconds (assuming rigid supports).

The critical vibration mode is that which has the pipeline oscillating in the same
direction in adjacent spans and the controlling equations are:

for internal spans : 2πL2


T= M
22.4 EI
1
or for T = 0.1 seconds:
=  0.357 EI M 
2
Lmax

for single simply supported spans 2πL2


(ie between two adjacent 90° T= M
9.87 EI
bends at a loop):

( )
or for T = 0.1 seconds: 1
2
Lmax = 0.157 EI M

for the end span adjacent to loops: 2πL2 M


T=
12.57 EI

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( )
or for T = 0.1 seconds: 1
2
Lmax = 0.2 EI M

- where: L = pipe span (m)

E = modulus of elasticity (Pa)

I = moment of inertia (m4)

M = mass of pipeline and contents (kg/m)

X X X X X X X
IS X IS IS IS IS ES ES
X
IS
X

SS SS
X X
SS
ES End Span X Anchor
SS Simply Supported Span X Guide support

IS Internal Span
Figure 1 Pipe Spans

For high supports (H > 3m), allowance shall be made for the contribution of support
flexibility to the period of vibration and spans may need to be reduced to avoid
excessive overturning moments. Supports of this height will be avoided and shall be
assessed on a case by case basis.

It is envisaged that separate supports will be provided for each pipeline in most
cases. Where more than two pipelines run in parallel on the same route, pipelines
may be stacked and/or supported on combined supports where required to traverse
difficult terrain or narrow corridors.

5.7 PIPE ANCHORS AND GUIDED LINE-STOPS

Anchors supports that provide both lateral and torsional restraints to pipelines shall be
avoided unless necessary. Preferably pipelines shall be ‘anchored’ through the use of
guided line-stop supports. These supports shall be strategically positioned along the
pipelines to resist loads from seismic events and thermal expansion.

Maximum spacing of these anchors or line-stops shall generally be 200 m.

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6. DESIGN LOADS

6.1 GRAVITY LOADS (DEAD LOAD)

6.1.1 PIPING

The weight of insulation and cladding shall be included in the pipe stress analysis
loads, along with items such as valves and flanges. Additional allowances shall be
included for major equipment.

6.1.2 FLUID

Gravity loads shall be calculated based on fluid contents using the following specific
gravities:

 Two phase SG = 0.89 (Salak Only)


 Steam SG = 0.1
 Condensate SG = 1.0
 Brine SG = 1.0
 Compressed air SG = 0.1

6.2 PRESSURE LOAD

6.2.1 PRESSURE RATING

Pipe pressure rating shall be based on the maximum required for the extreme
operating conditions as determined by process design. Hydrostatic head of fluid shall
be added where applicable. The pipe design pressure shall be rated at least 2.0 bar.g
or 10% higher than the highest pressure, whichever is greater.

Pressure stress calculations shall be made using the allowable stress of the material
at maximum design temperatures.

6.2.2 EXTERNAL PRESSURE

External pressure shall also be considered. All steam, brine and two-phase lines shall
be designed for full vacuum, except diameters NPS 24, 30, 36, 42 & 48 of Class S1
(Salak), where the risk of full vacuum will be handled through the Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP).

[Note: Full vacuum check for condensate, compressed air and water supply lines
have not been carried out. This can be discussed subsequently].

6.2.3 HYDROSTATIC HEAD AND TEST

The maximum pressure due to hydrostatic head and test pressure shall be checked
for each section of pipe. The hoop stress under test condition shall not exceed 90%
of the tensile yield strength of the pipe material. Where the hydrostatic head causes
excessive pressure, the pipe shall be sectionalised and each section tested

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separately. The limits of each section of pipe for hydrostatic testing shall be indicated
on the drawings.

6.3 THERMAL LOAD

Thermal loads and stresses shall be determined by assuming expansion from the
design ambient temperature (refer to General Design Criteria) to the design
temperature in the specifications for each class of pipe.

6.4 OCCASIONAL LOAD

6.4.1 SEISMIC

The approach to seismic loadings is described in the Civil and Structural Design
Criteria Section 5.5 Seismic Loads. This results in a seismic design coefficient for
Limit State Design of 0.33g.

