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ARTHROPOD VECTORS

ARTHROPOD

Invertebrates
75% of all animals
Divided into four major groups:
Myriapods
Insects
Arachnids
Crustaceans
ARTHROPOD VECTORS

Countless diseases are transmitted

Transmission is often overlooked

Hematophagous – means “FEEDING ON


BLOOD”
ARTHROPOD VECTORS

Mosquitoes
Ticks
Sandflies
Fleas
Mites
VECTORS
Ixodes scapularis ; deer tick or black-legged tick

Morphology: 0.078 to 0.137 inches


Distribution: Eastern, Northern
Midwestern US, & Southeastern
Canada
Vector for several diseases
Causes Babesiosis
 (Babesia microti) = Parasite
LIFE CYCLE
Babesiosis
 Infects and destroy red blood cells
 Flu-like symptomps
 Complications include: Infective
 Hemolysis
stage:
 Thrombocytopenia
 D.I.C Sporozoites
 Malfunction of organs
 Death
Diagnosis: Stained blood smear, Serological m., Pcr
Treatment ( 7 to 10 days):
 Atovaquone + Azithromycon
 Clindamycin + Quinine ( Standard care for severe illness)!!!
PREVENTION

Apply DEET on exposed skin


Conduct tick checks
Tuck pants into boots
Avoid blood d. from those with a history of tick
biting of ticks
Xenopsylla cheopis ; Oriental rat flea or tropical rat
flea
Size: 1/16 - 1/8 inch long
Wingless, hard-bodied, have
three pairs of legs.
Habitat: Clothing, bedding or
near areas
Distribution: Worldwide
Causes Plague (Yersinia pestis) =
Bacteria
LIFE CYCLE
Xenopsylla cheopis ; Oriental rat flea tropical rat flea

Septicemic plague - blood


Pneumonic plague- lungs
Bubonic plague- lymph nodes
Diagnosis:
Buboes (B.p)- swollen lymph nodes
Blood (S.p)- bacteria present in bloodstream
Lungs (P.p)- Sputum
Xenopsylla cheopis ; Oriental rat flea tropical rat flea
TREATMENT

Gentamicin
Streptomycin
Doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin, others)
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Levofloxacin
Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
Chloramphenicol
Patient Isolation
PREVENTION

Rat control
Discourage nesting or roosting of rodents
Cimex lectularius ; Bedbug

Small parasitic insects


Wingless, range from
1mm to 7mm
Distribution: Worldwide
Active at night
No diseases
Live anywhere in the
home
LIFE CYCLE
SYMPTOMS

Itching
Small red lesions
Small flat bumbs on skin
Fatigue (rare)
Fever (rare)
Self-diagnosis: bites
TREATMENT

OTC Hydrocortisone or lotion


Antihistamines (Benadryl)
Anti itch creams
If severe swelling, seek medical attention
If infection, antibiotics
PREVENTION

Check secondhand furniture


Use protective cover for mattresses
Reduce clutter in your home
Vacuum frequently
Heating chamber
Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

 From human scalp


Worldwide distribution
Pediculosis capitis –
infestation of head lice
Do not carry diseases
Only humans
Head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis)
Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

Itching
Lice on scalp
Presence of nits
Irritability and diff. in
sleeping
Diagnosis:
Identification of a live
nymph or adult louse
(gold standard)
TREATMENT

Pyrethrins
Permethrin lotion, 1% (Nix): (9-10 days)
Sklice (contains ivermectin)
Malathion
PREVENTION

Don’t share items that touch the head like


combs or towels.
Avoid lead to head-to-head contact.
Keep belongings, especially upper body
clothing, away from shared areas like coat
closets.
Human Itch mite ; Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis

Morphology: Spherical,
eyeless mites with four
pairs of legs
Survive for about 3-4
days
Worldwide distribution
Causes scabies
LIFE CYCLE
Scabies

Contagious ectoparasite
skin condition
Burrow into the epidermis
Symptoms:
 Superficial burrows
Intense pruritus
Rash
Secondary infection
Human Itch mite ; Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis

Diagnostis:
Identification of a mite, its eggs, or its fecal
pellets in the skin.
 Skin scrapings
 Felt-tip marker test
Treatment:
5% Permethrin cream (common), Ivermectin (pill)
Antihistamines- for itching
PREVENTION

Avoiding direct skin-to-skin contact


Do not share clothing, towels,
bedding
Wash or dry clean clothes
QUIZ
1.) Feeding on blood ______________
2.) Parasite that causes Babesiosis?
3.) Vector that causes Plague
4.) A contagious ectoparasite skin condition
5.) Causes Scabies
6.) Infestation of head lice
7.) Cimex lectularis = ???
8.) Vector of Babesiosis?
9.) Way of preventing Scabies
10.) Diagnosis for Scabies
1.) Hematophagous
2.) Babesia microti
3.) Oriental rat flea or tropical rat flea
4.) Scabies
5.) Human itch mite
6.) Pediculosis capitis
7.) Bedbug
8.) Deer ticks
9.) Avoid direct skin to skin contact
10.) Do not share clothing