This coefficient is adjusted for use in a working stress design method (ASME B31.3)
to a seismic design coefficient of 0.24g (refer to the Civil and Structural Design
Criteria Section 6.4). This seismic coefficient shall be used for the new designs as
detailed below:

Piping Vessels
 Horizontal 0.24g Refer Civil & Structural Criteria
direction
 Vertical direction 0 Refer Civil & Structural Criteria.
[Note: The previous design criteria state a seismic design coefficient of 0.26g.
Company recommended adoption of a seismic design coefficient of 0.24g based on
the latest Indonesian code, rather than adhering to the old value of 0.26g (22nd
June 2010)]

There shall be no vertical seismic analysis undertaken for the piping design (refer
Civil and Structural Design Criteria for support design).

The piping shall be analysed with and without friction for both Code compliance and
design of the pipe supports.

For plant/wellpad areas where piping is run generally in orthogonal directions, seismic
loads shall be applied perpendicular to and parallel to the general alignment of the
major pipework.

For cross-country piping, where the piping has a dominant local direction, seismic
loads shall be applied perpendicular to and parallel to the local direction.

Where there is no obvious dominant local direction, seismic loads shall be applied in
the north and east directions.

Both positive and negative seismic loads shall be considered.

The application of the seismic loads is summarised in Table 5 below:

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 Table 5 Application of Seismic Loads

Direction Positive Negative


a. Perpendicular to general + ve seismic (with friction) - ve seismic (with friction)
alignment of pipe + ve seismic (zero friction) - ve seismic (zero friction)
b. Along general alignment of + ve seismic (with friction) - ve seismic (with friction)
pipe (90° to a. above) + ve seismic (zero friction) - ve seismic (zero friction)

6.4.2 WINDS LOAD

Wind loads are not normally critical for pipelines. Wind loads shall only be applied to
pipes and vessels that are greater than or equal to NPS 30.

Wind load shall be assumed to act both perpendicular and along the general
alignment of the major pipework. Both positive and negative wind loads shall be
considered.

The basic wind velocity to be used for design of mechanical equipment is given in the
General Design Criteria. To convert this to a design pressure it must be multiplied by
a drag coefficient = 0.7. Note that this drag coefficient has a number of descriptions:

 ASCE = Force Coefficient, Cf


 UBS = Pressure Coefficient, Cq
 AutoPIPE = Wind Shape Factor Multiplier
 Caesar 2 = Pipe Element Wind Shape Factor, S

For use in a pipe stress analysis package, the wind load shall be applied as a
constant pressure over all elevations, and shall be applied either as:

a) wind pressure derived from basic wind velocity, and drag coefficient = 0.7, or
b) wind pressure derived from basic wind velocity x 0.7, and drag coefficient = 1.0
Wind loadings shall be applied using a “projected” method.

The application of the wind loads is summarised in Table 6 below:

 Table 6 Application of Wind Loads

Direction Positive Negative


a. Perpendicular to general + ve wind - ve wind
alignment of pipe

b. Along general alignment of + ve wind - ve wind


pipe (90° to a. above)

6.4.3 SLUG FLOW

Potential for slug flow shall be considered for all 2-phase and steam pipelines by
means of strategic positioning of pipe supports and anchors.

Explicit design of supports and anchors for slug flow need not be carried out.

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6.4.4 OTHER OCCASIONAL LOADS

Other occasional loads to be included in the design are reaction forces due to fluid
discharge from pressure safety or pressure relief devices.

Occasional loads need not be considered as acting concurrently.

7. STRESS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

Stress analysis of piping systems shall be carried out for Code compliance
requirements and for design of pipe supports.

7.1 STRESS RANGE FACTOR

As a minimum, the piping shall be analysed for 7,000 equivalent full displacement
cycles (i.e. f = 1.0 per B31.3 Clause 302.3.5(d)). In addition each system shall be
assessed to determine whether a larger number of displacement cycles is applicable.

7.2 LOAD SEQUENCING

Loads shall be assumed to be applied to the pipe in the following sequence:

1) Gravity
2) Pressure
3) Temperature
4) Seismic or wind or any other occasional loads

7.3 ABNORMAL EVENTS

Abnormal operating conditions or events may occur from time to time in the
steamfield piping systems which temporarily increase the stresses on the pipe above
normally allowable levels. The frequency and duration of such events shall be
assessed to determine whether such deviations comply with Code allowances for
increased stress.

7.4 SEISMIC ANALYSIS

Stress analysis for seismic loading shall use equivalent static methods. Dynamic load
analysis is not required as the pipe support spacing shall be selected to ensure that
resonance will not occur. Seismic coefficients shall be as stated in Section 6.4.1
above, except where piping is supported on flexible structures that may cause an
increase in seismic coefficient.

7.5 HYDROTEST

Cold water shall be used for hydrostatic testing. Pipelines shall be checked for this
condition to determine if temporary supports are required. Consideration is to be
given to constructability issues, and additional pressure head due to elevation
changes. The minimum required hydrotest pressure shall be achieved at all locations
within the piping system regardless of elevation. Where large changes in elevation

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occur, consideration shall be given to sectionalising the pipeline for hydrotest


purposes.

7.6 REACTION FORCES FROM RELIEF DEVICES

Loadings due to reaction forces associated with rupture disc and safety valve
discharge shall be determined and the effects shall be included in the pipe stress
analysis, pipe support design and location of pressure relief devices. Forces due to
rupture disc and safety valve discharges are occasional loads.

The reaction forces to be used for a pipe stress analysis shall be factored using a
dynamic load factor (DLF) to account for loadings that may arise due to the
arrangement/design of the discharge piping. The DLFs shall be as follows:

 rupture disk with vertical discharge which does not generate any moments in
the discharge line, and has no elbows, DLF = 1.0
 all others – use DLF = 2.0, or determine DLF in accordance with ASME B31.1
Appendix II, Clause II-3.5.1.3.

7.7 HOT/COLD COMBINATIONS

Pipelines shall be analysed for all possible combinations of hot and cold
configurations that may be caused by valve line-ups and other operations (e.g.
warming up pipelines and system isolation).

Where the number of combinations becomes impracticably large, combinations that


are expected to be non-critical may be eliminated. The justification for elimination
shall be that the combination has been assessed to have lesser thermal stress range
values when compared to another similar combination that has been analysed. The
elimination of the combination(s) shall be documented in the stress analysis report.

7.8 MODELLING OF PIPE SUPPORTS

Pipe restraints connected to the ground shall be assumed to be rigid.

Where pipes are supported on structures, an assessment of the effect of structural


flexibility on pipe stresses shall be made and where the interaction is considered
significant, the flexibility of the structure shall be modelled.

For general support design and stress analysis the friction coefficient for steel upon
steel shall be 0.3. Where pipe supports rely on gravity for stability, a sensitivity
analysis shall be performed to examine the effect of variations in friction coefficient on
support performance.

7.9 PIPE SUPPORT LOADING

The maximum pipe support loads shall be determined from the load cases identified
in the Civil and Structure Design Criteria.

7.10 COMPUTER ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

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All piping systems shall be analysed for code compliance in accordance with the
methods specified in Table 7.

 Table 7 - Method of Analysis

Computer- Analysed Type of Analysis


Piping ≥150°C (300°F) and ≥ Computer analysis
NPS 4

Wellhead bleed lines Computer analysis

Piping ≥150°C (300°F) and < As determined by Lead Mechanical


NPS 4 Engineer

Condensate piping Computer analysis

Water Distribution System ≥50°C As determined by Lead Mechanical


(120°F) Engineer

Water Distribution System <50°C Not required


(120°F)

For piping system designs that are specified to be at the discretion of the Lead
Mechanical Engineer, judgement shall be used as to when a computer analysis, hand
analysis, or no analysis should be performed. This judgement shall be based on
piping configuration, temperature, allowable reactions on equipment, etc.

7.11 NOZZLE FLEXIBILITY

Where it will simplify and economise piping systems, nozzle flexibility may be taken
into account for pipe stress analysis. Additional nozzle reinforcement shall be used if
required to accommodate higher forces and moments acting on it.

Equipment anchor stiffness and allowable loads shall be as provided by the


equipment manufacturer. If such data is not available for cylindrical vessels and
similar equipment, allowable nozzle loads and nozzle stiffness may be determined
using appropriate methods.

7.12 NOZZLE LOADS

All piping systems shall be designed such that the loads and moments applied at the
flanges of mechanical equipment shall not exceed the permissible reactions for this
equipment as specified by applicable code or the equipment manufacturer.

Equipment nozzle loads shall be provided by the equipment manufacturer.

Pump nozzle loads shall be as provided by the pump manufacturer. If such data is not
available nozzle loads shall be in accordance with API 610, ASME B73.1 or ASME
B73.2 as appropriate to the pump design.

7.13 THERMAL MOVEMENTS

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Thermal anchor movements at equipment nozzles shall be provided by the equipment


manufacturer. If the data is not available, the movements shall be calculated using
equipment support information on manufacturer’s drawings. The equipment shall be
assumed to expand from the design ambient temperature to the design temperature.

7.14 WELLHEAD CASING HEAD FLANGE MOVEMENT

The design value for the maximum vertical movements of the wellhead casing flanges
due to thermal expansion shall be defined as follows:

7.14.1 SALAK

a) Use actual growth where records are available,


b) 150 mm for existing wells drilled pre-2003 and 250mm for wells drilled 2003
onwards, where minimal or no change to the existing branchline is planned,
c) 300 mm for new wells and where new branchline piping will be installed on
existing wells (such as conversion of Awi 9 wells from injection to production)
d) In situations where the application of (b) or (c) will result in unusual piping
arrangements, unduly flexible piping (i.e. prone to vibration) or significant
additional cost to reconstruct existing piping, the issue shall be referred to
Chevron for review on a case-by-case basis (Chevron may make a risk-
judgement to reduce to 100 mm and 250 mm respectively for the problematic
branchlines)
e) For the purposes of setting the initial position of wellhead counterweight
supports, assume that the final piping connection is normally made when the
well is cold

7.14.2 DARAJAT

a) Use the site measured thermal expansion of the wellheads (if available),
b) 200 mm as standard thermal expansion value for all the new designs or,
c) Where any existing wellhead connection piping needs to be modified, and
there is no record about the site measured values, the original data included in
the existing pipe stress analysis model shall be used to maintain design
consistency.
d) For the purposes of setting the initial position of wellhead counterweight
supports, assume that the final piping connection is normally made when the
well is hot. To allow for the possibility that the piping will not be disconnected
prior to shutting-in the well and allowing it to go cold, the piping should be
analysed for wellhead downward movement as specified in (a), (b) & (c) above.

7.15 BOUNDARIES FOR ANALYSIS

The following are acceptable boundaries for starting and terminating pipe stress
analysis calculations.

 Equipment nozzles.

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 Structural anchors or penetrations which provide three force and three moment
restraints.
 Consecutive supports on a straight run of pipe, the first of which restrains in
three orthogonal directions, and the second of which restrains in directions
perpendicular to the pipe.
 Any run pipe if the branch pipe to be designed has a moment of inertia less
than one-tenth of the run pipe.

When connecting a new pipe into an existing system, the existing pipeline shall be
modelled to the nearest fixed points either side of the tie-in point.

7.16 COMPENSATORS

Piping shall be designed so as to maximise the use of natural flexibility to absorb


thermal expansion. Expansion loops are preferred for accommodating expansion on
long pipelines. However, compensators may be used on two-phase and steam lines
where their use can be justified on economic grounds and is approved by Chevron.

Pipe design shall allow for compensator movement of ±3°, but the compensators
themselves shall be suitable for up to ±4.5° movement. They shall have a design
fatigue life of 1000 cycles.

Compensators shall meet EJMA (Expansion Joint Manufacturer Association)


requirements and shall be of the single hinge type which permits bending only in one
plane. The bellows shall be single ply construction and the material used shall be
INCONEL 625 or Hastelloy B (material selection shall be on the basis of cost). The
bellows shall be stress relieved after forming. Compensator bellows shall be protected
with a carbon steel liner.

8. PIPING SYSTEMS DESIGN

Pipe specifications and design classes shall be identified by alphanumeric Codes as


set out in Section 4.2.1. Identification codes for additional pipe specifications shall be
created as and when required.

The following shall apply for the detail design of the various piping systems:

8.1 HIGH PRESSURE WELL BRANCH FLOWLINES

This piping system relates to piping from the wellhead master valve to the branch line
isolating valve.
Design Pressure As required by the piping specification
Design Temperature As required by the piping specification
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials A106-B, A53-B, or API 5L-B
Acceptable Pipe Types Refer section 9.2

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Corrosion Allowance 3.175 mm for Salak and 3.0 mm for Darajat

Seamless pipe shall be used. SAW pipe may only be used if seamless pipe is not a
commercially manufactured size.

In general, no overpressure protection will be provided.

The pipeline shall be adequately supported to handle thermal growth at the well head.

One and a half diameter (1.5D) radius bends shall be used for the production well
flow line. Mitre bends shall not be used.

Flanges for connection to wellhead piping shall be Ring Type Joint (RTJ) weld neck
type. All other flanges shall be raised face (RF) weld neck type.

The flanged piping connection to the master valve shall be a site weld to ensure that
any misalignment of bolt holes is managed.

The wellhead branch piping between the wellheads and the header shall be designed
to accommodate dismantling of the branch piping and supports for rig work-over on
the wellheads.

Flowlines at Darajat shall include a “rock catcher” to collect solid matter discharged
from the well.

8.2 STEAM PIPELINES

8.2.1 SALAK

This piping system includes all steam pipes running from the production wellpads or
separation stations to the power station including the section of pipe to the rock
muffler.
Design Pressure As required by the piping specification
Design Temperature As required by the piping specification
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials A106-B, A53-B, or API 5L-B
Acceptable Pipe Types Refer section 9.2
Corrosion Allowance 3.175 mm for Salak and 3.0 mm for Darajat

Pressure protection devices are installed permanently on the pipe system to protect
the steam pipelines, and where applicable the two-phase pipelines and the brine
pipelines.

The piping shall be run with a continuous slope in one direction where possible in
order to allow the pipe to drain in one direction.

Standard long radius (1.5D) bends shall be used on these pipelines. Changes in
direction up to 3 degrees may be made with single mitres. Changes in direction

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greater than 3 degrees and ≤6 degrees, but which are too small to allow the use of a
long radius bend, shall be made with a widely-spaced double mitre bend in
compliance with the Code requirements.

8.2.2 DARAJAT

This piping system includes all steam pipes running from the wellpad production lines
to the power station including the section of pipe to the rock muffler.
Design Pressure As required by the piping specification
Design Temperature As required by the piping specification
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials A106-B, A53-B, or API 5L-B
Acceptable Pipe Types Refer Section 9.2
Corrosion Allowance 2.7 mm
Standard long radius (1.5D) bends shall be used on these pipelines. Changes in
direction up to 3 degrees may be made with single mitres. Changes in direction
greater than 3 degrees and ≤6 degrees, but which are too small to allow the use of a
long radius bend shall be made with a widely-spaced double mitre bend in
compliance with the Code requirements.

The piping shall be run with a continuous slope in one direction where possible in
order to allow the pipe to drain in one direction.

8.3 BRINE (SEPARATED WATER) PIPELINES (SALAK ONLY)

This piping system relates to the cross country pipes running downstream of the
separators to the injection pads, but not including the well branch flowlines (refer to
Section 8.1).
Design Pressure As required by the piping specification
Design Temperature As required by the piping specification
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials A106-B, A53-B, or API 5L-B
Acceptable Pipe Types Refer Section 9.2
Corrosion Allowance 3.175 mm
Scaling Refer to Process Design Criteria
The pipe shall be adequately supported to handle water hammer, seismic loads and
similar.

The pipe is best run with a continuous fall and designed for free draining towards the
injection wells. Vents shall be provided at high points and drains shall be provided at
low points. Fluid discharged from the pipe shall be collected in sumps or temporary
tanks. This will be discharged via the thermal pond and then via either the condensate
or brine system into injection wells.

Standard long radius (1.5D) bends shall be used on these pipelines.

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Changes in direction up to 3 degrees may be made with single mitres. Changes in


direction greater than 3 degrees and ≤6 degrees, but which are too small to allow the
use of a long radius bend shall be made with a widely-spaced double mitre bend in
compliance with the Code requirements.

8.4 CONDENSATE LINES

This piping system originates from the power station and comes off the hot well. It
contains oxygenated and de-oxygenated condensate. The pipe runs to dedicated
injection wells.
Design Pressure As required by the piping specification
Design Temperature As required by the piping specification
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials: A106-B, A53-B, or API 5L-B
Acceptable Pipe Types Refer Section 9.2
Corrosion Allowance 3.175 mm and but increased to 5.0 mm for steel
pipes with significant acid corrosion problems,
and difficult to access locations such as buried
pipework (Salak)
3.0 mm, but increased to 6.0 mm for steel pipes
in difficult to access locations such as buried
pipework (Darajat)

The pipe is rated for full line pressure including hydrostatic head and back pressure
from the injection well. The branch pipe connected to the injection wells is rated for
full wellhead pressure.

Standard long radius (1.5D) bends shall be used on these pipelines. Changes in
direction up to 3 degrees may be made with single mitres. Changes in direction
greater than 3 degrees and ≤6 degrees, but which are too small to allow the use of a
long radius bend shall be made with a widely-spaced double mitre bend in
compliance with the Code requirements.

The low temperature pipe shall be adequately supported and is best run with a
continuous fall towards the injection wells. Low points are water filled and drains shall
be provided to drain the pipe into local sumps or tanks during plant shut down.

8.5 INSTRUMENT AIR LINES

This pipe relates to the instrument air line from the compressor plant to air receivers
and equipment actuators.
Design Pressure 10 bar.g
Design Temperature Ambient
Design Code ASME B31.3
Pipe Materials Stainless Steel 304

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Acceptable Pipe Type Refer Section 9.2

Stainless steel piping/tubing shall be used. All joints shall be welded except for
stainless steel tubing less than 1/2” diameter connecting to instruments and actuators.
Compression couplings shall be used for these small tubes. Flexible piping shall be
protected by stainless steel braids.

3” diameter and smaller bends in the cross country line can be made with long radius
pipe bending machines.

9. PIPES

All piping shall be designed for the specified design life - refer to Clause 4.3. In any
cases where this life is not expected to be achievable, that fact shall be noted on the
relevant drawings, along with the expected life and the submission of the drawings for
review shall note this point. Chevron’s approval shall be obtained for any such
reduced design life prior to procurement of materials.

9.1 SIZES

Minimum pipe size shall be NPS 1/2, and the maximum pipe size shall be NPS 48.
Between these limits, pipe sizes shall be selected from commercially, readily available
and cost effective standard sizes.

The following pipe diameters shall not be used: NPS 1¼, 2½, 3½, 4½, 5, 22, 26, 28,
32, 34, 38, and 40.

9.2 PIPE TYPES

The piping specifications shown in Table 1 and Table 2 are to be used.

Spiral welded pipes shall not be used.

9.2.1 SALAK

Pipes of NPS 16 and below shall be seamless.

SMLS Pipe may be replaced with EFW (including SAW) pipe that complies with the
requirements of ASME B31.3, Table 302.3.4 such that Ej = 1.0.

ERW Pipe may be replaced with EFW (including SAW) pipe that complies with the
requirements of ASME B31.3, Table 302.3.4 such that Ej ≥ 0.85.

SAW Pipe may be replaced with SMLS

Note that ASME B31.3 does not allow the joint efficiency Ej of a pipe to API 5L using
a SAW, GMAW or combined SAW/GMAW joint type to be increased beyond 0.95.

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9.2.2 DARAJAT

Either seamless or SAW pipes can be used.

ERW pipe shall not be used for piping without specific approval from Chevron
Geothermal Indonesia Ltd.

10. VALVES

10.1 GENERAL

Valves shall be appropriate for the pressures and temperatures of each specific
application.

Gate valves shall not be used for throttling in any critical service.

10.2 VALVE TYPES

The following types of valves shall be acceptable for use as indicated. Noise levels
generated by valves under design conditions shall generally be less than 110 dBA at
1 meter.

10.2.1 BUTTERFLY VALVES

Butterfly valves may be used for brine and steam flow control provided that the
pressure drop across the valve is acceptable and that the sound pressure level is less
than 110 dBA at 1 m. They may also be used for low pressure fluid isolation service.
Butterfly valves shall be mounted with the shaft in the horizontal position.

10.2.2 HIGH PERFORMANCE BUTTERFLY VALVES

These valves are suitable for use as steam isolation valves in pressure service up to
ASME Class 300 pressure rating. They shall only be used where they can be installed
with the shaft on the low pressure side of the valve and in the horizontal position.

10.2.3 THROUGH CONDUIT GATE VALVE

These valves are suitable as isolating valves for wellhead flowlines and brine line
isolation.

The preferred through conduit valve type is the Expanding Gate type.

Valve stems shall be installed vertical in this application.

10.2.4 WEDGE GATE VALVES

These valves are suitable as isolating valves for steam and other liquid applications
excluding services where debris or scaling is expected.

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10.2.5 BALL VALVES

Ball valves are permitted in the following specified applications. Use in any other
applications shall be subject to approval by Chevron.

 pressure tapping
 isokinetic sampling
 Condensate Drain Pots (CDP's)
 Automatic Condensate Drains (ADP's)

The valves shall be fitted with PEEK or stellite seats.

10.2.6 SLOW CLOSING CHECK VALVES

Slow closing check valves shall be used where necessary on liquid application to
prevent water hammer problems. They may be substituted by a control or an
automated isolation valve where scaling may be expected to impede the valve
operation.

10.2.7 CHECK VALVES

These valves are suitable as non-return valves on liquid service except where debris
or scaling is expected.

10.2.8 GLOBE VALVES

These valves shall be used on throttling service for liquid and steam service.
Particular applications are in bypass lines around large isolating valves, wellhead
bleed line throttling and bypass lines around steam traps.

10.3 ACTUATORS

10.3.1 ISOLATION VALVES

Motorised valve actuators shall only be provided on isolating valves that require
remote operation.

Other valves shall have appropriate manual actuators depending on the size of the
valve. The torque required to operate valves manually shall not be greater than 150
N-m with the lever arm no greater than 300 mm or hand wheel diameter no greater
than 600 mm. Generally, all valves 12” and larger shall have geared hand wheels.

10.3.2 CONTROL VALVES

Control valves criteria are specified in the Process Design Criteria, Section 7.

Control valves are not required to be provided with facilities to allow local manual
pneumatic operation (manual loader station), but shall be provided with either a
handwheel or a manual bypass valve for local manual system operation.

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Manifolds shall be arranged to permit easy removal of the control valve while line is in
operation and should also provide clearance for removing the valve internals from
above or below, while the valve body remains in place, if possible.

Control valve shall have the same pressure/temperature rating or higher as the piping
class in which they are installed.

Refer to the C&I Design Criteria for further requirements for control valves.

11. FITTINGS

Welded fittings shall be used in preference to screwed fittings. Unless specifically


approved, fittings with integral flanges shall not be used.

Fittings for pipes NPS 1 and larger shall be welded. Threaded fittings may be used for
pressure tappings.

In general, fittings between NPS 1 and NPS 1-1/2 inclusive should be socket welded.

Butt-welded fittings for sizes larger than NPS 2 shall be specified with a wall thickness
to match the mating pipe. Where there is a change in pipe size or pipe specification,
the wall thickness shall be specified for the thicker wall pipe and the smaller end shall
be machined to the correct thickness. Wall thickness shall, where possible, be
specified in accordance with commercially available schedules (weights or
thicknesses) of pipes.

Forged fittings shall be specified in preference to fabricated fittings.

11.1 FLANGES

Pipe flanges shall be manufactured to the standards listed in Section 3.2. Flanges
shall be raised face, weld neck type.

Flanges for sizes larger than NPS 24 shall be to series A of ASME B16.47.

Slip-on flanges may also be used for non-steam Class 150 and Class 300 service
subject to Chevron’s approval.

Threaded flanges shall not be used unless otherwise approved.

Other type of flanges may be used with approval for alloy pipe, or where space
requirements dictate otherwise.

Ring Type Joint (RTJ) weldneck flanges shall normally be used on valves attached to
the wellhead.

The following flanges shall not be used:

 Reducing welding neck flanges


 Lap joint flanges.

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Orifice flanges shall be at least ASME Class 300. Welding-neck orifice flanges shall
be specified with the bore to match the mating butt-welding fittings, or pipe. NPS 1½
and smaller orifice flanges shall be of the socket weld type.

11.2 BENDS

Welding elbows shall be long radius (1.5 D radius) elbows.

Double-Mitre bends shall not be used unless the angle is such that the distance
between butt joints on the inner curve of the pipe bend would be less than 100mm or
5 x wall thickness. Mitre bends may only be used where specific design is not
required by the Code and no more than two mitres shall be used together for one
change in direction.

Pipe bending shall not be used unless approved and shown to be more economical
than using standard bends.

11.3 BRANCH CONNECTIONS

For equal size branches, commercially available equal tees shall be used.

Fabricated 45 and 90 degree stab-in type branch connections with reinforcing plates
are to be used only with specific approval.

Where found to be necessary because of either cost or material availability,


alternative fitting configurations, such as the use of stab-ins may be used on a case
by case basis. Each case shall be separately evaluated for technical and economic
suitability.

11.3.1 SALAK

Branches for 2 sizes below run size shall use commercially available reducing tees.

Branches more than 2 sizes below run size shall use weldolets or sockolets.

11.3.2 DARAJAT

Branches for 3 sizes below run size shall use commercially available reducing tees.

Branches more than 3 sizes below run size shall use forged steel Sweepolets
manufactured by Bonney Forge, or weldolets, sockolets or thredolets.

11.4 SCREWED OR THREADED CONNECTIONS

Where used for pipes less than NPS 2, threaded fittings and screw joints the wall
thickness shall be at least Schedule 160.

Screw thread on pipes shall be to ASME B1.20.1 Pipe Threads: General Purpose.

Where screw or threaded connections are used, there shall be at least 2 threads left
on the male component when the connection is completed. Seal welding of thread
connections is not allowed.

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The use of screwed bushings shall be kept to a minimum.

11.5 NUTS AND BOLTS

Stud bolts shall be used on all flanges.

Stud, bolt and nut dimensions shall be based upon Table 1C from ASME B16.5.

The threads on all nut and bolts shall be ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads
(UNC).

Length of all stud bolts shall be sized for a minimum of 2 threads, & maximum of 5
threads, exposed each end.

12. PIPING SPECIALS

12.1 STRAINERS

Strainers shall be fitted upstream of equipment where debris or scale may


cause equipment failure. Where steam traps are fitted with integral strainers,
they shall also have a separate strainer installed upstream with a mesh one
size smaller than the integral strainer.

12.2 ORIFICE PLATES

Orifice plates shall be manufactured from 316SS and be fitted with a handle.
The handle shall be stamped with the tag number, orifice size and clearly
indicate the upstream side of the plate.

13. VESSELS

13.1 PRESSURISED VESSELS

Vessels shall include separators, flash vessels, water drums and air receivers.

All vessels shall be designed for the conditions as set out on the process design
criteria.

Pressure vessels, except for air receivers, shall be designed for full vacuum pressure.

For the design of the separators, scrubbers, flash vessels, water drums and air
receivers, the following shall apply:
Design Code ASME VIII, Division 1
Materials ASTM A515-70 or A516-70
Corrosion allowance 3 mm

For the purpose of seismic load calculations, the water level in vessels shall be
assumed to be in the normal high operating condition.

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Separator and scrubber vessels shall be skirt mounted. Other vessels may be skirt or
leg mounted depending upon the application.

13.2 ATMOSPHERIC VESSELS

Vessels shall include rock mufflers, flash tanks and silencers. All vessels except mini
flash tanks for drains and wellhead bleed shall be designed for the maximum design
flow as set out on the process design criteria. The vessels shall be designed to
comply with the noise level requirements as set out in the steamfield design basis.

If required restriction orifice plates shall be used in lines to mini flash tanks to limit the
maximum flow rate designed for the vessel.

Flash silencers, for use on condensate dump lines, shall be fabricated from mild steel.
All external surfaces (with the exception of erosion control wear surfaces) are to be
painted with a suitable high temperature paint.

Surfaces where erosion may occur are to include design features for mitigation- for
example wear plates or additional wear allowance.

14. PUMPS

Particular attention shall be paid to the selection of pumps and their materials of
construction for the specific application.

Horizontal shaft pumps shall be either horizontal split casing or back pull out.

Vertical shaft pumps shall comply with the requirements of API 610, unless specific
approval for deviation is given by Chevron.

Pumps shall be capable of operating continuously over their full operating range
without overheating, cavitation, excessive noise or vibration, surging or instability
when operating in single or in parallel with other pumps. Pumps shall be selected for
maximum efficiency at the design condition and shall have a head/flow curve that
rises steadily from rated flow to shut off. Pumps shall either be installed with a flooded
suction or shall be self priming.

Pumps shall be supplied with oil flooded bearings and self-oilers.

Mechanical seals shall be used on all pumps. Pumps shall be self flushing with
process fluid wherever possible. Where flushing with the process fluid is not possible,
a seal flushing system including pumps where necessary shall be provided to supply
suitable quality seal flushing water to the mechanical seals. All seal flushes shall be
fitted with flow indication.

Pumps and motors above 15 kW shall be coupled and assembled on a common


base. Pumps with flange mounted or integral motor units are preferred for smaller
pumps.

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CHEVRON GEOTHERMAL INDONESIA, LTD Piping Design Criteria

SP-CGI-PP-009 Rev.0

For continuous duty, pumps driven at no more than 4-pole speed (1800 rpm) are
preferred. All pumps shall be close coupled without gearboxes.

All pump bearing housings shall be fitted with surfaces suitable for the fitting of
portable vibration sensing transducers.

15. OTHER COMPONENTS

15.1 GASKETS & SEALS

Soft iron ring gaskets shall be used on all RTJ flanges.

Compressed fibre (non-asbestos) gaskets may be used for flanges where the
temperature of the fluid is less than 100°C.

15.1.1 DARAJAT

Spiral wound gaskets shall be made from non-asbestos material and the metal
winding shall be made from stainless steel 316 for Darajat. These gaskets shall have
both external and internal support rings. The inner ring of the spiral wound gasket
shall match the pipe bore.

15.1.2 SALAK

Spiral wound gaskets shall be made from non-asbestos material and the metal
winding shall be made from stainless steel 304 for Salak. These gaskets shall have
both external and internal support rings. The inner ring of the spiral wound gasket
shall match the pipe bore.

15.2 PIPE SHOES

Pipe shoes shall be designed using the support loads calculated by a computer based
pipe stress analysis program. Stresses due to support loading on the pipe shall be
checked using suitable methods.

16. CONSTRUCTABILITY AND MAINTANIBILITY

All detail designs shall be reviewed for constructability and maintainability.

Refer to the General Design Criteria for specific considerations.

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